Aquarium discus - the kings of the fish
Discus is an incredibly beautiful and original body fish. No wonder they are called kings in a freshwater aquarium. Large, incredibly bright, and not easy bright, but many different colors ... why aren't kings? And as befits the kings, unhurried and stately. These peaceful and elegant fish attract the attention of aquarists like no other fish.
Aquarium fish discus are cichlids and are divided into three subspecies, two of which have been known for a long time, and one is relatively recently discovered. Symphysodon aequifasciatus and Symphysodon discus are the most famous, they live in the central and lower reaches of the Amazon River, and are very similar in color and behavior. But the third species, the blue discus Symphysodon haraldi was relatively recently described by Heiko Bleher and is awaiting further classification and confirmation.
Of course, at the moment wild species of discus are much less common than artificially derived forms. Although these discusses have huge differences in color from the wild form, they are much less adapted to life in an aquarium, prone to diseases and require more care. Moreover, discus is one of the most demanding types of aquarium fish, requiring stable parameters of water, a large aquarium, good feeding, and the fish itself is extremely expensive.
Habitat in nature
Homeland discus in South America: Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, where they live in the Amazon and its tributaries. It was first introduced to Europe between 1930 and 1940. Earlier attempts were unsuccessful, but gave the necessary experience.
Previously, this species was divided into several subspecies, however, later studies have abolished the classification.
At the moment, there are three types of discus that live in nature: green discus (Symphysodon aequifasciatus), Hekkel discus or red discus (Symphysodon discus). The third species, described by Heiko Bleher relatively recently, is a brown discus (Symphysodon haraldi).
It's hard to say what kind of hybrid it is.
Green Discus Symphysodon aequifasciatus
It was described by Pellegrin in 1904. It inhabits the central Amazon, mainly in the river Putumayo in northern Peru, and in Braslia in Lake Tefé.
Hekkel Discus Symphysodon discus
Or red discus, was first described in 1840 by Dr. John Heckel (Johann Jacob Heckel), he lives in South America, in Brazil in the rivers Rio Negro, Rio Trombetas.
Hekkel Discus Symphysodon discus
Blue Discus Symphysodon haraldi
It was first described by Schultz in 1960. Inhabits the lower reaches of the Amazon River
Blue Discus Symphysodon haraldi
Discus is a fairly large aquarium fish, disc-shaped. Depending on the species, it can grow up to 15-25 cm in length. This is one of the most compressed cichlids from the sides, resembling a disk in its shape, for which it received the name.
At the moment, it is impossible to describe the coloring of discus, since a large number of different colors and types are derived by amateurs. Even a single listing of them will take a lot of time. The most popular ones are pigeon blood discus, blue diamond discus, turkis, snake skin discus, leopard discus, pigeon, yellow discus, red and many others.
But, in the process of crossing, these fish not only acquired a bright color, but also a weak immunity and susceptibility to diseases. Unlike the wild form, they are more capricious and demanding.
Difficulty in content
Discussions should be kept by aquarists with great experience, and certainly this is not a suitable fish for beginners. They are very demanding, and even for some experienced aquarists will be a considerable challenge, especially in breeding. The first difficulty an aquarist faces after a purchase is the acclimatization of the discus to the new aquarium. Adult discus better tolerate relocation, but even they are prone to stress. Large size, poor health, demands on the content and feeding, high water temperature for maintenance, all these points need to be known and taken into account before you buy your first discus. You need a large aquarium, a very good filter, branded feed and a lot of patience.
During the acquisition of fish, you need to be very careful, as they are prone to diseases decoy, and other diseases, and the move will cause stress and will serve as an incentive for the development of the disease.
Basically aquarium discus eat animal feed, it can be both frozen and live. For example: tubule, bloodworm, artemia, coretra, gammarus. But, lovers of discus feed them with either branded food for discus or a variety of stuffing, which includes: beef heart, meat of shrimps and mussels, fish fillets, nettle, vitamins, various vegetables. Almost every lover has his own proven recipe, sometimes consisting of dozens of ingredients.
It is important to remember that discus fish are rather shy and inhibited, and while the other fish eat, they can huddle somewhere in the corner of the aquarium. For this reason, most often they are kept separately from other fish.
We also note that the remains of protein-rich feed falling to the bottom cause an increase in the content of ammonia and nitrates in water, which adversely affects the discus. To avoid this, you must either regularly siphon the bottom, or not use the ground, which is often what amateurs do.
Live food, especially bloodworms and tubers, can cause both various diseases and food poisoning in discus, which is why they are most often fed either with minced meat or artificial food.
Shooting in Amazon:
Content in an aquarium
To keep the discus you need an aquarium of 250 liters, but if you are going to contain several fish, then the volume should be larger. Since the fish is high, then the aquarium is desirable high, and indeed a long one. A powerful external filter, a regular siphon of the soil and a weekly substitution of a part of the water are required. Discus is very sensitive to the content of ammonia and nitrates in water, and indeed to the parameters and purity of water. And although they themselves produce a little waste, they eat mostly minced meat, which quickly disintegrate in water and pollute it.
