Water temperature for aquarium fish
Aquarium water temperature
Water temperature for aquarium fish
One of the most important parameters of aquarium water is its temperature. Most aquarium fish feel comfortable at a temperature of 22-26 ° C. But there are fish that prefer a lower or higher temperature.
For example, discus is a heat-loving fish, a comfortable temperature for their maintenance is 28-31 ° C. But the Goldfish family, on the contrary, prefers cooler water at 18-23 ° C.
Thus, speaking of the temperature regime in an aquarium, one should take into account the comfortable temperature parameters for a specific fish. It should also be noted that the temperature of aquarium water directly affects the lifespan of some species of fish. For example, neons at a temperature of 18 ° C live 4 years, at 22 ° C - 3 years, 27 ° C - 1.5 years.Perhaps the most important rule for an aquarist is to prevent sudden changes in temperature (2-4 degrees). Such vibrations are extremely harmful.
Today, there are virtually no problems with maintaining the temperature regime in an aquarium. Therefore, when on the Internet you come across articles about the Soviet methods of “boiling with a kettle” involuntarily you are touched. Only one thing is frustrating - after all, articles on this topic are usually looked for and viewed by novices or young aquarists who are so easily confused with unnecessary, unnecessary information.
The nuances covered in this article for an experienced aquarist will not inspire innovation, but beginners will be noticed.
So, to maintain the required temperature regime of aquarium water, you need to buy two things at the pet shop:
1. Thermostat heater.
2. Thermometer with suction cups.
Regarding the temperature control of the heater for the aquarium - it is chosen based on the volume of the aquarium (its power must be appropriate). They fix it, as a rule, on the back wall of the aquarium, near the filter with aeration, so that it is completely immersed in the input. IMPORTANT: when setting the desired temperature on the scale of the thermostat, the first time (6-12 hours) watch the level of heating of the aquarium water. This is due to the fact that often the scale of the thermostat does not always correspond to the actual temperature of water heating (especially in Chinese thermostats) or the thermostat does not quite fit the volume of the aquarium. Failure to comply with this rule may lead to the fact that in the morning your aquarium may turn "into a saucepan with a good - elite ear."
Well, the second thing to which you should pay attention - the heater for the aquarium should be completely immersed in water. Do not allow it to be in the on state in air (in whole or in part). This will lead to its rapid overheating.
Regarding thermometers for aquarium - here everything is simple! They are:
glass (ordinary) ~ $ 1.2;
in the form of a self-adhesive strip thermometers for the aquarium~ 2$
(I do not recommend. creatively — yes, it is practical — no, especially since this strip “fades” over time);
and electronic thermometers for aquarium 12$;
When buying a thermometer should pay attention to the quality of suckers. If they are weak - the thermometer will often fall to the ground. In addition, there are fish that pathologically may not like the thermometer and they will deliberately drop it (I have suffered from these gays blue).
I think that with the heating of aquarium water everything is clear: - set, adjusted and forgot.
Let's now talk about what to do if the temperature goes over the top (from overheating or "summer in August"). Nowadays, this is also not a problem - the air conditioner will not only cool the room, but also lower the temperature of the water in the aquarium.
Another question is what to do if it is not? Or if you need to urgently lower the temperature? Ice from the refrigerator will come to the rescue. At one time, I poured water into plastic 2-liter bottles (carefully removing the bottle from the label and glue beforehand) and frozen them in the refrigerator. After lowering them into the aquarium and thereby lowered the temperature of the water to the desired.
This method of lowering the temperature has two minuses: firstly, the frozen bottles and ice heat up quite quickly - they often need to be frozen, and secondly: sudden, frequent temperature drops are poorly tolerated by aquarium fish. If the temperature is "tolerable" it is better not to add ice bottles.
REMEMBER: PROVIDING A COMFORTABLE AND CONSTANT TEMPERATURE OF AQUARIUM WATER IS THE KEY TO THE HEALTH OF YOUR AQUARIUM FISH.
Video about the temperature and care of the aquarium
Aquarium water temperature
All life on our planet can exist only in the optimal temperature range. This fully applies to ornamental fish. What temperature should be maintained in the water house? How to create comfortable conditions for different types of fish? On these and other issues you need to think before starting the breeding of aquarium living creatures.
Temperature and health of fish
The development, livelihoods and health of the inhabitants of the water element is directly dependent on the state of the water. And ornamental fish is no exception. The fact is that the chemical and biological processes of their body are closely related to the temperature regime.
For example, heating water just 8-10 degrees above normal causes the fish to increase oxygen consumption. And in an excessively warm aqueous medium, the solubility of oxygen molecules decreases.
