White spots on the fish in the aquarium


The first symptoms of fish disease

first symptoms of the disease, description of fish diseases

The first symptoms of the disease in aquarium fish should not be ignored!
Diseases of aquarium fish - an emergency for an aquarium. Even experienced, knowledgeable gurus of the aquarium world can have a state of emergency of illness of pets. However, in such cases, do not despair. Many diseases, especially in the initial stage, are treatable.

The first and most important step in the treatment of fish disease is diagnosis. With the help of several signs - symptoms, you can understand exactly what your fish is sick and how dangerous it is.

Ichthyopathology - the science of fish diseases, divides them into: infectious infectious and invasive, as well as non-infectious. The causative agents of infectious diseases are viruses, bacteria and fungi. Invasive diseases arise as a result of invasions - attacks on the fish organism of parasites of animal origin - disease-causing ciliates, intestinal cavities and worms. Some small crustaceans can also parasitize the body of the fish. The occurrence of non-communicable diseases in most cases is associated with a violation of the optimal conditions of fish in the aquarium or improper handling of them.

The main sign that the fish hurt and bad - This is when they hang for a long time in one place or lie on the bottom, hiding under the roots or decorative elements of the aquarium.

When there is a lot of nitrates and nitrites in the water - organic matter that ferments, rot and pollutes the aquarium due to an excess of food and waste products of its inhabitants, the fish is wrapping gill cover (on the body of the fish, there are gill covers on the sides of the head, which cover the gills, and under them is a layer of skin that can “crawl out” behind these covers). A plus, if the fish is very active breathingThis is also a sign of an increased amount of nitrate-nitrite, since oxygen is very poorly soluble in such waters. In such cases, it is necessary to immediately replace the aquarium water.

Due to the increased amount of organic matter, fish poisoning occurs. Poisoning can also occur due to the use of poor-quality live food caught in water-polluted waters when feeding dry daphnia and bloodworms, with frequent feeding of artificially diluted potworms - such food is difficult to digest and causes inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract of fish.

Symptoms of poisoning are as follows: the fish willingly eat food, but remain sluggish, the color of the skin dims. They can lose orientation in space, with severe poisoning, convulsive movements are observed. In inflammation of the stomach, the belly of the fish slightly increases (should be distinguished from other diseases or from the maturation of the genital products), there may be redness of the anus. Fecal masses have a large amount of bloody mucus and filamentous form.

In such cases, it is sometimes sufficient to transfer the sick fish to a diverse and comprehensive feeding with live hydrobionts and clean the aquarium, carry out the process of removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and volatile oils from the water. It is not recommended to collect live food in ponds with wastewater. Also, when installing a new aquarium and various equipment, everything must be thoroughly rinsed - after all, toxic substances from putty used in their manufacture can get into the water.

If your colorful fish change colorThere are few reasons for excitement. Such a process often takes place as a result of maturation, mainly in young individuals. Carp, for example, is born just gray, and after a while it can enhance the color, which is incorporated genetically.

If the fish spend the night in the dark, and in the morning they turn on the light - they can dull slightly. And if this happens during the day - this may be, again, the effect of nitrates and nitrites.

Of course, it is impossible to keep the aquarium on the windowsills - under the influence of direct sunlight the fish grow dull and can get sick.

Faded fins are often the result of injury. (aggressive neighbors, injury to stones and foreign objects, improper transportation, etc.) can lead to the formation of fin rot. In this case, it is better to isolate the fish until its fins heal. If on them bunches that look like cotton flakes or white spots will appear, the fish must be treated with antibacterial drugs.

Sometimes, on the fins of a fish, which ideally should be transparent, red strings appear - this is a hemorrhage in the fins, meaning a sharp change in the parameters of water - hardness, acidity, temperature, high content of organic matter. Of course, a simple water change and tracking and adjustment of its parameters will help here. But pressed to the body fins - spinal, anal, lateral - can mean both elevated levels of nitrates and nitrites, and fungal disease, which is not difficult to destroy.

Everything, that on fish looks like a foreign body is bad and should attract the attention of the owner. In an infectious fungal disease (ringworm), the inhabitants of the aquarium covered with white thread, growing into a vat-like formation. Sick fish become slow-moving, stop feeding, and in the absence of timely treatment they die from ulcers that affect the gills. In most cases, rheumatic fever suffers fish are in tight containers with dirty and cold water - below 20 ° C. At the initial stage, the disease is not dangerous and can be cured - you just need to create optimal conditions for the fish, dissolve salt or copper sulfate in water. In the local form of fungal growths, the affected area is treated 2-3 times with a daily interval with a cotton swab moistened with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or rhinovanol.

If the fish white dots appeared of the same shape and size, this means that her ichthyophthyriosis or "semolina" is the simplest (ciliates) that settle on aquarium fish and parasitize, propagating by division outside the host's body. The fish quickly dies from this invasive disease, but it is easy to cure it - dilute malachite green or corny salt, pour it into the aquarium, increase aeration, raise the temperature by 5 ° С for 10 days. If a white dots of different sizes, but round - This is most likely a bacterial infection. It can also be killed with special medicines, for example, baktopur, antibacterial. It may be that points are not the same and have irregular shape - it will also be a fungus, it is easy to destroy it with malachite (malochite green), salt.

Sometimes on the fish may form an abscess, like a purulent pimple - These are microsporidia or cnidosporidia (protozoa, which form a colony in the muscles of the fish). Destroy them almost impossible. The only thing that can be done at home is to put an ultraviolet lamp through which water flows, as a result of which all bacteria and microorganisms are destroyed. That is, when these sporidii break through the scales and begin to look for another fish, then they pass through the water with the water passing through the lamp. But the best option would be to fish this fish with "cones".

Aquarists call lepidorthosis the worst disease (Rus. dusting scales). Symptoms - when the scales start to stand on end (if you look at the fish from above, the scales look like needles), under it are visicules - bubbles, in which there are pathogens. Lepidorthosis is almost not treated - such a fish must be very carefully pulled out with a net so that the bubbles will NOT crack and the pathogens will not get into the water. Sad and painful, but the fish itself must be disposed of, and the net boiled, or washed with alcohol or formalin. It is also worth to disinfect the aquarium, soil, plants and equipment.

Ways to treat fish:

In general, the treatment of sick fish is carried out mainly in three ways: in the general aquarium, in a separate vessel and individually (with medical lotions). Common and effective treatment is in a separate vessel. With its short course, a therapeutic solution of high concentration is detrimental to the causative agent.

Resuscitation of sick fish in the general aquarium does not always provide a 100% recovery. Low concentrations of therapeutic solutions do not completely kill the pathogens, especially those that are under the skin or in the muscles. In addition, increasing the concentration of therapeutic solutions destroys aquatic vegetation. With this method of treatment, a number of pathogens remain in the soil and water for a long time, so symptoms are often attenuated: a fish with a previously pronounced disease clinic becomes outwardly healthy, and after a while the symptoms recur.
If in the aquarium there are single specimens of fish affected by parasites that can cause mass disease and death, it is necessary to treat all the inhabitants of the aquarium. Often the treatment of several diseases is the same. For example, if pathogens are ectoparasites. Such treatment can be carried out both in a separate dish and in the general aquarium.

Prevention of aquarium fish diseases:

Prevention of fish diseases is very important for the prevention of diseases that often arise as a result of violations of the rules of keeping or the introduction of infections from the outside.

To fish was not bad, we recommend to observe the following rules:

- regularly and constantly carry out weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with the replacement of an average of 1/4 of the volume of water, to prevent overcrowding of the aquarium;

- do not place objects (decor) in the aquarium, which can cause poisoning or injury to aquarium fish;

- acquire only high-quality food for fish and ensure its proper storage;

- it is necessary to observe the feeding regime (1-2 times a day), do not leave the fish hungry and prevent them from overfeeding;

- to maintain in the aquarium an optimal and constant temperature recommended for specific types of fish, to exclude the possibility of sharp drops and overcooling;

- ensure reliable transportation of fish;

- in winter, be sure to use the thermostat;

- to quarantine new fish, placing them in a dedicated brewhouse filled with water from the existing aquarium;

- Aquarium equipment (nets, siphons, etc.) that the patients were served with must be thoroughly disinfected (with potassium permanganate, rivanol, table salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish;

- when treating fish with medicines and chemicals, strictly follow the dosage to prevent poisoning.

We also recommend that you read the brochure Navigator 3: an interview with an ichthyopathologist. Below is a link to the pdf-version, which you can download, as well as its test version.

To read and / or download "Navigator"

click on the picture below

If you do not have a PDF reader installed, we recommend that you use AdobeReader by downloading it from the official site.

Very useful video about the treatment of aquarium fish

The main diseases of aquarium fish

Diseases of aquarium fish can be divided into two categories: infectious, infectious, caused by various microorganisms and transmitted from fish to fish, and non-infectious, caused by improper conditions of detention or large parasites.

In the first case, to cure a pet requires the intervention of medicinal drugs that can destroy the causative agent of the disease. In the second, changes in housing conditions are often effective, eliminating the pathogenic factor, mechanical removal of the parasite, any measures that will strengthen the body of the fish, which are weakened by the disease. But almost always the poor conditions of the fish and poor-quality food weaken the immune system or are the immediate causes of the disease.

Timely diagnosis always facilitates the treatment of any disease of aquarium fish, because almost all diseases are effectively suppressed in the early stages.

Signs of illness in the aquarium fish

Non-contagious diseases

Alkalosis or alkaline disease

Causes: too soft, acidified water in the aquarium, which becomes so with excessive light, a large number of plants.

Signs: coloring and shine of fish scales grow dull, mucus is released from their gills, movements become convulsive, and fins are spreading. Fish trying to jump out of the aquarium. If you start the disease, the cornea begins to become clouded, followed by blindness, a massive death of the inhabitants of the aquarium is possible, which usually occurs at night.

Treatment: will help the transfer of fish in the tank, the water in which has a pH of 7-8.5. In general, the aquarium gradually bring the acidity to the desired boundaries. Fish recovery will be slow.


Causes: Carpoed parasitic crustacean, also called "fish louse". The crayfish is rather large - it can be seen with the naked eye, it is rounded in shape, therefore the diagnosis is not too complicated.

Symptoms: getting on the body of the fish, the crustacean is embedded in the tissue, forming a wound with swollen, reddened edges, abundant secretion of mucus. Fish scratches ulcerated place on solid objects, swaying on the spot, she spoils her appetite. The crayfish destroys not only the upper layer of the body - the epidermis and skin, but even the muscles. In addition, it releases a substance that slowly poisons the fish.

Treatment: the patient is caught from the general aquarium, wrapped in cotton and tweezers, and the parasite is carefully removed. After that, the damaged area is disinfected with potassium permanganate.

Asphyxia or choking

Causes: arises due to the long-term presence of fish in an oxygen-poor environment. This is possible in an overpopulated aquarium, tanks with insufficient aeration.

Signs: the gills are open, the fish makes intense respiratory movements. In the event of death, the mouth and gills remain open. Possible mass death of fish.

Treatment: will help move the fish in the water, in which there is enough oxygen. Changes in conditions in the general aquarium: enhanced aeration, cleaning of debris, rotting food debris, soil siphon.

Symptoms of the disease may coincide with some infectious diseases. The diagnosis can be accurately made by placing the fish in water saturated with oxygen - if you don’t see any improvement, then the disease is infectious.

Acidemia or ammonia poisoning

Causes: high content in the water of waste products of fish, invertebrates, plants. Manifested in overcrowded, inadequately maintained aquariums, where water changes rarely occur, there are rotting accumulations of organic matter.

Signs: the aquarium pet coloring is getting darker, they stay near the surface of the water. Possible damage to their gills, trying to jump out of the aquarium. Symptoms are similar to many of the symptoms of other diseases, the diagnosis may cause difficulty. But an aquarist usually understands what mistakes he made in keeping a home water reservoir, and if the aquarium is untouched, then the symptoms indicate precisely ammonia poisoning.

Treatment: first of all - to replace a significant amount of water in order to reduce the concentration of harmful substances. Strengthen aeration, clean the aquarium.

Acidosis or acid disease

Causes: gradual or dramatic decrease in pH. Perhaps when spawning fish, the appearance of newcomers in the aquarium.

Signs: the fishes become lethargic and alert, grayish-white spots appear on their bodies, they begin to swim sideways or belly upwards. Dead fish are coiled, gill covers are closed. With a sharp decrease in pH (this happens when transferring fish to new conditions), the fish rush around, try to jump, emit a lot of mucus. Dying is also curled ring.

