What should be in the aquarium for fish


10 commandments novice aquarist

What to do to breed fish? Where to begin? How to make the first launch of the aquarium at home? What are the most unpretentious fish? Do I need seashells in the aquarium? What kind of ground to choose? These and many other questions arise for beginning aquarists when they decide to buy a home aquarium and breed fish. Of course, experienced aquarists already know many secrets and nuances in this difficult hobby of fish. And what should newcomers do in this case? And in today's article we will dwell in detail not only on what aquarium for beginners is, but also on what to do in order to create a real work of art at home.

Rule one - the fish can not overfeed!

After acquiring a new artificial pond for the house, keeping the fish is better to start with its feeding no more than once a day. Of course, then you can feed it more often, but little by little. After all, an aquarium is, first of all, a closed habitat. If there is a lot of food, it is not eaten by fish, then it gets into the ground and begins to rot. From overfeeding the fish start to hurt, and then they completely die. How do you know if the fish are overfed or not? It's simple. Food, after getting into the aquarium should be eaten immediately, and not sink to the bottom. True, there are such fish as catfish. It is they who eat the food that fell to the bottom. Also, the fish need to arrange fasting days, but only once a week.

Rule two - care for aquarium

Aquaria - a very delicate matter. If you buy aquariums for beginners, it is best to focus on their equipment and only then think about starting. After all, everything requires maintenance and care, and the aquarium is no exception to the rules. In the new aquarium, the water needs to be changed not immediately, but only after several months. And the basic rules for the care of an artificial reservoir - is the replacement of water, but partial. You also need to look for algae. Do not forget to change the filter, clean the soil. Do not forget to also check the readings of the thermometer. And remember, you need to disturb the aquatic inhabitants as little as possible. Fish do not like it.

The third rule - conditions for fish: what should they be?

In order for the inhabitants of their future home to always be in order, it is necessary to properly maintain them. First of all, they need to create optimal conditions for their habitat. And for this, before purchasing fish in the pet store, carefully read the information about a particular species of fish. After all, one fish may simply not fit the environment, or the decor, which equipped the vessel.

The fourth condition is the right equipment.

Remember the main rule. First you need:

  1. Aquarium and minimal equipment for it.
  2. Priming.
  3. Plants.

And only after the acquisition of all of the above, you can think about choosing the fish. Artificial pond need to choose not very small. What is necessary from the equipment? So it refers to:

  • filter;
  • thermometer;
  • heater with thermostat;
  • lighting.

And when all this is acquired, you can do the installation of the vessel in your room. It is best to do this on a flat surface, before laying the tourist mat under the bottom of the aquarium. You also need to wash the soil and sand, pour it into the aquarium and fill it with cold tap water. Install a filter and heater (especially important to monitor the temperature of the water in the winter). Because from the cold fish can die.

Next, heat the water to 20 degrees and begin to plant the plants. Planting a home aquarium should be live plants. They are simply necessary. Even if there are fish in the aquarium that like to feed on plants, it is better to simply feed them more. Water will be muddy at first. And it is here that you should not hurry too much. It is best to wait about 7 days. And already after the water becomes clear, you can launch fish.

Important! Buying fish, do not forget to clarify whether they will get along together.

The fifth rule - the filter must be washed in the aquarium water

Do not make a fatal mistake. The filter should not be washed under running water, and aquarium. This is necessary in order to preserve the balance that is inside the filter.

The sixth rule - to collect more information about the fish

Do you want to avoid problems that may arise after the launch of the fish in the aquarium? Do not hesitate, ask the seller in the pet store about the fish and their contents, read different information and then everything will be right. After all, all the fish are different. Some are small, others are big. Some calm, others aggressive. And there is, for example, and predatory. Remember that it is on your right choice that both the comfort of the fish and the internal balance in the vessel's ecosystem depend.

What kind of fish can you choose? The most classic is guppies. Their content does not cause difficulties. So, they are unpretentious, viviparous and eat different food. It is very easy to distinguish the female from the male. Swordtails are also viviparous, so there will be no problems with the fry. Swordtails are similar to guppies in behavior and content. Danio rerio are very popular in aquariums. They are elegant, unpretentious and very mobile. Eat all kinds of feed. Another type of fish - the cardinal. They are very small and unpretentious. They need to be properly maintained, and then they can live up to 3 years. When choosing fish, pay attention to their color and color. They should not be pale.

Important! Novice aquarists - do not breed many fish at once!

The seventh rule - the launch of a new fish spend slowly!

As mentioned above, the launch of the fish should be done only when the artificial reservoir is settled at home. Remember that if all the rules are not followed, the water in the aquarium will quickly become cloudy and the fish will die.

Quite often, a situation arises when, after acquiring a fish, many beginners do not know what to do next ... For experienced aquarists, this is not a problem, since their launch of the fish takes place on the machine. But beginners may have problems. First you need to put the bag with the fish just in the aquarium. Let it float there. Thus, the fish gets used to the new environment. And the fish that are already in the aquarium in this way will get to know it. Then you need to start lowering the package below, so that the water from the aquarium is filled in the package. Let it still be a little time, and then launch the fish into the aquarium from the package.

Important! The more expensive a fish is, the more bother it is!

Eighth rule - water quality

Whatever fish was purchased, any of them is very sensitive to the chemical composition of water. And filling the aquarium should start with checking the composition of the water. All water composition parameters can be checked using special tests for aquarium water. For this you need to purchase such a test.

