Gold fish

Calico goldfish


Goldfish: aquarium species

Of all the aquarium fish, gold probably has the longest history. They were removed in China about a thousand and a half years ago from gold carp for the purpose of home maintenance. These beautiful creatures lived not only in artificial reservoirs of palaces, but also in luxurious vases in the chambers of noble people of that time. At the moment there are a huge number of varieties of goldfish. They are still in demand and decorate aquariums around the world. In this article we will look at the types that are most popular among fans.

Goldfish classification

There are two groups of rocks:

Long-bodied. The shape of the body of these fish is similar to their ancestor - wild punishment. They are distinguished by greater mobility, stamina and longevity (40-year-old longevity stories are known!). In addition, they need less oxygen. Representatives of this group are the comet, wakin and the usual goldfish.

Short-bodied. They differ in a variety of shapes, but what unites them is that the body is compressed from head to tail. Such experiments did not go unnoticed for the health of these fish. They are sick more often, adapt worse, live less (no more than 10-15 years), more demanding of conditions. In particular, they need a larger body of water and a high content of oxygen in the water. This group is represented by a telescope, a pearl, a lionhead, and others.

Goldfish species

There are many breeds, and the same goldfish can have different names in the literature, since breeders of different countries called them and called them.

Plain Goldfish

Its second name is gold carp. Was obtained by breeding from a wild goldfish. Similar to him in body shape and fins, different colors (golden-red fish).

She needs a reservoir with an abundance of plants and space for swimming. It should be kept in a species aquarium or only with peaceful neighbors.

Food is recommended a varied, balanced, no frills: animal and vegetable food in the form of tablets, granules, sticks, dry, live or frozen. Under good conditions, it can live from 10 to 30 years.


Its second name is Japanese goldfish. It is distinguished from the previous type by its stalk body and forked or single slightly elongated tail. The length of the fish sometimes reaches 30 cm. Three types of wakin coloring are known: red, white, and a mixture of these colors.


The most unpretentious and easy to keep among other varieties. It is small, with a body length of not more than 15 cm. The tail is long, forked, in the form of a ribbon. And the longer it is, the more valuable the copy. Other fins are only slightly elongated.

If the body is swollen, then such a fish is considered defective. The most valued are individuals whose body and fin colors are different (for example, silver + bright red). The disadvantages of comets are that they often jump out of the aquarium and are not fertile.


Appeared in China in the mid 19th century. Its body is swollen, it is orange-red in color, has a length of 10 cm. A distinctive feature is the tail, consisting of two halves (they can be separated or accrete) and having a transparent wide edge on the outer edge. Fin on the back is high, the rest are normal or slightly elongated. Live fantail for about 10 years.


This is a very popular and common variety of goldfish. Has a body in the form of an egg or a ball with a large head. Able to grow to 20 cm and live to 20 years. The body may be covered with scales, and maybe without it. Fins are long, thin.

The tail consists of several blades that grow together and hang down from the body in lush folds, resembling the veil of the bride (read more about the tail finch here).

Painted fish is different: in white, golden or motley color. The most appreciated is the one whose fins and body have a different shade.


Unusual appearance of her gives a round body and a kind of scales. Each scale is raised in the form of a dome and has a dark rim. In the light, chainmail looks like small pearls, so the fish bears this name. In the event of damage to the scales in its place grows new, but it is devoid of a beautiful rim.

Body length is approximately 7-8 cm. Fin on the back is vertical, other pairs and short. The tail consists of two non-hanging blades. A painted fish may be white, golden or orange-red.

The greatest difficulty in maintaining is the correct calculation of the quantity of food. The owners are misleading the shape of the body. Because of this, fish are often undernourished or overfed.

Interesting! Pearls have very funny fry, which, when they reach the age of two months, become already similar to adults and get rounded.

Water eyes

Or in a different way, a bubble. He has perhaps the most extreme appearance. This 15-20 cm fish does not have a dorsal fin, but it has blisters on the lower part of the eyes on both sides of the head. They begin to grow in 3-4 months and in size are able to reach a quarter of the body of the fish. These places are very vulnerable, delicate and fragile.

