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Treatment and diseases of aquarium fish


TREATMENT OF AQUARIUM FISH

My two-year experience in administering an aquarium forum allows me at this stage to draw certain conclusions about the treatment of aquarium fish.
In this article, I would like to discuss all aspects and nuances of treating a sick pet. The purpose of the article is to give the basic basics to beginners, and to many experienced aquarists - WHAT TO DO IF FISHES ARE DISEASE.

This article will not be a revelation and a panacea, I will, in principle, talk about simple and understandable things, but still, in my opinion, it is in them that the key to the health of both fish and the aquarium as a whole lies.
To begin, let's see why and from what the fish are sick. Fish - these are the same living creatures as we are with you. Any living thing will feel good and not get sick when it is in a comfortable environment. People go to fitness clubs, go to a sanatorium, try to live in comfort, eat the right and healthy food, breathe fresh, clean air and this is a guarantee of their health and longevity.
The same applies to fish, they will always be healthy and you will not have to treat them if they live in comfort, i.e. in a healthy, full, proper aquarium. With a certainty of 120%, I can say that in a healthy aquarium with a tuned biobalance, no aquarium fish will get sick !!!
So, we have established the root cause of all troubles - the "bad aquarium." What is it expressed in? There are many factors that characterize the concept of "bad aquarium":
- this is both overpopulation and the wrong selection of fish;
- these are inappropriate parameters of aquarium water for one or another species of fish (t, pH, dH, kH, etc.);
- this is also inadequate water quality, i.e. the presence of poisons in it: ammonia, nitrite and nitrate;
- this may be expressed in the wrong decoration of the aquarium;
- Inadequate or poor quality lighting;
- in the end, in the wrong care for the aquarium: feeding, water changes, etc .;
If you summarize all these negative factors, you can simply say: there is no in an aquarium BIOBALANCE - BIOLOGICAL EQUILIBRIUM.
Now, based on the above, let's see what happens to the body of a fish in such negative conditions. And the same thing happens as with you and us - the protective mechanisms are activated. Depending on the damaging factor in fish, this can manifest itself in different ways, for example:
- in case of overpopulation or the wrong selection of fish, they begin to fight, stress or depressed state appears;
- at elevated temperatures or lack of oxygen, fish begin to swim near the surface, puff up the gills, and gasp for air. Again, stress, lethargy, "fainting."
- in the presence of poisons in the water, the defense mechanisms of addiction also work in fish.
Due to what work - these protective mechanisms? The answer is also simple - due to immunity. Which, as you understand, is not rubber. And when it ends, the fish organism ceases to resist all pathogens and / or negative factors. There comes a phase of the disease.

What is sick fish and how to treat?


Here, when the first obvious signs of fish being unwell appear, the aquarist starts frantically searching for an answer on the Internet to the questions: what happened, what to do and what to treat?
As a rule, such a convulsive search for a panacea ends in porridge in the head, and ultimately, the aquarist just goes to the nearest pet store, says “it” to the seller of my fish, receives a drug from “this,” then “it” pours in, gets from the process of relief, thinking that "everything, shcha my fish will recover." BUT !!!! ... the opposite usually happens. The fish gets worse and they die.
What happens in the situation described. Suppose an aquarist guessed with a cure that already seems to be fine. But this is not a magic pill from all ills. THIS MEDICINE! We all know that any drug has both positive and negative properties (side effects, contraindications). Now imagine "the fish was nitrified," that is, poisoned by excessive concentrations of ammonia, nitrites and nitrates, and it is already bad for the fact that there are poisons in the aquarium and here, in addition, we pour the medicine !!! The outcome of this treatment is obvious.
From the above, it is possible to make an obvious conclusion that, before starting treatment, all negative factors must be eliminated, and then treated (if necessary).
Below we will work out a definite scheme that will help step by step and correctly carry out the treatment, but before that let us see, with one more question - THE SAME SPECIFICALLY DISEASE FISH AND WHAT MEANS TO TREAT IT.
There are enough diseases in fish and they are all different. Often, when you see a forum correspondence about the disease of fish, you involuntarily recall Lobanov's catch phrase from the Interns m / s: “Repeat every morning, wake up - let me go diarrhea, phimosis and endometriosis”))). The same is true in aquaforums, a person writes to help a fish this or that ..., and in response to this you have hex, bone disease and ichthyoftiriosis))). Why all? Firstly, because fish do not have doctors (ichthyopathologists on the Internet are rare), not like cats and dogs, veterinarians, secondly, "fish are silent" - many clinical signs are similar, but the diseases are different. And thirdly, it is impossible to make a diagnosis from a photo on the Internet; only a laboratory study of selected biomaterials can give a reliable answer, it is this and only it that can give a clear answer with which parasite, bacterium, virus or fungus the fish are affected. The question arises - how to be? After all, for example, in the most common disease of fish "semolina" - ichthyophthyriosis, there are actually several varieties? !! And far from many aquarists have at least a microscope ... and even more so knowledge of parasites.
In my opinion, any aquarist should first read a certain amount of material, understand and systematize fish sores according to clinical signs. For example:
Bacterial diseases
(defeat by one or another type of bacterium): - it is mucus, bloating, scratching, bruising, red veins, ulcers, white threadlike feces, etc.
Fungal diseases (caused by fungi): - it is moss, cotton wool, fluff on the body of the fish.
Flagellates and ciliates - points, rash, holes.
And so on, ... about classified by signs other less popular sores from: cancers, worms and viruses.
When an aquarist will understand this material, moreover he will see photos and videos of sores, he will already know approximately which group of drugs will help to cure the fish. And of course, he will already have an idea about the mechanism, the treatment procedure, which is also important, because some diseases can be treated only in the general aquarium, and some can be treated in a quarantine aquarium, some can be treated by using short baths with medicine.
In addition, the initial understanding of the issue, will reduce the time before treatment, which often plays a significant role in the recovery of fish - he saw the first signs of the disease, the medicine was already at hand, he conducted preparatory procedures, applied the medicine and the fish quickly recovered. Those. the longer we do not proceed to the elimination of negative factors and / or treatment, the greater the likelihood of fish death.
One more thing. Due to the diversity of drugs, different brands, newcomers of the aquarium craft have a confusion - “what’s what?”. At first, it even seems that these trademarks and sellers of pet stores specifically invented all sorts of drugs to mislead and make money on aquarists. However, it is not. In fact, all "brand-name drugs" are mixes from different drugs, they all differ in composition, purpose, and degree of impact on the pathogenic flora - some are mildly treated, others, on the contrary, are powerful drugs. If you compare them with human medicines, you can give an example of aspirin and antibiotics, both treat bronchitis, but the nature of the effect (both positive and negative) on the body is different.
In my opinion, at first, an aquarist should rely on tips and positive feedback about a particular medicine. Well, gradually, slowly gain experience, compare the compositions of drugs, which ultimately will give an understanding of which of the drugs is effective in a particular case.
Below are the names of the most frequently used drugs, running German marks Tetra and Sera:
Tetra Contralck, Sera costapur - from ciliates, flagellates (ichthyoftiriosis).
Sera baktopur, Tetra General Tonic - from external bacterial infections.
Sera baktopur direct, Sera bakto Tabs - from internal bacterial infections.
Sera mycopur - from bending.
Often, the forum asks questions - is it possible to treat fish with "human medicine". The answer is - you can. After all, in fact, all brand-name drugs are the same "human drugs" only in verified proportions and combinations. The danger of such treatment is only that you need to clearly know and apply the appropriate dosage. For more information, see: antibiotics for the aquarium, other drugs.
Concluding the article, let's talk all over again, and derive a brief (conditional) scheme of action for the treatment of fish. FIRST ACTION UNIT, PREPARATION: The fish is obviously sick or visibly bad (sluggish or jerky, lying on the bottom, etc.).
- We look at the symptoms, determine what kind of disease it is: bacteria, fungus, ciliates, etc.
- We check the equipment (filtration, aeration, heating), eliminate the identified shortcomings.
- We make water tests for the presence of poisons (ammonia, nitrites and nitrates) we look at other water parameters (dH, pH, kH), for this you can use at least test strips, for example, Tetra 6 in 1 (you can either buy in advance or bring water from the aquarium to the pet store, many sellers conduct tests on the spot - it is cheaper). Based on the test results, we draw conclusions !!! We act accordingly.
- At this stage it is always desirable to have on hand such tools as: hydrogen peroxide, tea or for example iodinol. They all have useful properties. Details about them are written in the articles on the above links. Here I will say that these drugs are used as a "first-aid kit" as a first aid. Peroxide is a powerful oxidizing agent; it releases pure oxygen into the water and is a light septic tank (very effective in asphyxiation of fish). Tea - “aging water”, gives tannins, other nutrients, slightly acidifies water, which generally contributes to the inhibition of many parasites and strengthens the immune system of fish. Iodinol is a good, safe septic tank.
- In addition, at this stage, the following actions can be carried out: water change, raising the temperature, changing other water parameters, settling fish and other preparatory measures.
SECOND UNIT, TREATMENT: After the preparatory activities, proceed to treatment. We develop a scheme and follow the instructions for the drugs.
Attention!!! Sometimes, especially in severe cases of the disease, with the introduction of medication, the fish becomes worse and often it soon dies. Most likely, in such cases, the factor of exhaustion of fish and the effect of the negative properties of the drug, which aggravates the situation. Therefore, after you have applied the medication, you need to closely monitor the behavior of the fish and, if anything, remove the medications, reducing the dosage. In such cases, it is possible to recommend the gradual introduction of drugs - in parts, and not once in a full dose.
THIRD UNIT, REHABILITATION AND BIOBALANCE RESTORATION: After completing the course of treatment, all drugs are removed from the aquarium by replacing part of the water with fresh water and adding aquarium coal to the filter. It should always be remembered that any drug destroys biobalance, that is, it has a detrimental effect not only on the pathogenic, but also the beneficial environment. In this connection, after the treatment of fish in the general aquarium, it is necessary to deal with the restoration of the useful environment. This will help you drugs such as Baktozym, Tetra NitratMinus, Sulfur Nitrivik and etc.
In addition, you need to take care of the restoration of the immunity of a fish that has just recovered, which is achieved by adding vitamins to water and food, for example, Sulfur Fishtamine or Tetra Vitala, just for this purpose you can use tea or other phytotherapy or apply the same iodinol.
I hope that this material was interesting and useful to you. Health to your pets.

We also recommend that you read the brochure Navigator 3: an interview with an ichthyopathologist. Below is a link to the pdf-version, which you can download, as well as its test version.

To read and / or download the Navigator

click on the picture below

If you do not have a PDF reader installed, we recommend that you use AdobeReader by downloading it from the official site.

NAVIGATOR 3

interview with ichthyopathologist

We present to your attention the third issue of "Aquarium Navigator for Beginners". We decided to devote this issue to the urgent aquarium problem - diseases and treatment of fish. The problem of identifying diseases is faced by everyone, both beginners and professionals. Even an experienced aquarist, at times, is not able to identify a particular disease: the pathogen is modified, the symptoms change.

How to be a newcomer who first encountered this problem?

We hope that this issue of the brochure will help you understand everything.

Allow me to present to your attention!

Veterinarian - ichthyopathologist Vera Dudina, a leading specialist of one of the largest networks of pet stores in Russia, an ichtipathologist in the third generation.

Vera kindly agreed to give an interview for our brochure.

But for a start, as an introduction, we consider the fundamental issues associated with the diseases and treatment of fish. Let's start with the fact that the aquarium is not sterile, that pathogenic organisms are always present in it: fungi, bacteria and parasites. But why, then, the fish, in the presence of such "unsanitary conditions", do not get sick? The answer lies in a very important feature of any living organism - immunity. Immunity (lat. Immunitas release, getting rid of something) - immunity of the organism to various infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths) and products of their vital activity, as well as to the poisons of plant and animal origin, with alien antigenic properties.