Then collect the required amount of water in a clean, well-dried test tube, glass, glass. Add a reagent indicator to the water, shake the tube with water. After 5 minutes, compare the result in the reference card. According to the results you need to take action. If the water was very hard, then it should be softened.

The ninth rule is a good seller.

Now during the computer technology for any question, you can find any answer at home by going to the network. But live chat is better. And if luck and fate will bring with an avid aquarist, then the success of the novice is almost guaranteed to breed fish at home. It would also be nice to make friends with the seller at the pet store, thus obtaining not only an experienced adviser, but also in the future, a reasonable discount and the right to make the first choice of the item you like.

The tenth rule - aquarism is my hobby!

The most important thing in aquarism is to fish with great enthusiasm, but without forcing yourself. Make it so that it brings pleasure and enjoyment. After all, this is a real vacation at home. Near the artificial reservoir can spend a lot of time watching the behavior of fish.

In addition, scientists have proven that running and monitoring fish leads to normal blood pressure and calms the nervous system. And if there are small children at home, then this is also a very good educational moment. After all, since childhood, caring for fish will teach them to care and attention. After all, probably, very few people want to see that the first experience with the aquarium is bitter and ends with the death of fish. After all, it often happens that novice aquarists, who have not coped with the problems, put an end to their dream.

Do not leave immediately, and after a while there will come a period when an experienced aquarist grows from an inexperienced beginner who will help the same beginners, like him, who buy aquariums for beginners himself just a few weeks or months ago. Believe it is not difficult!

The right aquarium: what you need to consider when choosing, running and arranging


More than 7 thousand people a month ask this question: “What kind of aquarium is right?”, “How to create it?”, “What is right and what is not in an aquarium?”.

So let's try to deal with you in this matter. And we will try to bring a certain qualification of the correct aquarium.

To begin with, let's define the concept - the correct aquarium.

You must agree, there are so many nuances and criteria of correctness: What form should an aquarium? What volume? What kind of fish? What should be in it at all and what should not be?

I think in this matter you need to push off from a certain constant and understand that AQUARIUM is a closed ecosystem, an imitation of the natural conditions of fish habitat.
From the above, it can be made simple that the RIGHT AQUARIUM is a body of water as close as possible to the natural habitat of fish. That is, in such an aquarium should be:
- Complied with all the parameters of water for a certain type of fish;
- the landscape and design of the aquarium should be as close as possible to the natural habitat;
- there should be enough filtration, aeration, lighting and purging;
- care for fish, which carries people, should be as close as possible to the actions of "Mother Nature";

Now, based on the definition, you can easily display the main parameters

1. VOLUME AQUARIUM. Everything is obvious here - the bigger the aquarium the better! And this is not because a huge aquarium can boast or it will look "rich." Not! Simply, the more a closed ecosystem, the easier and better biological processes take place in it, such a system is easier to set up, such a system is easier to maintain. We can say that such a system is more stable than in a small aquarium.
Many aquarists on the Internet give an example, that in a small aquarium it is much more difficult to maintain water temperature stability than in a large aquarium. And it is true. And if you drop even deeper? It can be said that in a small aquarium it is harder to adjust the parameters of water, it is harder to dissolve a colony of useful nitrifying bacteria, more often you need to clean and change water, etc.
Alas, the living space and the financial component does not allow many to acquire a large aquarium. But, still for a novice aquarist can advise an aquarium of 100 liters. So to say - this is the initial volume of the correct aquarium.
2. FORM AQUARIUM. Here in this article - "WHAT AQUARIUM IS BETTER", examples of various forms of an aquarium are given - their infinite number. However, the most appropriate form for an aquarium is rectangular or panoramic. At the same time, you need to take into account the characteristics and characteristics of the fish. Some need a long aquarium, some tall.
The worst form of aquarium is considered - round. Such an aquarium is not convenient for placement of equipment, it is not convenient for maintenance, and even the spherical glass itself distorts the image of the reservoir.

3. EQUIPMENT FOR AQUARIUM. Properly selected aquarium equipment is the key to success. The thermostat, aeration, filter, lighting should be of sufficient volume and quality. Based on the characteristics of a particular aquarium and specific fish, you need to select equipment with a certain specificity. For example, the filters can be internal and external, multi-section or single-rack, with a compartment for ceramics (biofiltration) or without it. For more information about filters, see the article - A good filter for an aquarium. The same applies, for example, to lighting. If there are plants in the aquarium, the aquarium lamps must be of sufficient power and the required spectrum.

The habitat of fish is different. Some fish live in the thickets of valisneria, some live near the rocky shores, some even live in the standing water of rice fields.
Therefore, when arranging the “right aquarium”, first of all you need to start from the needs of the fish and their natural habitats. For example:
Angelfish are South American cichlids that live in bodies of water with rapidly growing underwater and surface plants. That is why, as a result of centuries of evolution, the body of an angelfish has acquired a flat shape - so it is more convenient to swim among the "underwater forest". Obviously, the most appropriate design for an aquarium with scalars will be an aquarium densely planted with a variety of vegetation, especially long-stemmed, tall plants, for example, vallyseries.

African cichlids - the exact opposite of the scalar. Most African cichlids live in the so-called "stone deserts", where there is not a small plant. The rocky shores of African rivers, completely covered with rubble, caves, grottoes. Such a landscape helps the fish to survive and shelter from the enemy; in the caves and minks, African cichlids hatch and hide their offspring.
Therefore, the right aquarium for such fish will be a reservoir, equipped with numerous stones, grottoes and snags.

