Many decorative bright inhabitants of aquariums look very nice with varying degrees of directivity of the spectrum of lighting. But only recently fish appeared that emit light themselves! Yes, they can shine and shine with different colors, and it was not nature who took care of this, but scientists, who "made" certain species of fish shine in a separate range of the visible spectrum.
This story began at the end of the last century almost simultaneously in Singapore and the USA.
In 1999, a group of researchers at the National University of Singapore experimented with the genes of fluorescent Pacific jellyfish.
Scientists have identified a separate gene that just affects the creation of the phosphor of these marine invertebrates. They implanted this gene into an embryo small and very popular in aquarium hobby - the zebrafish. After a series of experiments, individuals emitting a greenish glow were obtained.
Fish - toxicity indicators
Around this time, in the United States, experiments were conducted on the creation of luminous fish, with which it would be possible to determine the degree of water pollution by toxic elements. It was assumed that such genetically modified living organisms will become a kind of indicator of the state of the aquatic environment.
It is quite possible that these scientific studies would have led to the emergence of any new biotechnologies useful to humanity, but trivial interference intervened: at a scientific conference, where photos of the shining green fish were shown, there was a representative of a large company that bred decorative aquarium animals ...
In 2003, scientists and businessmen signed an agreement on the start of the GloFish project, which translated from English means “radiating fish” (glow) and fish - “fish”.
Already the following year, at the international exhibition of pet products InterZoo, instances of live danios were shown, which radiated not only greenish, but also red.
This was achieved due to the fact that scientists (by request of businessmen) isolated a special gene from sea corals that is responsible for the red fluorescent glow.
Currently under such names copies of these species are sold. Of course, the new breeds were patented, as was the entire GloFish project, which is currently a global brand.
The work was continued, and as a result, genetic engineers received several more artificially derived species and subspecies. In 2006, specimens with a yellow-orange glow were shown, and in 2011, violet and blue zebrafish were bred.
Following these small fish, effective experiments were carried out with other species of aquatic fauna.
- As a result, yellow, orange, and red fluorescent thorns (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi) appeared.
- In 2012, genetic engineers created the look of glowing angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).
- A little later, sparkling black-striped cichlids appeared.
Scientists have worked on the transgenic mutation of cichlids for a very long time, since these predators have a slightly different spawning mechanism in contrast to the small protozoans.
GloFish in aquarium
Probably, you should immediately reassure the true lovers of the living, natural nature: transgenic water creatures themselves do not experience any discomfort, their behavior is no different from ordinary fish. They feed in the same way, they can be ill with the same diseases, their mating behavior is no different from the norm, individuals do not show any aggression towards other, usual relatives.
Some skeptics argued that such genetically modified fish would not be able to produce normal offspring, but life has confirmed the opposite.
True, it is very difficult to distinguish the visible sexual characteristics in individuals, since both males and females shine the same. But it is quite possible to identify a female by the shape of the abdomen.
Naturally, these qualities could not find application in aquarism. A particular development of this direction was in the countries of Southeast Asia.
It should be noted that the glow of GloFish aquarium representatives is almost negligible under normal lighting. Transgenic fluorescent cells of the body "glow" only when there is exposure to a light source in the blue or ultraviolet ranges.
The business responded very promptly to this circumstance, and special aquarium lights almost immediately appeared with a predominance of precisely such light spectra. For example, when illuminated with lamps such as Repti GLO, the radiant qualities of transgenic fish manifest themselves in all their glory.
As a rule, GloFish style aquariums are quite small, with seemingly ordinary ornamental fish glowing brightly in the surrounding darkness. Fashion for them has captured thousands of people in Taiwan, spread to China, and now is winning the hearts of Americans and Europeans.
There are no particular problems with the contents of the GloFish instances. Conditions are no different from normal. That is why, for example, luminous danios or terntions can easily be started up in a house even by a newcomer to the aquarium business.
Ternesia: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review
Thorns is a small, popular dark silver fish. It can be found in any pet store and in many home aquarium. Its unpretentious content, ease of breeding, peaceful nature - deserves the attention of aquarists beginners.
Latin name: Gymnocorymbus ternetzi
Synonyms: Black, mourning
In English: Black skirt tetra, Black Widow tetra, Black tetra.
