Discussions: maintenance and care
The kings of a freshwater aquarium, large, bright and beautiful, with an original body shape and a variety of colors, stately, unhurried and elegant. It's about the discus. They attract aquarists for their unusual and peaceful nature, and scare away capriciousness and demanding conditions of detention. But you should not be afraid. If you know how to take care of them, and correctly apply this knowledge, then everything will work out even for someone who does not have a rich experience in fish farming.
Discussion in nature
South America (Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia) is considered the birthplace of these cichlids, where they have chosen the Amazon and its tributaries. Discus birds like flowing black water with a lot of snags and semi-submerged trees.
Variety of species
In Europe, the fish were brought in 30-40 years. Initially, only the Heckel Discus was known (by the name of the discoverer), or red. At the beginning of the 20th century, another species was described - a green discus living in the central Amazon (Putumayo River in Peru, Lake Tefe in Brazil). In the late 60s discovered blue and brown discus. All of the above fish are natural species.
In addition, in the nineties, new breeding and hybrid forms appeared. And now they are much more popular than natural ones, even though they are more prone to diseases and require more thorough care.
Modern classification identifies five main groups of discus, within which there are still many variations:
Red. The main body background is in the range of red hues from orange to cherry. These fish are very bright and therefore sell well. However, to maintain the intensity of the color they need food with special additives.
Cobalt. These fish are distinguished by the presence on the body and fins of shiny stripes and sparkles. Slightly similar to turquoise, but unlike them, the color does not give in green, but in blue.
Turquoise. From the name it is clear that the main shade of their bodies is turquoise. Maybe a pattern in the form of spots and stripes. In Russian aquarium lovers, this species is most common due to the fact that it came to our country in the 70s.
Pigeon blood. The main body color is yellowish-pink, as if dusted.
Gold. These are the most expensive fish from all five groups. Especially prized individuals with pure gold color without dark pigment.
The body of the discus is strongly compressed from the sides, it is flat and round, due to which it resembles a disk (hence the name of the fish). Fish can grow quite large (15-25 cm).
Color is the most diverse, and its intensity depends on the conditions. The more correctly the lighting, the ground and the background are chosen, the better is the richness and brightness of the color.
How do they get along?
Discussions are peaceful and friendly towards other fish. They are not predators and do not tear the ground. Loneliness is not well tolerated, preferring to be held in groups of 6 pieces.
These cichlids leisurely eat, live in excessively warm water for others and are very susceptible to disease. These factors and create certain problems in the selection of neighbors. It is better to keep them separate. But if you choose your neighbors, the most appropriate are red neon, the clown's battle, the red-nested tetra, the congo, and some soma.
Difficulty in content
It is believed that the discus is a fish not for beginners, since it is rather difficult to create optimal conditions for them, and getting offspring from them is even more difficult. What most often causes difficulties?
Acclimatization. These fish, both young and adults, are subject to stress, and moving to a new place of residence is exciting for them.
Various diseases. Discussions are very subject to them. Any care deficiencies and stress instantly undermine the health of these fish.
Health problems, feeding, ensuring the right temperature should be considered in advance. You should buy a large aquarium, high-quality filter and food, be patient.
How to create optimal conditions?
1. These are schooling fish. Populate them in groups of 6 individuals. And given their considerable size, the aquarium will need a large - at least 250 liters for a couple. It should be high and long, not less than 40 cm wide. It is desirable to be separate, as it requires a higher temperature than other fish, and most importantly, due to diseases that are not dangerous for other fish, but can be deadly for discus. It is better to place the aquarium itself in a quiet place. It is necessary to exclude loud noises, sudden movements, a knock on the glass and restless neighbors.
2. The main requirement for water is cleanliness. Be sure to install a good filter, clean the soil regularly and replace half the water every week. It should be soft and slightly acidic. The optimal parameters: temperature 28-33 ° C, ph - 6.0-6.5, 10-15 dGH.
3. Ground may not be at all. If planting is planned, then any soil will do.
4. Plants may also not be. In any case, it is good if there are not many of them. Choose better those that will withstand the high temperature of the water and will serve as natural filters: Anubias, Echinodorus, Wallisneria, etc.
5. The lighting is quite small.
6. Filtering is required. You can use both internal and external, assessing their convenience for each case.
7. Ozone treatment can be used to purify water from microorganisms. This method is effective, but is suitable only for experienced aquarists, as an overdose of ozone will kill the fish. Ultraviolet is a cheaper, safer and easier alternative to ozonation.
There are also high-tech methods for the maintenance of discus (complex filters, devices for monitoring and regulating water parameters, etc.). But this equipment is expensive and not available to everyone.