Treatment: adding baking soda to the aquarium to normalize the level of acidity, water changes, more frequent changes in the future.

Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract

Reasons: poor-quality food, monotonous or too hard food.

Signs: faded color, sluggish behavior, threadlike feces with mucus and blood, inflamed anus. Symptoms may be characteristic of some infectious diseases, diagnosis is not easy, but in any case, treatment - improving feed - will help improve the condition of the fish.

Treatment: stop feeding for a few days to allow the mucous membrane of the internal organs to recover, then apply high-quality, diverse food that is easily digested.

Cyst of the genital glands

Reason: keeping separate females and males in combination with monotonous feeding.

Symptoms: the belly of the fish is swollen, as during spawning - a semi-liquid tumor is formed there, pressing on their internal organs. The appetite of the fish disappears, sterility develops, the fish die.

Treatment: in the early stages of the disease is almost impossible to identify, and when it is visible - treatment will not help much. You can try to put the fish on a cotton swab and, stroking the belly, squeeze out a cyst through the anus. But life expectancy and the ability to reproduce after that remain a big question.


Reason: monotonous feeding, dry food, overpopulation of the aquarium.

Signs: inactive fish, upper abdomen swollen. The blood brightens, fatty tissue is formed on the internal organs, which leads to a violation of their work and the death of the fish.

Almost always obesity is fatal. Prevention - rational, regular feeding in small portions of a variety of food, unloading, without food, days once a week, the volume of the aquarium sufficient for free swimming.

Chlorine poisoning

Causes: high chlorine content in water, which happens when improper preparation of tap water for substitution.

Signs: the fish keep near the surface, they may try to jump out of the aquarium, then their gill petals become pale, lethargy sets in, the fish do not react to irritations and die.

Treatment: transfer the fish to an aquarium with good water. To defend the water from the chlorinated aquarium for at least 48 hours, pass through a carbon filter. Quickly get rid of chlorine in water can, heating it to 90 degrees.

Gas embolism

Causes: the vessels are blocked by air bubbles if the water is too rich in oxygen. This happens when the tap water is not sufficiently prepared for replacement.

Symptoms: small fish worry, sometimes tremble, darken gill tissues, sometimes blurred eyes and swelling appear. At the opening of the dead fish frothy blood acts.

Treatment: to improve the condition of the fish, transplant them into water with normal parameters of oxygen content.


Causes: keeping fish too cold for their species.

Signs: the fish become lethargic, grow dull, keep to the surface, swaying, possibly pressing the fins, gills darken and swell, reduced immunity and secondary infections become possible.

Treatment: will help increase the temperature to the optimum for these species.

Mechanical injury

Causes: fights, aggression of some fish towards others, damage to sharp objects (for example, plastic plants, sharp stones). Fin injuries are especially frequent.

Treatment: minor injuries heal themselves, larger ones should be disinfected with potassium permanganate beads, methylene blue baths. Try to remove the factor causing injury from the aquarium.

Saprolegnia in aquarium fish

Contagious diseases

White skin

Pathogen: Pseudomonas dermoalba, bacterium. It enters the aquarium together with infected novices, objects or plants from the tank where the disease has developed.

Signs: the tissues at the caudal and dorsal fins whiten, the fish begins to stick to the surface. Infection affects the central nervous system and coordination organs. Leads to the death of fish.

Treatment: help baths with chloramphenicol. The tank where the sick fish, soil, plants, tools were kept must be disinfected.


Cause: Branchiomyces sanguinis and Branchiomyces demigrans, fungi that form blood clots in the vessels.

Signs: At the onset of the disease, red, dark stripes form on the gills due to a blockage of the vessels. The fish becomes lethargic, it can be caught by hand. Appetite disappears, the patient hides in dark corners, hunches, there is a pressing of fins. Later, the gills become "marble" color with alternating pink, gray, whitish stripes. Tissues begin to die off. The disease is highly contagious, diagnosis should be carried out as soon as possible. A little more than three days of infection can carry more than half of the population of the aquarium.

Cured in a spit, solutions of copper sulfate and rivanol. Common aquarium disinfect, completely replace the water. Recovery of gill tissue in recovered fish may take up to a year.


Pathogen: ciliate-flagellate hexamite or its varieties.

Signs: exhaustion, inflamed anus, filamentary white mucous stool. Erosion of the skin in the form of perforated mucous ulcers. In the early stages of the diagnosis can cause difficulties. The disease is very contagious, especially for Cichlidae.

It will help to create favorable conditions for the content, diverse and nutritious food. Drug treatment, antibiotics are used erythromycin, griseofulvin, metronidazole, dissolving the feed in the aquarium water, soaking it in solution. A long course of treatment is 10-14 days. Treatment-and-prophylactic measures are applied to healthy fish - a course of antibiotics in half the reduced concentration.


Pathogen: Gyrodactylus, parasite-flukes affecting the skin, fins, gill tissue of fish.

Signs: the fish keeps near the surface, sways, it is characteristic that the fins are pressed to the body. At later stages, appetite disappears, the fish rubs against hard surfaces, gray areas appear on the body, the destruction of the fins begins, and a gray deposit on the gills appears.

Treatment: in the main aquarium, solutions of bicillin, azipirin will help, in a jigger - table salt, formalin, malachite green, copper sulfate or methylene blue. It is recommended to increase the water temperature for better healing.


Pathogen: sporovik from the order Microsporidia. It affects the internal organs, gills, eyes.

Signs: the fish is kept on its side, protrusions appear on the skin, which become tearing tumors of whitish, bloody color. Formation of stragues on one or both sides.

There is no way to help. The infected fish dies, the other inhabitants and the plants should be destroyed, the soil, decorations, equipment and the aquarium itself should be thoroughly disinfected.

Fin rot

Pathogen: pseudomonas wand. It is activated in supercooled fish. Fish diseases with an elongated or veiled fin structure are particularly susceptible.

Symptoms: whitish with a blue tinged opacification of the edges of the fins, sometimes the eye - at this stage the diagnosis is difficult, usually the disease is noticed by very experienced and attentive aquarists. Then begins the decay of fins. In young, the tail fin can completely disappear. If this happens to an adult fish, the destruction will affect the skin, muscles, blood vessels - the fish will die.

Treatment: bactericidal drugs will help. Baths with solution Antipara, bitsillina, malachite green. Sometimes, in the early stages, self-healing of the fish is possible with improved conditions.


Cause: Dactylogyrus fluke infecting gill tissue.

Symptoms: the affected small fish loses appetite, keeps in an aquarium above, rubs against firm surfaces, makes the active respiratory movements. The gills turn pale or get variegated color, their petals stick together, mucus abundantly protrudes, the edges ulcerate.

Treatment: will help increase the temperature of the water, the introduction of water solution of bicillin, salt, formalin. It is possible to treat both in the main aquarium and in the jig.

Ringworm or saprolegnia

Causative agent: Saprolegniales, mold fungus. It affects the skin, gills, and sometimes - internal organs. Often is a secondary infection of a fish already weakened by any disease.

Signs: the fungus manifests itself in the form of thin whitish threads on the skin and gills of fish. In advanced cases affects their internal organs and the fish die.

Treatment: first of all it is necessary to treat from the initial disease, against the background of which the fungus developed. If the initial disease is absent and the reasons were weakened immunity or abnormal conditions, then therapeutic baths with solutions of bicillin, potassium permanganate, malachite green, and table salt will help.


Pathogen: Ichthyosporidium hoferi fungus. It affects all tissues except bone and cartilage.

Signs: the fish moves irregularly, itches, refuses to feed, may lie on its side. The mouth is open, puffed-up eye develops. There may be an eyesore, destruction of the fins, erosion of the skin. In the body of the fish tumors are formed, the organs cease to function.

There is no way to save the fish. Patients perish, the remaining inhabitants should be destroyed, the equipment should be disinfected.

Ichthyophthyriosis or point disease, semolina

Pathogen: protozoa Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. It affects the skin and gills.

Symptoms: the diagnosis is very simple - the fish itches on hard objects, holds on to the surface, breathes greedily. Then on the body appear rash in the form of white dots, grains. The disease can lead to the death of fish.

Treatment: daily administration of bactericidal preparations to the aquarium (malachite green with iodine, bicillin, Antipar, Baktopur) together with the replacement of a quarter of the water volume, gradual heating of water by 4-5 degrees will help.


Pathogen: Aeromonas punctata or Pseudomonas fluorescens, bacteria that damage the skin

Signs: the scales of the fish rise, since pustules form under the scales - fluid-filled bubbles. Next begins the loss of scales and the fish dies. Symptoms are similar to signs of tuberculosis, ichthyospiridiosis, accurate diagnosis is possible with the use of laboratory equipment.

Treatment: help is effective at the very beginning of the disease, when the scales are raised only on certain areas of the body. Baths and the introduction of solutions of antibiotics - bitsillin, biomitsin, streptotsida into the aquarium are used. The disease is very contagious, treatment and prophylactic measures should be applied to the inhabitants of the main aquarium, and sick people should be treated in an otsadnik. If the treatment does not help, the diseased fish should be destroyed, the aquarium equipment and the ground should be disinfected.


Pathogen: protozoa Trichodina, affecting the skin. Dangerous for many common types of aquarium fish.

Signs: at the initial stage, diagnostics is almost impossible, the fish can only rub from time to time on hard surfaces. In the course of development, the color of the fish grows dull, appetite disappears, areas of grayish bloom appear on the body, which can flake off.

Treatment: will help raise the temperature of the water, increased aeration, drug treatment. In the general aquarium - solutions of salt, trypaflavin, methylene blue. Warm (up to 34 degrees) baths with table salt, ammonia solution. To rid the aquarium of parasites, you should remove the fish for two days and warm the water to 35 degrees.

Peptic ulcer

Pathogen: Pseudomonas fluorescens, a microbe that attacks the skin and intestines.

Signs: the appearance on the body of the fish of dark spots and spots, which gradually turn into ulcers, the development of beam eye, inflammation of the anus and, as a result, intestinal inflammation - a swollen abdomen.

Treatment: help is effective at the onset of the disease. In the general aquarium, a solution of streptocide, biomycin, bicillin is used. In a separate bath and - potassium permanganate and hydrochloride. Aquarium and equipment need to be disinfected.

Proper care of the aquarium and its inhabitants

General rules for prevention

Favorable conditions of the aquarium - timely replacement of properly prepared water, good aeration, regular cleaning of the aquarium eliminates the possibility of a huge number of diseases. A regular diet, which includes a variety of food, rich in vitamins and minerals significantly increase the resistance of your pets to diseases. With rare exceptions, it is a good content - the best prevention of every aquarium fish disease.

Careful to be and to replenish the aquarium - to acquire only healthy fish, carefully withstand quarantine.

What aquarium sick

Diseases of aquarium fish - this is an unfavorable period in the life of pets, which comes suddenly. Nowadays, the first symptoms are easily recognizable, and laboratory diagnostics are proof of that. Many diseases are treated with great success.

There is a scientific discipline that studies the diseases of fish, it is called ichthyopathology. It has been scientifically proven that diseases can be divided into infectious and non-infectious. Contagious include invasive and infectious. Sources of infectious diseases are bacteria, fungi and viruses. Invasive diseases are caused by the parasitic forms of animals. There are unicellular parasites - sporozoans, flagellates, ciliates; and multicellular - these are crustaceans and worms (helminths). Non-infectious diseases of aquarium fish appear due to non-compliance with the quality of maintenance, with improper care.

Disease classification

Diseases of aquarium fish caused by pathogens:

  1. Infectious.
  2. Invasive.

Diseases caused by pathogens are not:

  1. Physical etiology.
  2. Chemical etiology.
  3. Diseases as a result of improper feeding regime and quality.

In conditional order, they can be divided into the following:

  1. Caused by pathogens:
    • Bacteria;
    • Fungi;
    • The simplest;
    • Intestinal cavity;
    • Flatworms;
    • Acantocephalus;
    • Viruses;
    • Crustaceans;
    • Filamentous helminths
  2. Not caused by pathogens:
    • Chemical etiology (toxic poisoning);
    • Physical etiology (due to improper care of the fish - poor quality of the aquatic environment, impaired temperature conditions);
    • The result of improper feeding (bloating, food poisoning).