Labyrinth fish (cockerels, gourami, macropods) are the South Asian guests of our aquariums. They live in the rice fields, where there is little oxygen, and the water is stagnant. Living conditions have taught these fish to breathe atmospheric air, which they capture from the surface of the water. Therefore, the aquarium for them should not contain plants that float on the surface or completely close it. Otherwise, the fish will suffocate. In addition, many labyrinths need shelters - caves.

5. PARAMETERS OF WATER AND CONDITIONS OF THE CONTENT OF FISH. Everything is simple - the parameters of water temperature, hardness, "acidity", etc. must fully meet the needs of this or sometimes the type of fish. Actually, these same parameters are of first priority when deciding on the compatibility of fish - it is impossible to contain fish, for which the water parameters are different. See also the article AQUARIUM WATER - parameters dH, pH, rH.

Proper care of the aquarium

The aquarium is not a picture, hanged and admired. This is a daily care and care. It is difficult to call an aquarium right if the fish are fed only dry food, and aquarium plants are not fed with trace elements. Do not forget about the usual care for the aquarium: changing the water, cleaning the walls of the aquarium, siphon of the soil, washing the filter, etc.
There are other nuances that speak about the correctness of the aquarium. For example, the presence of a UV sterilizer, ozonizer, cooler, cooling system or CO2 system will speak of you as an advanced aquarist. In addition, many aquarium devices can be done with your own hands! The exact same phyto filtering that anyone can do will have a favorable effect on the health of any aquarium.

Based on the foregoing, you can derive some formula

This aquarium of 100 liters, rectangular shape.
With the right equipment:
- aeration (preferably versatile)
- filtering (multistage)
- heater (with thermostat)
- lighting (sufficient power and the desired spectrum)
Design and arrangement of the "right aquarium" as close as possible to the natural, natural habitat of a particular type of fish.
In the correct aquarium, the rules of compatibility of aquarium fish are observed, the parameters of water and the status of hydrobionts are regularly monitored.
In the correct aquarium, there is more specific equipment that improves the quality of the reservoir and the life of the fish.
And most importantly, aquarism, and any other human activity, will always be right - if it is done with love.

see also:



Aquarium decoration

How to change the water in the aquarium

Aquarium for beginners



SOIL FOR THE AQUARIUM: which one is better to choose


Restart Aquarium

Algae in the aquarium

Reflectors, reflectors for aquarium

Takashi Amano: photo, concept, biography

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Установка аквариума: инструкция и полезное видео


Приобретая первый аквариум и создавая свое подводное царство, невольно умиляешься допущенным ошибкам, происшествиям и казусам.
Чего мне на том этапе не хватало, так это пошаговой краткой инструкции. After all, I simply did not want to read a whole book or a bunch of Internet articles about the first launch of an aquarium, because there was one “zombie thought” in my head - tomorrow the aquarium should earn!


OK, GET ON ...

1. Determine where the aquarium will stand?

- it is better to place the aquarium in a dark corner, so that direct sunlight does not fall on it (from them in the aquarium, algae may start up uncontrollably, sunlight creates glare on the glass).

- think about how the power supply will be suitable for the aquarium (for connecting: lighting, filter, aeration, heater).

- If you decide to put the aquarium is not special. stand, but on the furniture you already have, or you want to build an aquarium in a furniture niche - be sure to consider the weight of the aquarium with water so that it does not fall under its weight. The surface must be durable. CHECK !!!

- if you have small children, think about their safety and the safety of aquarium inhabitants from children. Children's access to the aquarium and its equipment should be limited (the principle - "look, but do not touch").

2. Pre-dial tap water for sludge.

- this should be done at least a day before landing the fish. The presence of dissolved oxygen in tap water can kill fish. Although in practice everything can do, especially if you use special tools to improve the composition of the water (for example, Aquaceave from the Tetra series). But it is better not to risk, especially for the first time. Remember, an aquarium for beginners - the first launch of an aquarium should be carried out “according to a template”, later being experienced you can experiment, for example, if the volume of the aquarium is large and there is no place to defend the water, you can fill the installed aquarium with tap water and defend it, at least 1 day. With this method, need / desirable "Aquaseiv."

3. Now we run to the pet store and:

- we buy a pre-looked aquarium (corresponding to the chosen place).

- filter and aeration (must correspond to the volume of the aquarium).

- choose the soil and decor (artificial plants, stones, castles, snags, etc.).

- If it is winter in the yard, you still need an aqua heater.

- thermometer.

4. We proceed to the step-by-step installation of the aquarium:

- level the surface special furniture or furniture on which there will be an aquarium. To do this, buy the simplest water building level ($ 3 - then it will still come in handy on the farm). The fact is that aquarium water creates pressure on the walls of the aquarium. And any even a small angle of inclination creates a very tangible pressure on a separate wall (the pressure will not be uniform). What aquarium can "burst." Level the surface as carefully as possible. Only small deviations are allowed. For small aquariums - up to 35 litas, leveling the surface is not necessary.

- we establish an aquarium on a surface. A polyethylene bubble pad (usually sold with an aquarium) is laid between the aquarium and the surface. Ensure that the edges of the aquarium do not hang from the pedestal or furniture.