This factor in some cases can even lead to the death of the inhabitants of the aquarium. In such situations, they say that the fish suffocated.
Undesirable and sudden changes in temperature, which are possible if the house for aquatic animals is installed incorrectly: at the window on the sunny side, for example.
Most often, people keep fish in their home aquariums, whose homeland is tropical latitudes. The water temperature in this climate is practically unchanged and is 20-26 degrees above zero. Approximately the same amount should be maintained in the aquarium for the owners of decorative domestic fish. True, for different species there may be some variations of the regime.
Goldfish, for example, like cool water, not lower than +18 and not higher than +23 degrees. Even a slight increase in temperature can lead to the development of diseases in these cold-blooded beauties.
Holders of such rare species as labyrinth fishes or beautiful discus, know that they need to maintain a higher temperature of water - about 30 degrees Celsius. This is one of the reasons why these fish are not recommended for breeding novice aquarists.
All other types of decorative floating creatures are quite satisfied with water with a constant temperature of +22 to +25 degrees. By the way, the same mode is considered optimal for aquatic flora, as well as for crayfish and shrimp.
So, the normal climate for life must be constantly maintained. This is achieved using special aquarium equipment.
Water heater for aquarium
If the aquarium is deep enough, then the water in its lower part is somewhat colder than the surface. It is believed that the temperature difference should not be more than 2 degrees, and ideally the aqueous medium should be homogeneous.
That is why, when heating water, the so-called rod heater is most often used. This simple device constructively is a hollow glass (or ceramic) core, inside which is placed a heating element - nichrome wire.
With the help of suction cups, the aquarium heater is mounted vertically to the tank wall. Most models have an automatic heating control function.
Such devices on the market are very widely represented. Here you can select the heater aquarium company Polish Aquael or Chinese product brand XILong. Products of these manufacturers are available with or without thermostat (budget option).
Often it is required to provide cooling water in the aquarium. Such a need may arise at high air temperatures in the room. For these purposes, special devices have been created - aquarium coolers. They are of two main types: air and water.
Air cooler at its core is a compact fan with a thermal sensor. It is attached to the top of the rear window and chases the cool air above the surface of the aqua, increasing the rate of evaporation of warm water.
After cooling the water, the fan stops at the command of the thermal sensor. Low power consumption, low noise level during operation contribute to the widespread use of such coolers in small and shallow aquariums.
As an example: high reliability and low power consumption distinguish portable cooling fans series JBL Cooler German production. They are all equipped with a thermostat to adjust the running time.
For large home or office aquaria use, as a rule, external coolers. They are also called aquarium refrigerators. By design, they really are compact refrigeration units, very effectively cooling the aquarium water that is driven through its system.
Devices mounted near the tank, equipped with two tubes, which are lowered into the tank. One tube serves to collect warm water, and the second - to release the cooled.
On the aquarium market, such devices are represented by the products of the Italian company Teco, the Chinese series of aqua-coolers HAILEA and Resun.
Forced adjustment of the aquarium water temperature is a must. The choice of suitable heaters and coolers depends on the size of the aquarium, the air temperature in the room and, of course, on the aquarist’s budget.
Video on how to organize the cooling of the aquarium with your own hands:
What temperature should be in the aquarium?
Water temperature is one of the defining indicators for the life and health of the inhabitants of the aquarium. What temperature should be in the aquarium depends, first of all, on the species that you plan to maintain and breed.
The optimal water temperature in the aquarium
Each species of fish or amphibians has its own optimal conditions of detention. You should familiarize yourself with them before purchasing the first copies and placing them in a new aquarium. Such a preliminary acquaintance with one type or another will allow you to choose fish that match the requirements of the conditions, which then get along well and seamlessly with each other.
Most of the most common and popular fish species will feel good in aquariums with a water temperature of 22-26 ° C. Therefore, setting the temperature of the water in the aquarium for guppies, the scalar and swordtails need to stay within these limits. Some breeds of fish, but not too much, love the water warmer. Usually for labyrinth fish and dikus it is recommended to heat water up to 28-3 ° С. Goldfish is another matter. The water temperature in the aquarium for goldfish is set in the range of 18-23 ° C. In warmer water, their life expectancy is significantly reduced, they can get sick.
We should also mention the temperature of the water in the aquarium for the red-eared turtle, since the content of these amphibians is becoming increasingly popular. Turtles love warmth and feel best in water heated to 25-28 ° C.