How to avoid diseases? Symptoms

Invasive diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, enter the aquarium from various sources. This may be a new fish, live or frozen food, soil, scenery, plants. Infections can be avoided if you follow a number of rules:

  1. Buy fish, plants, soil and decor only at verified sales points.
  2. After the purchase, the fish need to be planted for 2-4 weeks quarantine, and the plants are processed.

  3. Observe the correct content parameters that are needed by different types of fish and plants.
  4. Be observant - so you can quickly detect signs of the disease at an early stage.

Common symptoms of diseases in aquarium fish, their diagnosis:

  1. Changes in appearance are observed: uncharacteristic white dots, spots, scurf, “fluff” can appear on their body. Also, sick fish may have ulcers, hemorrhages, and increased secretion of mucus. Fins collapse, stick together, fall off. The scales ruffle and fall off, the belly bulges, eyes bulging.
  2. The behavior of the fish is changing. Their head and tail bend down. They can swim belly up, or on the side, swim on the surface, capturing the air. Sick fish swim in jerks, rub on solid surfaces in the aquarium.
  3. Sick pets lose their appetite, become lethargic. They move unnaturally, body color changes, dims.

Sometimes it happens that the diagnosis of the disease becomes time-consuming. If you can not decide on the disease, contact your ichthyopathologist, let the fish take scraping from the fins and scales. The results of laboratory tests will tell for certain what it is sick.

Different pathogens can cause similar symptoms, or infect a fish with several diseases at the same time. For example, a pet infected with parasitic invasions can be attacked by bacteria or viruses. If he falls ill, diagnose right away to start treatment at an early stage. With attentiveness and observation, you can save the life of your favorites. Prompt treatment and well-chosen medicines will help increase the likelihood of complete recovery of the fish.

What is needed for the prevention of disease?

Treatment of diseases is more difficult than their prevention. There are a number of simple rules, the observance of which will get rid of the health problems of domestic fish:

  1. Regularly replace 20-30% of aquarium water with clean and infused water (once every 7 days).

    Watch a video about water changes.

  2. Every week, clean the soil with a funnel with a siphon. Remove the rotten remnants of food, plants, as well as waste products of fish.
  3. Avoid overcrowding in the tank. On the average size fish should be 40-50 liters of water. This applies to cichlids, angelfish, medium catfish, gourami, petsilievyh.
  4. Give pets quality food. Store it in the right conditions according to the instructions.
  5. Adhere to the correct mode of feeding: 1-2 times a day in small portions. Once in 7 days you can arrange a fasting day.

  6. Observe permissible temperature conditions of water, do not allow sudden changes in temperature.
  7. Recently bought fish keep in a quarantine tank for 2-4 weeks.
  8. Use soft containers to transport the fish so that it is not frightened and not injured.
  9. When treating a pet, follow the instructions for use of the medication, take the dose carefully, following all the rules.
  10. Do not place in the aquarium soil and decorations that may hurt the fish, or painted. They can release toxins into the water, poisoning all life.
  11. Aquarium cover should be such that the fish about it does not hit hard, and could not jump out of the tank.
  12. Nets, hoses, siphons, gauze fabrics should be different for each tank. After using the equipment in the aquarium with sick fish, it should be treated with disinfectant solutions.

Diseases caused by infection

Plystiphosis, or neon disease - the causative agent is a fungus of the genus Plistiphora hyphessobryconis, which settles in the muscle tissue of fish. Diseases are mostly neon. Signs of illness at an early stage: the glowing neon strip dims, and later completely fades. Others fish scale scales. Today there are no effective ways to treat patients with plysyphitis.

Columnaria - the causative agent of infection is the rod-shaped bacterium Flexibacter columnaris. Symptoms: Sick fish externally covered with white "cotton", especially in the area of ​​the mouth, because of which the disease is also called "oral fungus". The treatment is carried out with the use of phenoxyethanol, in a quarantine separator. It is also effective to use the bath with the drug Merbromin or methylene blue. You can use antibiotics, if the disease has led to the destruction of internal tissues.

Branchiomycosis is a fungal infection that affects the gills of fish. The causative agent of the disease is Branchiomyces demigrans and Branchiomyces sanguinis. It is necessary to treat Branchomycosis with the use of fungicidal medicines, which are added to quarantine otsadniki. Should be taken from the fish tests. After establishing the diagnosis, you need to remove the remnants of food, waste products from the general aquarium. It is necessary to clean the soil, and to replace half of the volume of aquarium water, to include a powerful aeration.

Saprolegniosis - an infection caused by fungi of the genus Saprolegnia. The treatment is carried out with the use of antifungal drugs (streptocid diluted). In a separate container, baths should be carried out for sick fish, using 5% salt solution. Effective in the fight against copper sulfate fungi, hydrochloride, rivanol, formalin.If the fungus has a localization site in the damaged area of ​​the skin, it is better to place the fish in an otsadnik, and use a solution of malachite green oxalate for treatment to remove the source of infection.

Fish tuberculosis is a terrible disease that occurs due to the bacterium Mycobacterium piscium. Under the microscope, it has the shape of a fixed stick. When a bacterium enters an aquarium, several fish can pick it up. Representatives of the haratsin, kartozubyh, labyrinth, tropical cyprinids are sensitive to this infection. Less commonly, tuberculosis is found in cichlids, petilias, cetrarchs. Mycobacterium piscium is resistant to acid, and can develop at a temperature of 18-25 degrees Celsius. Treat the fish after the first symptoms are found. In the early stages, when pets are still eating, you should use kanamycin, which must be added to food. Dose: 10 mg per 10 grams of feed. In the next stages of tuberculosis, the fish are not treated, they are destroyed, and the aquarium is completely treated.

Invasive diseases

Hexamitosis - the causative agent of the disease is a parasitic flagellate droplet shape. It enters the gallbladder or in the intestines of the fish, where the disease begins to develop. Symptoms: the fish refuses to eat, ulcers, or holes are formed on the body. Patients should immediately be quarantined. Hexamitosis is less common in American and African cichlids.

See how to treat hexamytosis in aquarium fish.

In an aquarium, the water temperature should be raised to 33-35 ° C, which has a detrimental effect on the parasites. Increasing the temperature range should be gradual, for example, by 3-4 ° C in 24 hours. At this time, the fish better not to feed. Hexamytosis can be defeated by using the drug metronidazole. It is more gentle and does not affect biological filtration. The medicine must be introduced into the general aquarium without transferring unhealthy pets to quarantine. Dose: 250 mg per 35 liters of water. It is necessary to make the medicine for three days, while replacing 25% of the aquarium water. Later, after a day, you can replace 15% of the water. If during treatment the fish refuse food, it should be stopped. After 7 days, the first improvements will be noticeable, but in order to avoid a relapse, treatment is not recommended to be stopped, because its recommended period: 12-15 days.

Costioz is an invasive disease that occurs with a unicellular parasite of the genus Costianecatrix. It enters the aquarium with live food, sick fish. The first symptoms: the fish rubs against the scenery, then the gills will begin to become covered in mucus, due to which respiratory arrest can occur. The fish have no appetite, refuse to feed. In the later stages, the body is covered with bluish-gray spots, or patina. It is possible to treat bone disease with the use of such means:

  • Potassium permanganate. Dose: 0.1 grams per 1 liter of water. In the bath the fish should be dipped for 40-50 minutes. Repeat for 5 days.
  • Copper sulfate: 1 gram per 10 liters of water. Place fish in the solution for 20 minutes. Repeat for 5 days.
  • Salt: 1 tablespoon (25 grams) per 10 liters of water. In the tub to hold the fish for 15 minutes. Repeat for 7 days. Saline solution is not suitable for all types of fish, this should be taken into account during medical procedures.

Why does white plaque appear on fish and how to treat it

White plaque on the body of the fish most often signals a malfunction of the body. If white plaque is a symptom of a disease, then the fish should be treated immediately. In no case should you confuse white bloom on the body with the clouding of the body of the fish. Turbidity can be a signal that the fish is in poor quality water, it is not necessarily a sign of infection.

With alkalosis, the skin becomes dull, the fish rush around the reservoir, and mucus is formed on the fish. Appears in pets who are accustomed to water with an acidic environment. Ailment is eliminated by bringing the pH to the required level. At the pet store you can buy a pH buffer, which will give indicators.

Also, body color may fade from inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. A large amount of mucus appears in the feces, with bloody discharge, the fish loses appetite. One week the fish are not fed, later transferred to a variety of feeding.

Diseases: saprolegnosis and gyrodactylosis

Dermatomycosis, or saprolegniosis - fish disease, which appears as a result of a long stay in cold water. Other related factors, such as improper feeding, injuries, stress, high acidity of the environment, increased concentration of organic matter in water can cause fungi of the genus saprolegnia and ahlia. Other infectious diseases often appear as concomitant with saprolegnosis. The disease spreads quickly through the aquarium, being transferred from sick fish to healthy ones.

The initial stage of the disease is the formation of moss on the fish, as well as white threads, the so-called "fungal hyphae". Hyphae may appear when an injury, cut, ulcer is located. When they grow, they intertwine with each other, and form a lump resembling white cotton. Lumps are distributed throughout the body, also on the fins. Later, the internal organs of the fish fall ill.

See how to treat ringworm and other aquarium fish diseases.

Treatment of fish should occur in the jar. To destroy the fungus using the drug bitsillin-5. A dose of 500,000 units per 100 liters of water is added to the aquarium. Before entering into the water, the drug should be diluted in water. The duration of treatment with bitsillin is 5-6 days. During treatment, the temperature is raised to 25-26 ° C. Please note that not all aquarium fish can move the set temperature. From the general aquarium it is necessary to remove the plants and decorations, process them with the same preparation. The drug acts only in the dark.

Gyrodactylosis is a disease in which a bluish-white bloom forms on fish. The fins are compressed, the sick fish rubs against the scenery, it becomes sluggish, and their eyes become cloudy. Also, the pet stays at the surface of the water, moving vibrations. Later the rays of the fins are destroyed, the ulcers are seen on the body. Affected fish can die from lack of air or exhaustion. The causative agent is a parasite of the genus Gyrodactylus. Its dimensions are miniature - up to 0.8 mm in length, it is attached to the body of the owner by hooks. The parasite is very dangerous for fish fry.

Treatment is possible in the jar. In the water you need to make 15 mg of copper sulphate per 10 liters of water. In the main aquarium, the parasites will die without fish within a week, so disinfection is not necessary. To fry did not become infected with invasion, spawning aquarium should be treated with salt for 24 hours.

Trichodinosis and bone disease

Trihodinoz is an invasive disease, the causative agent of which is the ciliate, round-crib. At the early stage, there are no obvious changes in the pet's appearance. Only it itches on stones and scenery, often located near the bubbles of aeration. As the disease progresses, the body becomes covered with white bloom, over time it will begin to fall off flakes. Gills are covered with mucus, the fish have no appetite, breathing is frequent. Intrusion into the aquarium can be contaminated with dirty water, decorations, plants, food, soil, sick fish. If there are no fish in the general aquarium, ciliates without a host will die in a few days.

Look at how mollies contaminated with trichodinosis looks.

The treatment takes place in a quarantine tank, where the water temperature is raised to 30 degrees Celsius. It is necessary to include a strong aeration. In the water you need to add salt in the proportions of 20 grams per 10 liters of water. In the initial stages of the disease is treated.

Ichthyobiasis, or bone disease, is a parasitic disease, the causative agent of which is the flagellate carrier Costia necatris. At first, the sick fish is inactive, refuses to eat, rubs against the aquarium decor. When the parasite multiplies, irritation and mucus appear on the skin. Later on the fish appear gray-blue spots, developing into a white patina. The gills are enveloped in mucus, the fish find it difficult to breathe - it rises to the surface of the water, taking the air. The fins are glued together.

The parasite can get into the water with soil, food and sick fish. In the presence of the host, the flagelor actively reproduces. They tolerate the disease of fish and fry, which receive a variety of food. The disease is treated with malachite green or methylene blue. If in the general aquarium with fish to raise the temperature to 34 degrees, the parasites will die. Also, fish can be treated in baths. Dissolve 0.1 grams of potassium permanganate in 10 liters of water, and keep the fish in the solution for 40 minutes. Another recipe for a medical bath: 150-200 grams of salt in 10 liters of water, and keep the fish in the solution for 10-15 minutes. It is advisable to transfer the pets to the quarantine tank after the onset of the disease, and to keep it at a temperature of 25 degrees during the treatment period.