Order, family: Characteristic.
Comfortable water temperature: 21 - 24 p.
"Acidity" Ph: 5,7 - 7,0.
Rigidity: up to 6-16 °.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 20%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatibility: The terntions calmly get along with all non-large and non-aggressive fish, such as: gourami, scalars, large tetras, sword-bearers, danios, corrido-dogs, sac-haired catfish and others.
Not compatible: It is not recommended to take them to the "veil" fish, slow and frankly small fish. It is not recommended to contain them with neons, guppies and other bipod. At the same time, the terntions are not compatible with large and territorial cichlids: tsikhlazomy, astronotus, with other predatory fish. It is noticed that when keeping a terence in a flock, they can bite each other. See article compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live: Life by aquarium standards is short-lasting, with good conditions of detention can live up to 6 years. On average, live 3-4 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!
The minimum volume of the aquarium: Thorns can be maintained even in an aquarium from 10 liters, in such an aquarium you can put 1 well, a maximum of two fish. However, they are schooling fish and therefore it is better to keep them in a group of 35 liters in a tank. About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).
Care requirements and ternation conditions
Fish do not need supernatural conditions of detention. Observance of optimal parameters of aquarium water is the key to their well-being. However, it is worth remembering that:
- necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly substitution of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water. If you change the water to them less often than once a week, nothing terrible will happen, the fish are hardy and adapt to any conditions. And if you have a large aquarium, then the water for terntion can be changed once a month.
- the fish need free space for swimming, if you have a small aquarium, it is better not to densely populate it with plants and select swimming areas.
- Aquarium decoration, can be anything: snags, stones, grottoes and other decorations. But since the fishes have a dark color, it is better to decorate the back wall of the aquarium with a lighter background, the ground is also not black. Shelters (grottoes, caves) are absolutely unnecessary for ternations, sometimes they hide only in the thickets of plants.
Feeding and diet ternii
Omnivorous - not whimsical in food, not prone to overeating. With pleasure they eat live, dry food, substitutes. Live and frozen food (bloodworm, artemia, daphnia, etc.) - adore. Food is taken by fish mainly in the middle layer of water. Fallen to the bottom of the food will also be eaten.
Feeding aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
In nature, live:
Area - Brazil, Bolivia: the river Mato Grosso, Rio Paraguay, Rio Negro. They live in ponds with dense vegetation, which is why, if the home aquarium allows, it is better to decorate it with live aquarium plants, and in the center to provide an area for free swimming.
The body of the termination is flat, the color is silver-striped - 3 black stripes are located across the body. One of the bands passes through the eye. Fins, except anal - transparent. Anal fin - black fan-shaped. The length of the terns is 4–5 cm. The females are larger and wider than the males, with a fuller abdomen.
Fish energetic, mobile, schooling. Shy of fear, they can turn pale and hide in a secluded place.
Varieties of terntions
In addition to the terns with a natural color - silver-black, in my lifetime I met a selection veil shape and color variants of gold (white) and pink (caramel) ternets. Here they are in the photo.
Veil Throne Gold Thistle
And of course, the well-known trend of Glo-fish has not bypassed these fish for many.
Glofish - These are genetically modified fluorescent fish.
The first fish that have been mutated is Danio rerio. As a result of experiments received fish with red, green and orange fluorescent color, which becomes brighter and more intense with ultraviolet light.In 2011 genome-modified ternation was derived
A bit of history:
Europe, thorns appeared in 1933, and were introduced to Russia in 1946.
Described by the Belgian-British zoologist and ichthyologist George Albert Boulinger (Boulenger) in 1895.
Cultivation, reproduction of a ternation
An important point in the propagation of termination is the selection of producers. They can only be individuals maturity - 8 months and the size of 3-5 cm. All other small or too large in the producers are not suitable.
A spawning 40 liter aquarium is settled as follows: moss-like plants are laid out on the bottom: key moss, Javanese, stump, etc. Fill the aquarium with fresh water at 5 cm. The temperature of the water is maintained at 24-26 ° C. Good aeration is desirable.