Regulation of temperature in the aquarium
Continuous monitoring of the fluctuations in the temperature of the water in the aquarium will allow you to notice strong changes in time and respond accordingly: heat the water to the required level or, conversely, cool it. Therefore, the acquisition of a thermometer for an aquarium is simply a must-have item for its arrangement. After all, water, especially in small aquariums, may cool down and heat up very quickly, and this will not be noticeable to the eye until the fish start to behave sluggishly or do not die at all. Now you can also purchase special heaters for the aquarium, which not only heat the water, but can also maintain the same temperature during operation. If the aquarium is not equipped with a similar heater, then it can be purchased separately. When it is necessary to lower the temperature of the water, it is necessary to pour a small amount of it, and in its place to pour water at a lower temperature. However, do not immediately replace too large amounts of water, as sudden changes in temperature will adversely affect the health of the fish. Better after a while to repeat the operation again.
Water temperature in a fish tank - Frequently asked questions by aquarists
Have you ever thought about why different fish need different temperatures? And how does the discrepancy affect them? And how sensitive are they to drops? Rapid changes in temperature aquarium fish suffer poorly, this is one of the reasons from which newly acquired fish die. In order for fish to get used, they need to be acclimatized.
Simply put, the higher the temperature of the water, the faster the fish grow, but they also age faster. We collected a few frequent questions about the temperature for aquarium fish and tried to answer them in an accessible form.
Fish cold blooded?
Yes, their body temperature is directly dependent on the ambient temperature. Only a few fish, for example, some catfish, can change body temperature, and even sharks maintain body temperature a few degrees higher than water temperature.
Does this mean that the temperature of the water directly affects the fish?
Water temperature affects the speed of physiological processes in the body of fish. For example, in winter, the fish of our water bodies is inactive, since the level of metabolism drops significantly in cold water.
At high temperatures, water retains less dissolved oxygen, and for fish it is very important. That is why in the summer we often see fish rise to the surface and breathe heavily.
Rapid changes in temperature aquarium fish suffer poorly, this is one of the reasons from which newly acquired fish die. In order for fish to get used, they need to be acclimatized.
Simply put, the higher the temperature of the water, the faster the fish grow, but they also age faster.
How sensitive are fish to temperature extremes?
Fish feel the slightest change in water temperature, some even such as 0.03C. Aquarium fish are usually all tropical species, and, therefore, are accustomed to live in warm water with a constant temperature. With a dramatic change, if they do not die, they will survive significant stress and become infected with an infectious disease, due to a weakened immunity.
Fish that live in a climate like ours are much more stable. All carp, for example, tolerate different temperatures well. What can I say, even the well-known goldfish, can live both at a temperature of 5C and at more than 30C, although such temperatures are critical for them.
Are there fish that carry extreme water?
Yes, several species can temporarily live in hot water. For example, some Killifish species that live in Death Valley can carry up to 45 C, and some tilapias swim in hot keys with a temperature of around 70 C. But they all can not live long in such water, the protein in their blood just begins to collapse.
But the fish are able to live in ice water, more. At both poles there are fish that produce a kind of antifreeze in their blood, allowing them to live in water with a temperature below zero.
What if summer is very hot?
As already mentioned, warm water retains less oxygen, and the fish begin to experience oxygen starvation. They begin to choke, and the first thing to do is turn on a powerful aeration or filtration to increase the movement of water and metabolic processes in it. Next, you need to put in the aquarium a bottle of cold water (or ice, if you were preparing for this situation), or replace some of the water with fresh water with a lower temperature.
Well, the simplest and most expensive solution - air conditioning in the room. And in more detail about all this read in the material - hot summer, lower the temperature.
And the simplest and most inexpensive is to install 1-2 coolers so that they direct the air flow to the surface of the water. This is a proven cheap way to cool the temperature in an aquarium by 2-5 degrees.
And what tropical fish can you keep in cold water?
Although some tropical fish, such as corridors or cardinals, even prefer cool water, for most it is too stressful.
The analogy is simple, we can also live quite long on the street and sleep outdoors, but in the end everything will end sadly for us, we at least get sick.
Do I need to change the water in the aquarium with water of the same temperature?
Yes, it is desirable that she was as close as possible. But at the same time, in many species of tropical fish, the addition of fresh water with a lower temperature is associated with the rainy season and the beginning of spawning. Если же разводить рыбок в ваши задачи не входит, то лучше не рисковать и сравнять параметры.
Для морских рыб, однозначно нужно выровнять температуру воды, так как морской воде нет резких скачков.
Как долго нужно акклиматизировать новую рыбу?
Подробнее о акклиматизации вы можете прочитать нажав на ссылку. Но, если вкратце, то на самом деле рыбе нужно много времени чтобы привыкнуть к новым условиям. Only water temperature is critical when landing in a new aquarium, and it is desirable to equalize it as much as possible.