Treatment and diseases of aquarium fish


My two-year experience in administering an aquarium forum allows me at this stage to draw certain conclusions about the treatment of aquarium fish.
In this article, I would like to discuss all aspects and nuances of treating a sick pet. The purpose of the article is to give the basic basics to beginners, and to many experienced aquarists - WHAT TO DO IF FISHES ARE DISEASE.

This article will not be a revelation and a panacea, I will, in principle, talk about simple and understandable things, but still, in my opinion, it is in them that the key to the health of both fish and the aquarium as a whole lies.
To begin, let's see why and from what the fish are sick. Fish - these are the same living creatures as we are with you. Any living thing will feel good and not get sick when it is in a comfortable environment. People go to fitness clubs, go to a sanatorium, try to live in comfort, eat the right and healthy food, breathe fresh, clean air and this is a guarantee of their health and longevity.
The same applies to fish, they will always be healthy and you will not have to treat them if they live in comfort, i.e. in a healthy, full, proper aquarium. With a certainty of 120%, I can say that in a healthy aquarium with a tuned biobalance, no aquarium fish will get sick !!!
So, we have established the root cause of all troubles - the "bad aquarium." What is it expressed in? There are many factors that characterize the concept of "bad aquarium":
- this is both overpopulation and the wrong selection of fish;
- these are inappropriate parameters of aquarium water for one or another species of fish (t, pH, dH, kH, etc.);
- this is also inadequate water quality, i.e. the presence of poisons in it: ammonia, nitrite and nitrate;
- this may be expressed in the wrong decoration of the aquarium;
- Inadequate or poor quality lighting;
- in the end, in the wrong care for the aquarium: feeding, water changes, etc .;
If you summarize all these negative factors, you can simply say: there is no in an aquarium BIOBALANCE - BIOLOGICAL EQUILIBRIUM.
Now, based on the above, let's see what happens to the body of a fish in such negative conditions. And the same thing happens as with you and us - the protective mechanisms are activated. Depending on the damaging factor in fish, this can manifest itself in different ways, for example:
- in case of overpopulation or the wrong selection of fish, they begin to fight, stress or depressed state appears;
- at elevated temperatures or lack of oxygen, fish begin to swim near the surface, puff up the gills, and gasp for air. Again, stress, lethargy, "fainting."
- in the presence of poisons in the water, the defense mechanisms of addiction also work in fish.
Due to what work - these protective mechanisms? The answer is also simple - due to immunity. Which, as you understand, is not rubber. And when it ends, the fish organism ceases to resist all pathogens and / or negative factors. There comes a phase of the disease.

What is sick fish and how to treat?

Here, when the first obvious signs of fish being unwell appear, the aquarist starts frantically searching for an answer on the Internet to the questions: what happened, what to do and what to treat?
As a rule, such a convulsive search for a panacea ends in porridge in the head, and ultimately, the aquarist just goes to the nearest pet store, says “it” to the seller of my fish, receives a drug from “this,” then “it” pours in, gets from the process of relief, thinking that "everything, shcha my fish will recover." BUT !!!! ... the opposite usually happens. The fish gets worse and they die.
What happens in the situation described. Suppose an aquarist guessed with a cure that already seems to be fine. But this is not a magic pill from all ills. THIS MEDICINE! We all know that any drug has both positive and negative properties (side effects, contraindications). Now imagine "the fish was nitrified," that is, poisoned by excessive concentrations of ammonia, nitrites and nitrates, and it is already bad for the fact that there are poisons in the aquarium and here, in addition, we pour the medicine !!! The outcome of this treatment is obvious.
From the above, it is possible to make an obvious conclusion that, before starting treatment, all negative factors must be eliminated, and then treated (if necessary).
Below we will work out a definite scheme that will help step by step and correctly carry out the treatment, but before that let us see, with one more question - THE SAME SPECIFICALLY DISEASE FISH AND WHAT MEANS TO TREAT IT.
There are enough diseases in fish and they are all different. Often, when you see a forum correspondence about the disease of fish, you involuntarily recall Lobanov's catch phrase from the Interns m / s: “Repeat every morning, wake up - let me go diarrhea, phimosis and endometriosis”))). The same is true in aquaforums, a person writes to help a fish this or that ..., and in response to this you have hex, bone disease and ichthyoftiriosis))). Why all? Firstly, because fish do not have doctors (ichthyopathologists on the Internet are rare), not like cats and dogs, veterinarians, secondly, "fish are silent" - many clinical signs are similar, but the diseases are different. And thirdly, it is impossible to make a diagnosis from a photo on the Internet; only a laboratory study of selected biomaterials can give a reliable answer, it is this and only it that can give a clear answer with which parasite, bacterium, virus or fungus the fish are affected. The question arises - how to be? After all, for example, in the most common disease of fish "semolina" - ichthyophthyriosis, there are actually several varieties? !! And far from many aquarists have at least a microscope ... and even more so knowledge of parasites.
In my opinion, any aquarist should first read a certain amount of material, understand and systematize fish sores according to clinical signs. For example:
Bacterial diseases
(defeat by one or another type of bacterium): - it is mucus, bloating, scratching, bruising, red veins, ulcers, white threadlike feces, etc.
Fungal diseases (caused by fungi): - it is moss, cotton wool, fluff on the body of the fish.
Flagellates and ciliates - points, rash, holes.
And so on, ... about classified by signs other less popular sores from: cancers, worms and viruses.
When an aquarist will understand this material, moreover he will see photos and videos of sores, he will already know approximately which group of drugs will help to cure the fish. And of course, he will already have an idea about the mechanism, the treatment procedure, which is also important, because some diseases can be treated only in the general aquarium, and some can be treated in a quarantine aquarium, some can be treated by using short baths with medicine.
In addition, the initial understanding of the issue, will reduce the time before treatment, which often plays a significant role in the recovery of fish - he saw the first signs of the disease, the medicine was already at hand, he conducted preparatory procedures, applied the medicine and the fish quickly recovered. Those. the longer we do not proceed to the elimination of negative factors and / or treatment, the greater the likelihood of fish death.
One more thing. Due to the diversity of drugs, different brands, newcomers of the aquarium craft have a confusion - “what’s what?”. At first, it even seems that these trademarks and sellers of pet stores specifically invented all sorts of drugs to mislead and make money on aquarists. However, it is not. In fact, all "brand-name drugs" are mixes from different drugs, they all differ in composition, purpose, and degree of impact on the pathogenic flora - some are mildly treated, others, on the contrary, are powerful drugs. If you compare them with human medicines, you can give an example of aspirin and antibiotics, both treat bronchitis, but the nature of the effect (both positive and negative) on the body is different.
In my opinion, at first, an aquarist should rely on tips and positive feedback about a particular medicine. Well, gradually, slowly gain experience, compare the compositions of drugs, which ultimately will give an understanding of which of the drugs is effective in a particular case.
Below are the names of the most frequently used drugs, running German marks Tetra and Sera:
Tetra Contralck, Sera costapur - from ciliates, flagellates (ichthyoftiriosis).
Sera baktopur, Tetra General Tonic - from external bacterial infections.
Sera baktopur direct, Sera bakto Tabs - from internal bacterial infections.
Sera mycopur - from bending.
Often, the forum asks questions - is it possible to treat fish with "human medicine". The answer is - you can. After all, in fact, all brand-name drugs are the same "human drugs" only in verified proportions and combinations. The danger of such treatment is only that you need to clearly know and apply the appropriate dosage. For more information, see: antibiotics for the aquarium, other drugs.
Concluding the article, let's talk all over again, and derive a brief (conditional) scheme of action for the treatment of fish. FIRST ACTION UNIT, PREPARATION: The fish is obviously sick or visibly bad (sluggish or jerky, lying on the bottom, etc.).
- We look at the symptoms, determine what kind of disease it is: bacteria, fungus, ciliates, etc.
- We check the equipment (filtration, aeration, heating), eliminate the identified shortcomings.
- We make water tests for the presence of poisons (ammonia, nitrites and nitrates) we look at other water parameters (dH, pH, kH), for this you can use at least test strips, for example, Tetra 6 in 1 (you can either buy in advance or bring water from the aquarium to the pet store, many sellers conduct tests on the spot - it is cheaper). Based on the test results, we draw conclusions !!! We act accordingly.
- At this stage it is always desirable to have on hand such tools as: hydrogen peroxide, tea or for example iodinol. They all have useful properties. Details about them are written in the articles on the above links. Here I will say that these drugs are used as a "first-aid kit" as a first aid. Peroxide is a powerful oxidizing agent; it releases pure oxygen into the water and is a light septic tank (very effective in asphyxiation of fish). Tea - “aging water”, gives tannins, other nutrients, slightly acidifies water, which generally contributes to the inhibition of many parasites and strengthens the immune system of fish. Iodinol is a good, safe septic tank.
- In addition, at this stage, the following actions can be carried out: water change, raising the temperature, changing other water parameters, settling fish and other preparatory measures.
SECOND UNIT, TREATMENT: After the preparatory activities, proceed to treatment. We develop a scheme and follow the instructions for the drugs.
Attention!!! Sometimes, especially in severe cases of the disease, with the introduction of medication, the fish becomes worse and often it soon dies. Most likely, in such cases, the factor of exhaustion of fish and the effect of the negative properties of the drug, which aggravates the situation. Therefore, after you have applied the medication, you need to closely monitor the behavior of the fish and, if anything, remove the medications, reducing the dosage. In such cases, it is possible to recommend the gradual introduction of drugs - in parts, and not once in a full dose.
THIRD UNIT, REHABILITATION AND BIOBALANCE RESTORATION: After completing the course of treatment, all drugs are removed from the aquarium by replacing part of the water with fresh water and adding aquarium coal to the filter. It should always be remembered that any drug destroys biobalance, that is, it has a detrimental effect not only on the pathogenic, but also the beneficial environment. In this connection, after the treatment of fish in the general aquarium, it is necessary to deal with the restoration of the useful environment. This will help you drugs such as Baktozym, Tetra NitratMinus, Sulfur Nitrivik and etc.
In addition, you need to take care of the restoration of the immunity of a fish that has just recovered, which is achieved by adding vitamins to water and food, for example, Sulfur Fishtamine or Tetra Vitala, just for this purpose you can use tea or other phytotherapy or apply the same iodinol.
I hope that this material was interesting and useful to you. Health to your pets.

We also recommend that you read the brochure Navigator 3: an interview with an ichthyopathologist. Below is a link to the pdf-version, which you can download, as well as its test version.

To read and / or download "Navigator"

click on the picture below

If you do not have a PDF reader installed, we recommend that you use AdobeReader by downloading it from the official site.


interview with ichthyopathologist

We present to your attention the third issue of "Aquarium Navigator for Beginners". We decided to devote this issue to the urgent aquarium problem - diseases and treatment of fish. The problem of identifying diseases is faced by everyone, both beginners and professionals. Even an experienced aquarist, at times, is not able to identify a particular disease: the pathogen is modified, the symptoms change.

How to be a newcomer who first encountered this problem?

We hope that this issue of the brochure will help you understand everything.

Allow me to present to your attention!

Veterinarian - ichthyopathologist Vera Dudina, a leading specialist of one of the largest networks of pet stores in Russia, an ichtipathologist in the third generation.

Vera kindly agreed to give an interview for our brochure.

But for a start, as an introduction, we consider the fundamental issues associated with the diseases and treatment of fish. Let's start with the fact that the aquarium is not sterile, that pathogenic organisms are always present in it: fungi, bacteria and parasites. But why, then, the fish, in the presence of such "unsanitary conditions", do not get sick? The answer lies in a very important feature of any living organism - immunity. Immunity (lat. Immunitas release, getting rid of something) - immunity of the organism to various infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths) and products of their vital activity, as well as to the poisons of plant and animal origin, with alien antigenic properties.

Any healthy body is ready to fight back any pathogenic flora! Immunity is a shield that protects its owner from any enemies. But you need to understand that vitality and immunity are not eternal. If the shield will constantly work in the "reflection attack" mode, it will eventually crack, and then completely crumble. And then, an incalculable pathetic horde rushes into the organism, captures and destroys it.

In addition, it should be said that one of the reasons that ruin the immune system is stress from overcrowding the aquarium, stress associated with fish incompatibility, improper feeding, improper care, lack of proper filtration and aeration of the aquarium, high concentrations of protein breakdown products such poisons, like ammonia, nitrite and nitrates.

All these negative factors can work both together and separately, but one way or another, they destroy the fish’s immune system day after day.

Trite, but the best medicine is prevention. Proper care, proper water parameters, the correct selection of fish - are the key to the health and longevity of aquarium inhabitants.