- now pour out and distribute the soil in the aquarium. It is advisable to wash it in advance after the pet store, thereby getting rid of excess dust and dirt.

- set the decor.

5. Fill the aquarium with separated water.

Not an easy job I can tell you, especially if the volume of the aquarium from 100l. (10 buckets).

Water is poured gently / slowly.

In order not to wash away the soil and not to scatter the scenery, I recommend to put some dishes or a can on the bottom. Directing a stream of water on the can, the water will spray and your decor and the soil will remain intact.

Fill the aquarium up to the top leaving, approximately, 5-7 cm from the edge.

6. Install filtering and aeration, run.

7. Now we run to the pet store again and buy long-awaited fish, snails, live plants ... don't forget to buy food (preferably wait at least seven days with this, the water should at least "infuse", aquarium chemistry accelerates this process: AquaSafe, Baktozim , Tetra NitratMinus Perls other).

8. Release the fish in your tank. The package with the fish is lowered first into the aquarium water, a little scooped into the package of water and kept in the aquarium for about 15 minutes (for adaptation). Then turn the bag over and release the fish.


In the future, all you need is attention and care for your pets.

And with them will gradually come experience!

Useful video about installing and running an aquarium

I hope my article was useful for you and your desire "I want to start an aquarium" has only increased. In parting, I want to say - do not be afraid and do not hesitate! Get an aquarium! Aquarium is great, and caring for it is much easier than for cats and especially for dogs)))
Dear newcomer of the aquarium world and a young aquarist, I recommend that you also read the following articles:
Aquarium for beginners
Aquarium decoration
Buying, purchasing and transplanting fish
Compatibility of aquarium fish selection and selection rules

List of all aquarium fish (A ...)
List of all aquarium plants (AO)
I WANT TO GO TO FISH: how to equip the first beautiful aquarium.
WHAT IS NECESSARY TO THE AQUARIUM: what to consider when choosing an aquarium and which fish to buy?
The most unpretentious aquarium fish, the smallest aquarium fish. Top 10 is not difficult fish!
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Lamps for the aquarium and everything you need to know about them.

What kind of lamp for the aquarium better

Metal halide luminaire with integrated blue lamps

Many sources point out that the best option is to use fluorescent lights. They shine well, quite economical. They are connected via an electronic ballast, as well as a special device - a choke.

Nowadays, most lovers prefer special fluorescent lamps in combination with metal halides. At the same time they are placed on the front wall of the reservoir.

In addition, special fluorescent aquarium lamps of different power with warm or daylight white light are also used. Installation is carried out complete with special reflectors. With properly tuned lighting, the fish will demonstrate the diversity of all their color, while corals will develop excellently.

Fluorescent lamps are economical, provide excellent lighting, last long enough. As a disadvantage, it can be noted that they must be connected using a special device - electronic ballast or choke.

Fluorescent lamps - the most popular type of lamps used in aquarium today.
These are low-pressure discharge lamps. Inside they are a mixture of inert gas and mercury vapor, which gives off ultraviolet light during electrical discharge. This glow is transformed into visible radiation, due to the phosphor layer deposited on the inner side of the bulb. It is the various compositions of phosphors that give a different spectral range. And, for example, a three-layer phosphor and an ultraviolet protection film on a fluorescent lamp do not transmit the ultraviolet spectrum at all (anything that has a wavelength of less than 400 nm).
Fluorescent lamps are durable enough, but they need to be replaced in the biotope with the same exact lamp (so that there are no abrupt changes in the spectrum and power of illumination) before their expiration date. It is recommended to replace such lamps at least once a year. And the average life of this lamp in the aquarium is 6-7 months. But it is impossible to change all the lamps at once: abrupt changes in the power of lighting can adversely affect hydrophytes.

The power of fluorescent lamps varies from 8 to 56 watts. A certain power of the lamp usually corresponds to a certain power: on average, 20 to 120 cm.
The color of the lamp is indicated by two or three numbers: / 43 or / CW.

Properties and qualities of fluorescent lamps

Why precisely L-lamps? The fact is that these gas-discharge devices have high luminous efficiency and low heat transfer. Their principle of operation is that the electric field, acting by its discharge on the pumped gas into a sealed glass tube, creates a strong radiation in the ultraviolet spectrum.

A crystal phosphor-based phosphor converts UV radiation into visible light. Such a luminaire has a high light transmission index (Ra) and creates a diffused even light that is ideal for lighting large rooms as well as small ones.

The relative durability and the possibility of continuous work without shutdowns makes fluorescent lamps indispensable in aquarium.

True, they have a common drawback - the presence of a starting device or a choke, which makes some noise.

There are also specialized lamps, which are represented by Hagen.

  1. Sun-glo - the spectrum is similar to LB, but more balanced, it shines with white light, in most cases it can be replaced by cheaper LB or imported analogues;
  2. Aqua-glo - The spectrum is specially selected for maximum compatibility with the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll, shines pink-violet light, good colors red, yellow, orange, blue and blue colors on fish;
  3. Flora glo - designed for aquariums with plants, shines pink, also improves the color of fish, cheaper counterparts - LF and Osram / 77 Fluora;
  4. Power glo - has in its spectrum a significant part of blue light, very powerful, can be used in saltwater aquariums or aquariums without plants (for example, in cichlidariums); if plants are there, then it is better to combine it with Aqua-Glo or Flora-Glo, it enhances blue and blue coloring of fish.