How to feed?
This type of cichlids is very capricious and picky about food. A simple tubule, bloodworm and artemia they will not. You will need live food, special stuffing (from beef heart + shrimp meat and mussels + fish fillet + nettle + vitamins + various vegetables) and food with vitamins. They give food 2-3 times a day, immediately removing the uneaten leftovers.
Dry fortified feed discus does not take immediately, they need to be accustomed to them gradually. Approximately within 1-2 weeks they are gradually added to the pounded beef heart, gradually increasing the dose. Fish in the introduction of new foods must be completely healthy.
In addition, discus vitamins can be obtained by plucking a limnofilu, kabombu, hygrofil or other plants with soft leaves, sometimes placed in an aquarium.
Sex differences are implicit and appear only during spawning. The male has a steeper forehead and thick lips.
As they mature, the fish themselves are broken up into pairs. They are deposited in spawning. The female lays eggs on a previously cleaned substrate or wide leaves of plants. From it appear 200-300 fry.
At first, the fry are fed by skin secretion from the sides of the parents. Sometimes it happens that this mucus is not enough. And then between adults there is a conflict for the right to feed. In such fights can be eaten and fry. To protect them, they put nets that allow the fry to swim, and adults are not allowed to eat them.
Grown up fish are deposited and fed eggs with artemia and yolk. The main conditions for the care of fry: regularly feed for even growth and replace water.
Important! Feeding the pipe maker violates the reproductive health of these fish!
The main problems of discus include:
Gill worms flukes. Symptoms: timidity, anxiety, gills swell and stick, or vice versa sticking out. The fish begins to choke. Treat with formalin baths for several days or with the special means ALL-NATURAL MELAFIX, which is purchased at the pet store. Ampulyarias, which eat the eggs of worms, actively help in the fight against this evil.
Skinworms fluke. Symptoms: anxiety, swaying from side to side, the skin in some areas becomes matte with a gray or bluish tint, the fish stop feeding, the skin on the fins collapses and sores appear on the body. The treatment is the same as in the first case.
Bowel disease. You can get infected from sick fish or through poor feed. Symptoms: excrement in the form of white transparent threads, sluggish fish, no appetite, darkening color. Ulcers with pus or holes may appear on the head. The edges of the fins are decaying. The diagnosis can only be confirmed after laboratory testing. Treat metronidazole.
Bacterial infection. A sick fish darkens coloring, fins are tightened. Mucous thickens. The edges of the fins turn white. The fish gets into the corner and does not eat. If you do not start treatment in time, the mucous will peel off with tatters, the eyes will become dull, the fins and tail will begin to decompose. This fish falls on its side. Antibiotics are used for treatment: Ciprofloxacin, Cyfran together with furasalidone.
Intestinal obstruction and dropsy. Diseases are not easy to distinguish. In both cases, the abdominal cavity swells. But in case of intestinal obstruction, the discus continues to take food until the intestines rupture, after which the fish quickly dies. When dropsy fish refuses to eat. Buglaziye can appear, excrement often becomes mucous-white. The cause of intestinal obstruction is poor and monotonous nutrition. The cause of dropsy is bad food and conditions.
Prevent the occurrence of diseases in fish can be if:
- create and maintain optimal conditions in the aquarium (temperature and purity of water, good nutrition, and others);
- prevent overpopulation of the aquarium;
- exclude the entry of pathogens from the natural environment or another aquarium;
- inspect fish daily, remove and treat diseased in a timely manner.
- Despite the fact that discus live in flocks, they also need a personal space. If you do not provide them with a large and deep aquarium, then they can get sick and die.
- Most modern discus, living in an aquarium, were artificially bred.
- These fish create permanent pairs and are very caring parents, feeding the fry at first with their special skin secretion.
If you look, the content of the discus is not such an overwhelming affair. Regular water changes, maintaining its high temperature at a constant level and suitable food will solve most problems. Good luck in this interesting business!
Aquarium fish discus. Fish discus: description, photos and conditions of detention
Among the various inhabitants of the aquarium world, a bright color and an unusual form distinguishes the discus, a fish from the cichlid family. It is quite demanding to the conditions of detention and capricious creation. Nevertheless, if you know about how to properly care for them, breeding discus even a novice aquarist.
The body of the fish has a round shape, strongly flattened from the sides, which is why it resembles a disk. Because of this, it got its name. Long fins stand out well on the body. The head is small, with bulging reddish eyes. Fish sizes vary from 15 to 20 cm. The color is quite diverse. The most common red discus is a fish, the photo of which is posted at the beginning of this article. On the main background, wavy blue lines placed along the lines are visible, smoothly moving to the fins. On the sides there are vertical stripes. This motley color helps cichlids hide from predators, hiding in vegetation. The color of the fish can change depending on its condition. For example, with strong fright, the general background of the body becomes pinkish-gray, and the stripes almost completely disappear. Life expectancy in an aquarium with good care can be 15 years.