However, none of us are immune from aquarium troubles. Anything happens, and even in ideal conditions the fish can get sick. What to do?

A brief plan of action in a critical situation.

Conduct a thorough diagnosis of the disease.

The saying "Measure seven times, cut once" fully refers to the definition of fish sores. What only disease does not find a novice in their wards. Practically, like Jerome K. Jerome, "everything except puerperal fever". In order not to be mistaken in the diagnosis, it is necessary to know the usual behavior of the fish, behavior under stressful conditions, spawning behavior, housing conditions, body shape, colors inherent in this species, and much, much more. Sometimes soft-water fish are kept in cichlid conditions, which is why fish lose fins, and the owner also additionally treats fish from fin rot. The outcome of this treatment is obvious. If you have carefully studied the entire above list and are still in doubt, refer to our forum section. "Disease of fish and their treatment."

Decide on treatment immediately. 90% of diseases are treatable at an early stage. Conversely, even the simplest disease in the terminal stage cannot be treated.

Before treatment, test aquarium water for poisons: ammonia, nitrite and nitrate (NH4, NO2, NO3).

In the event of a deviation from the norm, poisons are immediately removed by water changes and appropriate aquarium preparations. See more forum "Nitrites and nitrates in an aquarium". The fact is that drugs are both treated and destroyed, i.e. have both positive and negative effects on the body. Their use is incompatible with high concentrations of poisons, and, in most cases, ruin the fish.

The course of treatment is carried out in accordance with the diagnosis, exclusively recommended drugs in a carefully adjusted dosage, in accordance with the specified period.

At the end of treatment (if it was held in the general aquarium, and not in a quarantine aquarium), it is necessary to remove the medicinal preparations (by substitution or filtering agents) and to restore biological balance, using biostarters if possible.

Recovering fish recommended rehabilitation activities - high-quality and balanced nutrition, after a course of antibiotics - probiotic bait, the introduction of vitamins and / or herbal medicine.

Additional materials for self-study:

- Herbal medicine in an aquarium.

- Tea in the aquarium.

- Iodinol in the aquarium.

- How and what to feed the fish?

- Medicines Tetra.

- Other aquarium chemistry.

And now, the promised interview with Vera Dudina.

Vera hello, thank you for agreeing to be interviewed.

Tell me, please, what brand-name and pharmaceutical preparations do you recommend to buy in the Aquarium First Aid Kit, so that they are always at hand?

As is known, about 90% of the problems of a novice aquarist are the fault of the aquarist himself. This is overfeeding, and overpopulation, and impatience at startup. Hence the main problem is water quality. Therefore, it is imperative to have a means for emergency protection against toxins (ammonia and nitrite). Drugs are used to neutralize them. Sera Toxivec or API Ammmolock.

To monitor the content of nitrogenous compounds, you should have a drop test for ammonia and nitrite. I will focus here, as most newbies underestimate the importance of aquarium tests. Often, infectious diseases and toxic poisoning products of protein breakdown are very similar in symptoms. Even a specialist will not always be able to differentiate them, as they say, "by eye".

As for contagious diseases, sooner or later any aquarist will meet with ichthyophthirius. The sooner treatment is started, the higher the success rate and the shorter the time it takes to apply the drug. There are a lot of drugs for treatment: Tetra medica ContraIck, Sera Costapur, Jbl Punctol, Antipar. In the initial stages of ichthyophthirius, they are all quite effective. For "running" cases, you will need a combination of several drugs. When using a combination of drugs is better to consult with a specialist, because many drugs can not be combined with each other, it can cause intoxication in fish.

It is always useful to have a light disinfectant in the first-aid kit, which can be added for injuries (after fights), for mild forms of fin rot. You can use drugs such as API Melafix (based on tea tree essential oil) or Tetra Medica FungiStop (colloidal silver solution is not recommended for use in combination with other drugs and conditioners).

This is the main set. The rest is already more narrowly specialized and is bought as needed.

So nevertheless, what drugs are better to use for beginners, brand or pharmacy?

Branded products are designed specifically for fish, most of them are thoroughly tested in specialized laboratories. A person without relevant experience, I recommend to use only them. If the funds available in pet stores, is not enough (as well as when making a diagnosis) - it is better to consult with a specialist to clarify the diagnosis and prescription of treatment.

Before contacting a specialist, prepare anamnestic data:

The volume of the aquarium, its population.

How long has the aquarium been launched?

Schedule of cleansing, when was the last cleaning, what part of the water change.

The frequency of feeding, what and how much feed, how quickly the fish eats food, whether there is a recent change in appetite.

What kind of manipulations have been carried out over the last couple of weeks: new inhabitants, new décor, feed changes, some other innovations ...

Water parameters: pH, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates are mandatory in aquarium water, rigidity is possible. In tap water (or from where you take water for an aquarium) - pH, preferably ammonia and nitrites (sometimes it happens, unfortunately, that the cause of the sores is the quality of tap water), rigidity if possible.

Symptoms: when there were, who are sick, the full picture, preferably with a photo.

Based on your practice, which fish diseases are the most common and how do you treat them?

If you look at aquariums for beginners and amateurs, then the most common problem, as I already said, is ammonia and nitrite poisoning. Here the basis of treatment is the normalization of conditions of detention. Of the drugs are used Sera Toxivec or API Ammmolock (I have already talked about their purpose) and the culture of bacteria, for example, Tetra Safe Start. The rest of the treatment is to eliminate overcrowding, do not feed the fish (on average 2-4 days), daily changes of 10% of the volume.

Treatment of infectious diseases, as a rule, is strictly individual. It depends on the inhabitants, the intensity of the disease, the presence of plants, snails, shrimps and other factors.

Based on the topic of the Navigator, which fish do you think is better not to take a newbie?

First of all, I do not advise taking fish not aquarium. These are swimmers and giants: shark balls, pangasius, red-tailed catfish, snakeheads, shell pikes and many others. Such fish needs very specific conditions of keeping, large volumes. For many of them, even 500 liters will be too little.

By experience, very often newbies cannot cope with cichlids. Fish aggressive, wayward, territorial. Feeding varies greatly by species. Improper feeding is a common cause of intestinal disorders and hexamitosis. For their content, a sufficiently solid theoretical base and practical experience are needed.

The most important thing - do not forget that the flight of your imagination is strictly limited to the volume of the aquarium and the compatibility of the inhabitants with each other. Never buy an unfamiliar fish spontaneously because you liked it. Find out its name, at home look at information about the requirements for the content, maximum sizes, compatibility, if after that you understand that the fish is yours, you can go buy.

Please share your secrets of maintaining fish immunity before and after treatment?

The main secret is not a secret, but the rule: to ensure good conditions of detention. Avoid overcrowding, schooling fish are kept in packs, those who hide hide away, small and large fish are not kept together, balanced proper feeding, clean and safe water. All this is the prevention of stress, and as a result - a decrease in immunity.

Iodine and vitamins affect the immunity of fish; these components are contained in the air conditioner of the company. Tetra - Tetra Vital. This drug can be used on a regular basis, weekly, after water changes.

On the Internet you can find information about using in the aquarium tea (as a light antiseptic, to accelerate regeneration), Vetom 1.1 (as an adjunct in complex treatment, its bacteria synthesize interferon-protein, a factor of nonspecific antiviral immunity), human recombinant interferon and roncoleukin (also immunomodulatory drugs with antiviral activity).

Often fish fall ill with a single disease, say a bacterial infection, and then pick up a secondary infection - a fungal infection. In this regard, the question arises - can then, in all cases, treat "everything and the paste". That is, immediately make and bactericidal and fungicidal drugs? Or is it better to treat in strict accordance with the symptoms?

The main principle of any treatment is “do no harm”. Very often there are cases when a fish (and not only a fish) dies not from an illness, but from treatment. Many drugs can not be combined categorically. If there is a suspicion that there is a combination infection, it is better to seek the help of a specialist in order to find compatible drugs.

What drug can you recommend, in addition to the main treatment, to be safe? Is simultaneous treatment and use of herbal medicine possible?

Almost all infections and invasions somehow injure the mucous membranes. For their quick recovery, in addition to the main treatment, we can recommend preparations based on essential oils: API Melafix and API Pimafix. In the case of a mild infection, they can be used as the main agent (Melafix with bacterial as well Pimafix - with fungal infections). Also used for these purposes. Almond leaves, decoction of oak bark, tea.

Well stimulates the immune system iodine. When treating, add an iodine alcohol infusion - 5 drops per 100 liters or iodinol - 1 ml per 10 liters. Be careful, overdose of iodine is unacceptable and deadly! You can use the branded drug Tetra vital (according to the instructions).

Often in the aquarium where the treatment is carried out, in addition to the fallen fish there are aquarium plants, shrimps and snails. Snails, for the period of treatment can be obtained, but plants and shrimp are not always. Tell me, what drugs do you think tolerate plants and crustaceans? What drugs are clearly contraindicated in such cases?

Definitely can not use copper and preparations containing it. Refrain from using funds whose composition is not specified. Plants and invertebrates react badly to nitrofuran preparations: Sera baktopur direct, Antibac Pro, furazolidone, furatsilin.

There is experience in the treatment of ichthyophthiriosis in the aquarium with plants and shrimps. Sera Costapur. Of the antibiotics in herbalist, enrofloxacin (a veterinary drug) was used. Essential oil based products are also safe for all inhabitants - API Melafix and API Pimafix.

Often on the Internet you can find information that introducing a drug and conducting treatment should turn off the aquarium lighting. Например, такие препараты, как Sera bactopur direct и антибиотик метронидазол. Так все же, нужно ли выключать освещение на время лечения или нет? Если да, то почему и в отношении каких лекарств?

Many antibiotics decompose in the light. Therefore, they write in the instructions that it is necessary to store in a dark place, and medicine jars are traditionally made of dark glass. Bicillin-5 and nitrofurans clearly decompose (Sera bactopur direct, Antibac Pro, furazolidone). There is no data on how fast this process is going. If there is a possibility - of course it is better to turn off the light.

How do you feel about UV sterilizers, as a means to prevent diseases?

UV sterilizers are well proven in two cases - it is a fight against water blooming and rearing aquariums with a large number of fry. For the rest, I consider their use unjustified.

Please tell us about the typical signs (symptoms) of a disease? To beginners better oriented.

Many diseases have very similar symptoms, and it is not always possible to determine the diagnosis. Sometimes a diagnosis cannot be made without microscopy or even an autopsy.

I will talk about the symptoms that you should definitely pay attention to, without reference to diagnoses. I wouldn’t like to have diarrhea and sleeping pills on my tip.

So what is worth paying attention to? Not only with your fish, but when you buy in the store.

Behavior: heavy breathing, the fish is on the flow of oxygen or "smokes" at the surface. It lies at the bottom, is not active, or, on the contrary, moves unnaturally sharply, is torn. Scratching about the soil and scenery. The fish, which is usually kept in mind, begins to hide, tends to solitude.

Feeding. Refusal to feed. Fish repeatedly takes and spits out food. Exhaustion may be observed, for example, a sunken abdomen, shrunken backs, unnaturally large eyes, protruding skull bones.

The presence of parasites visible to the naked eye. These can be bright white dots up to 1 mm in diameter - ichthyophthirius (each such point is one unicellular parasite). Crustaceans - arguments and lerneys. Sometimes you can see intestinal parasites (roundworms - nematodes), protruding from the anus. Some species of flukes have rather large sizes (up to 3 mm) and are visible with the naked eye - they look like a wriggling villus. Most do not exceed 1 mm in size and microscopy is necessary for accurate diagnosis.

Lesions of mucous membranes and scales. The first reaction to the aggressive effects of the environment is increased mucus secretion. First, bubbles begin to stick to the body of the fish (this can often be seen when landing fish in a new aquarium, this is the result of stress due to changes in water parameters). Then dull greyish accumulations of mucus appear, gradually increasing in size. On the body you can see erosion, ulcers, hemorrhages, necrosis (tissue necrosis). Sometimes scales fall on the affected areas.

Lesions of the gills. The fish is breathing heavily; mucus can be released from the gill covers. Often the fish pops up and stands at the surface, "smokes." The gills can become unnaturally red, or vice versa - pale.

The defeats of the fins. The so-called "fin rot" - a white patina, as if eating fins. Sometimes only the tissue between the rays is affected, and the rays themselves remain.

These are the main symptoms that should alert. In fact, there are many more of them; carefully observe the behavior and condition of the pets in order to identify the disease in time.