Discus prefer soft, slightly acidic water, and as for the temperature, they need warmer water than most tropical fish need. This is one of the reasons why it is hard for the discus to find neighbors. The normal temperature for the content of the discus is 28-31 ° C, ph: 6.0-6.5, 10 - 15 dGH. With other parameters, the propensity to disease and death of fish increases.
The discussions are very timid fish, they do not like loud sounds, sudden movements, blows to the glass and restless neighbors. It is better to have an aquarium in places where they will be disturbed the least.
3000 liters with discussion:
Aquariums with plants are suitable for discus, if the latter has enough space for swimming. But, at the same time, it is necessary to take into account that not all plants can well withstand temperatures above 28 ° C, and it is rather difficult to select suitable species. Possible options: didiplis, valisneria, anubias nana, ambulia, rotala indica.
Soil can be any, but usually contain discus in aquariums without soil and plants. Thereby greatly facilitating the care of fish, and reducing the risk of disease.
When you first release the discus into your tank, give them time to move away from stress. Do not turn on the light, do not stand at the aquarium, put plants in the aquarium or something for which the fish can hide.
Although it is not easy to care for discussions, and they are very demanding, but for a keen and consistent aquarist, they will bring a huge amount of satisfaction and joy.
Compatible with other fish
Unlike other cichlids, the discus is a peaceful and very livable fish. They are not predatory, and do not dig the ground like many cichlids. The discs are schooling fish and prefer to keep in groups of 6 pieces, and they do not tolerate loneliness.
The problem with the selection of neighbors for the discus is that they are slow, slowly eating and living at a temperature of water that is high enough for other fish. Because of this, as well as not to bring the disease, discus often contain in a separate aquarium. But, if you still want to share your neighbors with them, then they are compatible with: red neons, Ramirezi apistogram, clown combat, red-bearing tetra, congo, and various catfishes in order to keep the aquarium clean, such as tarakatum, catfish with suction instead mouth is best avoided, as they can attack the discus. Some razvodchiki advise to avoid corridors, as they often carry internal parasites.
It is difficult to distinguish the female from the male from the discus, it is probably possible only during spawning. Experienced aquarists are distinguished on the head, the male has a steeper forehead and thick lips.
Discussions with Aquarama Exhibitions in Singapore:
Couple with fry:
On the breeding of discus you can write more than one article, and it is better to do this to experienced rearing. We will tell you in general. So, discus fawns form a stable pair, but very simply intersect with other fish in color. This is used by breeders to display new, previously unknown types of color.
The discus spawn is laid on plants, snags, stones, decor, now special cones are sold, which are convenient and easy to maintain. Although spawning can be successful in hard water, in order for the roe to fertilize, the hardness should be no higher than 6 ° dGH. Water should be slightly acidic (5.5 - 6 °), soft (3-10 ° dGH) and very warm (27.7 - 31 ° C).
The female lays about 200-400 eggs that will hatch in 60 hours. The first 5-6 days of their life the fry eat the secret from the skin, which is produced by their parents.
Aquarium fish discus. Fish discus: description, photos and conditions of detention
Among the various inhabitants of the aquarium world, a bright color and an unusual form distinguishes the discus, a fish from the cichlid family. It is quite demanding to the conditions of detention and capricious creation. Nevertheless, if you know about how to properly care for them, breeding discus even a novice aquarist.
The body of the fish has a round shape, strongly flattened from the sides, which is why it resembles a disk. Because of this, it got its name. Long fins stand out well on the body. The head is small, with bulging reddish eyes. Fish sizes vary from 15 to 20 cm. The color is quite diverse. The most common red discus is a fish, the photo of which is posted at the beginning of this article. On the main background, wavy blue lines placed along the lines are visible, smoothly moving to the fins. On the sides there are vertical stripes. This motley color helps cichlids hide from predators, hiding in vegetation. The color of the fish can change depending on its condition. For example, with strong fright, the general background of the body becomes pinkish-gray, and the stripes almost completely disappear. Life expectancy in an aquarium with good care can be 15 years.
Habitat in nature
Discus is a fish that naturally occurs mainly in the Amazon Basin. Catching wild specimens are practiced in Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. Prefers small slow-flowing soft or sour waters, where there are no harmful microorganisms. Usually flocks of discus accumulate in coastal thickets, hiding from predators in the washed away roots of trees and shrubs. A suitable water temperature for them is 26-31 ⁰С, although in shallow water it can reach 35 С. Cichlids choose mainly water bodies with sandy or covered with old leaves bottom.
Variety of species
In the 90s of the last century, several hybrid forms were bred by breeders who won much more popularity than aquarists among aquarists. Their poor resistance to diseases and higher demands for care were compensated for by an unusually bright and beautiful coloring.
Today there are 5 main groups, which include both natural and artificially derived representatives of the genus Discus (fish). The description of each is as follows:
- Red is the brightest and therefore the most numerous species. The main background can be of any shades - cherry, orange, scarlet, etc. In order to maintain the color, a fish needs special food containing specialized additives.