Habitat in nature
Discus is a fish that naturally occurs mainly in the Amazon Basin. Catching wild specimens are practiced in Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. Prefers small slow-flowing soft or sour waters, where there are no harmful microorganisms. Usually flocks of discus accumulate in coastal thickets, hiding from predators in the washed away roots of trees and shrubs. A suitable water temperature for them is 26-31 ⁰С, although in shallow water it can reach 35 С. Cichlids choose mainly water bodies with sandy or covered with old leaves bottom.
Variety of species
In the 90s of the last century, several hybrid forms were bred by breeders who won much more popularity than aquarists among aquarists. Their poor resistance to diseases and higher demands for care were compensated for by an unusually bright and beautiful coloring.
Today there are 5 main groups, which include both natural and artificially derived representatives of the genus Discus (fish). The description of each is as follows:
- Red is the brightest and therefore the most numerous species. The main background can be of any shades - cherry, orange, scarlet, etc. In order to maintain the color, a fish needs special food containing specialized additives.
- Turquoise. This is the main color of the body of this discus. It clearly shows the pattern of spots and stripes. This type is most common among Russian lovers of aquarium living creatures, because it appeared in our country in the 70s.
- Cobalt It has some similarities with turquoise, but instead of a green hue, saturated blue prevails. It differs from other types of shiny stripes on the body and fins.
- Blue. It is considered one of the largest representatives of the genus. The main background is yellow-pink with a dusty effect.
- Golden Discus is a fish whose photo can be viewed below. It has the highest value among all of the above. The smaller pigment spots, the more valuable the specimen.
Each of these varieties of discus (fish with a certain color of the body) has many different variations.
Conditions of detention
Given the rather large size of these cichlids and the fact that they are usually populated in groups, the aquarium should be chosen roomy - with a capacity of at least 250 liters. It must be separate, because the discus is very susceptible to fatal diseases that are completely harmless to other fish. In addition, they have certain water requirements. Its temperature should be within 28-33 С. Too sensitive to the quality of water discus. Keeping with other fish is undesirable, since cleanliness is important for their comfortable living. It is also important to maintain a stable pH of 5.0-6.0. Any sudden changes in acidity can seriously harm the health of the fish.
It is necessary to do a replacement of half the volume of water in the aquarium once a week. A prerequisite is to install a good filter. An effective method of water purification is ozonation, but only in the hands of experienced aquarists, since exceeding the amount of ozone will lead to the death of discus. Safer to use ultraviolet light. Before settling the fish in a tank that was previously used, it must be properly washed and sanitized.
Lack of soil is permissible, but in the bare and empty aquarium the discus does not look so great. They get a completely different look, even if you just put small pebbles on the bottom. In addition, the soil with aquatic plants planted in it helps to maintain biological balance. The main thing is that while the bacteria do not penetrate into the aquarium. Periodically, the soil is cleaned from the accumulated waste products of fish.
For natural habitats of discus, bright lighting is not typical, so it is not required when kept at home. Although the bright light of the fish look just amazing.
Greens in the aquarium
The high temperature of the water required for the maintenance of this species of cichlids, and poor lighting create certain difficulties in growing plants. Therefore, you have to choose only those that can withstand such conditions. These are mainly such plants as ambulia, valisneria, anubias, didiplis, echinodorus. They also serve as natural filters and do not impede the movement of fish.
These cichlids are pretty picky in their food. Discus - carnivorous fish, almost half of its daily diet should be protein. For this purpose, special ground beef is prepared on the basis of beef heart, adding shrimp meat, fish fillets, nettle greens, various vegetables and vitamins. Some aquarists use animal food in the form of bloodworms and tubers. With such food, caution should be exercised, since it is usually extracted from polluted water bodies and can lead to poisoning or cause any dangerous disease. Before giving such food, it is defended for at least 5 days. Discus is a fish that is fed 2-3 times a day, removing all the residues after 10 minutes so that they do not spoil the water.
You can use and specialized industrial feed. Teach them gradually. At first, dry food in small quantities is added to ground beef heart, increasing the dose every day. The period of training lasts about 2 weeks.
The dry food for fish "Tetra Diskus" is in special demand, the bucket of which (10 l) can be purchased for 3.5 thousand rubles, and it will last for a long time. The finished food has a balanced composition, contains the necessary amount of vitamins and trace elements. In addition, it increases disease resistance and improves the color of the fish. At the bottom of the aquarium the food goes down slowly, so discus discusses it willingly.