90% of novice aquarists who have a sick fish have an elevated concentration of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in an aquarium. In this case, as a rule, the patient has an average or even severe stage of the disease. What is the best way for a newcomer to act in such a situation: to remove poisons and at the same time treat? Remove poisons, and then treat? Or at your own risk start treatment immediately?

In practice, there was such a case - they brought two goldfish from a round aquarium. The fish had the worst ammonia burns, they did not descend from the surface of the water, they often breathed. At the same time, they were amazed by ichthyophthirius. Here it is important to correlate the risks. Virtually any medicine will finish off a fish in such a serious condition, so the temperature in the aquarium was lowered a little to slow down the development of ichthyophthirius and removed intoxication. Used drugs Sera Toxivec and API Melafix. A week later, the gills began to heal and the fish swam in the water column. Only after that we again raised the temperature and treated ichthyophthirius.

In each case, the decision will be made individually, depending on the state of water, fish, process intensity, and other conditions.

Sometimes the fish are injured from fights and clashes with neighbors, or, for example, during the formation of a viral growth on the fin stop it. What drug would you recommend for a quick wound healing?

Again, any disinfectant: API Melafix and API Pimafix, almond leaves, oak bark decoction, tea. In extreme cases - methylene blue or tripoflavin.

Please give farewell to novice aquarists.

I would like, of course, that you have passed all these troubles. However, as practice shows, sooner or later, diseases visit each aquarium. The most important thing is not to delay the treatment. The score sometimes goes not even for days, but for hours. A disease that was easily treated yesterday — it is becoming deadly today.

And, of course, health to you and your pets!

Dear reader! Below, we have prepared additional materials for you on the subject of fish disease and aquarium hydrochemistry, they will help you to further explore the topic covered in this brochure.

Disease fish.
Basics of aquarium hydrochemistry.

Fish diseases (and not only) are divided into two large groups - infectious and non-infectious diseases.

Infectious diseases have a specific pathogen (it can be a bacterium, a virus, a fungus, etc.) and are transmitted from an infected individual (or from an intermediate host) to a healthy one.

Non-contagious diseases are various injuries, congenital pathologies and diseases caused by a violation of conditions of detention. To know the reasons for their appearance and to be able to distinguish a contagious disease from a non-contagious one, you need to understand the basics of the chemical processes taking place in the aquarium.

Let us consider in detail each group of diseases.

Non-contagious diseases.

This is a large group of diseases, which include injuries, congenital pathologies and diseases caused by violation of conditions of detention. In an amateur aquarium most of the diseases are non-infectious! They are often confused with fungal and bacterial infections. Be careful! The treatment of infectious and non-communicable diseases is radically different and incompatible with each other. Incorrect diagnosis and incorrect treatment in this case can seriously harm the inhabitants of the aquarium.

Within the framework of this topic, we will get acquainted with diseases caused by disturbances in the nitrogen metabolism:

Ammonia and ammonium poisoning;

Nitrite poisoning;

Nitrate poisoning, nitric shock;

Nitrogen cycle:

No wonder many experienced aquarists believe the nitrogen cycle is the basis of the basics. The ability to create and maintain biological balance in an aquarium is the best prevention of most ailments. What lies behind the terrible phrase nitrogen cycle? Let's figure it out.

We all know that fish love to eat ... They love to eat. Common truth - all that was eaten, sooner or later come out. Fish excrement, uneaten food, corpses and dead plant parts are all biological wastes, which in water begin to decompose under the action of various microorganisms.

Any protein contains nitrogen (N), nitrogen decomposition products are extremely toxic to fish, and therefore, to avoid serious poisoning, it is necessary to understand how the nitrogen cycle works.

Ammonia / Ammonium.

Ammonia (NH₃) - is the first stage of protein decomposition. Ammonia is a poisonous gas that dissolves easily in large quantities in water.

In an acidic environment, most of the ammonia is bound to hydrogen and forms an ammonium ion (NH₄¯). It is believed that ammonium is not toxic, but it is not. Ammonium has all the properties of ammonia, just acts a little slower.

Where does excess ammonia come from? How is it neutralized in an aquarium? How to identify ammonia poisoning in fish? How to help the fish in case of poisoning?

MPC = 0 mg / l

* MAC - the maximum permissible concentration of a substance that is safe for life and health.

Causes of ammonia poisoning:



Insufficient filter capacity;

Insufficient aeration;

Insufficient amount of soil;

Wrong start of the aquarium;

Replacing 100% water;

Predisposing factors:

Small volume;


Antibiotic treatment;

What questions will help us know that ammonia poisoning is possible in an aquarium?

What is the volume of the aquarium? Who lives in it? So you can draw conclusions about overpopulation, if any.

How to feed - how many times a day and in what quantity?

How long has the aquarium been launched? Perhaps the aquarium is new, in which case it is more susceptible to ammonia flashes.

How often do you change the water? How much water do you change? Often, novice aquarists in pursuit of clean water, change it completely, and most enthusiasts also boil the ground.

Has the treatment been done lately? Have any medications been used for prophylaxis? Antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs are detrimental to the microflora of the aquarium, their use can also cause an ammonia flash.

Symptoms of ammonia poisoning are quite bright and characteristic:

A large amount of mucus on the body;

The fish “itches” on the soil and scenery;

Red gills;

The fish stands on an influx of oxygen;

Hemorrhages in the gills and at the base of the fins;

The fish is breathing heavily;

Water becomes whitish;

With a strong overfeeding, the water gets a yellow-brown shade and putrid odor;

The diagnosis is confirmed by testing water for ammonia;


Medical history (feeding, care, volume, population, clinical signs ...)

Checking water with ammonia / ammonium tests.


Do not feed for 2-3 days! (To stop the processes of decomposition and the formation of excess ammonia).

Eliminate overcrowding if there are too many fish.

Daily water changes ¼

Sera toxivec (this drug binds ammonia in a non-toxic form and protects the mucous membranes of fish from the aggressive effects of the external environment).

Sera bio nitrivec, Tetra Safe Start (cultures of live bacteria that naturally decompose ammonia and nitrite).

Normalize filtration and increase aeration (the filter sponge is the substrate on which bacteria live, the bigger it is - the better, bacteria need oxygen to decompose ammonia and nitrite).


MAC = 0.2 mg / l

Nitrites (NO₂) - are formed from ammonia in the presence of a sufficient number of bacteria (Nitrosomonas).

Nitrites are also toxic to fish, but their toxicity is much lower than that of ammonia. May cause chronic, almost asymptomatic poisoning.

Like ammonia, they are effectively removed from the water only with the help of bacteria (Nitrobacter).

The causes of nitrite poisoning and its treatment will be largely analogous to ammonia. However, it is much more difficult to diagnose it, since there are practically no bright symptoms. An accurate diagnosis can only be made based on the results of water testing.

Causes of nitrite poisoning:



Insufficient filter capacity;

Insufficient aeration;

Insufficient amount of soil;

Wrong start of the aquarium;

Replacing 100% water;

Predisposing factors:

Small volume;


Antibiotic treatment;

High water hardness, high pH (cichlidics);


There are usually no specific symptoms;

Regular single case;

The fish is sluggish, standing buried in the corner of the aquarium;

The fish eat badly;

The fins are compressed, the color turns pale or dark;

There may be a small amount of mucus on the body of the fish;

Treatment similar to treatment for ammonia poisoning (but nitrites remain in water much longer, so the duration of treatment may be longer):

Do not feed for 2-3 days! (To stop the processes of decomposition and the formation of excess ammonia).

Eliminate overcrowding if there are too many fish.

Daily water changes ¼ (not more).

Sera toxivec (this drug binds ammonia in a non-toxic form and protects the mucous membranes of fish from the aggressive effects of the external environment).

Sera bio nitrivec, Tetra Safe Start (cultures of live bacteria that naturally decompose ammonia and nitrite).

Normalize filtration and increase aeration (the filter sponge is the substrate on which bacteria live, the bigger it is - the better, bacteria need oxygen to decompose ammonia and nitrite).


MAC = 25-100 mg / l.

Nitrates (NO₃) - the final decomposition product of nitrogen. Removed from the water by substitutions, or consumed by plants as a source of nitrogen.

Accumulating in the aquarium in large quantities (rare water changes, or their complete absence) can cause nitrate poisoning. When transplanting fish from a prosperous aquarium to an aquarium with a high concentration of nitrates, one can observe the so-called “nitrate shock”.

Maximum permissible concentrations vary for different fish - on average it is 50 mg / l, for undemanding fish (zebrafish, local guppy breeds) up to 100 mg / l, whimsical fish (discus, battle clown) - 25 mg / l.

Causes of nitrate poisoning:

Rare water changes, or their complete absence

Predisposing factors:



Lack of live plants.


The fish is “drawn out”, grows poorly;

Viviparous fishes stop spawning;

New fish "do not go" to the aquarium, they have observed "nitric shock" (acute poisoning and sudden death within 1-3 days);


Medical history (mode of feeding, care, volume, population, clinical signs ...).

Water testing with nitrate tests.


Regular water changes.

It is categorically impossible to remove nitrates by abrupt and abundant water changes! When transplanting fish from nitrate water to clean water, the same symptoms are observed as with nitrate shock.

If the water in the aquarium has not changed for a long time, the ground did not siphon — you need to press on the ground in several places before the first cleaning, check for bubbles (in the soil, in the absence of oxygen, methane and hydrogen sulfide are formed, as in a swamp). If bubbles have gone - it is necessary to carefully drain most of the water, transplant fish there, and then rinse the soil (otherwise, hydrogen sulfide kills the fish within 15 seconds). Old water is poured back into the aquarium, then fresh water is added.

Planting live plants minimizes the accumulation of nitrates in water.

Contagious diseases.

Infectious diseases have a specific pathogen and can be transmitted from a sick individual to a healthy one.

Depending on the type of pathogen, infectious fish diseases are divided into several groups:

Protozoal diseases (ichthyophthiriosis, kositosis, hexamytosis, oodiniaz ...).

Bacterial diseases (flexibacteriosis, aeromonosis ...).

Parasitic diseases (arguments, lerneiosis, gyrodactylosis, dactylogyrosis ...).

Fungal diseases (saprolegnosis ...).

Viral diseases (lymphocystic disease ...).

Consider each group separately.

Protozoal diseases:

The causative agents of protozoal diseases - representatives of the kingdom of Protozoa (protozoa) - unicellular microorganisms. In this course, we will consider several diseases caused by parasitic infusoria and flagellates.

Ichthyophthiriosis: Also known by the names “Manka”, “ichtik”, “White spot disease”, “Ich”, “Ick”.

Pathogen: Parasitic equorestial infusoria Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

Symptomatology is very characteristic - white dots up to 1 mm in diameter appear on the body of the fish.

Development cycle:

Adult parasite is under the epithelial layer (epithelium - the upper layer of the mucous membrane), here it grows, feeds and matures. The mature parasite dissolves the epithelium and falls to the bottom, forming the second phase.

Tomont. It is covered with a shell - cysts, thanks to which it is practically invulnerable to adverse environmental conditions. Viable ichthyophthirius cysts were even found in tap water! Depending on the conditions, the cyst either falls asleep or the tomont in it begins to actively divide.

Tomont is divided, forming up to 1000 daughter cells (trophozoites or strollers).

Strollers dissolve the cyst and fall into the water. Lifespan tramp is two days. During this time, it must find a host (then the development cycle will repeat), or it will die.

Features of tropical forms:

Tropical ichthyophthirius, oriental ichthyophthirius, “Oriental”.

At the moment, many ichthyopathologists separately distinguish the so-called "tropical ichthyophthirius". In contrast to the cold-water form is extremely stable, it is very difficult to cure.

The development cycle takes place completely on the host's body, the cyst is formed directly under the epithelial tubercle, the tubercle is torn, the vagrants crawl and immediately take root under the epithelium.

The parasite is small, the core is not horseshoe-shaped, but twisted.

Small rash, barely noticeable.

The rash is clustered.

Resistant to high temperatures (up to 32 ° C).

Resistant to many drugs (use FMC, furazolidone).

Kostioz (Ichthyobiasis):

The causative agent is Costia flagellates (Ichthyobodo) necatrix.

The fish “itches” on the stones.

On the body appear gray-blue matte spots.

With the defeat of the gills fish breathes heavily.

Fins strongly stick together.

Fish swims at the surface with characteristic “jerking” movements.

The parasite is very small, visible only under a high magnification microscope.

Точный диагноз можно поставить только по результатам микроскопического исследования соскобов.