On the third day, when the water is infused and becomes absolutely transparent. Manufacturers are planted in the spawning aquarium and begin to feed them abundantly with live food. At the same time there should be no residues.At 3-6 days spawning occurs. The male begins to chase the female throughout the spawning game and at the moments of a short-term stop the female sweeps up to 30 eggs one-time, which are immediately poured with milt. Spawning lasts about 3 hours. The number of eggs for one spawning is about 1000 pieces.
After spawning, the producers are immediately removed from the spawning aquarium, otherwise the roe will be eaten.
The incubation period for caviar is about one day. During this period it is necessary to raise the temperature of the aquarium water to 28 ° C.
The larva of thorns is small, barely noticeable. At first it hangs on the plants and the walls of the aquarium, and the 3rd day begins to swim.
Juveniles are fed standardly grated live food, live dust.
In the process of growth, the fish are sorted, small and defective are destroyed.
See more details The breeding forum: what caviar, larvae, care feeding fry and so on.
Diseases of termination.
It is very stable fish and can tolerate harsh conditions of detention. But you should not experiment. The guarantee of absolute health is proper maintenance.
Terrestitia is susceptible to all typical diseases of aquarium fish and there are no nuances in their treatment. They are treated standardly: by raising the temperature to 30 degrees, by methylene blue, tripaflavin, baths with salt, etc.
For correct and correct treatment, it is necessary to diagnose the disease, and then apply the necessary procedures. This section will help you: Aqua medicine, fish diseases.
Interesting video with terrence
Beautiful photos of ternation
Popular types of danios fish
Danio (lat. Danio) is a genus of small freshwater fish of the carp family. Many wild species of danios are found in water bodies in Southeast Asia, preferring stagnant water, or slow-flowing rivers and streams. Danios are characterized by oblong symmetry of the body, flattened on the sides, and variegated color scales. Wild species can grow in size 10-15 cm in length. In some danios the upper jaw has a mustache. The diet of wild fish - plankton, insects and their larvae.
Danio are peaceful and mobile fishes that swim in flocks of 6-8 individuals. Do not show aggression to relatives and other fish. Males have a small body, unlike females. They become sexually mature at the age of 6-12 months, depending on the environmental conditions. All danios are fishes. Life expectancy in captivity: 3-5 years, can live up to 6 years.
Varieties of Danio: Pearl, Hopra, Dangila
Danio albolineatus, or pearl danio - is found in freshwater bodies of the island of Sumatra, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Burma, Malacca. It can be seen in the rice fields, in streams and canals. The pearl danio has a body of translucent tone, oblong, 5-7 cm in length. The color of scales is gray-blue with a pearly shimmer.
On the tail begins a red-orange horizontal line that reaches the middle of the body. The color of the fins is transparent with a green tint; there may be specimens with yellowish or reddish fins. Pearl daniosus is often confused with danios pink, however, the morphological characteristics of these species are different.
Danio firefly, or Khopra (Chopra) - a fish native to Northern Burma, the Irrawaddy River. It has a bright body color with a lemon-orange color. The body is miniature, 3 cm in length. The fins are long, with yellow stripes at their base. An orange horizontal strip is seen on the body of sexually mature females.
Danio dangila, Danio Dangila, or Olive Danio is a fish native to India, Bangladesh, Burma and Nepal. Dangila is a relatively large species of Danio, wild individuals grow up to 15 cm in length, aquarium - up to 10 cm. The body is elongated, also flattened on the sides, with dark spots behind the gills. Above the upper jaw there is a pair of long antennae.
Look at the danios danila in the aquarium.
The main color of scales is pinkish-brown, the color may vary depending on the spectrum of light and the geography of distribution of the wild species. There are dark patches on the body. Aquarium dugil swims in the upper and middle layers of water, but they are able to swim in the bottom layers. In sexually mature females, a rounded abdomen is distinguished, the color of their bodies is faded, unlike males.
Danio orange, Malabar, rerio
Danio kyathit (kiatite), danio orange, or orange-fingered - was brought from Burma. Characterized by an elongated body, the size of 4.5-5 cm in length. The dorsal, ventral, and caudal fins have an orange edging.
The color of scales and fins in males is more expressive, and is saturated with pigment during the spawning period. There is an orange part of the body between the gills and ventral fins of males. Kiatite can swim in the middle and bottom layer of the aquarium, unlike its related species danios.