Although they may recover over time, security measures must be observed:

  • the aquarium may not contain any sharp objects, spiny algae or other types of fish,
  • Catching and transplanting pets should be done very carefully.

The fins of the bladder eyes are long. Males have a white rash on the gill plates, and growths on the pectoral fin. Feed is recommended live moths. With good care, these wonders will live 5-15 years.

Interesting! Only small fish with bubbles of the same size are allowed to breed.


Another name for this fish is the celestial eye. Astrologers got their name for the original eyes. They look like telescopes, only the pupils in them are directed vertically upwards, as if the fish admires the sky or counts the stars.

The body is in the form of an egg, the head smoothly passes into the low back, on which there is no fin. The tail consists of two blades. The traditional color is orange with gold. Especially prized fish with golden irises of the eyes.

Astronomers are short-bodied, long-bodied and veiled. They are very difficult to breed. From a hundred young fish, only one fish with perfect proportions can be obtained. Astrologers live 5-15 years.

Interesting! The heavenly eye is very revered by Buddhist monks and is necessarily contained in their monasteries.


It is distinguished from other growths on the gills and more on the forehead, which have a granular structure (they are sometimes also called fatty). In Germany, orande is called a goose head due to frontal growth. The shape of the body and fins of these fish is similar to a telescope and a tail tail.

They can be painted in white, red, black or variegated colors. The most valuable is the red-capped oranda.

Important! Not to be confused with the red cap, which has no dorsal fin.

Interesting! Not everyone knows that the fry of this fish are born with a yellow cap. In China, the following is practiced: in order to achieve red color, a special dye is injected into the growth.

Little Red Riding Hood

Obtained by selection from orande. The body is in the form of an egg and resembles a voilehvosta. It can grow up to 20 cm. The dorsal fin is quite high, anal and double tail, hanging down. The body is white. On a medium-sized head there is a rather large bright red wen. The bigger it is, the more valuable the fish is.


A special feature of the fish are powerful growths of compacted skin on the gills and the upper part of the head, as a result of which it looks like a lion's mane or a raspberry berry. These growths begin to form in fish at the age of three months and grow over the entire head, sometimes capturing the eyes.

The body is short, round, with scales. There is no dorsal fin, and the others are short. The tail may consist of two or three blades. Fish are painted in white, red or both of these colors. In Japan and China, this fish is very much appreciated and is considered the pinnacle of selection.


It is also called the Korean Lionhead. It differs from the previous type only slightly in that the formations on the head appear only in the second or third year of their life. Also known varieties without growths, but strewn with small colored dots (lips, eyes, fins and gill covers), the body is almost colorless.


Includes several breeds, which combine common features. He is also called Demenkinin, or water dragon. His body is tall, ovoid or rounded. The dorsal fin is perpendicular to the body, while the others have the appearance of a long veil. The tail is forked, its length is almost equal to the length of the body. There are with a short tail (skirt) and voile.

The telescope is distinguished by strongly convex eyes with a transparent rainbow. Eye size can vary from 1 to 5 cm! Their shape is also diverse: a cylinder, a ball, a cone. The longer the tail and the larger the eye, the more valuable the specimen. There are telescopes with scales and without.

The richness of the colors is also impressive: orange with a metallic sheen, bright red, calico, black and white, but velvety black is the most common.

Other types of telescopes:

Butterfly. A distinctive feature is the voile tail, which looks symmetrical from above.

Moor. This is a selection form of a veiled tail telescope. All fins and body are colored velvet black.

Panda. Another variation of the black telescope. The body is painted in black and white. The size of the fish reaches 20 cm.

All telescopes are very interesting and active, but at the same time capricious. They need warm water and do not need a neighborhood with other fish. Carefully follow the equipment of the aquarium because of the possibility of eye damage.

Interesting! The darker the ground, the darker the color of the telescope. But under bad conditions, the fish brightens.