Goldfish: content at home
Goldfish, which marked the beginning of aquarism as such, are now, unfortunately, out of fashion. Professionals consider it uninteresting and not worthy of attention, and only a few connoisseurs and experts of this type remain. Therefore, the lot of most cinchons is kindergarten or hospital aquariums with plastic plants or a short life in a beautiful glass given to a person for the holiday, far from fish problems. Let us treat this beauty with the respect and interest that she deserves, and see what is necessary for her for a long and happy life near us.
How demanding are goldfish to conditions?
Opinions on this score are opposite. Some believe that this is a patient, practically unkillable, fish that survives in any conditions, suitable for beginners and people who do not want to invest in the aquarium a lot of effort and money. Others, on the contrary, argue that the content of gold must comply with a number of fairly tough conditions, and they are no doubt right. A goldfish should not be started by someone who is not ready to make efforts for its comfortable existence. And the most important condition for the maintenance of these fish is an aquarium of a sufficiently large volume.
Volume and shape of the aquarium
In Soviet literature of the last century in aquariums it is indicated that one goldfish should have 1.5-2 dm3 of water surface, or 7-15 liters of aquarium volume (15 liters per fish is considered to be a small landing density). This data migrated and in some modern tutorials. However, it should be noted that Soviet books were written about goldfish of domestic breeding, which for many generations lived in aquariums, and as a result of breeding were adapted to such conditions. At the present time, the vast majority of goldfish comes to us from China, Malaysia and Singapore, where they are massively bred in ponds. Accordingly, they are not adapted to life in small volumes of water, and even to a sufficiently spacious aquarium they need to be adapted, and a volume of 15-20 liters means death for them within a few days.
Experts who today work with goldfish brought from Asia have empirically established:The minimum volume of an aquarium for one individual should be about 80 liters; in a smaller volume, an adult fish will simply have nowhere to move. For a couple - 100 l.
In large aquariums (200-250 l), with good filtration and aeration, the density of planting can be slightly increased, so that the volume of water is 35-40 liters per individual. And this is the limit!
Here, opponents of half-empty aquariums usually object that in zoos, for example, goldfish are very densely packed in aquariums and at the same time they feel great. Yes, indeed, this is the specificity of the exhibition aquariums. However, one should keep in mind that behind the frame there are several powerful filters with which this monster is equipped, the most severe schedule of water changes (up to half the volume daily or twice a day), as well as the regular ichthyopathologist veterinarian for whom there is always work.
Regarding the shape of the aquarium, the classical rectangular or with a slight curvature of the front glass is preferred, the length should be approximately twice the height. In the old Soviet literature it was stated that water should not be poured above the level of 30-35 cm, but as practice shows, this is not critical. Goldfish live well in higher aquariums, if they have the appropriate width and length (tall and narrow aquariums - screens and cylinders - are not suitable for keeping gold).
What types of fish are compatible gold?
The answer to this question is unequivocal - the best option would be a specific aquarium where only goldfish live. Moreover, even short-bodied and long-bodied gold lodging is often not recommended together, but representatives of other species of fish are out of the question. Either the neighbors will harass the scones, damaging their eyes and fins, or the neighbors themselves will be uncomfortable, as the aquarium with goldfish is a very peculiar habitat. In addition, small goldfish can simply swallow.
Water parameters, design and equipment of the aquarium
Goldfish comfortable with the following indicators of water:
- temperature 20-23 °, for short-body forms slightly higher, 24-25 °;
- pH of about 7;
- stiffness not lower than 8 °.
The soil in the aquarium should be chosen so that the fish, digging into it, do not choke - its particles should be without sharp, protruding edges and either larger or much smaller than a fish mouth.
In the aquarium with goldfish must certainly be living plants. Consuming nitrogen, they have a positive effect on the ecological balance, are an additional substrate for bacteria performing biofiltration, and also serve as vitamin supplements for fish. Goldfish mercilessly dig in and gnaw plants, but this should not be the reason for refusing to populate the aquarium with lively greens.
Lemongrass, Anubias, cryptocoryne, Alterner, Bacopa, sagittaria, Javanese moss get along well with gold. It is recommended to plant the plants in pots so that the digging does not damage their roots. And as a top dressing, specifically give the fish a duckweed, Riccia, wolf, and a hornpole.
Mandatory good round-the-clock aeration. At a minimum, an aerator on the filter should be turned on; it is better to additionally have a compressor. If the aquarium has a high density of living plants, a powerful light and the supply of carbon dioxide is organized (in such conditions the leaves of the plants should be covered with bubbles of oxygen emitted by them), then the aerator is turned on only for the night.
In the design of the aquarium should not use large objects of decor - snags, grottoes, etc. Goldfish do not need shelter, but the fins of the valehvostoy, telescope eyes, growths about them are easy to injure, besides the shelters take up space for swimming.