This type of cichlids, despite its large size, has a calm and peaceful disposition. However, it is not recommended to keep discus fish with other types of fish. One of the reasons - the high temperature of the water, not all residents of the aquarium can withstand it. In addition, there is a serious risk of infection with a neighbor. Any other inhabitants are lost and almost become invisible against the background of bright colors, which are different discus. Compatibility with other fish they have good, only on condition that they have the same slowness and are not afraid of high temperature. Armored catfish (corridors) are quite consistent with these requirements. In addition, they destroy the remnants of food, with the result that the water in the tank stays clean longer.
It is possible to distinguish the female from the male by the geometry of the fins. In the female, if we continue imaginary straight lines from the edge of the anal and dorsal fins, they intersect the caudal fin. In the male, at best, they touch it slightly. Males are larger, have a more pointed dorsal fin. The location of the external genital organs also differs - the female has a wide and rounded ovipozitor, which is adapted to extract caviar.
The sexual maturity of discus begins at the age of 1.5-2 years, and the breeding period lasts from 2 to 3 years. If there are problems with the definition of males and females, then several fish are acquired for breeding. When it becomes clear that two of them formed a solid pair, they are transplanted into a separate breeding ground with a volume of at least 100 liters. In the tank place snags, clay pots, large stones and any other decorations. Round-the-clock lighting should be weak. Fish should be protected from stress, so the water changes, albeit regularly, but with great care. Its temperature is maintained within 28-30 ⁰C. Water hardness is important. If it is high, then the fertilization of the roe will become problematic. Optimum rigidity - no more than 3 degrees.
Spawning begins in the evening. A signal to it is the cleaning of the substrate and the trembling of the fins of the fish. The female lays from 200 to 400 eggs, which are fertilized by the male. The incubation period is 3-4 days. After another as much fry begin to swim. It is very important during this period to make a daily replacement of water by a quarter of the volume. In the first days of life, the main food for the fry is a special selection on the skin of the parents. When they no longer remain on one fish, another immediately swims up. After 2 weeks, the parents are sent back to the aquarium.
Sometimes there are too many of them, and then parents are unable to feed all the offspring. It happens that the nutritional secretions on the skin are completely absent. In such cases, in order to save the fry, it is necessary to give them artificial food. On the water of the spawning mix egg powder and make thin cakes. They are pressed tightly against the wall of the aquarium so that each slightly protrudes above the surface of the water. When the fry are 5-6 days old, they can be fed with nauplii of artemia. In the future, use any quality food of a suitable size.
The main reason for their occurrence - non-compliance with the rules of content. With good care, when attention is paid to water quality, lighting and nutrition, stress (the cause of many diseases) is practically excluded. Discus - aquarium fish, which are very sensitive to even minor changes. The main problems encountered are:
- Bowel disease. The reason may be poor-quality food or a sick neighbor. The fish becomes lethargic, refuses to eat. The excrement is like white thread. Purulent ulcers appear on the head and fins. An accurate diagnosis is established only by laboratory.
- Intestinal obstruction, dropsy. Occur as a result of poor nutrition. In fish, the abdominal cavity is swollen, possibly a bug-eyed. In the first case, the discus takes food until the intestines rupture, after which it dies. Dropsy is a complete lack of appetite.
- Bacterial infection. The symptoms of this disease can not be overlooked - the edges of the fins whiten, the mucous membrane thickens, the color of the body becomes darker. Fish loses appetite, clogs up in a corner. If you do not take time to rescue measures, gradually her eyes become turbid, fins and tail begin to decompose. Treated with antibiotics.
- Parasitic diseases and fungal infections - often occurring in discus.
- Gill and skin worms-flukes can lead to a very serious condition of the fish. In the fight against them help special tools sold in pet stores.
Discussions are difficult to treat, so it is much easier to avoid disease. This is possible only if you comply with the conditions of the pets in the aquarium. To do this, carefully monitor the purity and temperature of the water, use high-quality feed. It is necessary to prevent the entry of infection and pathogens into the aquarium. Discus is a fish, the compatibility of which with other inhabitants must be taken into account in order to avoid stress, which is the cause of many diseases.
Compatibility rules for discus with other fish
Discus are peaceful aquarium fish, slow and timid. Can get along with the same fish of similar size, but there are a number of reasons why they are not desirable to settle with other species of fish. It would seem that, as representatives of the Cichlids family, they should have a strong body and strong immunity, but their maintenance with other fish is still an open question.