Any healthy body is ready to fight back any pathogenic flora! Immunity is a shield that protects its owner from any enemies. But you need to understand that vitality and immunity are not eternal. If the shield will constantly work in the "reflection attack" mode, it will eventually crack, and then completely crumble. And then, an incalculable pathetic horde rushes into the organism, captures and destroys it.

In addition, it should be said that one of the reasons that ruin the immune system is stress from overcrowding the aquarium, stress associated with fish incompatibility, improper feeding, improper care, lack of proper filtration and aeration of the aquarium, high concentrations of protein breakdown products such poisons, like ammonia, nitrite and nitrates.

All these negative factors can work both together and separately, but one way or another, they destroy the fish’s immune system day after day.

Trite, but the best medicine is prevention. Proper care, proper water parameters, the correct selection of fish - are the key to the health and longevity of aquarium inhabitants.

However, none of us are immune from aquarium troubles. Anything happens, and even in ideal conditions the fish can get sick. What to do?

Short action plan in a critical situation.

Conduct a thorough diagnosis of the disease.

The saying "Measure seven times, cut once" fully refers to the definition of fish sores. What only disease does not find a novice in their wards. Practically, like Jerome K. Jerome, "everything except puerperal fever". In order not to be mistaken in the diagnosis, it is necessary to know the usual behavior of the fish, behavior under stressful conditions, spawning behavior, housing conditions, body shape, colors inherent in this species and much, much more. Sometimes soft-water fish are kept in cichlid conditions, which is why fish lose fins, and the owner also additionally treats fish from fin rot. The outcome of this treatment is obvious. If you have carefully studied the entire above list and are still in doubt, refer to our forum section. "Disease of fish and their treatment."

Decide on treatment immediately. 90% of diseases are treatable at an early stage. Conversely, even the simplest disease in the terminal stage cannot be treated.

Before treatment, test aquarium water for poisons: ammonia, nitrite and nitrate (NH4, NO2, NO3).

In the event of a deviation from the norm, poisons are immediately removed by water changes and appropriate aquarium preparations. See more forum "Nitrites and nitrates in an aquarium". The fact is that drugs are both treated and destroyed, i.e. have both positive and negative effects on the body. Their use is incompatible with high concentrations of poisons, and, in most cases, ruin the fish.

The course of treatment is carried out in accordance with the diagnosis, исключительно рекомендованными препаратами в тщательно выверенной дозировке, в соответствие с указанными сроками.

По окончанию лечения (если оно проходило в общем аквариуме, а не в карантинном аквариуме), необходимо удалить лечебные препараты (подменами или фильтрующими средствами) и заняться восстановлением биологического равновесия, по возможности применяя биостартеры.

Recovering fish recommended rehabilitation activities - high-quality and balanced nutrition, after a course of antibiotics - probiotic bait, the introduction of vitamins and / or herbal medicine.

Additional materials for self-study:

- Herbal medicine in an aquarium.

- Tea in the aquarium.

- Iodinol in the aquarium.

- How and what to feed the fish?

- Medicines Tetra.

- Other aquarium chemistry.

And now, the promised interview with Vera Dudina.

Vera hello, thank you for agreeing to be interviewed.

Tell me, please, what brand-name and pharmaceutical preparations do you recommend to buy in the Aquarium First Aid Kit, so that they are always at hand?

As is known, about 90% of the problems of a novice aquarist are the fault of the aquarist himself. This is overfeeding, and overpopulation, and impatience at startup. Hence the main problem is water quality. Therefore, it is imperative to have a means for emergency protection against toxins (ammonia and nitrite). Drugs are used to neutralize them. Sera Toxivec or API Ammmolock.

To monitor the content of nitrogenous compounds, you should have a drop test for ammonia and nitrite. I will focus here, as most newbies underestimate the importance of aquarium tests. Often, infectious diseases and toxic poisoning products of protein breakdown are very similar in symptoms. Even a specialist will not always be able to differentiate them, as they say, "by eye".

As for contagious diseases, sooner or later any aquarist will meet with ichthyophthirius. The sooner treatment is started, the higher the success rate and the shorter the time it takes to apply the drug. There are a lot of drugs for treatment: Tetra medica ContraIck, Sera Costapur, Jbl Punctol, Antipar. In the initial stages of ichthyophthirius, they are all quite effective. For "running" cases, you will need a combination of several drugs. When using a combination of drugs is better to consult with a specialist, because many drugs can not be combined with each other, it can cause intoxication in fish.

It is always useful to have a light disinfectant in the first-aid kit, which can be added for injuries (after fights), for mild forms of fin rot. You can use drugs such as API Melafix (based on tea tree essential oil) or Tetra Medica FungiStop (colloidal silver solution is not recommended for use in combination with other drugs and conditioners).

This is the main set. The rest is already more narrowly specialized and is bought as needed.

So nevertheless, what drugs are better to use for beginners, brand or pharmacy?

Branded products are designed specifically for fish, most of them are thoroughly tested in specialized laboratories. A person without relevant experience, I recommend to use only them. If the funds available in pet stores, is not enough (as well as when making a diagnosis) - it is better to consult with a specialist to clarify the diagnosis and prescription of treatment.

Before contacting a specialist, prepare anamnestic data:

The volume of the aquarium, its population.

How long has the aquarium been launched?

Schedule of cleansing, when was the last cleaning, what part of the water change.

The frequency of feeding, what and how much feed, how quickly the fish eats food, whether there is a recent change in appetite.

What kind of manipulations have been carried out over the last couple of weeks: new inhabitants, new décor, feed changes, some other innovations ...

Water parameters: pH, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates are mandatory in aquarium water, rigidity is possible. In tap water (or from where you take water for an aquarium) - pH, preferably ammonia and nitrites (sometimes it happens, unfortunately, that the cause of the sores is the quality of tap water), rigidity if possible.

Symptoms: when there were, who are sick, the full picture, preferably with a photo.

Based on your practice, which fish diseases are the most common and how do you treat them?

If you look at aquariums for beginners and amateurs, then the most common problem, as I already said, is ammonia and nitrite poisoning. Here the basis of treatment is the normalization of conditions of detention. Of the drugs are used Sera Toxivec or API Ammmolock (I have already talked about their purpose) and the culture of bacteria, for example, Tetra Safe Start. The rest of the treatment is to eliminate overcrowding, do not feed the fish (on average 2-4 days), daily changes of 10% of the volume.

Treatment of infectious diseases, as a rule, is strictly individual. It depends on the inhabitants, the intensity of the disease, the presence of plants, snails, shrimps and other factors.

Based on the topic of the Navigator, which fish do you think is better not to take a newbie?

First of all, I do not advise taking fish not aquarium. These are swimmers and giants: shark balls, pangasius, red-tailed catfish, snakeheads, shell pikes and many others. Such fish needs very specific conditions of keeping, large volumes. For many of them, even 500 liters will be too little.

By experience, very often newbies cannot cope with cichlids. Fish aggressive, wayward, territorial. Feeding varies greatly by species. Improper feeding is a common cause of intestinal disorders and hexamitosis. For their content, a sufficiently solid theoretical base and practical experience are needed.

The most important thing - do not forget that the flight of your imagination is strictly limited to the volume of the aquarium and the compatibility of the inhabitants with each other. Never buy an unfamiliar fish spontaneously because you liked it. Find out its name, at home look at information about the requirements for the content, maximum sizes, compatibility, if after that you understand that the fish is yours, you can go buy.

Please share your secrets of maintaining fish immunity before and after treatment?

The main secret is not a secret, but the rule: to ensure good conditions of detention. Avoid overcrowding, schooling fish are kept in packs, those who hide hide away, small and large fish are not kept together, balanced proper feeding, clean and safe water. All this is the prevention of stress, and as a result - a decrease in immunity.

Iodine and vitamins affect the immunity of fish; these components are contained in the air conditioner of the company. Tetra - Tetra Vital. This drug can be used on a regular basis, weekly, after water changes.

On the Internet you can find information about using in the aquarium tea (as a light antiseptic, to accelerate regeneration), Vetom 1.1 (as an adjunct in complex treatment, its bacteria synthesize interferon-protein, a factor of nonspecific antiviral immunity), human recombinant interferon and roncoleukin (also immunomodulatory drugs with antiviral activity).

Often fish fall ill with a single disease, say a bacterial infection, and then pick up a secondary infection - a fungal infection. In this regard, the question arises - can then, in all cases, treat "everything and the paste". That is, immediately make and bactericidal and fungicidal drugs? Or is it better to treat in strict accordance with the symptoms?

The main principle of any treatment is “do no harm”. Very often there are cases when a fish (and not only a fish) dies not from an illness, but from treatment. Many drugs can not be combined categorically. If there is a suspicion that there is a combination infection, it is better to seek the help of a specialist in order to find compatible drugs.

What drug can you recommend, in addition to the main treatment, to be safe? Is simultaneous treatment and use of herbal medicine possible?

Almost all infections and invasions somehow injure the mucous membranes. For their quick recovery, in addition to the main treatment, we can recommend preparations based on essential oils: API Melafix and API Pimafix. In the case of a mild infection, they can be used as the main agent (Melafix with bacterial as well Pimafix - with fungal infections). Also used for these purposes. Almond leaves, decoction of oak bark, tea.

Well stimulates the immune system iodine. When treating, add an iodine alcohol infusion - 5 drops per 100 liters or iodinol - 1 ml per 10 liters. Be careful, overdose of iodine is unacceptable and deadly! You can use the branded drug Tetra vital (according to the instructions).

Often in the aquarium where the treatment is carried out, in addition to the fallen fish there are aquarium plants, shrimps and snails. Snails, for the period of treatment can be obtained, but plants and shrimp are not always. Tell me, what drugs do you think tolerate plants and crustaceans? What drugs are clearly contraindicated in such cases?

Definitely can not use copper and preparations containing it. Refrain from using funds whose composition is not specified. Plants and invertebrates react badly to nitrofuran preparations: Sera baktopur direct, Antibac Pro, furazolidone, furatsilin.

There is experience in the treatment of ichthyophthiriosis in the aquarium with plants and shrimps. Sera Costapur. Of the antibiotics in herbalist, enrofloxacin (a veterinary drug) was used. Essential oil based products are also safe for all inhabitants - API Melafix and API Pimafix.

Often on the Internet you can find information that introducing a drug and conducting treatment should turn off the aquarium lighting. For example, drugs such as Sera bactopur direct and the antibiotic metronidazole. So nevertheless, is it necessary to turn off the lighting at the time of treatment or not? If so, why and with which drugs?

Many antibiotics decompose in the light. Therefore, they write in the instructions that it is necessary to store in a dark place, and medicine jars are traditionally made of dark glass. Bicillin-5 and nitrofurans clearly decompose (Sera bactopur direct, Antibac Pro, furazolidone). There is no data on how fast this process is going. If there is a possibility - of course it is better to turn off the light.

How do you feel about UV sterilizers, as a means to prevent diseases?

UV sterilizers are well proven in two cases - it is a fight against water blooming and rearing aquariums with a large number of fry. For the rest, I consider their use unjustified.

Please tell us about the typical signs (symptoms) of a disease? To beginners better oriented.

Many diseases have very similar symptoms, and it is not always possible to determine the diagnosis. Sometimes a diagnosis cannot be made without microscopy or even an autopsy.

I will talk about the symptoms that you should definitely pay attention to, without reference to diagnoses. I wouldn’t like to have diarrhea and sleeping pills on my tip.

So what is worth paying attention to? Not only with your fish, but when you buy in the store.