These lamps are quite expensive, but give a better effect than conventional ones.

Shine - the most important element of a successful biotope, so the creator of a biotope always has to ask which lamp to use in an aquarium. This question must be considered at the planning stage.

LED bulbs - lamps of tomorrow. They, unlike fluorescent lamps "do not flicker," and more and more are being introduced into the aquarium practice.

How to choose a lamp in the aquarium?

All tips and strategies can not be described in one or more articles.
In addition to general data on the characteristics of the light, the lamps themselves, it is also necessary to take into account the individual requirements of aquatic organisms living in the aquarium, and the wishes of the aquarist himself to the type of future biotope.

However, general guidelines might look like this. Consider fluorescent lamp types.
The most important parameters when choosing: power and spectrum of the lamp.

Aquarium with an emphasis on fish is quite enough 0.5 - 1 watt per liter, and two kinds of lamps: one - with a color temperature of 6400K, 7500K, or 10000K, and the second - with a predominance of the red spectrum, which will enhance the color of fish and plants. It is possible to add a lamp with white color, with CC 6400K. These are all T8 lamps (lamp diameter: 8/8 inch).

If settling down herbalist, or a biotope with a large number of light-demanding plants, the power of illumination should be from 1 watt per liter or more. Some plants and 2 watts per liter will not be enough! The lamps CT is chosen the same: 1-2 lamps with low CT + 1-2 lamps 6400K (or 1 lamp 6400K and 1 lamp 8000K).
In such an aquarium, bright white daylight should prevail.
In general, different variants of light-organization are possible here, but the predominance of yellow color should not be allowed: in this case the plants will grow worse, and seaweed on the contrary, they will feel very good. It is also recommended to install T5 fluorescent lamps (5/8 inch lamp diameter) with greater light output.

In general, plants need red and blue spectrum for growth.
It is recommended that aquatic plants have lamps with maxima in the red and blue regions of the light spectrum, since these two regions are very important for hydrophytes for photo synthesis. However, a maximum of blue light applied without a red maximum can lead to rapid algae growth. Therefore, it is necessary to use these two maxima together.

Lamps of warm colors are put on the foreground, and cold tones - on the back. It improves the "depth effect".

Light reflectors significantly improve the light output of the lamps. And in the herbalist they are necessary, their presence is also desirable in the biotope created primarily for fish.

With an illumination of 0.3 W / liter and less, many plants will not grow at all.
However, even with an unjustified increase in power:> 0.6 W / liter, rapid growth of algae may begin.

The color in the designation of a fluorescent lamp usually comes after the "/" sign. Colors can be designated as numbers, and an alphabetic combination. The following lamp designations are most common:

/ 35 - white color, 3500K (W);
/ 54 - daytime color, 6200K (D);
/ 77 - lamp for the aquarium;
/ 79 - with a high content of red;
/ 89 - blue color (actinic, 10000K), used in reef aquariums;
/ 05 - blue color (actinic), used in reef aquariums;
/ 03 - super actinic, used in reef aquariums.

Even a very experienced amateur, setting the lighting system in his aquarium, monitors the state of plants, algae growth and other factors in it and, if necessary, corrects the selected lighting scheme.
Many manufacturers of lamps for aquariums have specialized solutions for a particular biotope and offer a ready-to-install lamp or a combination of lamps.

To form your “light solution” is not a simple task for a beginner. But do not despair: studying the characteristics of light, lamps, the needs of hydrobionts, and, of course, observing your pets in a biotope is the key to a proper solution of this issue.

Backlight intensity

How to determine the acceptable intensity of illumination in the aquarium? You can meet with the information that the optimal calculation is 0.5 W per liter of water in the aquarium. However, this calculation can not be called the only true. The depth of the water, the individual characteristics of the habitat familiar to the fish and the plant, all have an impact on the final calculation of how much power is needed to determine the intensity of the backlight. After all, it is obvious that aquarium inhabitants, accustomed to life at depth, need much less light than residents of shallow water. It is also quite clear that at a depth of about 20 cm, the intensity of light is greater than at a 60 centimeter depth.

Therefore, the final calculation of the intensity of the light flux in the aquarium can be selected exclusively by a kind of experiment. It is recommended to take as a basis a typical calculation of 0.5 V / l, after which to increase or decrease the intensity. As a result, you can choose how much is the optimal calculation for your particular case. If the lighting is excessive, the water in the aquarium will begin to bloom, the filament will develop, the walls will be overgrown with algae. With a lack of light, fish will find it difficult to breathe, small-leaved plants will start to die, and the aquarium will be covered with brown spots. In this case, you may need additional lighting.

Light spectrum

Aquarium plants are particularly demanding for the light spectrum. The fact is that for the successful photosynthesis of plants requires the presence of two narrow color ranges:

  • violet-blue (about 440 nm);
  • and red-orange (approximately 660-700 nm).

It should be noted that standard fluorescent lamps do not provide a sufficient spectrum of illumination for plants. Modern fluorescent phytolamps allow to fully organize the required spectrum. LED aquarium lighting (LED) can also be arranged.

About lamps

When installing lighting in the aquarium, you need to decide on the lamps used. Their types are diverse, but each is characterized by both advantages and disadvantages. We study this question in more detail.