- Turquoise. This is the main color of the body of this discus. It clearly shows the pattern of spots and stripes. This type is most common among Russian lovers of aquarium living creatures, because it appeared in our country in the 70s.
- Cobalt. It has some similarities with turquoise, but instead of a green hue, saturated blue prevails. It differs from other types of shiny stripes on the body and fins.
- Blue. It is considered one of the largest representatives of the genus. The main background is yellow-pink with a dusty effect.
- Golden Discus is a fish whose photo can be viewed below. It has the highest value among all of the above. The smaller pigment spots, the more valuable the specimen.
Each of these varieties of discus (fish with a certain color of the body) has many different variations.
Conditions of detention
Given the rather large size of these cichlids and the fact that they are usually populated in groups, the aquarium should be chosen roomy - with a capacity of at least 250 liters. It must be separate, because the discus is very susceptible to fatal diseases that are completely harmless to other fish. In addition, they have certain water requirements. Its temperature should be within 28-33 С. Too sensitive to the quality of water discus. Keeping with other fish is undesirable, since cleanliness is important for their comfortable living. It is also important to maintain a stable pH of 5.0-6.0. Any sudden changes in acidity can seriously harm the health of the fish.
It is necessary to do a replacement of half the volume of water in the aquarium once a week. A prerequisite is to install a good filter. An effective method of water purification is ozonation, but only in the hands of experienced aquarists, since exceeding the amount of ozone will lead to the death of discus. Safer to use ultraviolet light. Before settling the fish in a tank that was previously used, it must be properly washed and sanitized.
Lack of soil is permissible, but in the bare and empty aquarium the discus does not look so great. They get a completely different look, even if you just put small pebbles on the bottom. In addition, the soil with aquatic plants planted in it helps to maintain biological balance. The main thing is that while the bacteria do not penetrate into the aquarium. Periodically, the soil is cleaned from the accumulated waste products of fish.
For natural habitats of discus, bright lighting is not typical, so it is not required when kept at home. Although the bright light of the fish look just amazing.
Greens in the aquarium
The high temperature of the water required for the maintenance of this species of cichlids, and poor lighting create certain difficulties in growing plants. Therefore, you have to choose only those that can withstand such conditions. These are mainly such plants as ambulia, valisneria, anubias, didiplis, echinodorus. They also serve as natural filters and do not impede the movement of fish.
These cichlids are pretty picky in their food. Discus - carnivorous fish, almost half of its daily diet should be protein. For this purpose, special ground beef is prepared on the basis of beef heart, adding shrimp meat, fish fillets, nettle greens, various vegetables and vitamins. Some aquarists use animal food in the form of bloodworms and tubers. With such food, caution should be exercised, since it is usually extracted from polluted water bodies and can lead to poisoning or cause any dangerous disease. Before giving such food, it is defended for at least 5 days. Discus is a fish that is fed 2-3 times a day, removing all the residues after 10 minutes so that they do not spoil the water.
You can use and specialized industrial feed. Teach them gradually. At first, dry food in small quantities is added to ground beef heart, increasing the dose every day. The period of training lasts about 2 weeks.
The dry food for fish "Tetra Diskus" is in special demand, the bucket of which (10 l) can be purchased for 3.5 thousand rubles, and it will last for a long time. The finished food has a balanced composition, contains the necessary amount of vitamins and trace elements. In addition, it increases disease resistance and improves the color of the fish. At the bottom of the aquarium the food goes down slowly, so discus discusses it willingly.
This type of cichlids, despite its large size, has a calm and peaceful disposition. However, it is not recommended to keep discus fish with other types of fish. One of the reasons - the high temperature of the water, not all residents of the aquarium can withstand it. In addition, there is a serious risk of infection with a neighbor. Any other inhabitants are lost and almost become invisible against the background of bright colors, which are different discus. Совместимость с другими рыбами у них неплохая, только при условии, что те обладают такой же медлительностью и не боятся высокой температуры. Этим требованиям вполне соответствуют панцирные сомики (коридорасы). Кроме того, они уничтожают остатки корма, в результате чего вода в аквариуме дольше остается чистой.
Отличить самку от самца можно по геометрии плавников. In the female, if we continue imaginary straight lines from the edge of the anal and dorsal fins, they intersect the caudal fin. In the male, at best, they touch it slightly. Males are larger, have a more pointed dorsal fin. The location of the external genital organs also differs - the female has a wide and rounded ovipozitor, which is adapted to highlight caviar.
The sexual maturity of discus begins at the age of 1.5-2 years, and the breeding period lasts from 2 to 3 years. If there are problems with the definition of males and females, then several fish are acquired for breeding. When it becomes clear that two of them formed a solid pair, they are transplanted into a separate breeding ground with a volume of at least 100 liters. In the tank place snags, clay pots, large stones and any other decorations. Round-the-clock lighting should be weak. Fish should be protected from stress, so the water changes, albeit regularly, but with great care. Its temperature is maintained within 28-30 ⁰C. Water hardness is important. If it is high, then the fertilization of the roe will become problematic. Optimum rigidity - no more than 3 degrees.