Behavior: heavy breathing, the fish is on the flow of oxygen or "smokes" at the surface. It lies at the bottom, is not active, or, on the contrary, moves unnaturally sharply, is torn. Scratching about the soil and scenery. The fish, which is usually kept in mind, begins to hide, tends to solitude.

Feeding. Refusal to feed. Fish repeatedly takes and spits out food. Exhaustion may be observed, for example, a sunken abdomen, shrunken backs, unnaturally large eyes, protruding skull bones.

The presence of parasites visible to the naked eye. These can be bright white dots up to 1 mm in diameter - ichthyophthirius (each such point is one unicellular parasite). Crustaceans - arguments and lerneys. Sometimes you can see intestinal parasites (roundworms - nematodes), protruding from the anus. Some species of flukes have rather large sizes (up to 3 mm) and are visible with the naked eye - they look like a wriggling villus. Most do not exceed 1 mm in size and microscopy is necessary for accurate diagnosis.

Lesions of mucous membranes and scales. The first reaction to the aggressive effects of the environment is increased mucus secretion. First, bubbles begin to stick to the body of the fish (this can often be seen when landing fish in a new aquarium, this is the result of stress due to changes in water parameters). Then dull greyish accumulations of mucus appear, gradually increasing in size. On the body you can see erosion, ulcers, hemorrhages, necrosis (tissue necrosis). Sometimes scales fall on the affected areas.

Lesions of the gills. The fish is breathing heavily; mucus can be released from the gill covers. Often the fish pops up and stands at the surface, "smokes." The gills can become unnaturally red, or vice versa - pale.

The defeats of the fins. The so-called "fin rot" - a white patina, as if eating fins. Sometimes only the tissue between the rays is affected, and the rays themselves remain.

These are the main symptoms that should alert. In fact, there are many more of them; carefully observe the behavior and condition of the pets in order to identify the disease in time.

90% of novice aquarists who have a sick fish have an elevated concentration of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in an aquarium. In this case, as a rule, the patient has an average or even severe stage of the disease. What is the best way for a newcomer to do in such a situation: remove poisons and at the same time treat Remove poisons, and then treat? Or at your own risk start treatment immediately?

In practice, there was such a case - they brought two goldfish from a round aquarium. The fish had the worst ammonia burns, they did not descend from the surface of the water, they often breathed. At the same time, they were amazed by ichthyophthirius. Here it is important to correlate the risks. Virtually any medicine will finish off a fish in such a serious condition, so the temperature in the aquarium was lowered a little to slow down the development of ichthyophthirius and removed intoxication. Used drugs Sera Toxivec and API Melafix. A week later, the gills began to heal and the fish swam in the water column. Only after that we again raised the temperature and treated ichthyophthirius.

In each case, the decision will be made individually, depending on the state of water, fish, process intensity, and other conditions.

Sometimes the fish are injured from fights and clashes with neighbors, or, for example, during the formation of a viral growth on the fin stop it. What drug would you recommend for a quick wound healing?

Again, any disinfectant: API Melafix and API Pimafix, almond leaves, oak bark decoction, tea. In extreme cases - methylene blue or tripoflavin.

Please give farewell to novice aquarists.

I would like, of course, that you have passed all these troubles. However, as practice shows, sooner or later, diseases visit each aquarium. The most important thing is not to delay the treatment. The score sometimes goes not even for days, but for hours. A disease that was easily treated yesterday — it is becoming deadly today.

And, of course, health to you and your pets!

Dear reader! Below, we have prepared additional materials for you on the subject of fish disease and aquarium hydrochemistry, they will help you to further explore the topic covered in this brochure.

Disease fish.
Basics of aquarium hydrochemistry.

Fish diseases (and not only) are divided into two large groups - infectious and non-infectious diseases.

Infectious diseases have a specific pathogen (it can be a bacterium, a virus, a fungus, etc.) and are transmitted from an infected individual (or from an intermediate host) to a healthy one.

Non-contagious diseases are various injuries, congenital pathologies and diseases caused by a violation of conditions of detention. To know the reasons for their appearance and to be able to distinguish a contagious disease from a non-contagious one, you need to understand the basics of the chemical processes taking place in the aquarium.

Let us consider in more detail each group of diseases.

Non-contagious diseases.

This is a large group of diseases, which include injuries, congenital pathologies and diseases caused by violation of conditions of detention. In an amateur aquarium most of the diseases are non-infectious! They are often confused with fungal and bacterial infections. Be careful! The treatment of infectious and non-communicable diseases is radically different and incompatible with each other. Incorrect diagnosis and incorrect treatment in this case can seriously harm the inhabitants of the aquarium.

Within the framework of this topic, we will get acquainted with diseases caused by disturbances in the nitrogen metabolism:

Ammonia and ammonium poisoning;

Nitrite poisoning;

Nitrate poisoning, nitric shock;

Nitrogen cycle:

No wonder many experienced aquarists believe the nitrogen cycle is the basis of the basics. The ability to create and maintain biological balance in an aquarium is the best prevention of most ailments. What lies behind the terrible phrase nitrogen cycle? Let's figure it out.

We all know that fish love to eat ... They love to eat. Common truth - all that was eaten, sooner or later come out. Fish excrement, uneaten food, corpses and dead plant parts are all biological wastes, which in water begin to decompose under the action of various microorganisms.

Any protein contains nitrogen (N), nitrogen decomposition products are extremely toxic to fish, and therefore, to avoid serious poisoning, it is necessary to understand how the nitrogen cycle works.

Ammonia / Ammonium.

Ammonia (NH₃) - is the first stage of protein decomposition. Ammonia is a poisonous gas that dissolves easily in large quantities in water.

В кислой среде большая часть аммиака связывается с водородом и образует ион аммония (NH₄¯). Есть мнение, что аммоний не токсичен, однако это не так. Аммоний обладает всеми свойствами аммиака, просто действует несколько медленней.

Откуда берется избыток аммиака? Как он нейтрализуется в аквариуме? Как опознать аммиачное отравление у рыб? Как помочь рыбкам в случае отравления?

ПДК = 0 мг/л

* MAC - the maximum permissible concentration of a substance that is safe for life and health.

Causes of ammonia poisoning:

Overfeeding;

Overpopulation;

Insufficient filter capacity;

Insufficient aeration;

Insufficient amount of soil;

Wrong start of the aquarium;

Replacing 100% water;

Predisposing factors:

Small volume;

Goldfish;

Antibiotic treatment;

What questions will help us know that ammonia poisoning is possible in an aquarium?

What is the volume of the aquarium? Who lives in it? So you can draw conclusions about overpopulation, if any.

How to feed - how many times a day and in what quantity?

How long has the aquarium been launched? Perhaps the aquarium is new, in which case it is more susceptible to ammonia flashes.

How often do you change the water? How much water do you change? Often, novice aquarists in pursuit of clean water, change it completely, and most enthusiasts also boil the ground.

Has the treatment been done lately? Have any medications been used for prophylaxis? Antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs are detrimental to the microflora of the aquarium, their use can also cause an ammonia flash.

Symptoms of ammonia poisoning are quite bright and characteristic:

A large amount of mucus on the body;

The fish “itches” on the soil and scenery;

Red gills;

The fish stands on an influx of oxygen;

Hemorrhages in the gills and at the base of the fins;

The fish is breathing heavily;

Water becomes whitish;

With a strong overfeeding, the water gets a yellow-brown shade and putrid odor;

The diagnosis is confirmed by testing water for ammonia;

Diagnostics:

Medical history (feeding, care, volume, population, clinical signs ...)

Checking water with ammonia / ammonium tests.

Treatment:

Do not feed for 2-3 days! (To stop the processes of decomposition and the formation of excess ammonia).

Eliminate overcrowding if there are too many fish.

Daily water changes ¼

Sera toxivec (this drug binds ammonia in a non-toxic form and protects the mucous membranes of fish from the aggressive effects of the external environment).

Sera bio nitrivec, Tetra Safe Start (cultures of live bacteria that naturally decompose ammonia and nitrite).

Normalize filtration and increase aeration (the filter sponge is the substrate on which bacteria live, the bigger it is - the better, bacteria need oxygen to decompose ammonia and nitrite).

Nitrites.

MAC = 0.2 mg / l

Nitrites (NO₂) - are formed from ammonia in the presence of a sufficient number of bacteria (Nitrosomonas).

Nitrites are also toxic to fish, but their toxicity is much lower than that of ammonia. May cause chronic, almost asymptomatic poisoning.

Like ammonia, they are effectively removed from the water only with the help of bacteria (Nitrobacter).

The causes of nitrite poisoning and its treatment will be largely analogous to ammonia. However, it is much more difficult to diagnose it, since there are practically no bright symptoms. An accurate diagnosis can only be made based on the results of water testing.

Causes of nitrite poisoning:

Overfeeding;

Overpopulation;

Insufficient filter capacity;

Insufficient aeration;

Insufficient amount of soil;

Wrong start of the aquarium;

Replacing 100% water;

Predisposing factors:

Small volume;

Goldfish;

Antibiotic treatment;

High water hardness, high pH (cichlidics);

Symptoms:

As a rule, there are no specific symptoms;

Regular single case;

The fish is sluggish, standing buried in the corner of the aquarium;

The fish eat badly;

The fins are compressed, the color turns pale or dark;

There may be a small amount of mucus on the body of the fish;

Treatment similar to treatment for ammonia poisoning (but nitrites remain in water much longer, so the duration of treatment may be longer):

Do not feed for 2-3 days! (To stop the processes of decomposition and the formation of excess ammonia).

Eliminate overcrowding if there are too many fish.

Daily water changes ¼ (not more).

Sera toxivec (this drug binds ammonia in a non-toxic form and protects the mucous membranes of fish from the aggressive effects of the external environment).

Sera bio nitrivec, Tetra Safe Start (cultures of live bacteria that naturally decompose ammonia and nitrite).

Normalize filtration and increase aeration (the filter sponge is the substrate on which bacteria live, the bigger it is - the better, bacteria need oxygen to decompose ammonia and nitrite).

Nitrates

MAC = 25-100 mg / l.

Nitrates (NO₃) - the final decomposition product of nitrogen. Removed from the water by substitutions, or consumed by plants as a source of nitrogen.

Accumulating in the aquarium in large quantities (rare water changes, or their complete absence) can cause nitrate poisoning. When transplanting fish from a prosperous aquarium to an aquarium with a high concentration of nitrates, one can observe the so-called “nitrate shock”.

Maximum permissible concentrations vary for different fish - on average it is 50 mg / l, for undemanding fish (zebrafish, local guppy breeds) up to 100 mg / l, whimsical fish (discus, battle clown) - 25 mg / l.

Causes of nitrate poisoning:

Rare water changes, or their complete absence

Predisposing factors:

Overpopulation

Overfeeding

Lack of live plants.

Symptoms:

The fish is “drawn out”, grows poorly;

Viviparous fishes stop spawning;

New fish "do not go" to the aquarium, they have observed "nitric shock" (acute poisoning and sudden death within 1-3 days);

Diagnostics:

Medical history (mode of feeding, care, volume, population, clinical signs ...).

Water testing with nitrate tests.

Treatment:

Regular water changes.

It is categorically impossible to remove nitrates by abrupt and abundant water changes! When transplanting fish from nitrate water to clean water, the same symptoms are observed as with nitrate shock.

If the water in the aquarium has not changed for a long time, the ground did not siphon — you need to press on the ground in several places before the first cleaning, check for bubbles (in the soil, in the absence of oxygen, methane and hydrogen sulfide are formed, as in a swamp). If bubbles have gone - it is necessary to carefully drain most of the water, transplant fish there, and then rinse the soil (otherwise, hydrogen sulfide kills the fish within 15 seconds). Old water is poured back into the aquarium, then fresh water is added.

Planting live plants minimizes the accumulation of nitrates in water.

Contagious diseases.