For a long time, the aquarium was equipped with ordinary incandescent bulbs. Subsequently, they were replaced with energy-saving lamps. However, it should be recognized that providing lighting in an aquarium with such lamps is an outdated option. The fact is that the use of lamps (including energy-saving) does not give enough light. In addition, these lamps heat too much, which ultimately leads to an imbalance in the heat balance in the aquarium. The situation is similar when using energy-saving lamps.

Fluorescent lamps can produce good light intensity. However, we have already noted above that it is impossible to provide the light spectrum required by plants with fluorescent lamps.

Modern phytolamps can be a good option. Such illumination should provide optimal light intensity, as well as organize the necessary spectrum. True, equipping an aquarium with such lamps is not the cheapest pleasure.

LED (LED lighting, ICE) is a new, convenient and perfect way to supply light. The fact is that LEDs are as close to natural sunlight as possible. При освещении аквариума посредством светодиодного освещения ЛЕД получается поддерживать стабильность температурного режима воды. Кроме того, ресурс у LED существенно превышает заводские сроки службы иных видов ламп.

Есть еще два положительных аспекта пользования светодиодами LED. Во-первых, ЛЕД - это возможность самостоятельной регулировки яркости освещения. Во-вторых, LED обеспечивает разнообразную цветовую гамму освещения. В результате использования ЛЕД получаются прекрасные картины подводной жизни.

Как видим, освещение аквариума - это немаловажный этап. Успешное решение данного вопроса зависит от выбранного типа лампы и от особенностей обитающих в аквариуме растений и рыбок. And with the right approach, all aquarium residents should be unusually comfortable.





Why die fish in an aquarium and what to do.

It is very unpleasant when the fish begin to die in the aquarium. It would seem that everything was done correctly: clean water was poured, aquarium equipment was working, the fish received timely feed. Despite this, the animals die. Unfortunately, this situation occurs in newcomers of the aquarium business quite often, which is why it is necessary to arm yourself with knowledge of the causes of this phenomenon.

Each novice aquarist should understand the following in advance: if conditions are created in the water house for its inhabitants that are as close as possible to their natural habitat, then they will not get sick, much less die.

At the very least, the risk of death will be minimized.

Practice shows that in the overwhelming majority of cases, the death of fish is caused not by any external diseases, but by errors in content, illiteracy and carelessness of their owners. There are various reasons for this unfortunate phenomenon or a whole combination of causes and factors that should be considered in detail.

Nitrogen poisoning

Nitrogen poisoning is the most common problem. It often concerns beginners who have no experience in dealing with aquarium animals. The fact is that they are trying to feed their pets to the dump, forgetting that with this increases the amount of waste. By the simplest calculations, each fish per day leaves feces equal to 1/3 of its weight. However, not everyone knows that in the process of oxidation and decomposition nitrogen compounds appear, consisting of:

  • Ammonium;
  • Nitrate;
  • Nitrite.

All these substances are united by their toxicity. The most dangerous of them is ammonium, the excess of which will be the main cause of death for all inhabitants of the reservoir. This happens most often in newly launched aquariums. The first week after the start becomes critical. There are two options for increasing the amount of these substances in aqua:

  • Increase in population;
  • Breakage of the filter;
  • Excessive feed.

It is possible to determine the surplus by the state of water, more precisely by smell and color. If you noted the darkening of the water and the smell of rot, then the process of increasing ammonium in the water is started. It happens that when visually inspected, the water is crystal clear in the house for fish, but the smell makes you wonder.

To confirm your suspicions, ask special chemical tests at pet stores. With their help, you can easily measure the level of ammonium. True, it is worth noting the high cost of tests, but for a novice aquarist they are very necessary if you do not want to lose all your pets for a couple of days. If time corrects the situation, then the death will be avoided.

How to lower the level of ammonia:

  • Daily water change ¼
  • Water should stand at least a day;
  • Check the filter and filter element for serviceability.

Water temperature

The death of fish can also occur due to a decrease or increase in temperature of the aquatic environment. The opinion that a deviation from a certain temperature mode by 2-3 degrees in one direction or another will not affect the health of aquarium pets is deeply mistaken.

If the temperature drops, there is a danger of dying from a cold, and as it rises, the fish may die from lack of oxygen.

Lack of oxygen as a negative factor

A fish is known to breathe air dissolved in water, and it can suffocate if it is too little in aqua. Although such cases are very rare, they do happen.

As a rule, even beginners pre-acquire all the equipment necessary for the operation of the home aquatic system.

And very often, buying a powerful enough filter, they trust him not only with water purification, but also with its aeration and mixing.

Still, experts recommend to separate these two functions and ensure the continuous operation of the air compressor

Fish diseases

No one wants to blame himself, so beginner breeders blame the disease. Unscrupulous sellers only reinforce their doubts, because they have a goal to sell expensive medicine and cash in on. However, do not rush for a panacea, carefully examine all possible causes of death.

Blame the disease is possible only if the symptoms have been noted for a long time. The fish died away gradually, and not just died in an instant, for no apparent reason. Most often, the disease is brought to the aquarium with new residents or plants. Death may occur due to malfunction of the heating element in cold weather.

Going to pet stores, you should be aware of what exactly you need medicine. Each of the drugs directed to a specific disease. Universal drugs do not exist! If possible, consult an experienced aquarist or ask a question on the forum, knowledgeable people will tell you what to do in this situation.

Of course, the disease can not kill a healthy fish. Why do fish die in an aquarium? If the death occurred, then the immunity has already been undermined. Most likely, the first two errors occurred. Do not rush to launch new residents, no matter how beautiful they are.