Why it is not recommended to settle the discus in the general aquarium?
There are a number of reasons for this, among them:
- Discus has a slow temperament, they do not eat food as fast as other fish. When settling with agile neighbors, left without food.
- The discussions live at a high temperature range (28-30 ° C and above). With cold-water fish and some tropical species, the content will be impossible, such hydrobionts will not survive in such warm water.
- The maintenance of such fishes assumes daily replacement of water (20-30% of the total volume), for their well-being this is normal, for neighbors it is very dangerous.
- Discus - noble fish, have a calm character, but may show aggression to smaller fish, especially during the spawning period. As a cichlid, it is a territorial fish, it can protect its “possessions” even from larger fish.
Look at the unusual aquarium with discus, arvanoy and ramp.
- Discus has a weak immune system, sensitive to pathogens. New residents of the aquarium may bring with them parasites or such bacteria that the discus will hardly survive. If catfish corridor lives quietly with invasions, then the other fish from them will be very bad. Their body is weakened due to the age-old selection, it is also difficult to treat these fish.
- The appearance of these fish is so nice and beautiful that it makes no sense to settle with someone else. A flock of 6-8 individuals will decorate the aquarium, where there are few decorations and vegetation. They are the kings of domestic ponds!
Who can be contained with the discussion?
If you want to acquire different types of fish, and watch them through the glass of the general aquarium, check with whom the discus has full compatibility. This is to ensure that the content does not cause you trouble, and the pets do not experience stress. Also ensure that frequent water changes do not harm the neighbors of these cichlids.
The catfish pterigoplichts brocade are well tolerated by the high temperature of the water. They eat the remnants of food from the bottom of the tank, clean the aquarium glass. Periodically, soma must be given food of plant origin. There is one big minus - pterigoplicht is often caught from natural reservoirs, then put up for sale. They can be carriers of parasites or infections. Before settling into an aquarium, they are kept in quarantine for 2 weeks, adding a certain dose of medication to the water.
Admire the aquarium with discus and scalar.
When you are not sure of the origin of the fish - do not move it into a common tank, so you will protect the lives of all pets. In the extreme case, a beautiful species aquarium, with different plants and fish, will help to create these types of fish:
- Neon is a peaceful, small fish, compatibility with discus is complete. Neons are "indicators" of water status. They look harmonious with bright neighbors, do not cause them trouble. Some aquarists have successfully kept them with discus. But in this case, the temperature of the water in the pond should be 28 ° C, not higher. For cichlids, this is the lowest threshold, for neons, the upper one. The parameters of medium hardness and acidity are identical: pH 6.0-7.0, hardness up to 20 dH.
- Red tetras, or rhodostomuses, are bright fishes, live in a flock, have a peaceful character. Like the discus, they love the water soft and sour, clean. They swim in the middle layer of water, but they like shade more than light. Permissible water parameters: temperature 23-28 ° C, hardness 2-15 dh, acidity - 5.5-7.5 pH. Discus carries such parameters of water, but not below 27 degrees in temperature.
- Ornatus red is a haracin fish, the content of which is better by a flock in the common tank. Ornatus is undemanding in feeding, it prefers finely crushed food. Lives with the parameters of the aquatic environment: a temperature of 23-28 degrees, an acidity of 6.0-7.0 pH, a hardness of 10-15 dH.
- Ramirezi's apistogram — discus with her in “kinship,” this species also belongs to the Cichlid family. The size of the fish is small - 10-15 cm, the behavior is peaceful, non-conflict. Like discus, apistograms do not dig the ground, do not pull out plants with roots, prefer tropical aquariums with warm water. Eat well as discus, unpretentious in content. Permissible water parameters: temperature 24-28 ° C, hardness 8-15 dH, acidity - 6.5-7.5 pH. In the general aquarium for discus and apistograms there should be a constant siphon of the soil, regular replacement of water.
Discuss-care description spawning photo compatibility
Homeland discusus South America. Keeps fish in calm water, choosing
shady places off the coast, where you can hide under the roots of coastal trees and fallen timber in the water. Pompadour is one of the first representatives of the discus who appeared in amateur aquariums.
CARE AND CONTENT
The most important in the content of the discus is the quality of the water. The fish is very dirty, besides a lot of mucus. Practically all sources unanimously assert that practically nothing will allow to get away from water changes. Probably, it is possible to assemble a water recovery unit that will allow the use of a closed loop. But in this case, there will inevitably be a big tangle of problems associated, in particular, with the addition of trace elements, if there are plants, since the regeneration systems have nowhere to go without reverse osmosis systems and activated carbon. Therefore, we will not try to consider such expensive and complex complexes, especially since there is a way out and it is quite simple! His name is a duct. The duct is a very useful thing for almost all aquarium living organisms, whether fish or plants. In the case of discussions, she
acquires paramount role.