Filtration and water changes
It is generally recognized that goldfish are a large biological load on an aquarium. Simply put, they are dirty, producing a huge amount of waste. Their habit of constantly rummaging in the ground, raising the dregs, also does not add cleanliness to the aquarium. In addition, goldfish excrement has a mucous consistency, and this mucus pollutes the soil and contributes to its rotting. Accordingly, in order to keep the water clean and transparent, a good round-the-clock filtration system is required.
The filter power should be at least 3-4 volumes of the aquarium per hour. The best option would be a canister external filter. If you can not buy it, and the volume of the aquarium does not exceed 100-120 liters, you can get by the internal filter - always with multiple sections and a compartment for ceramic filler.
Porous ceramics is a substrate for bacteria, which process poisonous ammonia released by fish into nitrites and then into much less toxic nitrates. In addition, the substrates for these bacteria, a stable amount of which is vital for the well-being of the aquarium, are soil and aquatic plants, especially small-leaved ones. Therefore, it is desirable to have a lot of plants, and the soil fraction should not be made too large.
In order for the colonies to not collapse when cleaning the aquarium, some rules must be observed: the filter sponges are washed in the aquarium water (the sponges are washed quite often, about once a week), the siphon of the soil is also weekly, done carefully, without mixing it layers, ceramic fillers for biofilters are always partially changed.
Even with high-quality filtration in an aquarium with goldfish, it is necessary to do weekly from a quarter to a third of the volume of the aquarium, and more often if the density of fish landing is violated. Small fishes of this species tolerate fresh water, so there is no need to defend it for more than a day.
Now that we have dealt with the main, most difficult and costly content of goldfish, we can talk about how and what to feed them.
They are usually fed twice a day, giving the amount of food that fish are able to eat within 3-5 minutes. Dry flakes and granules are recommended to alternate with vegetable food - spinach leaves, lettuce, boiled vegetables and cereals, fruits (orange, kiwi). Sometimes you can feed pieces of meat or liver, as well as frozen motils. It is necessary to take into account that the pellets of dry food should be soaked for 20-30 seconds in aquarium water, and thawed frozen food before giving them to fish. Very useful regular feeding live daphnia, which you can grow at home. In addition, as mentioned above, it is always better to have special food plants in an aquarium. Once a week, fasting days are arranged.
Diseases of goldfish are a subject for a separate article, but here we briefly consider only signs that may indicate that the fish are sick or have severe discomfort:
- loss of appetite;
- lowered dorsal fin;
- bulging scales, red or black spots that quickly appear, ulcers, rashes, mucous or cotton-like plaque;
- distended abdomen and bulging eyes stronger than usual;
- unnatural behavior: the fish stays in the corner of the aquarium for a long time, lies at the bottom, rolling over on its side, or swims near the surface, swallowing air from it;
- rolling over while swimming.
It should be noted that with proper maintenance of health problems in goldfish are quite rare. If you initially create good conditions for these animals (a spacious aquarium with live plants and powerful filtration), then care of them will be available to the beginner or even to the child, and for many years they will delight their owner with bright appearance and funny behavior.
What are goldfish, you can learn from the video:
Reproduction and breeding of goldfish
Reproduction and breeding of goldfish
Goldfish is one of the most ancient aquarium fish. Their story begins with the first century of our Era and Ancient China. Even then, the emperors of the East and Buddhist monks began to maintain, breed and select goldfish.
Actually, therefore, at present there are a great many aquarium goldfish, and their cost can vary from 2 dollars to several thousand US.
So, if you want to feel like a true goldfish breeder, emperor or Buddhist monk, then this article is for you!
Breeding or breeding goldfish, is not a difficult task.
However, goldfish are not guppies and in order to get offspring you still have to work hard and be patient. In addition, you need to have a sufficient number of aquariums or ponds.
You can't get off with one aquarium!
Goldfish breed independently, without any hormonal injections or without creating too specific conditions. Actual, good maintenance and proper feeding is the criterion and incentive for spawning producers. All types of goldfish can spawn in aquariums of a small volume of 30 liters. However, better results can be achieved in larger aquariums or in ponds.
Spawning of goldfish can occur at a temperature of 16 degrees Celsius, but it is better to maintain the temperature of the aquarium water at a level of 22-24 degrees Celsius. After replanting manufacturers increase the temperature by 2 degrees. The water level in the spawning pond should be 20-25 centimeters, the water should often be replaced by fresh and purged.
Unlike many other spawning aquariums, spawning for goldfish should be well consecrated all light day. If it is a pond, then the sunlight should be diffused, and the pond should be equipped with shelters in the form of floating plants.