This is a Japanese breed of goldfish, which served as material for breeding a voilehvost. They have a rather large size and a body expanding towards the upper part. The head is variegated. The fin on the back is quite high. Tail of 3-4 blades. The body can be monophonic or motley.


His other name is calico. This is an ordinary goldfish with a 15-centimeter body, elongated fins and transparent scales on the body.

Distinguishes these fish print color, which combines white, black, yellow, red and blue. The most valuable fish with a predominance of purple-blue.

And the color begins to manifest itself after a year and gains full strength by three.

The fish are calm, their content does not cause problems. With proper care live more than 10 years.

Velvet ball

It is also called pompon. This breed is quite rare. Body shortened, with high back and long fins. Tail forked. Original appearance give growths near the mouth in the form of fluffy lumps, with a diameter of one centimeter each. These pompons can be white, red, blue or brown. Fish are quite capricious, and the flaws in the content can lead to loss of growths, and they are no longer restored.

So, we briefly reviewed the main varieties of goldfish and their differences. Perhaps specialists in breeding new breeds will not stop at this, and the world will see more variations of Carassius auratus. But even among those already available, there is something to admire and choose for one’s liking.

Shubunkin-goldfish content breeding description feeding

DESCRIPTION gold fish shubunkin

The Japanese call this fish calico. It differs in transparent scales, long fins and magnificent coloring. Mixing red, blue, black, white and yellow shades looks unusual. Japanese breeders liked Calico Calico. And as a result, veiltails, telescopes and orandes also began to wear motley "vests." The official date of birth of the Shubunkin breed is 1900. The fish made a special impression on the British. So in 1920 in England appeared London shubunkin, in 1934 - Bristol shubunkin. The standard of this breed was designated - an elongated abdomen and a developed tail fin. The length of the fish is 15 cm. It is valued for a calm disposition and unpretentiousness in care. Shubunkin is another breeding form of the "Golden Fish", derived in Japan. Suitable for maintenance in spacious aquariums, greenhouse and ornamental ponds. In Japanese pronunciation, its name sounds like shubunkin. In Europe, the first fish appeared after World War I, from which it was imported into Russia and the Slavic countries.


According to the shape of the body, shubunkin is an ordinary goldfish. The fins resemble another species of goldfish - the comet. Caudal fin not forked fork. The main distinctive feature of this breed is transparent scales, which is why it is sometimes called scaly-free. Variegated color, dominated by red, yellow, black and blue colors. The most valuable specimens of shubunkin have a color dominated by blue colors. The blue color in coloring appears only in the second - third year of life.

These fish are not very demanding of conditions. The main thing with its content is proper feeding - the key to success is the balance of the feed. The fish is susceptible to intestinal diseases and gill rot.

For the content you need a spacious aquarium with clean water without impurities. The minimum volume of the aquarium is 80 liters per pair. Pearl neighbors should not be active and especially aggressive fish - barbs, cichlids, gourams, etc.

Optimum conditions of maintenance: temperature 15-30 С, hardness dGH up to 20, pH 6-8, intensive filtration, regular water changes up to 30% per week. Prefers a community of its own kind, bright light, an abundance of free space. At registration of a reservoir it is recommended to use loose small-fraction soil, stones, snags, live or plastic plants, including floating. Design elements should not have sharp edges about which fish can tear off the fins. The maximum size is 20 cm.

The peculiarity of the fish is that it loves to rummage in the ground. As the soil is better to use coarse sand or pebbles, which are not so easily scattered fish. The aquarium itself should be spacious and species, with large-leaved plants. Therefore, in the aquarium it is better to plant plants with hard leaves and a good root system.

Content in an aquarium

As already mentioned, shubunkin some of the most unpretentious in the content of goldfish. At home, in Japan, they are kept in ponds, and temperatures in winter can be quite low there.
Since the fish is quite small (usually about 15 cm), then you need an aquarium from 100 liters for maintenance, but more is better, since the Shubunkin is an active swimmer. At the same time, they constantly dig in the ground, picking up dirt and digging up plants. Accordingly, you need to start only the most unpretentious species of plants that survive in such conditions. And a powerful external filter is desirable to constantly remove the dirt that they pick up.