Spawning begins in the evening. A signal to it is the cleaning of the substrate and the trembling of the fins of the fish. The female lays from 200 to 400 eggs, which are fertilized by the male. The incubation period is 3-4 days. After another as much fry begin to swim. It is very important during this period to make a daily replacement of water by a quarter of the volume. In the first days of life, the main food for the fry is a special selection on the skin of the parents. When they no longer remain on one fish, another immediately swims up. After 2 weeks, the parents are sent back to the aquarium.
Sometimes there are too many of them, and then parents are unable to feed all the offspring. It happens that the nutritional secretions on the skin are completely absent. In such cases, in order to save the fry, it is necessary to give them artificial food. On the water of the spawning mix egg powder and make thin cakes. They are pressed tightly against the wall of the aquarium so that each slightly protrudes above the surface of the water. When the fry are 5-6 days old, they can be fed with nauplii of artemia. In the future, use any quality food of a suitable size.
The main reason for their occurrence - non-compliance with the rules of content. With good care, when attention is paid to water quality, lighting and nutrition, stress (the cause of many diseases) is practically excluded. Discus - aquarium fish, which are very sensitive to even minor changes. The main problems encountered:
- Bowel disease. The reason may be poor-quality food or a sick neighbor. The fish becomes lethargic, refuses to eat. The excrement is like white thread. Purulent ulcers appear on the head and fins. An accurate diagnosis is established only by laboratory.
- Intestinal obstruction, dropsy. Occur as a result of poor nutrition. In fish, the abdominal cavity is swollen, possibly a bug-eyed. In the first case, the discus takes food until the intestines rupture, after which it dies. Dropsy is a complete lack of appetite.
- Bacterial infection. The symptoms of this disease can not be overlooked - the edges of the fins whiten, the mucous membrane thickens, the color of the body becomes darker. Fish loses appetite, clogs up in a corner. If you do not take time to rescue measures, gradually her eyes become turbid, fins and tail begin to decompose. Treated with antibiotics.
- Parasitic diseases and fungal infections - often occurring in discus.
- Gill and skin worms-flukes can lead to a very serious condition of the fish. In the fight against them help special tools sold in pet stores.
Discussions are difficult to treat, so it is much easier to avoid disease. This is possible only if you comply with the conditions of the pets in the aquarium. To do this, carefully monitor the purity and temperature of the water, use high-quality feed. It is necessary to prevent the entry of infection and pathogens into the aquarium. Discus is a fish, the compatibility of which with other inhabitants must be taken into account in order to avoid stress, which is the cause of many diseases.
What you need for the comfort of discus
Discus is a beautiful freshwater fish of the Cichlid family. It has long been cultivated in home aquariums. Keeping the fish possible in spacious tanks, there will be comfortable pet. The range of temperature threshold for discus is rather narrow - from 26 to 32 ° C, it prefers warm water, as the best option is a tropical aquarium. It is better to keep discus in water at a temperature of 28–30 ° C; keeping it at a low temperature is fraught with colds and other diseases. High water temperatures for fish are allowed during quarantine - it can reach 33-35 ° C, this range is allowed for 2-3 days. In a spawning aquarium, where fry reach and develop, high-quality growth and care will be ensured by a water temperature of 30-32 ° C.
What should be the water for these fish?
Like a cichlid fish, discus loves subacid and soft water, with a neutral pH level (6.0-7.5), and a hardness of dH 10-15. It was observed that the fish can live in water with parameters superior to neutral ones. The discus fish can transfer alkaline water pH up to 8.0, and with hardness above 20 dH. However, such parameters of the aquatic environment will not stimulate spawning, and the fry will not mature in it.
Watch a video story about the discus.
Despite the fact that today there are many drugs for water purification, it is still necessary to change it. You can make a daily replacement of 10% of water for fresh similar parameters, or 10-20% of water every 1-2 days. Overdoing with replacements is not necessary, otherwise the fish will get a lot of stress. Is it possible to understand how often water should be changed? Yes, this is possible if you know all the characteristics of your tank:
- Notice which filter is installed in your tank;
- What is the volume of your aquarium, how many fish live in it;
- Chemical indicators of water;
- At what temperature does the fish contain water - the lower to, the slower the food decomposes, and the metabolic processes in the body of the fish proceed more slowly.
Novice aquarists believe that lowering the pH level will improve the health of the fish. The standard method of lowering the pH - the use of peat, wooden kryagy, mixing tap water with osmosis or distilled. You can resort to the help of chemistry - with the addition of phosphoric acid. Acidic water stops the reproduction of unicellular bacteria, preventing the development of diseases. Lower the pH will help the tools that are sold in pet stores. One drop is enough to bring the pH to neutral.