Infectious diseases have a specific pathogen and can be transmitted from a sick individual to a healthy one.

Depending on the type of pathogen, infectious fish diseases are divided into several groups:

Protozoal diseases (ichthyophthiriosis, kositosis, hexamytosis, oodiniaz ...).

Bacterial diseases (flexibacteriosis, aeromonosis ...).

Parasitic diseases (arguments, lerneiosis, gyrodactylosis, dactylogyrosis ...).

Fungal diseases (saprolegnosis ...).

Viral diseases (lymphocystic disease ...).

Consider each group separately.

Protozoal diseases:

The causative agents of protozoal diseases - representatives of the kingdom of Protozoa (protozoa) - unicellular microorganisms. In this course, we will consider several diseases caused by parasitic infusoria and flagellates.

Ichthyophthyriosis: Also known by the names “Manka”, “ichtik”, “White spot disease”, “Ich”, “Ick”.

Pathogen: Parasitic equorestial infusoria Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

Symptomatology is very characteristic - white dots up to 1 mm in diameter appear on the body of the fish.

Development cycle:

Adult parasite is under the epithelial layer (epithelium - the upper layer of the mucous membrane), here it grows, feeds and matures. The mature parasite dissolves the epithelium and falls to the bottom, forming the second phase.

Tomont. It is covered with a shell - cysts, thanks to which it is practically invulnerable to adverse environmental conditions. Viable ichthyophthirius cysts were even found in tap water! Depending on the conditions, the cyst either falls asleep or the tomont in it begins to actively divide.

Tomont is divided, forming up to 1000 daughter cells (trophozoites or strollers).

Strollers dissolve the cyst and fall into the water. Lifespan tramp is two days. During this time, it must find a host (then the development cycle will repeat), or it will die.

Features of tropical forms:

Tropical ichthyophthirius, oriental ichthyophthirius, “Oriental”.

At the moment, many ichthyopathologists separately distinguish the so-called "tropical ichthyophthirius". In contrast to the cold-water form is extremely stable, it is very difficult to cure.

The development cycle takes place completely on the host's body, the cyst is formed directly under the epithelial tubercle, the tubercle is torn, the vagrants crawl and immediately take root under the epithelium.

The parasite is small, the core is not horseshoe-shaped, but twisted.

Small rash, barely noticeable.

The rash is clustered.

Resistant to high temperatures (up to 32 ° C).

Resistant to many drugs (use FMC, furazolidone).

Kostioz (Ichthyobiasis):

The causative agent is Costia flagellates (Ichthyobodo) necatrix.

The fish “itches” on the stones.

On the body appear gray-blue matte spots.

With the defeat of the gills fish breathes heavily.

Fins strongly stick together.

Fish swims at the surface with characteristic “jerking” movements.

The parasite is very small, visible only under a high magnification microscope.

An accurate diagnosis can only be made by microscopic examination of scrapings.

Treatment:

  1. Sera costapur 1 ml per 40 l (every other day) + Sera mycopur 1 ml per 40 l - half the dose, as indicated in the instructions (daily).
  2. Baths with potassium permanganate and salt: 2% saline solution (2 teaspoons of salt per 1 liter of water), potassium permanganate to a clear pink, but not intense, color, aging 10-15 minutes.

Oodiniosis:

Hodiniosis, velvet disease, gold dust, colise disease.

Pathogen - flagellates of the genus Oodinium.

Symptoms:

The body of the fish becomes “rough”.

To the naked eye, the rash is almost invisible, under the magnifying glass you can see the characteristic golden dust.

The appearance is very reminiscent of the tropical form of ichthyophthirius.

Development cycle:

Adult parasite (trophont) on the body of a fish.

Tomont.

Dividing tomonta in cysts into 256 tomites.

Education dinospore (hymnospore).

Treatment:

1.Bicillin-5: pH not lower than 6.5, t from 24 ° С, the light does not turn on. 1-1.5 million IU per 100 liters of water. The next day, replace 30% of the water and make a full dose of bitsillina. The third treatment in two days and the last - in 7 days.

2. Preparations of heavy metals (especially copper) - “Formed” works well, it is used according to the instructions.

Hexamitosis:

Octomitosis, spironulosis, hole disease (Hole-in-the-Head), discus disease.

Cause: Hexamita salmonis flagellates (another name is Octomitus truttae), drop-shaped, with 4 pairs of flagella (3 pairs in front, 1 in back). The parasite multiplies by division, but can also form cysts.

Symptoms:

Transparent-whitish, often filiform and often viscous mucous excrement.

Loss of appetite. Then refusal to eat. In mild cases, the fish "spit" repeatedly taking food in the mouth and then spitting it out.

Some increase (bloating) in the abdomen (not always observed). Then the fish begin to lose weight and their abdomen acquires a characteristic keeled or concave shape, and the back dries out. Fins strongly stick together.

Darkening color, solitude.

Erosion and ulceration of the integument of the head and change in the appearance of the lateral line (perforated disease).

Treatment:

1. Hyperthermic treatment: raise the temperature to 33-35 ° C. An extreme measure, when a fish is in serious condition, does not eat. Raise no more than 3-4 ° per day.

2. Metronidazole (Trichopol): 250 mg per 35 liters. Three days make medication every day after water changes (up to 25%). Then - every other day, replacing about 10-15% of water. The course is 12-15 days!

3. Metronidazole + ciprofloxacin (enroxyl, baytril): metronidazole for large adults (not exhausted!) Cichlids - 1 tab. (250 mg) to 15 liters. water for small species and young cichlids - 1 table. on 25-30 l, a full dose daily after substitution of 50% of the volume of water. Ciprofloxacin - 500 mg per 50 l (enroxil / baytril 5% - 1 ml per 10 l). After 3 days, the drugs are given in half dose.

Bacterial diseases:

The causative agents of this group of diseases are bacteria. These are also single-celled microorganisms, but unlike Protozoa, they are more simply arranged, they have no nuclei, as a rule, of a much smaller size.

Columnaria:

Flexibacteriosis, fin rot, “gray saddle”, “mouth disease”, “Asian”, aquarium plague.

Cause: Bacteria Flexibacter Columnaris.

Strictly aerobic (requires oxygen).

- warm water (temperature increase during treatment is unacceptable).

-gram-negative (for the treatment of selected group of antibiotics with a spectrum of action on gram-negative microorganisms).

- non-halophilic (do not live in salt water).

- unconditionally-pathogenic (cause disease only under stressful conditions).

-can occur even in good conditions, with sufficient aeration.

- contributing factors - large crowding, stress, transportation.

Symptoms:

White spots about 5 mm; over time, the white area increases.

White-gray vatoobrazny plaque (similar to the fungus Saprolegnia) or growth, as if "eating" the skin of the fish.

Necrosis (premature cell death of living tissue) of fins, which is accompanied by white bloom and cannon-like clusters of bacteria.

Ulcers

Occasionally, areas of the body of a fish that are affected by Columnaris bacteria darken in a half-full color or become the color of flesh (meat).

"Saddle" (saddle-like) affected area in the region of the dorsal fin, which gave the second name of the disease - "gray saddle".

On the gills, Columnaris may cause the gill filaments to disintegrate; their color may change to light or dark brown. In this case, there is rapid breathing, and the fish can rise to the surface of the water, where the oxygen concentration is higher.

Treatment regimen:

Ciprofloxacin - water-soluble forms (“Digran”) are used, other tablets are practically insoluble in water. Dose - 500 mg per 50 liters of water. It is applied daily before turning off the light in a full dose of 3-7 days. Negative effect on the organs of blood creation, excretory system, central nervous system. At the wrong dosage, after the use of Ciprofloxacin, strains appear that are absolutely not susceptible to all antibiotics.

Antibuck (ciprofloxacin) - 1 tablet per 100 - 200 liters of water. It is applied daily before turning off the light in a full dose of 3-7 days.

Enroksil (Baytril) - 5% solution - 1 ml per 10 liters of water. It is administered daily in a full dose of 3-7 days. Less toxic than ciprofloxacin.

Small fish (blue neon, rhodostomus) - enroxil (baytril) 5% 1 ml per 10 l once (or twice with an interval of 12 hours) for prophylactic purposes immediately after disembarking from the packages.

Levomycetin - 1 tablet (0.5 g) per 10 liters of water. Submitted 1 time in 3 days. Course up to 3 weeks.

Sera mycopur

Contains acriflavin active against Flexibacter Columnaris in the early stages of the disease.

Prevents secondary seeding with fungal infections.

It is applied daily in a dose of 1 ml per 20 liters (1 drop per 1 liter of water).

Used as an auxiliary drug in addition to antibiotics.

Doxycycline + Biseptol-480

Doxycycline - 2 capsules (200 mg) per 100 liters of water. Submitted 1 time in 3 days. Course up to 3 weeks. Daily replacement of 25-30% of water, and we make 100 mg per 100 l (1 capsule) of doxycycline.

Biseptol-480 - 1.5 tablets per 100 liters. Then daily 0.5 tabl per 100 liters.

Course 5 - 7 days (up to 10).

API PimaFix

Antifungal agent on a natural basis (bayese essential oil).

In the early stages can affect the pathogen. Stimulates the immunity of fish. It prevents secondary fungal infections.

To bring daily at the rate of 5 ml per 38 l, as an adjuvant in conjunction with an antibiotic.

Auxiliary means:

Salt

Viviparous, goldfish, tetradons, monodactyls, Argus - 1 tbsp. l 10 liters of water.

Scaleless - 1 tbsp. l 40 liters of water, with caution, under supervision of the general condition of the fish.

The rest of the fish - 1 tbsp. l 20 liters of water.

Strictly! Prepare the mother liquor. The aquarium is poured into 3-4 stages with an interval of 30-60 minutes. The condition of salt-sensitive fish must be monitored for several hours.

The temperature of the water gradually, at the time of treatment, drops to 22-24 ° C.

Aeromonosis:

Rubella carp, abdominal dropsy, spreading scales.

Causative Agent: Bacteria Aeromonas punktata.

Carp rubella is also called a wide group of diseases caused not only by Aeromonas bacteria, but also by pseudomonoses (ex. Pseudomonas fluorescens), a viral disease - spring carp viremia).

The causative agent is a strict anaerob (it does not require oxygen in the water for breathing), therefore the disease is more common in aquariums with poor aeration, in old acidic water, under poor conditions of maintenance and regular overfeeding.

Widely distributed in the middle lane, it can be brought with live food.

Cold water, does not like high temperatures.

Symptoms:

The fish is sluggish. Does not respond to stimuli. Stop eating. First, it is collected at the surface of the water, then it lies on the bottom.

Scaling of scales: at the beginning of the disease, the scales of the fish rise, after a while the powder spreads all over the body and the scales begin to fall.

Abdominal dropsy: The abdomen is distended, the anus is inflamed.

Tweezers

Hemorrhagic ulcers: bloody spots appear on the body and fins, then they ulcerate. Blood-red ulcers in white border.

Treatment regimens.

Roncoleukin

Roncoleukin - at the rate of 50000-100000 IU per 10 l, every other day 3-4 applications.

Stimulates the immunity of fish, suitable as an adjuvant in the treatment of any species of carp rubella.

Ciprofloxacin, Antibac, Enroxil, Baytril.

Все препараты активны по отношению к аэромонозу и псевдомонозу, схемы лечения как при колумнарисе.

Доксициклин + Левомицетин + Нистатин.

This combination is used in severe cases with large ulcerative lesions.

Doxycycline - 1 capsule 100 mg per 30-35 l.

Levomitsetin - 500mg per 20 liters.

Nystatin - 200,000 units. 30 -35 l.

Make a day, after the change of 1/3 of water.

Strengthen aeration.

The course is 10-30 days.

Nitrofuran preparations: furazolidone, Sera baktopur direct.