Soil is better to use sandy or coarse gravel. Goldfish constantly dig in the ground, and quite often swallow large particles and die because of this.
Although Shubunkin lives well in rather old and dirty water, it is still necessary to substitute part of the water for fresh, approximately 20% per week. As for the parameters of water, they can be very different, but the optimal will be: 5 - 19 ° dGH, ph: 6.0 to 8.0, the water temperature is 20-23C. The low water temperature is caused by the fact that the fish comes from carp and tolerates low temperatures, and high temperatures, on the contrary.


Everything goldfish, including Shubunkin can spawn at aquarium capacity of 20 - 30 liters. It is necessary to put sandy soil in it and plant small-leaved plants. It is customary to spawn one female on two or three two-year-old males for spawning. Before spawning, they should be kept separately for 2-3 weeks. Spawning aquarium It is recommended to maintain the temperature at 24 - 26 ° С. To stimulate spawning, it is necessary to gradually warm the water until its temperature rises by 5-10 ° C. The males at the same time begin to quickly rush and chase females who lose their eggs, scattering it around the perimeter aquariummostly it turns on the plants. In total, the female spawns about 10,000 eggs. Once spawning is over, producers need to be removed from aquarium. The starting food for the hatched fry will be “live dust”. They can also be given special food, which is now in abundance commercially available for feeding fry. goldfish, for example, Sera Mikron.

Appearance and sex differences and feeding

Unlike ordinary goldfish Shubunkin delicate transparent scales and elongated fins. The laterally extended body is slightly flattened laterally. The blades of the tail undivided fin large. Coloring - the most valuable in calico - consists of a combination of white, red, yellow and blue colors and manifests itself only upon attaining one year old. Calico is often called calico. Fish are especially appreciated, in which blue-violet or blue color prevails, usually appearing by the third year of life. Also in the breed there is a species that is characterized by a slightly shortened body, a high dorsal fin and a forked caudal. Calico variegation was so much liked by breeders from Japan that they “painted” the same way. orande, voilehvostku, telescope and others. Hybrids in the title received the prefix Calico, for example, Calico telescope, Calico Oranda. In length, the fish grows up to 16 cm.



Shubunkin or Kaliko - all sprayed with paint

Shubunkin (lat. Carassius gibelio forma auratus) is one of the most beautiful goldfish in color, as its color consists of spots of different color that are randomly scattered throughout the body. This color is quite rare in other gold, they are more uniform and evenly colored.

These luxury fish are some of the hardiest variations of goldfish. They are very easy to keep, as they are unpretentious neither in feeding nor in conditions. Active, mobile, they are well suited for keeping in the general aquarium.

Habitat in nature

Shubunkin, or as it is also called Kaliko, is an artificially bred species. It is believed that he first appeared in Japan in 1900, where he was named shubunkin, and under this name he became known throughout the rest of the world.

There are two types of fish (differing in body shape), London Shubunkin (bred in 1920) and Bristol Shubunkin (bred in 1934). But at the moment London is much more widespread and you will most likely find it on sale. In Europe and Asia, it is also called the calico comet.


Shubunkin has an elongated body laterally compressed. This makes it very different from other goldfish, such as a telescope, whose body is short, wide and round. The fins are long, always standing, and the tail fin is forked.

Shubunkin is one of the smallest goldfish. It all depends on the size of the reservoir in which it is contained. For example, in a close for him 50-liter aquarium, Shubunkin grows to 10 cm. In a larger volume and in the absence of overpopulation, it will grow already about 15 cm, although some data reported from 33 cm shubunkinah. This, too, can be, but in ponds and with very abundant feeding.
The average life span of Shubunkin is 12–15 years, although long periods are not uncommon.