The main thing for discus is the purity of water. Any aquarium fish wants to live in a fresh environment where there are no extraneous smells and dirt. Regular replacement of water, periodic cleaning of the tank will ensure the removal of ammonia, nitrites and nitrates, waste products of fish. Powerful filter will help remove all unnecessary.
How to prepare a tank for the settlement of fish?
The maintenance of discus requires the preparation of a rectangular-shaped clean glass tank with a volume of 250 liters or more. Fish care will be simplified if the aquarium is as prepared as possible for the colonization of these pets. Do not clean the aquarium glass with soap or any detergent. The easiest and most affordable way is to clean the aquarium glass using baking soda. It disinfects the surface, removing alkali and bacteria, including algae. If other fish lived in the tank before the discus, it should be thoroughly cleaned.
Pour 2 tablespoons of baking soda into a plate, add ¼ cup of water to it, stir until a mushy consistency is formed. Apply it to the surface of the container without missing a single corner. Let the soda dry, and after 2 hours wash it off with warm water. Rinse the aquarium several times. If the tank is completely new, you can simply fill it with infused water, turn on a toothless filter, and after a few hours drain this water.
Admire the discus in a large aquarium.
Proper care for the discus fish will be provided by quality water. Fill tap water in several glass jars and let it stand for 2-3 days to allow chlorine vapors to disappear. To measure water parameters, use special devices and indicators. After pouring water into the aquarium, the filter, heating, and compressor are turned on. While the biological environment will be adjusted, some more days will pass. Only then will it be possible to run the fish.
Scenery, feeding, compatibility
Discus are bright aquarium fish, so it is better to keep them in the tank, where the very beautiful background is the scenery. The bottom of the aquarium can be covered with soil - it is necessary for biological balance in the pond, but the substrate must be treated and clean. Fine gravel and sand will be suitable as soil. The soil must be cleaned of the waste products of fish and food residues using a siphon. If you do not like this idea, plant potted water plants, and place them on the bottom.
Discus do not like too bright lighting, with moderate light, their scales look bright and beautiful. Bright light can cause fear to pets. Fish care includes lighting lamps with fluorescent power of 0.5 W per 1 liter.
Unlike its relatives, African and South American cyclides, discus fish can digest such live food as bloodworm and pipe shaker. These feeds should be frozen and pretreated; before serving, the feed is well washed, then frozen. Feed them only in a week. Fish food companies also produce feeds for discus fish. Feeding should be in small portions, 3 times a day, after 10 minutes, the uneaten food must be removed.
Care of the discus can be easier if it is not settled with other aquarium fish. Why is it recommended to settle separately? Because discus likes the high temperature of the water, not every fish can handle it. During the spawning period the discus becomes more aggressive. In the aquarium with these pets, the water must be changed every day, which not all fish will like, so a pair of discus can live in a separate aquarium.
Discus blue: content, compatibility, description
Discus blue Symphysodon aequifasciata haraldi
Order, family: South American cichlid.
Comfortable water temperature: 25-30 C.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%.
Blue Discus Compatibility: better to keep separate. Compatible with all non-aggressive fish: dunk, terence, minor, tetra, soma, etc. Some comrades recommend an angelfish in neighbors discus, but I would not risk putting young discus to adult scalars, since the latter are capable of aggression. And taking into account the cost of discus and scalar - experiments are equivalent to recklessness.
Useful tips: Discus is very beautiful fish - they look gorgeous in a specific aquarium. However, there is one thing: the fish are very "capricious." Discussions are demanding in terms of content, conditions, and require special attention from the host. Forgetting about them for two weeks you can get a sad outcome.
The discs inhabit the upper and middle Amazon. They are kept in shady places of calm water bodies, above all near the shores, creating reliable shelters.
Discus is a big fish. In the natural environment, it reaches a length of 20 cm, in aquariums the size does not exceed 12 cm. The shape of the body is discoid. The dorsal and anal fins are very long, bending around almost the whole body. Pelvic fins narrow. The body is brown with vertical blue stripes. The whole body is decorated with numerous blue strokes. Males are larger and brighter than females, males fins are more pointed.
Discus is very demanding to care - for their content you need a tall and spacious aquarium. The minimum size of an aquarium for a couple is 100 liters. However, schooling fish and for its maintenance (5-6 individuals) an aquarium is needed from 300 to 500 liters.
Comfortable water parameters for keeping discs: hardness up to 10-15, pH 5.8-7.5, temperature 25-30 C. Aeration and filtration are required.
At the bottom of the aquarium arrange small shelters of snags and stones.
Plants suitable for discus - is Amazonian Echinodorus, cryptocoryne, ambulia, cabombou. The lighting is moderate. Once or twice a week, cleaning in the aquarium and changing the water to fresh is recommended.
Food for blue discus - live variety of food and substitutes. The diet for adults and large individuals can be varied with pieces of fresh lean beef meat (I recommend using a bull heart).
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, areovan, discus etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
Discussions are recommended to keep in a separate aquarium: firstly, they themselves are very beautiful, and secondly the discus is very "demanding" to neighbors and conditions.