Producers are planted in a spawning aquarium in the ratio of 1 female to 2-3 males and richly fed with live food (bloodworms, earthworms, daphnia, ground meat with bread, etc.). At the same time they try to select manufacturers based on their size. Especially females - the bigger they are, the more eggs they sweep out. And vice versa - small females toss less eggs. They equip an aquarium with vegetation (such as a combo, riccia, duckweed, a peristist, etc.), and do not carpe the bottom of the aquarium - on a clean bottom the eggs retain and do not die, but some aquarists set up a separate grid. Sexual maturity in fish comes to a year of life. In this case, the males appear on the gills white bumps and the so-called "saw" on the front paired fins, and the females are growing stout with caviar, their body is bent. For more information, see: HOW TO DETERMINE THE FLOOR OF A GOLDEN FISH: A male and a female!
A female matured for breeding emits a special substance that has a characteristic odor and is particularly concentrated in the genital organs. Actually, this smell attracts males and is a signal of a female's readiness for reproduction. Under the influence of this secretion males begin to swim for females.
Under pond conditions, it is recommended to perform the above spawning manipulations in March – April, with the expectation that spawning will begin in May – June. It is believed that this is the most prosperous time for the successful ripening of caviar. In addition, at this time it is easier to provide the eggs and fry with the necessary comfort.
If the courtship of the males began earlier than March - April and the spawning should be delayed, the producers are seated and also the water temperature is lowered to the desired period (period).
The peak of reproduction of goldfish is accompanied by violent courtship of the males - they chase the female around the reservoir, and on the day of spawning, these courtships look like a frank pursuit.
Taking into account such features, the spawning aquarium is equipped with soft aquarium plants and not sharp decor (it is better without it at all). Otherwise, the fishes will sweep, and their fins will be torn after spawning.
The spawning begins with the first rays of the sun and lasts 6 hours. Spawning gold can every month until October. During one spawning, the female can sweep up to 3000 eggs. In the "home" spawning of goldfish can sometimes occur continuously - year-round. However, this leads to the exhaustion of manufacturers, and in this case they should be given rest, seated in different aquariums.
Photo Caviar Goldfish
Caviar ejection occurs gradually. - the female driven by the males touches the vegetation or the walls of the aquarium and releases 10-30 eggs, which the males immediately fertilize - watering the eggs with milt.
Then, sticky caviar falls to the bottom or sticks to the plants.
Eggs on the first day are slightly orange and slightly flattened, the diameter of eggs is up to 1.5 millimeters. On the third day, the eggs are straightened and discolored, in connection with which they are difficult to detect.
Immediately after spawning, the producers are removed from the spawning tank, otherwise the offspring will be eaten.
The water level in spawning caviar is reduced to 10-15 centimeters and protected from overheating and excessive sunlight (if it is a pond). Aquarium intensively aerated.
The appearance of fry from caviar depends on the water temperature. At a water temperature of 22-24 degrees Celsius - the incubation period is 4-5 days, but at a temperature of 14 degrees Celsius it can reach 7-8 days.
On the second day after the appearance of the young in the aquarium, it is recommended to launch snails (for example, coils) so that they eat the dead and not fertilized eggs. You can carefully assemble yourself, but it is more difficult than it seems. It is very important not to kill the young. At the same time, leaving the dead calf is fraught with - live larvae do not tolerate "dirt" and can get sick.
Young goldfish in the first days is weak and harmless, in fact it looks like a reed with eyes and a yolk vesicle in the middle (the yolk bubble is necessary for obtaining nutrients in the first days of life). Fry move in spurts and can stick to the stop.
After about 2-3 days, they begin to blithely float around the reservoir, and from this point on, the young need to be fed with starter feed: live dust, the finest alga, and other finely ground to feed dust. After 2 weeks, you can give larger feed. At the age of one month, juveniles are capable of taking small bloodworms. As a starter feed, they also use egg yolk finely ground in water, as well as the soaked oatmeal grated in the dust. The fry are fed abundantly, but in portions - little by little but often.
photo larva Golden Fish
We can recommend the following feed for young goldfish.
JBL GoldPearls mini is premium class granules, packaged in 100 ml.
It has a special recipe ideal for young fish. The diameter of the granulated feed 1-2 mm. Contains spirulina and carotenoids, which contribute to the development of good fish color, contain proteins (10%) from wheat germ, fatty acids.
After two weeks the fry are planted in a 30 liter aquarium at the rate of 250 fry per aquarium. Aquariums flush or replace water frequently. Без продувки рекомендуется рассаживать мальков в количестве 120 штук на аквариум. Так их содержат до 2-х месячного возраста, постепенно сортируя по размеру и уменьшая их количество. Вылавливают молодь не сачком, а блюдцем или другой посудой. Так их легче достать и посчитать.