Sera baktopur direct 1 tablet per 50 liters of water every 3 days, after changing 30-50% of water. Can be used in the form of short-term baths - 1 tablet per 2 liters of water for 30 minutes. The drug is extremely toxic.

Furazolidone 1 tablet (50 mg) for 10-20 liters every other day.

Nitrofuran preparations can be combined with antibiotics, for example, with chloramphenicol or ciprofloxacin.

Parasitic diseases:

The causative agents of this group of diseases are multicellular parasites (mainly flat and roundworms, parasitic crustaceans).

Argulosis: the pathogen is the toad branch of crustacean argument (carpoed, carp louse).

Heat loving.

Size 4-8 mm.

They feed on the blood of fish.

The female lays about 250-300 eggs on glasses, decor or another substrate, eggs develop 3-5 weeks depending on the temperature.

Larvae hatched from eggs for 2-3 days swim freely, looking for fish, if they don’t find them, they die.

The development of larvae in the adult parasite occurs on the body of the fish within 2-3 weeks.

Treatment:

1.Manual processing - daily inspection, removal of parasites from fish and clutches from the glasses. Complete disinfection of the aquarium in advanced cases (whiteness or ecocide solutions).

2.Specialized products - sera Argulol, JBL Aradol Plus.

Lerneosis:

The causative agent is copepods of the Lerna (Lernaea cyprinacea and Lernaea elegans).

Only females parasitize (males die immediately after fertilization of the female).

One female bears 1400 eggs (two egg bags of 700 eggs each) every 2 weeks for 16 weeks.

The larvae swim freely in water before puberty.

Treatment:

1.Manual processing - daily inspection, removal of parasites from fish and clutches from the glasses. It is necessary to be extremely careful, because the crustaceans, when removed, burst and the anchor remains in the body, causing prolonged boils. Complete disinfection of the aquarium in advanced cases (whiteness or ecocide solutions).

2.Specialized products - sera Argulol, JBL Aradol Plus.

Gyrodactylosis:

Pathogens are monogenetic flukes of the family Gyrodactylidae.

Reproduction occurs on the body of the host, the live-bearing parasite does not form forms resistant to treatment.

The size of the parasite to 1 mm.

The fish becomes closer, the fins stick together.

Characteristic jerking movements appear.

Treatment:

Praziquantel based preparations:

1.Sera med Professional Tremazol, JBL Gyrodol Plus, JBL Gyrodol 2, JBL GyroPond (according to the instructions).

2. Azipirin, Azinoks, Drontal - 1 tablet per 10-15 liters of water, one time, exposure a day, increase aeration, a day later 50% water change. In particularly advanced cases, it is possible to carry out a second treatment in the same way.

Dactylogyrosis:

Pathogens are monogenetic flukes of the Dactylogyridae families.

Species specific (infect a strictly specific type of fish).

They feed on mucus from the body of the fish (do not feed on blood).

Gills pale pink, swollen, anemia develops.

From under the gill covers visible mucus.

The fish refuses to eat, hangs at the surface, breathes heavily.

Treatment:

1.Sera med Professional Tremazol, JBL Gyrodol Plus, JBL Gyrodol 2, JBL GyroPond (according to the instructions).

2. Azipirin, Azinoks, Drontal - 1 tablet per 10-15 liters of water, one time, exposure a day, increase aeration, a day later 50% water change. In particularly advanced cases, it is possible to carry out a second treatment in the same way.

Fungal diseases.

The causative agents of this group of diseases are lower fungi. Fungal diseases, as a rule, are not independent diseases. They appear as secondary infections with lesions of the skin.

“Cotton Disease” (saprolegnosis):

The causative agent - fungi of the genus Saprolegnia, Achyla, etc.

Symptoms:

Fluffy neoplasms, usually white or whitish, consist of separate filaments.

As a rule, the infection is secondary, it develops with the defeat of the skin.

Treatment:

1. Improving conditions of detention.

2. Treatment of the underlying disease.

3.Specific drugs (Sera mycopur, Tetra Medica Fungi Stop according to the instructions)

Viral diseases.

The causative agents of this group of diseases are viruses. These are the smallest microorganisms consisting of a protein coat and nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). There is no specific treatment for viral diseases in ichthyopathology. Immunity is stimulated, symptomatic treatment is carried out.

Lymphocytosis (grapelike nodosity):

Causative agent - Lymphocystis virus

Symptoms:

Small white, gray-white or pinkish neoplasms, most often on the fins, as well as on the head and body.

Treatment:

1. There is no specific treatment, as a rule, it is sufficient to improve the conditions of detention, and the disease resolves itself. For complete recovery, it takes 1.5-2 months.

2. Sometimes surgical intervention is used (if the neoplasm interferes with eating or swimming).

3. To stimulate immunity, iodine (Tetra Vital) can be added to water, especially valuable fish - Roncoleukin at the rate of 50000-100000 IU per 10 l, every other day 3-4 additions.

Diagnosis and treatment choice:

It is not always possible at home, without a microscope, to make an accurate diagnosis. Let's analyze different options:

Option 1: You managed to make an accurate diagnosis.

We carry out treatment according to the scheme for this disease.

Option 2: you see that there are deviations from the normal state, but an accurate diagnosis cannot be made.

It is necessary to “narrow down” the range of diseases in the affected area (ectoparasitic - caused by skin parasites, intestinal) as much as possible and treat them with a wide spectrum of action, with a maximum coverage, for example:

1. Treatment of ectoparasites: Salt (1 tbsp. At 10 liters, or 1 tsp. At 10 liters for sensitive fish), formamed 10 ml per 50 l every other day, enroxil (baytril) 5% - 1 ml per 10 l (daily 5-7 days)

2. Intestinal infections: Feed in small portions 2-3 times a day, preferably with live food or freezing. In the feed, dissolve metronidazole and chloramphenicol 1 tablet for every 4-5 cubes of bloodworms, a course of 1-2 weeks. You can add metronidazole to water 1 tablet 250 mg per 40 liters (daily or every other day depending on the severity of the disease), a course of 2 weeks.

We monitor the effectiveness of the applied treatment, if necessary we make adjustments.

Important! It is necessary to take into account information about the content and, if possible, to make water tests for the most important indicators, since poisoning with nitrogenous compounds, acidosis and alkalosis are “masked” as infectious diseases. In this case, the use of drugs will worsen the situation!

Drug compatibility:

Not all drugs can be combined with each other. When combining medicines it is necessary to consider:

-Drugs should not be used in conjunction with Tetra AquaSafe, Sera aqutan, Sera toxivec conditioners (conditioners protect the mucous membranes of fish, reducing the availability of medicines, neutralize some medicines).

-Drugs can not be used in conjunction with UV treatment (ultraviolet destroys drugs).

- During treatment, coal and zeolite must be removed from the filter (sorbents neutralize the effect of the drugs).

- During treatment in water there should not be an excess of organic matter (organic substances decompose react with many drugs, reducing their concentration in water).

- Iodine stimulates the immunity of fish, goes well with most drugs, 5% alcohol solution - 5 drops per 100 liters.

-When combining drugs, it is impossible to combine drugs with the same active ingredient and antibiotics of the same group, for example, Ciprofloxacin and Baytril, Sera costapur and Ichthyophore (this leads to overdose and drug poisoning).


Very useful video about the treatment of aquarium fish



fanfishka.ru

The main diseases of aquarium fish

Diseases of aquarium fish can be divided into two categories: infectious, infectious, caused by various microorganisms and transmitted from fish to fish, and non-infectious, caused by improper conditions of detention or large parasites.

In the first case, to cure a pet requires the intervention of medicinal drugs that can destroy the causative agent of the disease. In the second, changes in housing conditions are often effective, eliminating the pathogenic factor, mechanical removal of the parasite, any measures that will strengthen the body of the fish, which are weakened by the disease. But almost always the poor conditions of the fish and poor-quality food weaken the immune system or are the immediate causes of the disease.

Timely diagnosis always facilitates the treatment of any disease of aquarium fish, because almost all diseases are effectively suppressed in the early stages.

Signs of illness in the aquarium fish

Non-contagious diseases

Alkalosis or alkaline disease

Causes: too soft, acidified water in the aquarium, which becomes so with excessive light, a large number of plants.

Signs: coloring and shine of fish scales grow dull, mucus is released from their gills, movements become convulsive, and fins are spreading. Fish trying to jump out of the aquarium. If you start the disease, the cornea begins to become clouded, followed by blindness, a massive death of the inhabitants of the aquarium is possible, which usually occurs at night.

Treatment: will help the transfer of fish in the tank, the water in which has a pH of 7-8.5. In general, the aquarium gradually bring the acidity to the desired boundaries. Fish recovery will be slow.

Argulosis

Causes: Carpoed parasitic crustacean, also called "fish louse". The crayfish is rather large - it can be seen with the naked eye, it is rounded in shape, therefore the diagnosis is not too complicated.

Symptoms: getting on the body of the fish, the crustacean is embedded in the tissue, forming a wound with swollen, reddened edges, abundant secretion of mucus. Fish scratches ulcerated place on solid objects, swaying on the spot, she spoils her appetite. The crayfish destroys not only the upper layer of the body - the epidermis and skin, but even the muscles. In addition, it releases a substance that slowly poisons the fish.

Treatment: the patient is caught from the general aquarium, wrapped in cotton and tweezers, and the parasite is carefully removed. After that, the damaged area is disinfected with potassium permanganate.

Asphyxia or choking

Causes: arises due to the long-term presence of fish in an oxygen-poor environment. This is possible in an overpopulated aquarium, tanks with insufficient aeration.

Signs: the gills are open, the fish makes intense respiratory movements. In the event of death, the mouth and gills remain open. Possible mass death of fish.

Treatment: will help move the fish in the water, in which there is enough oxygen. Changes in conditions in the general aquarium: enhanced aeration, cleaning of debris, rotting food debris, soil siphon.

Symptoms of the disease may coincide with some infectious diseases. The diagnosis can be accurately made by placing the fish in water saturated with oxygen - if you don’t see any improvement, then the disease is infectious.

Acidemia or ammonia poisoning

Causes: high content in the water of waste products of fish, invertebrates, plants. Manifested in overcrowded, inadequately maintained aquariums, where water changes rarely occur, there are rotting accumulations of organic matter.

Signs: the aquarium pet coloring is getting darker, they stay near the surface of the water. Possible damage to their gills, trying to jump out of the aquarium. Symptoms are similar to many of the symptoms of other diseases, the diagnosis may cause difficulty. But an aquarist usually understands what mistakes he made in keeping a home water reservoir, and if the aquarium is untouched, then the symptoms indicate precisely ammonia poisoning.

Treatment: first of all - to replace a significant amount of water in order to reduce the concentration of harmful substances. Strengthen aeration, clean the aquarium.

Acidosis or acid disease

Causes: gradual or dramatic decrease in pH. Perhaps when spawning fish, the appearance of newcomers in the aquarium.

Signs: the fishes become lethargic and alert, grayish-white spots appear on their bodies, they begin to swim sideways or belly upwards. Dead fish are coiled, gill covers are closed. With a sharp decrease in pH (this happens when transferring fish to new conditions), the fish rush around, try to jump, emit a lot of mucus. Dying is also curled ring.

Treatment: adding baking soda to the aquarium to normalize the level of acidity, water changes, more frequent changes in the future.

Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract

Reasons: poor-quality food, monotonous or too hard food.

Signs: faded color, sluggish behavior, threadlike feces with mucus and blood, inflamed anus. Symptoms may be characteristic of some infectious diseases, diagnosis is not easy, but in any case, treatment - improving feed - will help improve the condition of the fish.

Treatment: stop feeding for a few days to allow the mucous membrane of the internal organs to recover, then apply high-quality, diverse food that is easily digested.