  1. Sera costapur 1 мл на 40 л (через день) + Sera mycopur 1 мл на 40 л - половинная доза, от указанной в инструкции (ежедневно).
  2. Ванны с марганцовкой и солью: 2% солевой раствор (2 чайные ложки соли на 1 л воды), марганцовка до четкого розового, но не интенсивного, цвета, выдержка 10-15 минут.


Оодиниоз, вельветовая болезнь, золотая пыль, болезнь колиза.

Возбудитель - жгутиконосцы рода Oodinium.


Тело рыбы становится “шероховатым”.

Невооруженным глазом сыпь практически не видна, под лупой можно увидеть характерную золотистую пыль.

Внешне очень напоминает тропическую форму ихтиофтириуса.

Цикл развития:

Взрослый паразит (трофонт) на теле рыбы.


Деление томонта в цисте на 256 томитов.

Education dinospore (hymnospore).


1.Bicillin-5: pH not lower than 6.5, t from 24 ° С, the light does not turn on. 1-1.5 million IU per 100 liters of water. The next day, replace 30% of the water and make a full dose of bitsillina. The third treatment in two days and the last - in 7 days.

2. Preparations of heavy metals (especially copper) - “Formed” works well, it is used according to the instructions.


Octomitosis, spironulosis, hole disease (Hole-in-the-Head), discus disease.

Cause: Hexamita salmonis flagellates (another name is Octomitus truttae), drop-shaped, with 4 pairs of flagella (3 pairs in front, 1 in back). The parasite multiplies by division, but can also form cysts.


Transparent-whitish, often filiform and often viscous mucous excrement.

Loss of appetite. Then refusal to eat. In mild cases, the fish "spit" repeatedly taking food in the mouth and then spitting it out.

Some increase (bloating) in the abdomen (not always observed). Then the fish begin to lose weight and their abdomen acquires a characteristic keeled or concave shape, and the back dries out. Fins strongly stick together.

Darkening coloring, solitude.

Erosion and ulceration of the integument of the head and change in the appearance of the lateral line (perforated disease).


1. Hyperthermic treatment: raise the temperature to 33-35 ° C. An extreme measure, when a fish is in serious condition, does not eat. Raise no more than 3-4 ° per day.

2. Metronidazole (Trichopol): 250 mg per 35 liters. Three days make medication every day after water changes (up to 25%). Then - every other day, replacing about 10-15% of water. The course is 12-15 days!

3. Metronidazole + ciprofloxacin (enroxyl, baytril): metronidazole for large adults (not exhausted!) Cichlids - 1 tab. (250 mg) to 15 liters. water for small species and young cichlids - 1 table. on 25-30 l, a full dose daily after substitution of 50% of the volume of water. Ciprofloxacin - 500 mg per 50 l (enroxil / baytril 5% - 1 ml per 10 l). After 3 days, the drugs are given in half dose.

Bacterial diseases:

The causative agents of this group of diseases are bacteria. These are also single-celled microorganisms, but unlike Protozoa, they are more simply arranged, they have no nuclei, as a rule, of a much smaller size.


Flexibacteriosis, fin rot, “gray saddle”, “mouth disease”, “Asian”, aquarium plague.

Cause: Bacteria Flexibacter Columnaris.

Strictly aerobic (requires oxygen).

- warm water (temperature increase during treatment is unacceptable).

-gram-negative (for the treatment of selected group of antibiotics with a spectrum of action on gram-negative microorganisms).

- non-halophilic (do not live in salt water).

- unconditionally-pathogenic (cause disease only under stressful conditions).

-can occur even in good conditions, with sufficient aeration.

- contributing factors - large crowding, stress, transportation.


White spots about 5 mm; over time, the white area increases.

White-gray vatoobrazny plaque (similar to the fungus Saprolegnia) or growth, as if "eating" the skin of the fish.

Necrosis (premature cell death of living tissue) of fins, which is accompanied by white bloom and cannon-like clusters of bacteria.


Occasionally, areas of the body of a fish that are affected by Columnaris bacteria darken in a half-full color or become the color of flesh (meat).

"Saddle" (saddle-like) affected area in the region of the dorsal fin, which gave the second name of the disease - "gray saddle".

On the gills, Columnaris may cause the gill filaments to disintegrate; their color may change to light or dark brown. In this case, there is rapid breathing, and the fish can rise to the surface of the water, where the oxygen concentration is higher.

Treatment regimen:

Ciprofloxacin - water-soluble forms (“Digran”) are used, other tablets are practically insoluble in water. Dose - 500 mg per 50 liters of water. It is applied daily before turning off the light in a full dose of 3-7 days. The negative effect on the organs of hematopoiesis, the excretory system, the central nervous system. At the wrong dosage, after the use of Ciprofloxacin, strains appear that are absolutely not susceptible to all antibiotics.

Antibuck (ciprofloxacin) - 1 tablet per 100 - 200 liters of water. It is applied daily before turning off the light in a full dose of 3-7 days.

Enroksil (Baytril) - 5% solution - 1 ml per 10 liters of water. It is administered daily in a full dose of 3-7 days. Less toxic than ciprofloxacin.

Small fish (blue neon, rhodostomus) - enroxil (baytril) 5% 1 ml per 10 l once (or twice with an interval of 12 hours) for prophylactic purposes immediately after disembarking from the packages.

Levomycetin - 1 tablet (0.5 g) per 10 liters of water. Submitted 1 time in 3 days. Course up to 3 weeks.

Sera mycopur

Contains acriflavin active against Flexibacter Columnaris in the early stages of the disease.

Prevents secondary seeding with fungal infections.

It is applied daily in a dose of 1 ml per 20 liters (1 drop per 1 liter of water).

Used as an auxiliary drug in addition to antibiotics.

Doxycycline + Biseptol-480

Doxycycline - 2 capsules (200 mg) per 100 liters of water. Submitted 1 time in 3 days. Course up to 3 weeks. Daily replacement of 25-30% of water, and we make 100 mg per 100 l (1 capsule) of doxycycline.

Biseptol-480 - 1.5 tablets per 100 liters. Then daily 0.5 tabl per 100 liters.

Course 5 - 7 days (up to 10).

API PimaFix

Antifungal agent on a natural basis (bayese essential oil).

In the early stages can affect the pathogen. Stimulates the immunity of fish. It prevents secondary fungal infections.

To bring daily at the rate of 5 ml per 38 l, as an adjuvant in conjunction with an antibiotic.

Auxiliary means:


Viviparous, goldfish, tetradons, monodactyls, Argus - 1 tbsp. l 10 liters of water.

Scaleless - 1 tbsp. l 40 liters of water, with caution, under supervision of the general condition of the fish.

The rest of the fish - 1 tbsp. l 20 liters of water.

Strictly! Prepare the mother liquor. The aquarium is poured into 3-4 stages with an interval of 30-60 minutes. The condition of salt-sensitive fish must be monitored for several hours.

The temperature of the water gradually, at the time of treatment, drops to 22-24 ° C.


Rubella carp, abdominal dropsy, spreading scales.

Causative Agent: Bacteria Aeromonas punktata.

Carp rubella is also called a wide group of diseases caused not only by Aeromonas bacteria, but also by pseudomonoses (ex. Pseudomonas fluorescens), a viral disease - spring carp viremia).

The causative agent is a strict anaerob (it does not require oxygen in the water for breathing), therefore the disease is more common in aquariums with poor aeration, in old acidic water, under poor conditions of maintenance and regular overfeeding.

Widely distributed in the middle lane, it can be brought with live food.

Cold water does not like high temperatures.


Fish sluggish. Does not respond to stimuli. Stop eating. First, it is collected at the surface of the water, then it lies on the bottom.

Scaling of scales: at the beginning of the disease, the scales of the fish rise, after a while the powder spreads all over the body and the scales begin to fall.

Abdominal dropsy: The abdomen is distended, the anus is inflamed.


Hemorrhagic ulcers: bloody spots appear on the body and fins, then they ulcerate. Blood-red ulcers in white border.

Treatment regimens.


Roncoleukin - at the rate of 50000-100000 IU per 10 l, every other day 3-4 applications.

Stimulates the immunity of fish, suitable as an adjuvant in the treatment of any species of carp rubella.

Ciprofloxacin, Antibac, Enroxil, Baytril.

All drugs are active against aeromonosis and pseudomonosis, treatment regimens as with columnaris.

Doxycycline + Levomycetin + Nystatin.

This combination is used in severe cases with large ulcerative lesions.

Doxycycline - 1 capsule 100 mg per 30-35 l.

Levomitsetin - 500mg per 20 liters.

Nystatin - 200,000 units. 30 -35 l.

Make a day, after the change of 1/3 of water.

Strengthen aeration.

The course is 10-30 days.

Nitrofuran preparations: furazolidone, Sera baktopur direct.

Sera baktopur direct 1 tablet per 50 liters of water every 3 days, after changing 30-50% of water. Can be used in the form of short-term baths - 1 tablet per 2 liters of water for 30 minutes. The drug is extremely toxic.

Furazolidone 1 tablet (50 mg) for 10-20 liters every other day.

Nitrofuran preparations can be combined with antibiotics, for example, with chloramphenicol or ciprofloxacin.

Parasitic diseases:

The causative agents of this group of diseases are multicellular parasites (mainly flat and roundworms, parasitic crustaceans).

Argulosis: the pathogen is the toad branch of crustacean argument (carpoed, carp louse).

Heat loving.

Size 4-8 mm.

They feed on the blood of fish.

The female lays about 250-300 eggs on glasses, decor or another substrate, eggs develop 3-5 weeks depending on the temperature.

Larvae hatched from eggs for 2-3 days swim freely, looking for fish, if they don’t find them, they die.

The development of larvae in the adult parasite occurs on the body of the fish within 2-3 weeks.


1.Manual processing - daily inspection, removal of parasites from fish and clutches from the glasses. Complete disinfection of the aquarium in advanced cases (whiteness or ecocide solutions).

2.Specialized products - sera Argulol, JBL Aradol Plus.


The causative agent is copepods of the Lerna (Lernaea cyprinacea and Lernaea elegans).

Only females parasitize (males die immediately after fertilization of the female).

One female bears 1400 eggs (two egg bags of 700 eggs each) every 2 weeks for 16 weeks.

The larvae swim freely in water before puberty.


1.Manual processing - daily inspection, removal of parasites from fish and clutches from the glasses. It is necessary to be extremely careful, because the crustaceans, when removed, burst and the anchor remains in the body, causing prolonged boils. Complete disinfection of the aquarium in advanced cases (whiteness or ecocide solutions).

2.Specialized products - sera Argulol, JBL Aradol Plus.


Pathogens are monogenetic flukes of the family Gyrodactylidae.

Reproduction occurs on the body of the host, the live-bearing parasite does not form forms resistant to treatment.

The size of the parasite to 1 mm.

The fish becomes closer, the fins stick together.

Characteristic jerking movements appear.


Praziquantel based preparations:

1.Sera med Professional Tremazol, JBL Gyrodol Plus, JBL Gyrodol 2, JBL GyroPond (according to the instructions).

2. Azipirin, Azinoks, Drontal - 1 tablet per 10-15 liters of water, one time, exposure a day, increase aeration, a day later 50% water change. In particularly advanced cases, it is possible to carry out a second treatment in the same way.


Pathogens are monogenetic flukes of the Dactylogyridae families.

Species specific (infect a strictly specific type of fish).

They feed on mucus from the body of the fish (do not feed on blood).

Gills pale pink, swollen, anemia develops.

From under the gill covers mucus is visible.

The fish refuses to eat, hangs at the surface, breathes heavily.


1.Sera med Professional Tremazol, JBL Gyrodol Plus, JBL Gyrodol 2, JBL GyroPond (according to the instructions).

2. Azipirin, Azinoks, Drontal - 1 tablet per 10-15 liters of water, one time, exposure a day, increase aeration, a day later 50% water change. In particularly advanced cases, it is possible to carry out a second treatment in the same way.

Fungal diseases.

The causative agents of this group of diseases are lower fungi. Fungal diseases, as a rule, are not independent diseases. They appear as secondary infections with lesions of the skin.

“Cotton Disease” (saprolegnosis):

The causative agent - fungi of the genus Saprolegnia, Achyla, etc.


Fluffy neoplasms, usually white or whitish, consist of separate filaments.

As a rule, the infection is secondary, it develops with the defeat of the skin.