фото нерестового рассадника для золотых рыбок
Сортировку проводят по принципу выбраковки. Убирают молодь с дефектами, молодь отстающую в росте и т.д. В конечном итоге, получают породистых золотых рыбок.
Defective and non-standard young, unfortunately kill. First, because it, as a rule, does not survive itself, and secondly, even if it survives, nothing good comes out of it. With its further content, you risk getting outbred offspring "bastards", but if you go further, then the fish just degenerate into goldfish.
At first, the scaled juveniles of goldfish have a silver-gray color, like the progenitor of the goldfish. Coloring appears only at the age of 3-5 months. To improve the brightness of the fish color, it is recommended that "sunbathing" light should be diffused. In an artificial reservoir, no shading is necessary, on the contrary, the aquarium is intensively illuminated with lamps. It is worth noting that the color of goldfish can vary in fact a lifetime.
Scaleless fry do not pass the aforementioned period of silver color and already at two weeks of age begin to turn into their final color.
Juveniles of goldfish are very capricious and prone to disease. To avoid mortality of offspring, you should regularly monitor the cleanliness of the aquarium, aeration and filtration. Constantly monitor the population - do not forget to settle as they grow.
When breeding goldfish need to strictly observe the species crossing. All goldfish can interbreed with each other (for example, veil tails with comets).photo whitebait goldfish
1 month However, this will lead to degeneration and out-of-curry scrofula.
Summing up, you can make a short list of what you need for breeding goldfish:
- one-year-old males: 1 female, 2-3 males.
- aquariums: the main from 150 liters, spawning from 30 liters, aquarium for youngsters; (aquariums should be illuminated).
- aquarium soft-leaved plants;
- of course: aeration, filtration, thermostat;
- feed for fry;
- improvised aquarium equipment;
- suction water;
If you still have questions, you can ask them to our expert on fish breeding Vitaly Chernyavsky, HERE!
The optimal water temperature for goldfish in an aquarium
They contain goldfish in a wide, low and spacious aquarium with gravel or pebble soil. Acidity does not matter much (in general, goldfish are not capricious), and cruelty is not lower than 8 °. If the fish are sluggish, immobile, you can add salt at the rate of 5-7 g / l. The oxygen content should be high; air blowing and frequent water changes are recommended. Long-bodied fish need more water than short-bodied. Goldfish are quite peaceful, they can be kept together with other species, but voile tails are better separately, since other fish can damage their outfit. In fish tanks with bulging eyes, growths, there should not be stones and objects with sharp edges that can injure them. Water temperature from 15 to 24 ° C. In summer, you can gradually increase the temperature (up to 30 °).
The fish is suitable for keeping in a cold-water aquarium with a large space for free swimming. Beautiful in greenhouses. Due to the endurance of the breed, it can be kept in a decorative pond outside. Prefers a community of their own kind, bright light and an abundance of free space.
Temperature and oxygen regime
Goldfish are considered to be cold-water, as they easily tolerate a decrease in temperature, but they are most playful at a temperature of 22-24 degrees. Sharp temperature fluctuations are unacceptable! For ordinary goldfish, the water temperature in the aquarium can vary from 8 to 30 degrees, the optimum is 15–20 degrees, ornamental rocks are much heat-loving; The chemical composition of the water is not important. Goldfish (long-bodied, contained in pools and ponds) tolerate a decrease in temperature to 0 degrees Celsius and can winter under ice. It should be borne in mind that with a prolonged decrease in temperature, the fish may become more susceptible to various diseases, and warming of the water leads to a decrease in the content of oxygen dissolved in it, from which cold-water fish suffer greatly, start to eat little and become depleted. In hot weather, daily water changes prevent overheating of the aquarium.
For goldfish, aeration of water is obligatory, in which water is enriched with oxygen both from the surface of air bubbles formed by the nebulizer and from the surface of water. As a result of the circulation of water caused by the flow of bubbles, the oxygen-rich upper layers are mixed with depleted lower layers. In addition, the circulation is also useful in that it mixes relatively warm upper layers with cooler bottom layers, thus creating uniform temperature conditions inside the aquarium. If your fish are constantly at the surface of the water and swallow air, then this is the first sign of oxygen deficiency. It is necessary, or to change the water / part of the water, or to strengthen the aeration, or to plant fish.
The presence of a filter in aquariums with goldfish is also a necessary condition, as mobile and voracious fish, taking food from the ground and constantly rummaging in it, pollute the water. The power of the aeration compressor and / or filter (measured by the amount of distilled water in liters over a certain period of time) is selected depending on the size (volume) of the aquarium. The average is the power at which an compressor can pump over the entire volume of water in an aquarium in an hour. After several months of running an aquarium, you will be able to accurately determine the power you need in your case. If one type of filter is insufficient, you can use a combination of filters, a large selection of which is presented on the market of equipment for aquariums.