Cyst of the genital glands

Reason: keeping separate females and males in combination with monotonous feeding.

Symptoms: the belly of the fish is swollen, as during spawning - a semi-liquid tumor is formed there, pressing on their internal organs. The appetite of the fish disappears, sterility develops, the fish die.

Treatment: in the early stages of the disease is almost impossible to identify, and when it is visible - treatment will not help much. You can try to put the fish on a cotton swab and, stroking the belly, squeeze out a cyst through the anus. But life expectancy and the ability to reproduce after that remain a big question.

Obesity

Reason: monotonous feeding, dry food, overpopulation of the aquarium.

Signs: inactive fish, upper abdomen swollen. The blood brightens, fatty tissue is formed on the internal organs, which leads to a violation of their work and the death of the fish.

Almost always obesity is fatal. Prevention - rational, regular feeding in small portions of a variety of food, unloading, without food, days once a week, the volume of the aquarium sufficient for free swimming.

Chlorine poisoning

Causes: high chlorine content in water, which happens when improper preparation of tap water for substitution.

Signs: the fish keep near the surface, they may try to jump out of the aquarium, then their gill petals become pale, lethargy sets in, the fish do not react to irritations and die.

Treatment: transfer the fish to an aquarium with good water. To defend the water from the chlorinated aquarium for at least 48 hours, pass through a carbon filter. Quickly get rid of chlorine in water can, heating it to 90 degrees.

Gas embolism

Causes: the vessels are blocked by air bubbles if the water is too rich in oxygen. This happens when the tap water is not sufficiently prepared for replacement.

Symptoms: small fish worry, sometimes tremble, darken gill tissues, sometimes blurred eyes and swelling appear. At the opening of the dead fish frothy blood acts.

Treatment: to improve the condition of the fish, transplant them into water with normal parameters of oxygen content.

Cold

Causes: keeping fish too cold for their species.

Signs: the fish become lethargic, grow dull, keep to the surface, swaying, possibly pressing the fins, gills darken and swell, reduced immunity and secondary infections become possible.

Treatment: will help increase the temperature to the optimum for these species.

Mechanical injury

Causes: fights, aggression of some fish towards others, damage to sharp objects (for example, plastic plants, sharp stones). Fin injuries are especially frequent.

Treatment: minor injuries heal themselves, larger ones should be disinfected with potassium permanganate beads, methylene blue baths. Try to remove the factor causing injury from the aquarium.

Saprolegnia in aquarium fish

Contagious diseases

White skin

Pathogen: Pseudomonas dermoalba, bacterium. It enters the aquarium together with infected novices, objects or plants from the tank where the disease has developed.

Signs: the tissues at the caudal and dorsal fins whiten, the fish begins to stick to the surface. Infection affects the central nervous system and coordination organs. Leads to the death of fish.

Treatment: help baths with chloramphenicol. The tank where the sick fish, soil, plants, tools were kept must be disinfected.

Branchomycosis

Cause: Branchiomyces sanguinis and Branchiomyces demigrans, fungi that form blood clots in the vessels.

Signs: At the onset of the disease, red, dark stripes form on the gills due to a blockage of the vessels. The fish becomes lethargic, it can be caught by hand. Appetite disappears, the patient hides in dark corners, hunches, there is a pressing of fins. Later, the gills become "marble" color with alternating pink, gray, whitish stripes. Tissues begin to die off. The disease is highly contagious, diagnosis should be carried out as soon as possible. A little more than three days of infection can carry more than half of the population of the aquarium.

Cured in a spit, solutions of copper sulfate and rivanol. Common aquarium disinfect, completely replace the water. Recovery of gill tissue in recovered fish may take up to a year.

Hexamitosis

Pathogen: ciliate-flagellate hexamite or its varieties.

Signs: exhaustion, inflamed anus, filamentary white mucous stool. Эрозия кожных покровов в форме слизистых дырчатых язв. На ранних стадиях диагностика может вызвать затруднения. Болезнь очень заразна, особенно для цихловых.

It will help to create favorable conditions for the content, diverse and nutritious food. Drug treatment, antibiotics are used erythromycin, griseofulvin, metronidazole, dissolving the feed in the aquarium water, soaking it in solution. A long course of treatment is 10-14 days. Treatment-and-prophylactic measures are applied to healthy fish - a course of antibiotics in half the reduced concentration.

Gyrodactylosis

Pathogen: Gyrodactylus, parasite-flukes affecting the skin, fins, gill tissue of fish.

Signs: the fish keeps near the surface, sways, it is characteristic that the fins are pressed to the body. At later stages, appetite disappears, the fish rubs against hard surfaces, gray areas appear on the body, the destruction of the fins begins, and a gray deposit on the gills appears.

Treatment: in the main aquarium, solutions of bicillin, azipirin will help, in a jigger - table salt, formalin, malachite green, copper sulfate or methylene blue. It is recommended to increase the water temperature for better healing.

Glugeoz

Pathogen: sporovik from the order Microsporidia. It affects the internal organs, gills, eyes.

Signs: the fish is kept on its side, protrusions appear on the skin, which become tearing tumors of whitish, bloody color. Formation of stragues on one or both sides.

There is no way to help. The infected fish dies, the other inhabitants and the plants should be destroyed, the soil, decorations, equipment and the aquarium itself should be thoroughly disinfected.

Fin rot

Pathogen: pseudomonas wand. It is activated in supercooled fish. Fish diseases with an elongated or veiled fin structure are particularly susceptible.

Symptoms: whitish with a blue tinged opacification of the edges of the fins, sometimes the eye - at this stage the diagnosis is difficult, usually the disease is noticed by very experienced and attentive aquarists. Then begins the decay of fins. In young, the tail fin can completely disappear. If this happens to an adult fish, the destruction will affect the skin, muscles, blood vessels - the fish will die.

Treatment: bactericidal drugs will help. Baths with solution Antipara, bitsillina, malachite green. Sometimes, in the early stages, self-healing of the fish is possible with improved conditions.

Dactylogyrosis

Cause: Dactylogyrus fluke infecting gill tissue.

Symptoms: the affected small fish loses appetite, keeps in an aquarium above, rubs against firm surfaces, makes the active respiratory movements. The gills turn pale or get variegated color, their petals stick together, mucus abundantly protrudes, the edges ulcerate.

Treatment: will help increase the temperature of the water, the introduction of water solution of bicillin, salt, formalin. It is possible to treat both in the main aquarium and in the jig.

Ringworm or saprolegnia

Causative agent: Saprolegniales, mold fungus. It affects the skin, gills, and sometimes - internal organs. Often is a secondary infection of a fish already weakened by any disease.

Signs: the fungus manifests itself in the form of thin whitish threads on the skin and gills of fish. In advanced cases affects their internal organs and the fish die.

Treatment: first of all it is necessary to treat from the initial disease, against the background of which the fungus developed. If the initial disease is absent and the reasons were weakened immunity or abnormal conditions, then therapeutic baths with solutions of bicillin, potassium permanganate, malachite green, and table salt will help.

Ichthyosporidiosis

Pathogen: Ichthyosporidium hoferi fungus. It affects all tissues except bone and cartilage.

Signs: the fish moves irregularly, itches, refuses to feed, may lie on its side. The mouth is open, puffed-up eye develops. There may be an eyesore, destruction of the fins, erosion of the skin. In the body of the fish tumors are formed, the organs cease to function.

There is no way to save the fish. Patients perish, the remaining inhabitants should be destroyed, the equipment should be disinfected.

Ichthyophthyriosis or point disease, semolina

Pathogen: protozoa Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. It affects the skin and gills.

Symptoms: the diagnosis is very simple - the fish itches on hard objects, holds on to the surface, breathes greedily. Then on the body appear rash in the form of white dots, grains. The disease can lead to the death of fish.

Treatment: daily administration of bactericidal preparations to the aquarium (malachite green with iodine, bicillin, Antipar, Baktopur) together with the replacement of a quarter of the water volume, gradual heating of water by 4-5 degrees will help.

Lepidortosis

Pathogen: Aeromonas punctata or Pseudomonas fluorescens, bacteria that damage the skin

Signs: the scales of the fish rise, since pustules form under the scales - fluid-filled bubbles. Next begins the loss of scales and the fish dies. Symptoms are similar to signs of tuberculosis, ichthyospiridiosis, accurate diagnosis is possible with the use of laboratory equipment.

Treatment: help is effective at the very beginning of the disease, when the scales are raised only on certain areas of the body. Baths and the introduction of solutions of antibiotics - bitsillin, biomitsin, streptotsida into the aquarium are used. The disease is very contagious, treatment and prophylactic measures should be applied to the inhabitants of the main aquarium, and sick people should be treated in an otsadnik. If the treatment does not help, the diseased fish should be destroyed, the aquarium equipment and the ground should be disinfected.

Trihodinoz

Pathogen: protozoa Trichodina, affecting the skin. Dangerous for many common types of aquarium fish.

Signs: at the initial stage, diagnostics is almost impossible, the fish can only rub from time to time on hard surfaces. In the course of development, the color of the fish grows dull, appetite disappears, areas of grayish bloom appear on the body, which can flake off.

Treatment: will help raise the temperature of the water, increased aeration, drug treatment. In the general aquarium - solutions of salt, trypaflavin, methylene blue. Warm (up to 34 degrees) baths with table salt, ammonia solution. To rid the aquarium of parasites, you should remove the fish for two days and warm the water to 35 degrees.

Peptic ulcer

Pathogen: Pseudomonas fluorescens, a microbe that attacks the skin and intestines.

Signs: the appearance on the body of the fish of dark spots and spots, which gradually turn into ulcers, the development of beam eye, inflammation of the anus and, as a result, intestinal inflammation - a swollen abdomen.

Treatment: help is effective at the onset of the disease. In the general aquarium, a solution of streptocide, biomycin, bicillin is used. In a separate bath and - potassium permanganate and hydrochloride. Aquarium and equipment need to be disinfected.

Proper care of the aquarium and its inhabitants

General rules for prevention

Favorable conditions of the aquarium - timely replacement of properly prepared water, good aeration, regular cleaning of the aquarium eliminates the possibility of a huge number of diseases. A regular diet, which includes a variety of food, rich in vitamins and minerals significantly increase the resistance of your pets to diseases. With rare exceptions, it is a good content - the best prevention of every aquarium fish disease.

Careful to be and to replenish the aquarium - to acquire only healthy fish, carefully withstand quarantine.

What aquarium sick

Diseases of aquarium fish - this is an unfavorable period in the life of pets, which comes suddenly. Nowadays, the first symptoms are easily recognizable, and laboratory diagnostics are proof of that. Many diseases are treated with great success.

There is a scientific discipline that studies the diseases of fish, it is called ichthyopathology. It has been scientifically proven that diseases can be divided into infectious and non-infectious. Contagious include invasive and infectious. Sources of infectious diseases are bacteria, fungi and viruses. Invasive diseases are caused by the parasitic forms of animals. There are unicellular parasites - sporozoans, flagellates, ciliates; and multicellular - these are crustaceans and worms (helminths). Non-infectious diseases of aquarium fish appear due to non-compliance with the quality of maintenance, with improper care.

Disease classification

Diseases of aquarium fish caused by pathogens:

  1. Infectious.
  2. Invasive.

Diseases caused by pathogens are not:

  1. Physical etiology.
  2. Chemical etiology.
  3. Diseases as a result of improper feeding regime and quality.

In conditional order, they can be divided into the following:

  1. Caused by pathogens:
    • Bacteria;
    • Fungi;
    • The simplest;
    • Intestinal cavity;
    • Flatworms;
    • Acantocephalus;
    • Viruses;
    • Crustaceans;
    • Filamentous helminths
  2. Not caused by pathogens:
    • Chemical etiology (toxic poisoning);
    • Physical etiology (due to improper care of the fish - poor quality of the aquatic environment, impaired temperature conditions);
    • The result of improper feeding (bloating, food poisoning).