What to do to protect the aquarium:

  • Organize quarantine for new inhabitants;
  • Sanitize fish or plants.

What to do if the disease started up in the aquarium:

  • Change one tenth of the water daily;
  • Increase the temperature;
  • Strengthen aeration;
  • Remove the carriers of the disease and those who are clearly infected.

Remember which fish you ran at home last. Individuals brought from other countries can be carriers of rare diseases, and it is sometimes impossible to detect and classify on their own.

O2 deficiency

This option is the rarest of all. Oxygenation of a fish house is always adequately assessed even by beginners. The first thing they do is buy a compressor. With him, not terrible choking fish.

The only possible option is to increase the temperature and, as a result, lower oxygen in the water. This can happen at night, when the plants are rearranged from the production of oxygen, to its absorption. To avoid this, do not turn off the compressor at night.

Aggressive neighbors

Before you go to the store for pets, think over to the smallest detail, can there be several species in one fish house? You should not rely on the competence of the seller, since the main goal for him is to realize as much of the goods as possible.

A few fundamental rules:

  • Big fish always tend to eat small ones (even in the case of herbivorous species);
  • Many succumb to intraspecific aggression;
  • Some are able to stick to small neighbors, which ultimately leads to death;
  • The strong always eat the weak;
  • Buy only those fish whose peace-loving nature you are sure of.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to establish why fish die. The death of a pet can happen even to experienced breeders. Be attentive to the fish, and you will definitely notice a change in behavior and in time eliminate the cause of anxiety. More often, fish die in an aquarium because of an oversight, and not according to other criteria.

What to do if you find a dead fish in the walls of the aquarium?

  1. Look at the number of fish in the tank. Recount them in the morning and in the hours of feeding. What is their condition, do they take food well? Are there fish that refuse food? Is it possible bloating in one of the fish? If you have not found any fish, check all the corners in the aquarium by lifting the lid. Inspect the plants, caverns and all the scenery. If after a few days the dead fish did not float to the surface, it may have suffered from a neighbor in the aquarium, and you can hardly find it. Sometimes the fish fall into an unprotected filter, and die there. In any case, keep searching until you find the visible reasons for the disappearance.
  1. Fish that have died in an aquarium should be removed from it. Tropical species of fish quickly rot because of high water temperature. Under conditions of such an environment, bacteria multiply rapidly, water grows turbid, and an unpleasant odor appears, which can cause infection of other pets.
  2. It is necessary to do an inspection of a dead fish. You must understand why she died in an aquarium. Wear medical gloves. If the body is not completely decomposed, look at the condition of the fins, scales, and condition of the abdominal cavity. Perhaps there are wounds on the body or signs that she has suffered from unproductive neighbors. If the stomach is strongly swollen, eyes bulging, the scales are covered with bloom or stains - it means that the pet has suffered from illness or poisoning. After inspection, gloves should be discarded.

  1. Check the water parameters. Water is often the main cause of poor health. Take tests with indicators, and make the necessary measurements. The increased content of ammonia and nitrates in water, heavy metals leads to the fact that pets die quickly. If the aquarium has a decorative element made of iron, zinc, copper - this is another pointer. Some fish do not tolerate metal, and suddenly die.
  1. After the test results, draw conclusions. The test will show two results - either you have everything in order in the aquarium, or the water is dirty and there is an overabundance of toxic substances in it. In the second case, you need to enable powerful filtering, and make a replacement of 25% of the aquarium water for clean and infused. Dramatically change the parameters of the water is not necessary, it can harm living fish.
  1. But if the water is in proper condition, there may be a number of other reasons why the fish died. Sometimes aquarium pets die of hunger, overeating, illness, severe stress, bruises after attacking other fish, age. If the fish die suddenly, you need to do everything necessary to keep others alive. Contact your veterinarian if you do not find obvious causes of death of the pet.







How much can the fish in the aquarium 100 liters

In the preparation of this material used the Internet assembly, well, my own experience, with respect to those fish with whom he dealt. It is worth noting that the list below is idealized, that is, it is compiled without taking into account the size and size of the aquarium (on which many things depend), besides, the list is compiled without taking into account compatibility and without taking into account the aquarium layer of fish habitats, which also affect the number of fish in the aquarium .

Simply put - you can not put in a 150 liter aquarium 50cm long. 60 Danes are pink, as well as 60 spotted soms on an area of ​​0.5 sq. M.

To find out how much, you can put in the aquarium and those and other fish, you just need to calculate their percentage for a specific volume of the aquarium.

For example,

10 guppies = 100%

6 Swordsmen = 100%

5 guppies + 3 messengers = 100%


How many fish can a 100-liter aquarium

How can Guppy in a 100 liter aquarium - 45 pcs.

How can Swordtails in a 100 liter aquarium - 30 pcs.

How can Mollienesium sphenops 100 liter aquarium -12 pcs.

How can Pecylium in a 100 liter aquarium - 12 pcs.

How can Baloo shark in a 100 liter aquarium - 1-2 pcs. (preferably from 250l.)

How can Barbus sharkh in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Barbusov scarlet (Odessa) in a 100 liter aquarium -10 pcs.

How can Barbus Arulyus 100 liter aquarium - 1 pc.

How can Cherry Barbus 100 liter aquarium - 10 pcs.

How can Eight barred barbs 100 liter aquarium-10 pcs.