Goldfish are not very demanding on the chemical composition and hardness of the water, but before you fill the new aquarium with tap water, open a good tap and let the water flow for 5-10 minutes. This is done in order to reduce the content of heavy metals in it during stagnation in the pipes. It is necessary to fill the aquarium after planting, and so that the laid soil does not stir up. It is advisable to use a hose with a tip bent towards the top or an ordinary wide plate placed on the bottom. Filling the aquarium should not be to the brim, but leaving about 5 cm above.
What is the maximum water temperature for aquarium fish?
Lighting and water temperature in the aquarium
How to light the aquarium? When addressing this issue, the following points should be taken into account: the natural light illumination of the aquarium, the power of the lamp, the depth of the aquarium, the need for specific types of fish and plants for a particular light intensity (spectral composition is important for plants), the duration of illumination.
For example, if an aquarium is located near a window, the need for its inhabitants in artificial light is less (especially in summer). Fish, with the exception of the inhabitants of shaded reservoirs and those that are active at dusk, are not so whimsical to the lighting of the aquarium, as the plants. The life of the latter strongly depends on the quality and quantity of light. In most cases, the aquarium should be lit 12 - 14 hours a day.
What fluorescent lamps can be used to light the aquarium? Aquarists use the following types of lamps: LB, LD, LTB, LHB, LBU, LDC, and some others. Usually use lamps with a capacity of 20 to 40 watts. It must be remembered that the light output of fluorescent lamps is 2.5 - 3 times higher than incandescent lamps.
Approximate standards of lighting power: 0.4 - 0.5 watts per 1 liter of aquarium volume - for fluorescent lamps, 1.2 - 1.5 watts per 1 liter - for incandescent lamps. For fish and plants that cannot tolerate bright light, these rates are reduced. It should be remembered that the deeper the aquarium, the greater must be the power of the lamps.
What kind of lamp is better to use for lighting aquarium plants? When breeding aquarium plants, the best results are obtained with a combination of lighting: incandescent lamps plus fluorescent lamps such as LD, LDC (during flowering and fruiting, plants need blue rays, which give the lamp with this marking). The power of incandescent lamps for lighting aquarium with plants - 25, 40, 60 watts.
If you are mostly interested in fish, then in the presence of widespread and unpretentious plants, you can use any fluorescent lamps, preferably warm daylight, in the marking of which there is a letter B (LB, LTB, etc.), as well as incandescent lamps, better than krypton ones. The latter differ from ordinary lamps in that their flask is filled with krypton and they burn brighter, giving more orange rays.
In my room, the temperature does not rise above 18 - 20'C. Will fish live at this temperature? The temperature of the water in the non-heated aquarium is equal to or lower than in the room. For warm-water fish, this is not enough. Most aquarium fish and plants live at a temperature of 24 - 26 'and therefore need heating.
The most primitive heater is an incandescent lamp placed outside the side wall of the aquarium below the surface of the water and covered with a metal reflector. The lamp should not be more powerful than 40 watts from the strong and uneven heating of the glass can crack. This heater is not very convenient, since a lot of heat is wasted. In addition, at night it has to be turned off. Plants stretch in the direction of the lamp and bend, and the side glass quickly overgrown with algae.
The most commonly used heaters from nichrome wire, wound on a glass tube, which is placed in a tube with sand (they are produced by our industry). The power of such heaters from 5 to 100 watts. They should be used in full accordance with the instructions. Especially it is necessary to ensure that the upper end of the heater protrudes from the water - getting it into the tube results in damage to the device.
To maintain the temperature of the water in a 25-liter aquarium is not higher than in the room, 0.2 l is required for every liter of water, 0.13 in a 50-liter tank and 0.1-watt in a 100-liter tank. To keep the temperature constant, use a heater with a thermostat. The industry produces a variety of temperature controllers. One of the most common PTA-W.
maximum! maximum when I turned on the heater and cooked the soup of my fish !! Until now, from myself in shock T was about 35-40. The minors are dead ((
therefore, 32 is the maximum but the fish remained alive))
Zhenya, depending on what kind of fish ... In general, in summer, at room, almost all fish live normally ... And in winter, it is better to put a heater ... But I do not recommend to reveal the maximum temperature by experience, it’s a pity to fish)))
When treating most aquarium fish (except gold), some aquarists raise the temperature to 34 degrees. But for the content, of course, need a lower temperature. The discus discusses separately - they need a temperature of about 30 degrees ... and gold ones - they need colder water than others.