How to avoid diseases? Symptoms

Invasive diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, enter the aquarium from various sources. This may be a new fish, live or frozen food, soil, scenery, plants. Infections can be avoided if you follow a number of rules:

  1. Buy fish, plants, soil and decor only at verified sales points.
  2. After the purchase, the fish need to be planted for 2-4 weeks quarantine, and the plants are processed.

  3. Observe the correct content parameters that are needed by different types of fish and plants.
  4. Be observant - so you can quickly detect signs of the disease at an early stage.

Common symptoms of diseases in aquarium fish, their diagnosis:

  1. Changes in appearance are observed: uncharacteristic white dots, spots, scurf, “fluff” can appear on their body. Also, sick fish may have ulcers, hemorrhages, and increased secretion of mucus. Fins collapse, stick together, fall off. The scales ruffle and fall off, the belly bulges, eyes bulging.
  2. The behavior of the fish is changing. Their head and tail bend down. They can swim belly up, or on the side, swim on the surface, capturing the air. Sick fish swim in jerks, rub on solid surfaces in the aquarium.
  3. Sick pets lose their appetite, become lethargic. They move unnaturally, body color changes, dims.

Sometimes it happens that the diagnosis of the disease becomes time-consuming. If you can not decide on the disease, contact your ichthyopathologist, let the fish take scraping from the fins and scales. The results of laboratory tests will tell for certain what it is sick.

Different pathogens can cause similar symptoms, or infect a fish with several diseases at the same time. For example, a pet infected with parasitic invasions can be attacked by bacteria or viruses. If he falls ill, diagnose right away to start treatment at an early stage. With attentiveness and observation, you can save the life of your favorites. Prompt treatment and well-chosen medicines will help increase the likelihood of complete recovery of the fish.

What is needed for the prevention of disease?

Treatment of disease is more difficult than prevention. There are a number of simple rules, the observance of which will get rid of the troubles with the health of domestic fish:

  1. Regularly replace 20-30% of aquarium water with clean and infused water (once every 7 days).

    Watch a video about water changes.

  2. Every week, clean the soil with a funnel with a siphon. Remove the rotten remnants of food, plants, as well as waste products of fish.
  3. Avoid overcrowding in the tank. On the average size fish should be 40-50 liters of water. This applies to cichlids, angelfish, medium catfish, gourami, petsilievyh.
  4. Give pets quality food. Store it in the right conditions according to the instructions.
  5. Adhere to the correct mode of feeding: 1-2 times a day in small portions. Once in 7 days you can arrange a fasting day.

  6. Observe permissible temperature conditions of water, do not allow sudden changes in temperature.
  7. Recently bought fish keep in a quarantine tank for 2-4 weeks.
  8. Use soft containers to transport the fish so that it is not frightened and not injured.
  9. When treating a pet, follow the instructions for use of the medication, take the dose carefully, following all the rules.
  10. Do not place in the aquarium soil and decorations that may hurt the fish, or painted. They can release toxins into the water, poisoning all life.
  11. Aquarium cover should be such that the fish about it does not hit hard, and could not jump out of the tank.
  12. Nets, hoses, siphons, gauze fabrics should be different for each tank. After using the equipment in the aquarium with sick fish, it should be treated with disinfectant solutions.

Diseases caused by infection

Plystiphosis, or neon disease - the causative agent is a fungus of the genus Plistiphora hyphessobryconis, which settles in the muscle tissue of fish. Diseases are mostly neon. Signs of illness at an early stage: the glowing neon strip dims, and later completely fades. Others fish scale scales. Today there are no effective ways to treat patients with plysyphitis.

Columnaria - the causative agent of infection is the rod-shaped bacterium Flexibacter columnaris. Symptoms: Sick fish externally covered with white "cotton", especially in the area of ​​the mouth, because of which the disease is also called "oral fungus". The treatment is carried out with the use of phenoxyethanol, in a quarantine separator. It is also effective to use the bath with the drug Merbromin or methylene blue. You can use antibiotics, if the disease has led to the destruction of internal tissues.

Branchiomycosis is a fungal infection that affects the gills of fish. The causative agent of the disease is Branchiomyces demigrans and Branchiomyces sanguinis. It is necessary to treat Branchomycosis with the use of fungicidal medicines, which are added to quarantine otsadniki. Should be taken from the fish tests. After establishing the diagnosis, you need to remove the remnants of food, waste products from the general aquarium. It is necessary to clean the soil, and to replace half of the volume of aquarium water, to include a powerful aeration.

Saprolegniosis - an infection caused by fungi of the genus Saprolegnia. The treatment is carried out with the use of antifungal drugs (streptocid diluted). In a separate container, baths should be carried out for sick fish, using 5% salt solution. Effective in the fight against copper sulfate fungi, hydrochloride, rivanol, formalin. If the fungus has a localization site in the damaged area of ​​the skin, it is better to place the fish in an otsadnik, and use a solution of malachite green oxalate for treatment to remove the source of infection.

Fish tuberculosis is a terrible disease that occurs due to the bacterium Mycobacterium piscium. Under the microscope, it has the shape of a fixed stick. When a bacterium enters an aquarium, several fish can pick it up. Representatives of the haratsin, kartozubyh, labyrinth, tropical cyprinids are sensitive to this infection. Less commonly, tuberculosis is found in cichlids, petilias, cetrarchs. Mycobacterium piscium is resistant to acid, and can develop at a temperature of 18-25 degrees Celsius. Treat the fish after the first symptoms are found. In the early stages, when pets are still eating, you should use kanamycin, which must be added to food. Dose: 10 mg per 10 grams of feed. In the next stages of tuberculosis, the fish are not treated, they are destroyed, and the aquarium is completely treated.

Invasive diseases

Hexamitosis - the causative agent of the disease is a parasitic flagellate droplet shape. It enters the gallbladder or in the intestines of the fish, where the disease begins to develop. Symptoms: the fish refuses to eat, ulcers, or holes are formed on the body. Patients should immediately be quarantined. Hexamitosis is less common in American and African cichlids.

See how to treat hexamytosis in aquarium fish.

In an aquarium, the water temperature should be raised to 33-35 ° C, which has a detrimental effect on the parasites. Increasing the temperature range should be gradual, for example, by 3-4 ° C in 24 hours. At this time, the fish better not to feed. Hexamytosis can be defeated by using the drug metronidazole. It is more gentle and does not affect biological filtration. The medicine must be introduced into the general aquarium without transferring unhealthy pets to quarantine. Dose: 250 mg per 35 liters of water. It is necessary to make the medicine for three days, while replacing 25% of the aquarium water. Later, after a day, you can replace 15% of the water. If during treatment the fish refuse food, it should be stopped. After 7 days, the first improvements will be noticeable, but in order to avoid a relapse, treatment is not recommended to be stopped, because its recommended period: 12-15 days.

Costioz is an invasive disease that occurs with a unicellular parasite of the genus Costianecatrix. It enters the aquarium with live food, sick fish. The first symptoms: the fish rubs against the scenery, then the gills will begin to become covered in mucus, due to which respiratory arrest can occur. The fish have no appetite, refuse to feed. In the later stages, the body is covered with bluish-gray spots, or patina. It is possible to treat bone disease with the use of such means:

  • Potassium permanganate. Dose: 0.1 grams per 1 liter of water. In the bath the fish should be dipped for 40-50 minutes. Repeat for 5 days.
  • Copper sulfate: 1 gram per 10 liters of water. Place fish in the solution for 20 minutes. Repeat for 5 days.
  • Salt: 1 tablespoon (25 grams) per 10 liters of water. In the tub to hold the fish for 15 minutes. Repeat for 7 days. Saline solution is not suitable for all types of fish, this should be taken into account during medical procedures.

How to treat aquarium fish with salt

When diseases are found in aquarium fish, they should be treated immediately. Often used drugs containing antibiotics. Sometimes the treatment of fish is limited to increasing the temperature of the water, cleaning the reservoir and using a tool such as table salt.

For which diseases salt solution is used

If you notice the first signs of illness in an aquarium pet, immediately check the parameters of the water in the tank: pH and hardness, aeration, temperature, concentration of ammonia, nitrates and nitrites. If the solution of the problem in the ways listed does not help, use table salt - this is the first available medicine, which is always at hand. Treatment with this remedy is possible when the following diseases are found in aquarium fish:

  1. Saprolegnios - a fungus that is accompanied by the formation of "white moss" in the area of ​​the lips and fins.
  2. Kostioz, or ichthyobodosis, is an invasive disease, when white spots appear on the body of the fish, turning into a gray-blue plaque.
  3. Trihodinosis is an invasive disease caused by parasitic infusoria. White spots and scurf appear on the body of the fish, sometimes the skin can separate from the body and fall to the bottom in the form of flakes.
  4. Fin rot - an infectious disease of bacterial etiology. The fins of the fish exfoliate and fall off, the body may become covered with spots of white or red color.
  5. Ichthyophthiriosis, "semolina" is a parasitic disease caused by ciliary infusoria. White spots appear on the body of the fish; the pet's condition may deteriorate due to infection mutation.

    See how to diagnose ichthyophthyriosis in aquarium fish.

  6. Salt baths well treat not only common, but also rare fish diseases - oodinium, chilodonellosis, tetrahmeniosis, dactylogyrosis, gyrodactylosis, and others.

Salt also relieves fish from stress, nitrite poisoning. But the use of salt has its own characteristics - some catfish (corridor, tarakatum, antsistrusy, pterigoplichty), labyrinth fish and barbs poorly tolerate saline. Product may damage live aquatic plants. When treating fish with salt, carry out treatment procedures in a separate tank (settler).

Terms of use of salt solution for the treatment of fish

  1. It is impossible to carry out treatment using iodized salt and salt with additives.
  2. Increase the temperature of the water in the tank to 28-30 degrees Celsius, gradually, 2-3 days before the start of treatment. Include a constant aeration (consider also the physiological features of the fish).
  3. Many infectious bacteria die in salt solution 4-5 percent, but the fish can not withstand this concentration of the solution, even a few minutes. Salt procedures should be carried out in liquids with a salt concentration of 1.5-2%, 10-30 minutes.


  4. The temperature of the water in the treatment bath should coincide with the water in the aquarium.
  5. Treatment should be carried out in infused water. Do not take cold tap water. If the bath with salt needs to be done urgently, heat 10 liters of water and cool it to aquarium water temperature using a water thermometer for reconciliation. Dissolve 2 teaspoons of salt in 10 liters of water, install an aerator in the container. 20 minutes after these manipulations, the sick fish can be started.
  6. Do not run all the aquarium fish into the treatment bath at once. Choose a few sick fish and treat them with saline. Pay attention to the behavior, the state of pets in the water. If they go up, lie on their side, cannot swim down, then the salt concentration is too high. Stop the procedure and return the fish to the pit.
  7. Gradually increase the concentration of the product in the water at the initial stage of treatment, and reduce it as the pet recovers.
  8. Treat the aquarium fish with salt for 7 days-1 month depending on the disease and its course.

See how to treat aquarium fish with salt.

How to make salt baths

Salt baths for aquarium fish should be carried out according to some rules.

  1. A salt solution with a concentration of 2.5% in 10 minutes can destroy parasitic infusoria. After this solution, the fish can be bathed in a weaker bath - with the addition of ½ tsp. per liter of water. Repeated procedure will wash away all surviving ciliates from the body of the sick pet.
  2. The solution with a concentration of 5% well disinfects the water with decorations, but it kills plants, mollusk, single-celled, fish. Therefore, for living organisms, the solution should be weaker - 1.5-1.7% bath with salt for 10-15 minutes, with moderate aeration.