Malabar Danio is a relatively large variety of Danio, found in nature in freshwater rivers of India and on the island of Sri Lanka. The length of the body is 10-12 cm, the body is rounded, elongated. The color of the scales is silver-blue, 2 blue lines run along the body, the upper one ends on the tail. Between these blue stripes there are 2 more stripes of golden color, and yellow-golden spots can be seen behind the gill covers.
The hue of the ventral and anal fins is pink, and the dorsal and caudal fin is blue. The color of the ventral and anal fin is characterized by sex differences - in males these fins are pink, in females they are pale pink, and they have a rounded tummy. Representatives of this species of zebrafish become sexually mature at the age of one year. Duration of spawning several hours, occurs in the morning. The female brings 1000-2000 eggs.
Danio rerio (Brachydanio rerio, Danio rerio), or zebra fish - wild fishes of this species are found in the rivers of India and Pakistan. One of the most unpretentious and popular aquarium pets. Body size 4-5 cm, on the body there are oblong stripes of lemon-yellow color, the main tone of scales is bluish-silver with violet-blue stripes. Young fish have short fins, with the achievement of puberty they become longer. There may be a yellow border at the edges of the fins.
Look at the flock of danios rerio.
Danio Pink, Danio Thai (Blue)
Danio roseus, or pink danio - a beautiful fish from the island of Sumatra. The length of the body leaves 5-6 cm. The symmetry of the body is elongated, flattened on the sides. Above the upper jaw there is a pair of small antennae. The back color is gray-olive, the lateral part of the body is gray-green, or silver. When illuminated, the color of scales may be contrasted with purple, blue and green hues. On the body there is a red-pink horizontal strip passing through the body, with age it may disappear. Dorsal fin translucent, greenish-yellow. The anal fin can be red or bright orange, the tail fin is green. Males are colored more intensely, during reproduction, the scales are saturated with bright crimson pigment, and a red speck appears in the middle of the tail. In females at this time, the belly is rounded, they look dense.
Danio Blue, Danio Kerry, or Thai Danio - comes from freshwater rivers of northern Thailand. Small fish (4-5 cm) are also characterized by gregarious behavior. The body is translucent, oblong and flattened on the sides, there are long antennae above the upper lip. The color of the scales may be gray-blue, or have a golden shimmer during the breeding season. Abdomen blue, along the body are horizontal gold stripes. The fins of the fish are transparent, with a yellowish-green shimmer. The color of the males is bright, their body is angular. Females are distinguished by a gray and faded body color.
Danio transgenic, fluorescent (Glofish)
The artificially derived Danio breed was obtained as a result of a selection of zebrafish with the introduction of jellyfish DNA fragments into the fish gene. The genes of the Crystal jellyfish, which synthesize green fluorescent protein, have entered the fish genome. In ultraviolet light, fish acquire a bright, glowing body color. In some countries, these Danio decided to use as indicators of water pollution - in the presence of toxic substances in the water, the fish changed the color of the skin.
When a representative of a fish company that specializes in the breeding and sale of aquarium danio fish, saw these glowing fish, decided to create several more transgenic Danio. In the danio rerio genes, the coral Discocotinia genes were introduced. It turned out the fish with a red glow of the body, and with the addition of the gene of jellyfish and corals - the fish with a yellow glow. The last breed was named "Night Pearl". In 2003, the first copies of Glofish were on sale, which could be bought for home aquariums.
If you compare "Glofish" with the progenitors, Danio rerio, then the first ones like warmer water with a temperature of 27-28 degrees Celsius. But transgenic fish contain, feed, breed can be as well as other Danio. Caring for them is quite simple, at night their body will flicker with an incredible glow. Their nature is peaceful, calm, they are non-aggressive towards other fish. Body size reaches 5-7 cm, fins are short and translucent.
Some countries have banned the import and sale of Glofish because of the genetically modified origin of this breed. Despite the different types of prohibitions, they are still sold and distributed. They do not harm the aquarium and the ecosystem.
Fish ternation: description, reproduction, care
Thorns is an unusual fish that is easy to keep in aquariums. It is unpretentious, agile, does not require special care, so it is ideal for those who are just starting to get animals at home. It is interesting to observe terrence because it does not sit still, constantly studying the filling of its house with water.