There is nothing in the content of the discus that an amateur cichlid couldn’t do with his arms growing properly. Be prepared for the fact that from the purchased teens to the kings of the aquarium not all will grow, some will remain small princes. In their natural habitat, discus fish live in water at an approximate temperature of 24 ° C. But if the aquarium does not raise it to 28-32 ° C, the fish begin to constantly get sick, lose their appetite and move a little.
On one discus it is necessary to allocate 40-50 liters. In this case, it is enough to change the water 2-3 times a week. If you do not resist the beauty of these fish and the density of landing is high, daily changes are vital. In extreme cases, one day can be missed, but then feeding the fish is undesirable. In the aquarium should be a good aeration and a powerful filter, you can with peat additives.
The discs are very sensitive to changes in the acidity of water, the best option is pH 5.5 - 7.0 and dH up to 15. These fishes can live in hard water, but they will not multiply. It is better to buy a test when preparing an aquarium and check all the parameters in advance.
Here, perhaps, that's all.
Contain diskwithit turns out it's not that difficult, right?
But if you nevertheless decided to settle other fish with discus fish, then it would be better if they are aquarian pets with similar conditions. For example, armored catfish, corridor panda, sterba corridor or golden corridor prefer to live at temperatures up to + 34 ° С. In addition, these fish will eat up the food, which remained uneaten eaters.
Under conditions of high temperature and intensive water exchange, the brocade pterigoplichtis also feels good, which can also be shared with discus. In addition, this species of catfish cleans the glass aquarium well.
There is a certain compatibility of discus fish with some other fish, such as the scalar and red neon, the blue congo and the clown's battles, the red-headed tetra, the apple snail and various shrimps.
Unlike other cichlids, the discus is a peaceful and very livable fish. They are not predatory, and do not dig the ground like many cichlids. The discs are schooling fish and prefer to keep in groups of 6 pieces, and they do not tolerate loneliness.
The problem with the selection of neighbors for the discus is that they are slow, slowly eating and living at a temperature of water that is high enough for other fish. Because of this, as well as not to bring the disease, discus often contain in a separate aquarium. But, if you still want to share your neighbors with them, then they are compatible with: red neons, Ramirezi apistogram, clown combat, red-bearing tetra, congo, and various catfishes in order to keep the aquarium clean, such as tarakatum, catfish with suction instead mouth is best avoided, as they can attack the discus. Some razvodchiki advise to avoid corridors, as they often carry internal parasites.
Reproduction, breeding, breeding
If you decide to breed discus, they should be grown together in a group of 6-8 individuals. Over time, the fish will be divided into pairs, which can later be used for breeding. A soft, weakly acidic water will be required for the spawning grounds so that the quantity of fertilized eggs will be large enough. The minimum spawning volume is 100 liters, while the soil and plants in the spawning pool are not needed. Clay pots or trimming ceramic pipes in an aquarium will serve as a substrate.
Water temperature should be at the level of 30-32 degrees. Discus discus spawning seasonally, therefore they can multiply up to 10 times during one period. It happens that caviar dies or is eaten by parents. After this comes a fairly long break.
However, discus can breed for two to three years, and their sexual maturity begins at the age of one year. In one spawning, about 200 fry are obtained, which the parents feed up with the secret secreted by the skin. If you decide to feed the fry yourself, then the parents must be removed. Feed the young should be from 5-6 days naupliyami Artemia.
As fry grow, you can use any quality feed that is suitable in size. As you can see, discus fish are quite interesting fish with their own requirements and habits. However, if you are ready to take care of them and follow all the recommendations, in gratitude discus will give you a lot of positive emotions.
DIFFERENCE OF THE BOX FROM THE GAME
One of the most frequently asked questions to the distributors is "-How to determine the sex of your fish?". There are several signs by which it is possible to do this. In this article I will try to tell you about the methods of recognizing the sex of discus, which are used by many experienced breeders.
In youth, it is almost impossible to distinguish female discus from males. The first opportunity to begin to be determined with the floor appears when they begin to divide into pairs. In young discus-sexes of both sexes, the rounded dorsal fins can only be distinguished by the dorsal fin when they grow up. Since, on our part, we cannot achieve rapid growth and sexual difference, respectively, we can only observe.FEEDING
Every person who loves and contains aquarium fish discus should know how to care for them, how to feed the discus, and all the details of this species of fish.