The main beauty of Shubunkin in its coloring. It is very diverse, and according to approximate calculations, there are more than 125 different options. But all of them are united by one thing - red, yellow, black, blue spots randomly scattered throughout the body. For such a variety of fish even got the name calico.

Difficulty in content

One of the most unpretentious goldfish. Very undemanding to the parameters of water and temperature, feel good in a pond, a normal aquarium, or even in a round aquarium.
Many contain shubunkinov or other goldfish in round aquariums, alone and without plants. Yes, they live there and do not even complain, but round aquariums are very poorly suited for keeping fish, impair their vision and retard growth.


Omnivores, eat well all kinds of live, frozen, artificial feed. Like all goldfish is very voracious and insatiable. Most of the time they spend digging in the ground in search of food, often raising dregs. The easiest way to feed shubunkin artificial feed, for example, high-quality granules or flakes. Pellets are even preferable, as the fish will have something to look for at the bottom. Live food can be given additionally, since they eat all sorts of food - bloodworms, tubule, artemia, koretra, etc.

Content in an aquarium

As already mentioned, shubunkin some of the most unpretentious in the content of goldfish. At home, in Japan, they are kept in ponds, and temperatures in winter can be quite low there.
Since the fish is quite small (usually about 15 cm), then you need an aquarium from 100 liters for maintenance, but more is better, since the Shubunkin is an active swimmer. At the same time, they constantly dig in the ground, picking up dirt and digging up plants. Accordingly, you need to start only the most unpretentious species of plants that survive in such conditions. And a powerful external filter is desirable to constantly remove the dirt that they pick up.

Soil is better to use sandy or coarse gravel. Goldfish constantly dig in the ground, and quite often swallow large particles and die because of this.
Although Shubunkin lives well in rather old and dirty water, it is still necessary to substitute part of the water for fresh, approximately 20% per week. As for the parameters of water, they can be very different, but the optimal will be: 5 - 19 ° dGH, ph: 6.0 to 8.0, the water temperature is 20-23C. The low temperature of the water is due to the fact that the fish comes from a crucian and tolerates low temperatures well, and the opposite is high.

Blue shubunkin, Japanese breeding:


Active, peaceful fish that get along well with other fish. Since it often digs a lot in the ground, there is no need to keep soms (for example, tarakatum) with it. It can live in any type of aquarium, but obviously it will be superfluous in that where many delicate plants are contained. Shubunkin digs in the ground, raises the dregs and digs in the plants.
Aquarium with Bristol shubunkin and gorgeous plants:

For him, the ideal neighbors are goldfish, telescopes, veiltails. You can not keep with predatory species, or with fish loving tear off fins. For example: Sumatran barb, Denison barb, terrence, tetragonopterus.

Gender differences

It is impossible to determine the sex shubunkin to spawn. During spawning, the female can be distinguished from the male in the following way: white bumps appear on the male's head and gill covers; the female is much rounder from the calf.

Japanese goldfish - brilliant calico

In the family of goldfish there is one, especially a bright representative, which can become a luxurious decoration of an aquarium, and at the same time it is surprisingly easy to care for, and even a novice aquarist will be able to cope with it. The name of this fish is shubunkin, or Kaliko, and it comes from Japan, where it was artificially bred at the beginning of the 20th century. At home, the shubunkins are bred in small ponds and reservoirs and valued for the special beauty of their coloring.

Shubunkin is considered one of the hardiest goldfish. It is unpretentious in conditions and feeding, it gets on well in common and even round aquariums.


The beauty of shubunkina lies in its coloring. It consists of bright spots randomly distributed on the body. They can be of different colors: yellow, black, red, blue. The most valuable are the specimens whose color turns into violet-blue or just a blue tint. It occurs in individuals at about three years of age. Because of the similar coloring, Shubunkin received another name - calico.

This aquarium fish has a body that is elongated and slightly flattened from the sides, different from the shape of other types of goldfish, which are owners of a short and round body. Shubunkin's fins are long, in a constant upright position, the tail is forked.