Description of the species
Ternesia is a well-known fish among aquarists. Thermal, with a peaceful character. Currently, its popularity, unfortunately, has declined slightly. This fish has a flat and high body, something resembling a rhombus, strongly flattened on both sides. Thorns can grow up to 6 cm in height in natural conditions, in aquariums, as a rule, they are smaller in size. They live with good care for about 4 years, in nature - less, because they are attacked by other fish. The tail fin resembles a fork, the ventral is similar in appearance to a fan for women. It is curious that young thorns have a richer body color than individuals of old age.
At home, aquarium fish feeds on virtually any food, which is very good for novice aquarists. It can easily be contained in aquarium of different shapes. It is undesirable to let the ternsii into the reservoir, where aquarium fishes with veil fins are already swimming, in order to avoid collisions between individuals. In the photo, the terns swim in the aquarium alone or with fish similar to them.
This fish has several possible color options:
- Classical. Silver body with two vertical stripes.
- Veil aquarium fish. This species was first bred in European countries. Not often found on sale. The photo is not much different from the classic terntion, the only thing that is difficult to breed.
- Albumin ternetia It is extremely rare, different white, transparent color.
- The most fashionable of this type is termination caramel. It is an artificially bred variety. Why so popular? Thanks to its unusual multicolored artificial color. Difficult to maintain, as derived by chemistry. Mainly imported from Vietnam, where their reproduction is put on stream.
How to maintain and care
Curing can be kept in any tank with water, however, it is desirable to place it in a large volume aquarium. In the photo from the galleries with fish, they are all contained in large water pools. The temperature of the water can be kept around 23 degrees Celsius, and the acidity - 5-7 pH.
Care for aquatic creatures is quite simple. They have a peaceful disposition, neighbors in the aquarium do not affect the ability of this fish to breed. It is not worthwhile to push only very small fish to it, since the terns may grab them by the fins.
You can feed the classic fish food sold in all pet stores. It is inexpensive, enough for a long time. For adults, ternations, besides dry food, can be given live, vegetable and mixed feed. Young individuals - infosoria, and the fry - dry milk, which they willingly eat.
Reproduction of termination
The following conditions must be met at the same time for breeding these inhabitants of aquariums: attaining maturity, which is 8 months old, and a total body length of about 4 cm. Too young or, conversely, too old individuals that are short in size cannot breed. We describe how the breeding of fish.
- An aquarium with low walls is taken, with a volume of about 35 +/- 5 liters. The bottom must be covered with plants. For example, moss, mackerel, nitella or others. Next you need to fill the spawning area with fresh water, and its level should not exceed 7 cm. The temperature should be about 25 degrees Celsius. Lighting is allowed natural.
- Wait for about 5 days until the water becomes suitable for planting fish into it.
- As a rule, at first individuals will not be ready to breed. Feel hard on them with bloodworms, watch for the feeding of all the larvae. This is done to ensure that ternatsii were ready for reproduction, females recruited eggs, and males - milt.
- In the process, the males will follow the females. The eggs roasted over the plant layer will be fertilized. About 40 eggs are swept at a time. Over the entire period of spawning - more than 1000 units.
- When spawning is over, the fish must be placed in a free space from the plants. It is necessary to isolate the terntions almost immediately after spawning, since hungry producers can start searching for food by destroying the eggs.
- If it is good to feed a couple of heterosexual individuals, then it is capable of reproduction 4-6 times, interrupted for 2 weeks.
- The incubation period for spawn roe is up to 24 hours, an average of 19 hours. In order to avoid losses among the hatched individuals, it is necessary to bring the water temperature to 27 degrees, as the fish are thermophilic. Small thorns are small in size, they can be seen when it hangs on the glass of a tank with water and plants.
Due to the simplicity in breeding, peaceful disposition and low cost, terntiony became popular with aquarists. Take a closer look at them, even if you are a newcomer to such a thing. Colored caramel will delight you with its color and decorate your interior.
Thirsty - fidget in a black skirt
Ternesia (Latin Gymnocorymbus ternetzi) is an unusual aquarium fish, which is well suited for beginners, as it is hardy, undemanding, and very easy to get divorced. Especially good ternation looks in the general aquarium, as it is active and mobile. However, it can pull the fins of other fish, so you should not keep it with veil forms or with fish that have long fins.