Other species of discus brachidania can be neighbors in the general aquarium.
Discus is a very capricious fish and even a slight deterioration in conditions can lead to their illness. If the fish are sick, first of all determine what they are sick (read info or consult at the pet store). The general and recommended measures in case of illness are raising the water temperature to 32 ° C and ensuring good aeration of the water. If this proves ineffective, you can use table salt at the rate of 5 g per 1 l of water or biomitsin 120 mg per 1 liter of aquarium water.
A selection of beautiful photos of discus blue
Interesting video about the blue discus
Category: Aquarium Articles / AQUARIUM FISHES | Views: 8,094 | Date: 03/14/2013, 10:36 | Comments (0) We also recommend reading:
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Discus - naughty aquarium king
Bright discus rightly have the status of "kings of the aquarium." Fish in the rivers of South America. Their water is saturated with tannins, which do not allow microorganisms to develop. Such "sterility" undermined the immune system of fish, making it extremely weak. The specificity of the natural conditions in which the fish lives is reflected in its content in the aquarium.
Beginners may not be able to maintain and breed capricious fish, since caring for them requires a lot of attention, and treatment of diseases is often very troublesome. It is important to carefully observe criteria such as lighting, water properties, aquarium size, choice of food.Variety of Discus
Aquarium fish belongs to cichlids. The little body is flattened from the sides, recalling the disk (hence the name). The mouth and head of the fish are small, the eyes are bulging, the fins are long. The size of the fish reaches an average of 15-17 centimeters. Discus is not the most active inhabitants of the aquarium, and they even eat slowly.
In nature, the fish has a simple color with vertical dark lines. The natural background of plants allows it to hide from predators. Artificial breeding gave about 20 colors: pigeon blood (another name is red pigeon), snake skin, leopard, green, brown, red turkis, discus blue. And this is not all names. Proper lighting and background can emphasize the beauty of each type.
Types of discus include both natural and artificially derived names. Red is the most abundant species. Shades range from bright orange to deep scarlet. Discus blue, green and brown are also considered among the most popular species.
- Green discus differs in pattern and color tint. The most valuable is aquarium fish krasnothek green discus, or koari.
- Brown discus is similar in color to the relatives living in nature. Color, as the name implies, can vary from yellowish to dark brown.
- Discus blue - the largest representative. Its size reaches 20 centimeters.
- Red turkis no less beautiful.The name "turkis" is translated as "turquoise". Similar to the coloring of the mineral pattern and reddish color - a valuable decoration of the aquarium. Turkis is considered the brightest representative of the red fish.
- One of the prettiest species, pigeon, is distinguished by ruby-colored eyes. The species was bred by crossing two types: the female is a red turkis, the male is a turquoise striped discus.
Red turkis, brown, green, gold, blue or any other variety, under the conditions, can live in an aquarium for an average of 10-15 years.Blue
Aquarium discus very gentle fish. Successful maintenance is possible only if all the aquarium conditions are met. Be prepared that in the event of illness, treatment and care will take a long time.
- Aquarium. The fish has a rather large size, and therefore it needs a lot of space. On average - at least 40 liters per fish. Discus - schooling fish, badly tolerate loneliness, and you need to start them in groups of 5-6 fish. The volume of the aquarium in this scenario starts from 250 liters. In the future, it will also ensure successful breeding. Aquarium tank should be convenient for discoid fish - high and long.
- Water parameters. Water needs soft, slightly acidic, heated to a rather high temperature. Aquarium filters and aerators are required.
- Temperature: 28-31 ° C. Lowering the temperature of the fish will survive much harder than its increase.
- Stiffness: 10-15 dH
- Acidity: 5.5-6.5 ph
- Lighting. Discussions do not like bright light. Because of him, they become fearful, constantly trying to hide. The lighting in the aquarium should be soft, diffuse and weak.
- Priming. Aquarium substrates such as gravel or small pebbles are preferred. Many aquarists prefer not to use the primer, but then a dark-colored gasket is needed between the bottom of the tank and the surface. Soil and background is better to choose dark. So the bright colors of the fish will look spectacular.
- Water change is carried out at least once a week, about 20-30%. If the fish in the aquarium a lot, the substitution will have to make more often.
Discus disease occurs due to violations of the rules of content. Dirty water, lowering the temperature, bright light ... Proper care involves minimizing stress. Excessive sensitivity to the slightest changes creates the background for the development of various diseases.
Fish can easily catch an infection brought by other fish or even plants, and treatment can take a lot of energy. Food for discus should be selected carefully, and if necessary, processed and washed.
Parasitic diseases such as hexamytosis, and fungal infections, for example, semolina (scientific name - ichthyophthyriosis) is a common occurrence. It is difficult to treat discus disease, therefore it is better to comply with conditions to avoid infection. If an illness is detected, treatment should begin immediately - the fish’s immunity will not resist for a long time.Red turkis
Aquarium discus eat animal feed. Most often it is a bloodworm and a pipe worker. Purchased in the store, live or frozen, feed must be defended for about 5 days. Otherwise, poisoning is possible, and long treatment will be required.