Feed the discus should be 2 times a day - while it is necessary that the food does not remain on the surface of the water in the aquarium, for a long time: prolonged presence of food in the water increases the level of ammonia, and this is very harmful for fish. Therefore, it is necessary that the fish eat all the food for 5-10 minutes. Discus does not very willingly eat from the surface of the aquarium, so it is best if the food is at the bottom of the aquarium.
There are three varieties of food for discus - live food, frozen and dry. Live food for discus is the bloodworm and the pipeker. Многие аквариумисты утверждают, что мотыль обязательно должен присутствовать в корме дискуса, поскольку он способствует правильной работе кишечника рыбы.Рыбок кормят живым кормом (мотыль и трубочник, артемия им не очень нравится) или специально приготовленным фаршем, не лишними будут и качественные корма с витаминами и добавками для цвета.
MOLLINESIA CONTENTS FEEDING COMPATIBILITY SPREADS CARE DESCRIPTION
Дискус голубой: содержание, совместимость, описание
Дискус голубой Symphysodon aequifasciata haraldi
Order, family: Южно-американская цихлида.
Comfortable water temperature: 25-30 С.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%.
Совместимость Дискуса голубого: лучше содержать отдельно. Совместимы со всеми не агрессивными рыбками: данки, теренции,минор, тетра, сомы и т.д. Some comrades recommend an angelfish in neighbors discus, but I would not risk putting young discus to adult scalars, since the latter are capable of aggression. And taking into account the cost of discus and scalar - experiments are equivalent to recklessness.
Useful tips: Discus is very beautiful fish - they look gorgeous in a specific aquarium. However, there is one thing: the fish are very "capricious." Discussions are demanding in terms of content, conditions, and require special attention from the host. Forgetting about them for two weeks you can get a sad outcome.
The discs inhabit the upper and middle Amazon. They are kept in shady places of calm water bodies, above all near the shores, creating reliable shelters.
Discus is a big fish. In the natural environment, it reaches a length of 20 cm, in aquariums the size does not exceed 12 cm. The shape of the body is discoid. The dorsal and anal fins are very long, bending around almost the whole body. Pelvic fins narrow. The body is brown with vertical blue stripes. The whole body is decorated with numerous blue strokes. Males are larger and brighter than females, males fins are more pointed.
Discus is very demanding to care - for their content you need a tall and spacious aquarium. The minimum size of an aquarium for a couple is 100 liters. However, schooling fish and for its maintenance (5-6 individuals) an aquarium is needed from 300 to 500 liters.
Comfortable water parameters for keeping discs: hardness up to 10-15, pH 5.8-7.5, temperature 25-30 C. Aeration and filtration are required.
At the bottom of the aquarium arrange small shelters of snags and stones.
Plants suitable for discus - is Amazonian Echinodorus, cryptocoryne, ambulia, cabombou. The lighting is moderate. Once or twice a week, cleaning in the aquarium and changing the water to fresh is recommended.
Food for blue discus - live variety of food and substitutes. The diet for adults and large individuals can be varied with pieces of fresh lean beef meat (I recommend using a bull heart).
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, areovan, discus etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
Discussions are recommended to keep in a separate aquarium: firstly, they themselves are very beautiful, and secondly the discus is very "demanding" to neighbors and conditions.
Other species of discus brachidania can be neighbors in the general aquarium.
Discus is a very capricious fish and even a slight deterioration in conditions can lead to their illness. If the fish are sick, first of all determine what they are sick (read info or consult at the pet store). The general and recommended measures in case of illness are raising the water temperature to 32 ° C and ensuring good aeration of the water. If this proves ineffective, you can use table salt at the rate of 5 g per 1 l of water or biomitsin 120 mg per 1 liter of aquarium water.
A selection of beautiful photos of discus blue
Interesting video about the blue discus
Category: Aquarium Articles / AQUARIUM FISHES | Views: 8,086 | Date: 03/14/2013, 10:36 | Comments (0) We also recommend reading:
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Popular types of discus titles
Discus are freshwater fish of the family Cichlovae (Cichlids), these days are widespread in domestic aquariums. Wild discus are found in the waters of South America. Types of discus: Symphysodon discus, Symphysodon aequifasciatus, and most recently - Symphysodon haraldi, which recently received a scientific description.
Natural varieties of this fish are practically not found in domestic aquariums, because they constantly produce different color forms, they are more popular among razvodchiki. Breeding species slowly adapt to captivity, are prone to hypothermia with subsequent diseases, require special attention to themselves. Discus are one of the most difficult to care for aquarium fish that live in water parameters where other aquatic animals cannot live.