The size of the fish can reach different - it will directly depend on the size of the reservoir in which the shubunkin is contained. In a close aquarium, the fish will reach a length of 10 centimeters, and in a large volume of water and the absence of overpopulation, it can grow up to 15 centimeters. If calico is bred in large ponds, its size sometimes reaches more than 20 centimeters.

Aquarium fish reaches sexual maturity after the second year of life. It is impossible to distinguish the female from the male until the time of spawning. Then the male develops bumps of white color, like pearls, on the head, and the female is noticeably rounded off from the calf.

Shubunkin’s lifespan averages 12–15 years, but under good conditions it can be up to 20 years, sometimes longer.


It was mentioned above that Shubunkin is one of the most unpretentious and hardy goldfish. But still it is not necessary to neglect the creation of conditions for her life. The size of a fish of 10-15 centimeters requires a fairly large space, considering also its activity. Therefore, the size of the aquarium should start from 100 liters.

Another important feature in preparing for settling in a shubunkin aquarium is filters. These fish are very restless, and their favorite activity is to crawl in the ground, searching for food debris, thereby raising dregs in the aquarium and touching the plants. Therefore, a powerful external filter is needed, and the plants choose the most unpretentious. Not be superfluous and the aerator. Although the fish are very hardy, they do not like the lack of oxygen in the water.

As a soil, sand or coarse gravel is best suited. To choose a soil with small or medium fractions is not worth it, because they can be dangerous - the fish swallows grains and dies. Lighting should be natural.

Water indicators:

  • Temperature - 20-23 ° C
  • Acidity - 6.0 - 8.0 ph
  • Stiffness - 5 - 19 ° dGH

Although Shubunkin tolerates water pollution quite well, changing water once a week is obligatory - approximately 20%.


Like all goldfish, Shubunkin is very voracious. When overfeeding, he may well die from obesity, because he eats everything he is given. He is omnivorous, with pleasure eats various kinds of artificial, frozen and live food.

From artificial feed, you can use high-quality flakes or pellets. It should be remembered that such food should be given in smaller amounts, otherwise they can cause constipation and digestive disorders. At the same time, you shouldn’t restrict them only, it is better to add moth, earthworms, tubers and artemia to the diet. It is also necessary to regularly give vegetable food, for example, chopped lettuce and young cabbage leaves, after pouring boiling water over them.

Upon completion of feeding, all excess feed must be removed so that they do not become a source of water pollution in the aquarium. If possible, it is better to give food several times a day, in reduced portions, which will be fully eaten by fish. In normal cases, they are fed a couple of times a day - in the morning and in the evening.


It is quite possible to breed shubunkin at home. The spawning site should be about 100 liters, and the breeding season usually occurs in the spring. To stimulate spawning, water in the spawning area is softened, and the temperature is increased by 3-5 ° C. The water should stay fresh and lit in the early morning. Clean sand is laid on the bottom of the spawning area, small-leaved bushes are placed in the corners.

Fry feed with rotifers, artemia. It is desirable to separate the young depending on their size.


The goldfish Shubunkin is a schooling one, and it is better to keep it in an aquarium of 4-6 individuals.

Kaliko is active, peace-loving, so it is undesirable to populate her together in aggressive fish that will constantly pinch her fins. Small fish and fry are also not the most successful neighbors, since Shubunkin can easily take them for lunch. Because of her love of digging in the ground, you should not populate it with soms.

Other goldfish and veils, as well as any calm species of fish, can act as ideal neighbors.

Shubunkin will be a good option for both experienced and novice aquarists. Their bright color will emphasize the beauty of any aquarium, and a variety of colors allows you to find a copy in harmony with the design of the aquarium. For the successful maintenance of calico there is no need to exert too much effort - it is enough to observe the basic requirements, and your pets will please you with good health and longevity.

Goldfish - form Calico Riukin. Aquarium fish. Aquaria

Comet Calico Goldfish

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Aquarian Goldfish - "Comet" calico "Aquaristics

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