There is an artificial food for discus, which they enjoy eating. These are fully balanced formulations, but their cost is quite high. At home, you can cook a special stuffing for discus. It consists of beef heart, shrimp meat, mussels, fish, various vegetables.
Feed the fish need several times a day. After this, the rest of the feed from the bottom is surely removed.
The joint content with other species makes it difficult to aquarium water, more precisely - its high temperature. Aquarium neighbors can cause an infection that is detrimental to tender fish, and serious treatment will be required. Discussions, despite their size, are peaceful, slow. They can not be kept with active relatives.
In addition, the intense colors of the discus will create such a colorful background that other inhabitants simply fade. The best option is to keep them in a separate aquarium. But if the neighborhood can not be avoided, they have better compatibility with armored somki corridors. They tolerate high temperatures, and feed up the remnants of food, and the aquarium water becomes polluted more slowly.
Algae fish do not harm, use them for shelter. But the snag is the heat. In addition, plants need good lighting. Therefore, many aquarists give up plants, although they create a chic background for handsome discus guests. Among the suitable plants can be identified such names as valisneria, ambulia, anubias nana, didiplis. Plant size should not impede the movement of fish.Pigeon
Aquarium fish reaches sexual maturity in about 1.5 - 2 years. Distinguishing a male from a female can be problematic. It is only possible to make sure who is who during spawning. Therefore, if you conceive breeding, you need to acquire several individuals.
Discus form a solid pair. Noticing a couple, they can be moved from the aquarium to the breeding ground. Breeding requires careful arrangement of the site. Place stones, driftwood, various decorative elements in the tank - the female will lay eggs on them. The lighting is set uniform and weak.
Water change is carried out regularly, but it should be done carefully, so as not to give the fish an extra reason for stress. Aquarium water plays a big role: the temperature is maintained within 28-30 degrees, the rigidity is low. If the water is hard, the female will be able to lay eggs, but it will be more difficult to fertilize. Breeding is carried out in an aquarium of at least 100 liters.
Fish lays from 200 to 400 eggs. In the first 5-7 days, the main diet of fry is a special secret that parents secrete through the skin. Therefore, the larger the size of individuals, the better. Water throughout the development of fry should be updated. After 2 weeks, the fry can no longer eat at the expense of the parents, and therefore adult discus fish are removed from the aquarium. By about 3 months, the fish will acquire a proper body shape.
Discus are wonderful and very unusual aquarium inhabitants. A variety of colors allows you to create a unique atmosphere in the aquarium. Discus blue, red turkis, brown and green species - properly selected background will shade the beauty of any kind. And although the care, treatment and breeding of their very troublesome, cute fish worth it.
Popular types of discus titles
Discus are freshwater fish of the family Cichlovae (Cichlids), these days are widespread in domestic aquariums. Wild discus are found in the waters of South America. Types of discus: Symphysodon discus, Symphysodon aequifasciatus, and most recently - Symphysodon haraldi, which recently received a scientific description.
Natural varieties of this fish are practically not found in domestic aquariums, because they constantly produce different color forms, they are more popular among razvodchiki. Breeding species slowly adapt to captivity, are prone to hypothermia with subsequent diseases, require special attention to themselves. Discus are one of the most difficult to care for aquarium fish that live in water parameters where other aquatic animals cannot live.
Natural habitat: water bodies of Peru, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia. On the European continent discussions were in the 30s of the twentieth century. Initially, the Discus species were divided into subspecies, but later ichthyologists abolished the classification, as a result of which three species were designated.
Discus are relatively large aquarium fish, the shape of the body is discoid, flattened symmetry. Their size is 15-25 cm in length, regardless of the variety. “Discus” is translated from Latin as a “disk”, so the fish received this name.
It is difficult to describe the general characteristics of body color, because all species and breeds are very different. The most famous discus fish in the aquarium are: leopard, pigeon, green, red, pigeon's blood, white, turkis and many others. These fish interbred with each other, as a result, the offspring received a weak immune system, although the color of their scales is very contrasting. Ornamental breeds have a capricious, capricious temper.
In these fish, the dorsal and anal fins are parallel to each other; they are long, toothed. Caudal fin single-bladed. In some species, the ventral fins end with threadlike formations, like an angelfish. Sexual dimorphism is weakly expressed: in males the forehead is more pronounced, the lips are thick.
Look at the species diversity of discus.
Are compatible with other fish?
Despite its capricious nature, discus fish are peaceful aquarium fish, they can be settled in a flock of 6-8 individuals or more. Like cichlids, like to swim in a pair, they do not tolerate loneliness. They do not dig the ground, do not pull out plants with roots. However, it may be difficult to settle with other fish.
Firstly, discus fish are slow and bright fish, any active neighbors will disturb them. Secondly, they live in the high temperature of water (28-32 degrees Celsius). Thirdly, their immunity is weak, any unsuccessful settlement threatens with an epidemiological outbreak. They are recommended to be kept in a separate species reservoir.