How can Long-striped barbus in a 100 liter aquarium -10 pcs.

How can Green barbs in a 100 liter aquarium - 8 pcs.

How can Cross barbs in a 100 liter aquarium - 1 pc.

How can Linear barbus in a 100 liter aquarium -2 pcs.

How can Fire barbs in a 100 liter aquarium -8 pcs.

How can Barbus oligolepis in a 100 liter aquarium - 8 pcs.

How can Barbatus sumatran 100 liter aquarium - 10 pcs.

How can Danio leopard 100 liter aquarium - 20 pcs.

How can Danio pink 100 liter aquarium - 20 pcs.

How can Danio rerio 100 liter aquarium - 20 pcs.

How can Cardinals in a 100 liter aquarium -20pcs.

How can Labeo two-tone in a 100 liter aquarium -2 pcs.

How can Labeo green 100 liter aquarium - 3 pcs.

How can Goldfish all varieties in a 100 liter aquarium -2 pcs.

How can Vakin 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Water eye 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Vualehvostov 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Pearls 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Stargazing 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Kaliko (Shubunkin) 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Comet 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Orand 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Ranchu 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Riukin in a 100 liter aquarium - 1 pc.

How can Telescopes in a 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Karpov Koi in a 100 liter aquarium -0 pcs.

How can Gourami whites 100 liter aquarium - 7 pcs.

How can Gourami blue 100 liter aquarium -7 pcs.

How can Gourami pearl 100 liter aquarium - 7 pcs.

How can Gourami of gold 100 liter aquarium -7 pcs.

How can Gorami lunar 100 liter aquarium -7 pcs.

How can Gourami honey 100 liter aquarium -7 pcs.

How can Gourami marble 100 liter aquarium - 7 pcs.

How can Gourami fishing 100 liter aquarium-0 pcs.

How can Goorami kissing 100 liter aquarium - 2 pcs.

How can Gourami chocolate in a 100 liter aquarium - 18 pcs.

How can Ctenopa leopard 100 liter aquarium-4 pcs.

How can Labiosis green 100 liter aquarium -3 pcs.

How can Lyalius 100 liter aquarium-20 pcs.

How can Macropods 100 liter aquarium-10 pcs.

How can Petushki Betta in a 100 liter aquarium - 32 pcs.

How can Tetradon Biocellatuss in a 100 liter aquarium-2 pcs.

How can Tetradon dwarf 100 liter aquarium - 10 pcs.

How can Red-eyed tetradon in a 100 liter aquarium -2 pcs.

How can Parrot (hybrid) 100 liter aquarium-1 pc.

How can Turquoise acar 100 liter aquarium-0 pcs.

How can Cockatoo Apistogram 100 liter aquarium-5 pcs.

How can Ramisez's apistogram 100 liter aquarium-10 pcs.

How can Astronotus 100 liter aquarium - 0 pcs.

How can Red discussions in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Discus green in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Blue discussions in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Brown discs in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Angelfish in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Tsikhlazmoz diamondin a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Eight-strip cychlamose (bee) 100 liter aquarium-2 pcs.

How can Tsykhlamoz severum in a 100 liter aquarium -0 pcs.

How can Tsikhlamoz Sedzhika in a 100 liter aquarium -2 pcs.

How can Tsikhlamoz black-striped 100 liter aquarium-2 pcs.

How can Blue dolphins 100 liter aquarium-0 pcs.

How can Melanochrome gold 100 liter aquarium -3 pcs.

How can Princesses of burundi in 100 liter aquarium -4 pcs.

How can Psevdotrofeus Zebra in 100 liter aquarium -4 pcs.

How can Psevdotrofeus Lombardo in a 100 liter aquarium -2 pcs.

How can Chromis-handsome in a 100 liter aquarium -2 pcs.

How can Yulidohromis Regana 100 liter aquarium -3 pcs.

How can Neon blue in a 100 liter aquarium - 35 pcs.

How can Neon red in a 100 liter aquarium - 35 pcs.

How can Neon ordinary in a 100 liter aquarium - 35 pcs.

How can Neon black in a 100 liter aquarium - 35 pcs.

How can Ornatusov in a 100 liter aquarium - 35 pcs.

How can Piranha ordinary in a 100 liter aquarium -2 pcs.

How can Rodostomusov in a 100 liter aquarium 36 pcs.

How can Ternetius 100 liter aquarium - 10 pcs.

How can Tetr of the bloody minors 100 liter aquarium - 20 pcs.

How can Tetr copper 100 liter aquarium - 20 pcs.

How can Tetr Von Rio (Tetra of Fire) in a 100 liter aquarium -20 pcs.

How can Flashlights, hemigrammus selector in a 100 liter aquarium -20 pcs.

How can Akantoftalmusov Kühl in a 100 liter aquarium - 8 pcs.

How can Acantoftalmus Myers in a 100 liter aquarium - 8 pcs.

How can Common Ancistrus in a 100 liter aquarium - 8 pcs.

How can Botsy Modest in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Corridor catfish speckled in a 100 liter aquarium -10 pcs.

How can Striped mystus in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Platidoras striped in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Sack of bacillus in a 100 liter aquarium -1 pc.

How can Tarakatumov in a 100 liter aquarium -2 pcs.

How can Badis 100 liter aquarium-2 pcs.

How can Aravan South American in a 100 liter aquarium -0 pcs.

How can Black knives in a 100 liter aquarium -0 pcs.