Natural habitat: water bodies of Peru, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia. On the European continent discussions were in the 30s of the twentieth century. Initially, the Discus species were divided into subspecies, but later ichthyologists abolished the classification, as a result of which three species were designated.
Discus are relatively large aquarium fish, the shape of the body is discoid, flattened symmetry. Their size is 15-25 cm in length, regardless of the variety. “Discus” is translated from Latin as a “disk”, so the fish received this name.
It is difficult to describe the general characteristics of body color, because all species and breeds are very different. The most famous discus fish in the aquarium are: leopard, pigeon, green, red, pigeon's blood, white, turkis and many others. These fish interbred with each other, as a result, the offspring received a weak immune system, although the color of their scales is very contrasting. Ornamental breeds have a capricious, capricious temper.
In these fish, the dorsal and anal fins are parallel to each other; they are long, toothed. Caudal fin single-bladed. In some species, the ventral fins end with threadlike formations, like an angelfish. Sexual dimorphism is weakly expressed: in males the forehead is more pronounced, the lips are thick.
Look at the species diversity of discus.
Are compatible with other fish?
Despite its capricious nature, discus fish are peaceful aquarium fish, they can be settled in a flock of 6-8 individuals or more. Like cichlids, like to swim in a pair, they do not tolerate loneliness. They do not dig the ground, do not pull out plants with roots. However, it may be difficult to settle with other fish.
Firstly, discus fish are slow and bright fish, any active neighbors will disturb them. Secondly, they live in the high temperature of water (28-32 degrees Celsius). Thirdly, their immunity is weak, any unsuccessful settlement threatens with an epidemiological outbreak. They are recommended to be kept in a separate species reservoir.
This fish can get along with heat-loving species that are ready to tolerate the high temperature of the water, soft and slightly acid. A successful settlement turned out with fish: Ramirezi's apistograms, clown battles, red neons, red-nesting tetras, congo fish, and taracatum catfish. You can not settle with large and predatory fish, as well as catfish, whose mouth is in the form of a sucker. It is not recommended to settle with the corridors - they often suffer parasitic invasions.
Discus are fledgling fishes that form a pair from a young age, often spawning with the same fish of a different color, receiving motley offspring. Therefore, the types and breeds of these fish are displayed at a rapid rate. The female lays the eggs on broadleaf plants or another flat surface (rock, filter, snags, glass aquarium, cone). In order for the caviar to fertilize, the water in the spawn should be 30-32 ° C, acidity 5.5-6.0 pH, hardness 3-10 dGH.
The female produces 200-500 eggs, which hatch in 3 days. The first days of life fry feed on secretory secretions from the skin of the parents, at this time the length of the fry is 5 mm. On the 4-5th day after this, the fry can be fed with Artemia. After 2 weeks, the fry and parents can be divided by moving them into separate aquariums. It is necessary to feed the fry 6-8 times a day in small portions, and after 3 months switch to 6-time feeding. Weak fry can destroy male and female, but the couple takes good care of the offspring.
Take a look at a couple of blue discus (Blue turquoise discus) with fry.
The names of species and breeds of discus correspond to their appearance, behavior or origin. Outwardly, they are all different from each other, but the conditions of detention, their behavioral features are almost identical. The most beautiful and common discus in aquariums:
- Pigeon fish is an artificially derived hybrid of discus that appeared in Thailand. The form of turquoise turquoise and red turkis. Pigeon blood is a form of discus whose producers do not produce "pure" offspring, it is very similar to their ancestors. The standard color of scales is white with wavy red stripes arranged horizontally. The eyes are red, the mouth is small. Fins are jagged, with white and red stripes.
- Green (Symphysodon aequifasciata aequifasciata) is a “natural” species endemic to the Amazon. It was first described by J. Pellegrin in the early twentieth century. The average size in nature is 15 cm, the fins are high, feather-shaped, the color of scales varies from light brown to green. Body color can change, become orange or yellow, sometimes - red. Vertical black stripes are noticeable on the body: the first strip crosses the eye, the latter ends at the beginning of the tail.
- Leopard fish (Leopard discus) is an artificially bred breed, which resulted from the crossing of the green discus and the red turkis. The most spectacular form of discus. The color of scales has a "leopard" pattern, on a white background there are red, randomly scattered small spots. Body length - 20 cm. These fish are very sensitive to light.
- Snow White (Snow white discus) - a hybrid form, appeared in the 90s of the twentieth century. It was bred in Malaysia from the brown discus. The color of the body of the fish is white, with neon shimmer. A new form of this hybrid - albino, with red eyes and snow-white body. As a result of the crossing of white discus and red, another color form of white-red color has turned out, in which the fins have a “leopard” color.