1. Improving conditions of detention.

2. Treatment of the underlying disease.

3.Specific drugs (Sera mycopur, Tetra Medica Fungi Stop according to the instructions)

Viral diseases.

The causative agents of this group of diseases are viruses. These are the smallest microorganisms consisting of a protein coat and nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). There is no specific treatment for viral diseases in ichthyopathology. Immunity is stimulated, symptomatic treatment is carried out.

Lymphocytosis (grapelike nodosity):

Causative agent - Lymphocystis virus


Small white, gray-white or pinkish neoplasms, most often on the fins, as well as on the head and body.


1. There is no specific treatment, as a rule, it is sufficient to improve the conditions of detention, and the disease resolves itself. 1.5-2 months is necessary for full recovery.

2. Sometimes surgical intervention is used (if the neoplasm interferes with eating or swimming).

3. To stimulate immunity, iodine (Tetra Vital) can be added to water, especially valuable fish - Roncoleukin at the rate of 50000-100000 IU per 10 l, every other day 3-4 additions.

Diagnosis and treatment choice:

It is not always possible at home, without a microscope, to make an accurate diagnosis. Let's analyze different options:

Option 1: You managed to make an accurate diagnosis.

We carry out treatment according to the scheme for this disease.

Option 2: you see that there are deviations from the normal state, but an accurate diagnosis cannot be made.

It is necessary to “narrow down” the range of diseases in the affected area (ectoparasitic - caused by skin parasites, intestinal) as much as possible and treat them with a wide spectrum of action, with a maximum coverage, for example:

1. Treatment of ectoparasites: Salt (1 tbsp. At 10 liters, or 1 tsp. At 10 liters for sensitive fish), formamed 10 ml per 50 l every other day, enroxil (baytril) 5% - 1 ml per 10 l (daily 5-7 days)

2. Intestinal infections: Feed in small portions 2-3 times a day, preferably with live food or freezing. In the feed, dissolve metronidazole and chloramphenicol 1 tablet for every 4-5 cubes of bloodworms, a course of 1-2 weeks. You can add metronidazole to water 1 tablet 250 mg per 40 liters (daily or every other day depending on the severity of the disease), a course of 2 weeks.

We monitor the effectiveness of the applied treatment, if necessary we make adjustments.

Important! It is necessary to take into account information about the content and, if possible, to make water tests for the most important indicators, poisoning with nitrogenous compounds, acidosis and alkalosis are “masked” as infectious diseases. In this case, the use of drugs will worsen the situation!

Drug compatibility:

Not all drugs can be combined with each other. When combining medicines it is necessary to consider:

-Drugs should not be used in conjunction with Tetra AquaSafe, Sera aqutan, Sera toxivec conditioners (conditioners protect the mucous membranes of fish, reducing the availability of medicines, neutralize some medicines).

-Drugs can not be used in conjunction with UV treatment (ultraviolet destroys drugs).

- During treatment, coal and zeolite must be removed from the filter (sorbents neutralize the effect of the drugs).

- During treatment in water there should not be an excess of organic matter (organic substances decompose react with many drugs, reducing their concentration in water).

- Iodine stimulates the immunity of fish, goes well with most drugs, 5% alcohol solution - 5 drops per 100 liters.

-When combining drugs, it is impossible to combine drugs with the same active ingredient and antibiotics of the same group, for example, Ciprofloxacin and Baytril, Sera costapur and Ichthyophore (this leads to overdose and drug poisoning).

Very useful video about the treatment of aquarium fish

Why are white spots on the fish (disease) formed?

Vitaly Poluektov

This is ichthyophthyriosis.
Treatment: we buy Kostapur (Sulfur) or KontraIk (Tetra) or SuperIkKyu (in liquid form, Aquarium Pharmaceuticals). We bring the drug according to the instructions in the evening before turning off the light with the substitution of 20-25% of water before each introduction. It would be good to combine water changes with soil siphon, since at the same time we also select parasite cysts, thus reducing their number in aqua.
The drug is applied to the complete disappearance of all points on all fish and another 1-2 introduction as a control shot. Usually, 5–8 injections are enough for complete cure, and improvement (decrease in the number of points on the fish) occurs by the 3rd application.
At the time of treatment, it is recommended to raise the temperature of the water in the aquarium a couple of degrees higher than normal, but better not higher than 28. At the same time, do not forget to provide enhanced aeration.
For a number of fish, a half dose of the above preparations is recommended, due to the dislike of these fish for the components of the preparations (malachite green and / or formalin). Such fish include, for example: small fish - harazinka, carp, etc. (in particular, neons, cardinals, some rasborov, small tetra, etc.) and fish fry, cross-less somas, loaches, and other (synchontus fringed , bots, etc.), some loricarium ('catfish-suckers', in particular, strisomes, ottsinklyusy and sometimes antsistrusy). Treatment with half the dose is usually longer compared to the full dosage of drugs.
Some fish generally do not carry these drugs even in half the dose, according to many testimonies. These include, for example, Platydoras.
The speed of treatment and the tolerance of drugs depend not only on the degree of neglect of the disease, but also on the ecological situation in the aquarium (we are talking about organic matter, nitrogen compounds and other not very pleasant substances). After all, it is clear that it is practically useless to treat asthma while standing under the Kamaz exhaust pipe.
Other preparations containing the same components (malachite and formalin) can be used in the same way. Domestic drugs 'Malachite Green' and 'Ichthyofor' (Zooworld), which have at least a couple of drawbacks. 'MH' on the one hand is convenient and attractive because it contains only malachite green and does not contain formalin, therefore some sensitive fish tolerate it more easily. However, the dosage of the drug is selected in such a way that one bottle is enough for a single treatment of 100 liters of aquarium water. That is, if you treat a 20-liter aquarium, then perhaps 1 bottle is enough for the entire course of treatment, and if 200-liter, then you need too many bottles. "Ichthyophor" also contains formalin and, moreover, its dosage is indicated only for short-term baths.For long-term baths (permanent treatment), the dosage will have to be chosen by eye, which, you see, is not a very rewarding occupation.
Preparations based on malachite green and formalin in therapeutic dosages do not destroy biofiltration and do not harm plants, snails and some crustaceans.
I will not, with your permission, list all similar and / or similar in composition drugs (less available with us), but I note that there are such preparations.


Ciliates ichthyophthirius. This is the most dangerous peddler of the disease for fish. Sick fish begins to move quickly and in an unusual way. Upon closer inspection, numerous white specks resembling semolina can be seen on her body (do not confuse them with white specks on the fins of males of some fish during the mating season). The disease should be treated early. To do this, there are several drugs, but if the fish are seriously affected, it will have to be put to sleep. To get rid of infusoria, you do not need to resort to chemical treatment of the pond. Simply place the fish for two weeks in a separate vessel, adding tryptoflavin to the water, or raising the temperature of the water in the vessel to 30-31 ° C for 5-8 days (water must be periodically enriched with oxygen, passing air through it).

White spots appear on fish in the aquarium, 4 fish have already died! how to cure?

Stefani ° © ° Shelti (Bi kolor)

What spots, describe more specifically in the addendum to the question (better photo). How semolina or scurf has the appearance of sticky cotton pieces? Or spots in the form of white smooth points? Are tails and fins stuck together? How many days did you change the water in the aquarium?
First of all, it is necessary to disembark sick fish in an otsadnik and “put” a common aquarium into a two-week quarantine. If the plaque has the appearance of stuck cotton pieces or as a semolina, it is a fungal disease (achliosis, saprolegniosis, etc.). But it appears against the background of the development of a bacterial infection (these mushrooms settle on dead skin parts) and is well treated with antipair. It is necessary to treat according to the scheme, which is available in the instructions for the drug. Increasing the temperature in the aquarium to 29 degrees is mandatory, turn off the light, add the required dosage, remove the absobients (coal).
Treatment, it is better to carry out in an otsadnik: table salt 5 gr / liter of 10 days or antipar 1 ml on 50 liters of water. Potassium permanganate can be added to the general aquarium until the pale pink color of water is 10 days. After the treatment, it will be necessary to replace half of the aquarium water to fresh.

Aquarium fish covered with small white spots (dots). What to do? How and what to treat them?


If this is “semolina” (ichthyophthirius), the most common disease, then my experience says that Contra Ik Tetra is the best remedy. Instructions on the bubble, handle in the general aquarium, because in the ground there are traps infusoria. Otherwise, you have to sterilize the entire aquarium, throw out the plants, boil the soil!

Olga Voydyuk

Yes, this is a fungus. And Pts is dangerous, because first of all it settles on the gills and is imperceptible, and in this stage a lot of young and small things die, and then it becomes visible on the fish itself. I recently had such a thing - I caught up late, managed to save only the largest parrots -
1. Do not turn on the light during treatment - these parasites live due to photosynthesis
2. water temperature up to 32 g of u
3. for 1 liter of water 0 1 liter of sea salt in an aquarium
3. antipar in the drops according to the instructions (although I dripped until the water became clearly blue-green)
If the fish does not die, then the result of treatment is visible for 3-4 days. A treat week 1.5. Then a step-by-step replacement of water is a third once a week.

On the lips of the aquarium fish appeared white spots.


Perhaps this is how the semolina disease manifests itself. Buy a blueprint and add to the aquarium according to the instructions, depending on liters.
I treated her so much, only mine were on my tail and fins, they jumped out after changing the water.

Cassandra ...

Most likely something bacterial ... In the aquarium, the bad ecology ... The immunity of the fish is weak ... Either you rarely change the water, or you overfeed, it happens that the plant rots and gives a similar effect and other reasons ... It happens that serious bacterial diseases are introduced with new fish or plants ... It is very unlikely, but it can also be a fungal disease ...
A lot of products from different manufacturers are sold in pet shops ... Sulfur baktopur, sulfur antipar, Russian anti-bacon, the tetra unfortunately don’t remember the name of the medicine ... But SHOULD READ THE CONTRAINDICATIONS ... 15%) ... Feeding is better at this time highly nutritious. A variety of products from different manufacturers are sold in pet shops ... Sulfur baktopur, sulfur antipar, Russian anti-tank, tetra unfortunately I do not remember the name of the medicine ... But MANDATORY THERE Contraindications ... In the meantime, you can help the fish frequent, once a day, changing water in small amounts (10-15%) ... Feeding is best at this time of highly nutritious forage ...
Pi Sy ... Devil, semolina, or rather ichteoftirioz, looks different ...

Lena Yarunicheva

Cotton-like plaque in the mouth region, possibly in places all over the body and on the fins, often on wounds, especially after transportation or settling in a new aquarium. The reason is a bacterial infection. In pet stores selling TETRA MEDICA fish food there are free brochures written in them and a treatment for them. And buy TETRA MEDICA GENERAL TONIK and read the instructions.

The fish have white spots like semolina, what to do?


clean the aquarium, for example I’m doing this when a fish (I have one such fish that gets covered with such stains when the water is dirty) is covered with these spots, it means the water is already dirty and I clean it immediately !! Do not be afraid she will not die !!!

Bertris berthier

SUPER ICK is a highly effective remedy for ichtiophthiriosis of aquatic fishes (and this is it, and it is treatable!)
Super ick cure
Medicine against ichthyophthirius
Contains: benzaldehyde green and nitrofurazone to suppress secondary infection (dosage form in capsules), or as a second component, enveloping agent povidone (liquid dosage form).
Indications for use: used for the treatment of diseases caused by parasitic protozoa ichthyophthirius. With this disease, a white, salt-like rash appears on the skin of the fish. Left without proper treatment, ichthyophthirius spreads quickly in the aquarium, striking and killing all its inhabitants. Super Ick Cure quickly and effectively eliminates this disease, destroying parasitic protozoa within 24-48 hours and healing wounds.
Method of use: the capsule must be opened and pour its contents into the aquarium at the rate of one capsule per 20 liters of aquarium water. The treatment cycle can be repeated if necessary. Since the parasite's development cycle accelerates with increasing temperature, treatment can be accelerated by raising the temperature of the aquarium water to 28 degrees.
This drug dyes aquarium water in a blue-green color that can be removed by changing the water or filtered with activated carbon at the end of the treatment cycle.
Note: Aquarium invertebrates (snails) must be removed from the aquarium for the period of treatment and returned no earlier than 72 hours after the end of treatment.

Vlad Elbakyan

If you treat with SuperIck, keep in mind that many fish require half the dose. These are haracin, most catfish, all fights, acontophthalmos, as well as all inconsolable fish (for example, Nile elephants).
It is easier and safer to treat Sera costapur, and more convenient - Faunamor.