The common termination is a schooling fish and it feels good in the group. It is better to keep in a flock of 7 individuals, and the more there will be them, the better. Aquariums with dense vegetation, but also free places for swimming, are well suited for maintenance.
In addition to the classic version, now also ternation with veil fins, albinos and caramel are popular. The difference between the caramel termination and the classic one is that this fish is artificially painted in bright colors. However, all these morphs do not differ in content from the classical form. Only with caramels you need to be careful, after all, interference with nature significantly weakens the fish.
Habitat in nature
Ternesia was first described in 1895. Fish common and not listed in the Red Book. It lives in South America, home to the Paraguay and Guaporé rivers, where it inhabits the upper layers of the water, feeding on insects that have fallen on the water, aquatic insects and their larvae. These tetras prefer the slow waters of small rivers, streams, and tributaries, which are well shaded by the crowns of trees. At the moment, they are almost not exported, since most of the terntions are bred on farms.
The ternation has a high and flat body. They grow up to 5.5 cm, and they start spawning already at a size of 4 cm. Life expectancy under good conditions is about 3-5 years.
The ternation is distinguished by two vertical black stripes running along its body and large dorsal and anal fins. Her anal card is a business card, as it resembles a skirt and very much highlights the termination among other fish. Adults become somewhat paler and turn grayish instead of black.
Other fashionable options are:
- The veil of thorns, which was first bred in Europe. It is very often found on sale, it is no different in content from the classical form, but it is somewhat more difficult to breed because of intragenital crossing.
- Albino, is less common, but again, no different except for coloring.
- Caramel ternets are artificially colored colored fish, a fashionable trend in modern aquarism. They need to be kept with caution, as the chemistry in the blood has not made anyone healthier. Plus, they are massively imported from farms in Vietnam, and this is a long road and the risk of catching a particularly strong type of fish disease.
Difficulty in content
Ternetia is very unpretentious and well suited for novice aquarists. It adapts well, feeds on any feed. Suitable for general aquariums, provided that it will not be contained with fish having veil fins.
Extremely unpretentious in feeding, thorns will eat all kinds of live, frozen or artificial feed. High-quality flakes can form the basis of nutrition, and in addition can be fed with any live or frozen feed, for example, bloodworms or artemia.
Content in an aquarium
Since the termination is a very active fish, you need to keep them in spacious aquariums, from 60 liters. They love soft and sour water, but during the breeding period they adapted to different conditions. Also prefer to have floating plants on the surface, and the light was dim. Do not forget to cover the aquarium, they jump well and can die.
They look perfect in an aquarium with a natural biotope. The sandy bottom, an abundance of koryag and fallen leaves at the bottom, which make the water brownish and acidic.
Aquarium care is standard for all fish. Weekly water changes, up to 25% and filter availability. Water parameters may be different, but preferred: water temperature 22-36C, ph: 5.8-8.5, 5 ° to 20 ° dH.
Compatibility in the aquarium
Thorns are very active and can be semi-aggressive, cutting off fins to fish. This behavior can be reduced by keeping them in a flock, then they focus more on their fellow tribesmen. But everything, with fish like cockerel or angelfish, is better not to hold them. Good neighbors will be viviparous, danios, cardinals, black neons and other medium-sized and active fish.
You can distinguish a male from a female by fins. In males, the dorsal fin is longer and pointed. And the females are fuller and their anal fin skirt is much wider.
Male of thorns
Breeding and breeding
Breeding begins with the selection of a couple aged and active. Younger couples may also spawn, but efficacy is higher in mature individuals. Selected couple seated and richly fed with live food.
Spawning from 30 liters, with very soft and sour water (4 dGH and less), dark soil and small-leaved plants. Light is necessarily dim, very diffused or twilight. If the aquarium is heavily lit, cover the front glass with a sheet of paper.
Spawning begins in the morning. The female lays several hundred sticky eggs on the plants and decor. As soon as spawning is over, the pair needs to be transplanted, as they can eat caviar and fry. It is easy to feed fry, for this purpose any small feeds for fry will be suitable.