This fish can get along with heat-loving species that are ready to tolerate the high temperature of the water, soft and slightly acid. A successful settlement turned out with fish: Ramirezi's apistograms, clown battles, red neons, red-nesting tetras, congo fish, and taracatum catfish. You can not settle with large and predatory fish, as well as catfish, whose mouth is in the form of a sucker. It is not recommended to settle with the corridors - they often suffer parasitic invasions.
Discus are fledgling fishes that form a pair from a young age, often spawning with the same fish of a different color, receiving motley offspring. Therefore, the types and breeds of these fish are displayed at a rapid rate. The female lays the eggs on broadleaf plants or another flat surface (rock, filter, snags, glass aquarium, cone). In order for the caviar to fertilize, the water in the spawn should be 30-32 ° C, acidity 5.5-6.0 pH, hardness 3-10 dGH.
The female produces 200-500 eggs, which hatch in 3 days. The first days of life fry feed on secretory secretions from the skin of the parents, at this time the length of the fry is 5 mm. On the 4-5th day after this, the fry can be fed with Artemia. After 2 weeks, the fry and parents can be divided by moving them into separate aquariums. It is necessary to feed the fry 6-8 times a day in small portions, and after 3 months switch to 6-time feeding. Weak fry can destroy male and female, but the couple takes good care of the offspring.
Take a look at a couple of blue discus (Blue turquoise discus) with fry.
The names of species and breeds of discus correspond to their appearance, behavior or origin. Outwardly, they are all different from each other, but the conditions of detention, their behavioral features are almost identical. The most beautiful and common discus in aquariums:
- Pigeon fish is an artificially derived hybrid of discus that appeared in Thailand. The form of turquoise turquoise and red turkis. Pigeon blood is a form of discus whose producers do not produce "pure" offspring, it is very similar to their ancestors. The standard color of scales is white with wavy red stripes arranged horizontally. The eyes are red, the mouth is small. Fins are jagged, with white and red stripes.
- Green (Symphysodon aequifasciata aequifasciata) is a “natural” species endemic to the Amazon. It was first described by J. Pellegrin in the early twentieth century. The average size in nature is 15 cm, the fins are high, feather-shaped, the color of scales varies from light brown to green. Body color can change, become orange or yellow, sometimes - red. Vertical black stripes are noticeable on the body: the first strip crosses the eye, the latter ends at the beginning of the tail.
- Leopard fish (Leopard discus) is an artificially bred breed, which resulted from the crossing of the green discus and the red turkis. The most spectacular form of discus. The color of scales has a "leopard" pattern, on a white background there are red, randomly scattered small spots. Body length - 20 cm. These fish are very sensitive to light.
- Snow White (Snow white discus) - a hybrid form, appeared in the 90s of the twentieth century. It was bred in Malaysia from the brown discus. The color of the body of the fish is white, with neon shimmer. A new form of this hybrid - albino, with red eyes and snow-white body. As a result of the crossing of white discus and red, another color form of white-red color has turned out, in which the fins have a “leopard” color.
Discus - compatibility with other fish
Discus are flock aquarium fish. Experts advise to keep them in groups. An aquarium for discus should be at least 45 cm high, and the volume is determined from this calculation: about 50 liters of water are needed per adult, and about 30 liters per teenager. Moreover, it should be remembered that in a large aquarium it will be easier to maintain constant conditions for the maintenance of the discus.
Aquarium with fish should be in the most secluded place of the room, you should not make noise around it and knock loudly. At night it should not get the light of headlights or street lamps.
The temperature of the water in the aquarium with discus must be maintained within + 30 ° C. And you need to change the water quite often: 2-3 times a week.
Content discus with other fish
Such rather unusual conditions of detention may be disastrous for other fish. In addition, almost every aquarium fish is a carrier of various diseases, although it itself does not get sick. And since the discus immunity is not high enough, it is likely that the fish can get sick sooner or later.
They eat the discus quite slowly, so that other more agile inhabitants of the aquarium can leave them without food. Some fish, such as loricaria, suck the body of the discus, savoring fish milk that stands out. In this case, catfish sometimes cause rather dangerous injuries to discus, from which they may even die. Frequent changes of water in an aquarium can also adversely affect the health of other fish.
Therefore, experts advise to keep the discus separately from other types of aquarium fish.
But if you nevertheless decided to settle other fish with discus fish, then it would be better if they are aquarian pets with similar conditions. For example, armored catfish, panda corridor, sterba corridor or Golden corridor prefer to live at temperatures up to + 34 ° C. In addition, these fish will eat up the food, which remained uneaten eaters.
Under conditions of high temperature and intensive water exchange, the brocade pterigoplichtis also feels good, which can also be shared with discus. In addition, this species of catfish cleans the glass aquarium well.
There is a certain compatibility of discus fish with some other fish, such as the scalar and red neon, the blue congo and the clown's battles, the red-headed tetra, the apple snail and various shrimps.