  3. After a bath with salt, the fish cannot be immediately returned to the general aquarium, otherwise, due to the high salt content in its scales, they will burst. After the bath, where the salt was added, gradually add to it fresh infused water of the same temperature, which will gradually reduce the concentration of the product in the water. Let the fish swim in such water, then it can be launched into the pit.
  4. One teaspoon of the product contains a weight of 7 grams. Treatment of aquarium fish involves treatment with both short-term (30 seconds-30 minutes) and long baths (10 days or more). Prolonged exposure to the solution adversely affects the functions of the kidneys. The optimal concentration is 1.5-2%. Depending on the capacity of the procedure and the origin of the disease, the concentration may increase or decrease. Do not sprinkle salt directly into the tank - grains can get on the wound, and will dissolve slowly.

Pud salt in the aquarium - how much salt to add to the aquarium?



POD SALT IN THE AQUARIUM how much salt to add to the aquarium something?

Ordinary kitchen salt is used in the aquarium world mainly for the treatment of sick fish. With the help of salt, such fish diseases as chylodonellosis, trichodinosis, tetrachimenosis, oodiniumosis, apiosis, are treated. In this case, the fish do either individual salt baths or add salt to the general aquarium.

In the treatment of fish in the general aquarium it is better to use rock salt. Salt solution is prepared at the rate of 1-1.5 tsp. Of salt per 10 l. aquarium water. Salt fish treatment is carried out at a water temperature of 27 to 31C. The filter is not disabled. Water is replaced in the usual manner.

For the treatment of fish in separate baths is recommended 1 tablespoon salt per 10l. aquarium water. To treat the fish in separate baths is a pain, but it seems to me that this method of treatment is much better tolerated by the fish, because the effect of salt is brief.

!!!Side effects!!!: salt from fish "ylozit" - they are spinning, rushing, etc., in addition, the fish begin to breathe heavily. Therefore, I advise you to carefully carry out such procedures. It is better to make the solution weaker, especially if the treatment is gentle, small or weak fish.

Tip: Do not repot the fish immediately after the salt bath in the general aquarium (this will only harm you). Gradually add clean water, to the state of "slightly salty", and then sit down the animal.

With the treatment of salt figured out ... you can add only that a weak solution of simple salt can also be used for the prevention of diseases of the fish. Especially if there are suspicions that, for example, new fish are contagious.

It is worth adding that some species of fish love salted water. Each species of such fish has its own salinity preferences. For example, tetradon likes 1 tablespoon of salt per 10 liters of water.

And of course, there is a special aquarium salt for the saltwater aquarium and saltwater-loving saltwater fish, but that's another story ...


ADDITION: Salt, sea - antiseptic and fungicidal agent. For many years, it has been used as a generally available and quite effective remedy for the treatment of many types of bacterial and some parasitic diseases of aquarium fish, and also as a prophylactic agent for keeping many species of live-bearing tooth-toothed ones. Applied for the prevention of fungal and bacterial infections. It is useful (in combination with elevated temperature) from many ectoparasites (skin and gill flukes), ichthyophthiriuses, in case of problems with the mucous membrane, decay, accidental damage to the skin and fungi. It is better to use coarse ground rock salt, cubed and crystalline sea salt, but only without any additives. You can not use iodized salt! Applied to treat Branhiomikoza, Gioza, gyrodactylosis, dactylogyrosis, Diplozoonoza, Kostioza, Kolumnarioza, Lepidortoza, Plistoforoza, Saprolegnioza, Sangvinikoza, ich, Hilodonelleza, Tetraonhoza, Trihodinioza and ectoparasites.
An increase in the salinity of the water causes additional mucus in the fish, which helps to eliminate minor infectious lesions. Some species of fish are well tolerated by salt (zhivorodki, East African cichlids, iris), Some species of fish, primarily haratsinovye and somovidnye, fighting and some invertebrate salt baths can not stand. For most representatives of the genera Corydoras, Thoracatum, Dianema, Brochis and Aspidoras, the maximum concentration is 1-2 grams per liter. It is especially harmful to arrange them long baths in the general aquarium with low salt concentrations. Ancistrus and other loricarides treat calmly with salt. Sumatran barbers do not like salt. Care should be treated with salt young labyrinth fish. Do not use salt in common ornamental aquariums with plants. Higher aquatic plants do not like high concentrations of sodium ions and chlorine, but the algae, which so maliciously spoil the entire design, they do not interfere with reproduction without measure. Regular addition of salt to the aquarium leads to water salinization. At the end of the treatment, the water in the aquarium is replaced in 2-3 doses. I want to once again draw the attention of readers to the need for an accurate selection of the concentration of saline. Guaranteed to kill all evil 4-5% solution, but a rare aquarium fish will hold on for even 1-2 minutes, not to mention the minimum required 5 minutes. But even 1.5-1.7% solution has a significant therapeutic effect. He is able to move almost all the fish within 10-15 minutes. With the urgent need for it, you can buy somics. As a rule, 2% solution is optimal (bathing time 10 minutes). Watch fish very carefully. If they start to push out of the water, they lie on the surface on their side and cannot go down, then the procedure must be urgently stopped. During bathing the tank with fish should be moderately aerated.
The temperature of the water should be raised in 2-3 days to 28-30 ° C with enhanced aeration. Dose 1-2gr. salts per liter for prevention, and for ingrained fungal and bacterial infections 10 g / l - this concentration is gradually achieved over 2 days, increasing every 4-6 hours by 0.1%. For the treatment of juvenile weakened fish, a less concentrated solution is used. If the fish begin to feel bad, you should immediately dilute the aquarium water with fresh distilled water. Treatment lasts 10-30 days. Bathing dose of 10-15 g / lna 20 minutes. Short salt baths are good for such diseases of aquarium fish as saprolegnosis, bone disease, oodiniumosis, chilodonellosis, trichodynosis, apiosomas, tetrachimenosis, gyrodactylosis, and dactylogyrosis. Specific means of dealing with them can be completely different, but rather high concentrations of salt kill them all. Salt is also used to neutralize nitrites, to combat the parasites Piscinoodinum and leeches. Leeching can be achieved by using short-term baths in a 2.5% salt solution.
Comment: Despite the availability of modern specialized drugs, table salt is still widely used in aquarism. In small doses and in the absence of sensitive fish can be used in the general aquarium, in large doses should be treated in a separate container.

The first symptoms of fish disease

FISH IS PAIN AND BAD
first symptoms of the disease, description of fish diseases

The first symptoms of the disease in aquarium fish should not be ignored!
Diseases of aquarium fish - an emergency for an aquarium. Even experienced, knowledgeable gurus of the aquarium world can have a state of emergency of illness of pets. However, in such cases, do not despair. Many diseases, especially in the initial stage, are treatable.

The first and most important step in the treatment of fish disease is diagnosis. With the help of several signs - symptoms, you can understand exactly what your fish is sick and how dangerous it is.

Ichthyopathology - the science of fish diseases, divides them into: infectious infectious and invasive, as well as non-infectious. The causative agents of infectious diseases are viruses, bacteria and fungi. Invasive diseases arise as a result of invasions - attacks on the fish organism of parasites of animal origin - disease-causing ciliates, intestinal cavities and worms. Some small crustaceans can also parasitize the body of the fish. The occurrence of non-communicable diseases in most cases is associated with a violation of the optimal conditions of fish in the aquarium or improper handling of them.

The main sign that the fish hurt and bad - This is when they hang for a long time in one place or lie on the bottom, hiding under the roots or decorative elements of the aquarium.

When there is a lot of nitrates and nitrites in the water - organic matter that ferments, rot and pollutes the aquarium due to an excess of food and waste products of its inhabitants, the fish is wrapping gill cover (on the body of the fish, there are gill covers on the sides of the head, which cover the gills, and under them is a layer of skin that can “crawl out” behind these covers). A plus, if the fish is very active breathingThis is also a sign of an increased amount of nitrate-nitrite, since oxygen is very poorly soluble in such waters. In such cases, it is necessary to immediately replace the aquarium water.

Due to the increased amount of organic matter, fish poisoning occurs. Poisoning can also occur due to the use of poor-quality live food caught in water-polluted waters when feeding dry daphnia and bloodworms, with frequent feeding of artificially diluted potworms - such food is difficult to digest and causes inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract of fish.

Symptoms of poisoning are as follows: the fish willingly eat food, but remain sluggish, the color of the skin dims. They can lose orientation in space, with severe poisoning, convulsive movements are observed. In inflammation of the stomach, the belly of the fish slightly increases (should be distinguished from other diseases or from the maturation of the genital products), there may be redness of the anus. Fecal masses have a large amount of bloody mucus and filamentous form.

In such cases, it is sometimes sufficient to transfer the sick fish to a diverse and comprehensive feeding with live hydrobionts and clean the aquarium, carry out the process of removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and volatile oils from the water. It is not recommended to collect live food in ponds with wastewater. Also, when installing a new aquarium and various equipment, everything must be thoroughly rinsed - after all, toxic substances from putty used in their manufacture can get into the water.

If your colorful fish change colorThere are few reasons for excitement. Such a process often takes place as a result of maturation, mainly in young individuals. Carp, for example, is born just gray, and after a while it can enhance the color, which is incorporated genetically.

If the fish spend the night in the dark, and in the morning they turn on the light - they can dull slightly. And if this happens during the day - this may be, again, the effect of nitrates and nitrites.

Of course, it is impossible to keep the aquarium on the windowsills - under the influence of direct sunlight the fish grow dull and can get sick.

Faded fins are often the result of injury. (aggressive neighbors, injury to stones and foreign objects, improper transportation, etc.) can lead to the formation of fin rot. In this case, it is better to isolate the fish until its fins heal. If on them bunches that look like cotton flakes or white spots will appear, the fish must be treated with antibacterial drugs.

Sometimes, on the fins of a fish, which ideally should be transparent, red strings appear - this is a hemorrhage in the fins, meaning a sharp change in the parameters of water - hardness, acidity, temperature, high content of organic matter. Of course, a simple water change and tracking and adjustment of its parameters will help here. But pressed to the body fins - spinal, anal, lateral - can mean both elevated levels of nitrates and nitrites, and fungal disease, which is not difficult to destroy.

Everything, that on fish looks like a foreign body is bad and should attract the attention of the owner. In an infectious fungal disease (ringworm), the inhabitants of the aquarium covered with white thread, growing into a vat-like formation. Sick fish become slow-moving, stop feeding, and in the absence of timely treatment they die from ulcers that affect the gills. In most cases, rheumatic fever suffers fish are in tight containers with dirty and cold water - below 20 ° C. At the initial stage, the disease is not dangerous and can be cured - you just need to create optimal conditions for the fish, dissolve salt or copper sulfate in water.In the local form of fungal growths, the affected area is treated 2-3 times with a daily interval with a cotton swab moistened with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or rhinovanol.

If the fish white dots appeared of the same shape and size, this means that her ichthyophthyriosis or "semolina" is the simplest (ciliates) that settle on aquarium fish and parasitize, propagating by division outside the host's body. The fish quickly dies from this invasive disease, but it is easy to cure it - dilute malachite green or corny salt, pour it into the aquarium, increase aeration, raise the temperature by 5 ° С for 10 days. If a white dots of different sizes, but round - This is most likely a bacterial infection. It can also be killed with special medicines, for example, baktopur, antibacterial. It may be that points are not the same and have irregular shape - it will also be a fungus, it is easy to destroy it with malachite (malochite green), salt.

Sometimes on the fish may form an abscess, like a purulent pimple - These are microsporidia or cnidosporidia (protozoa, which form a colony in the muscles of the fish). Destroy them almost impossible. The only thing that can be done at home is to put an ultraviolet lamp through which water flows, as a result of which all bacteria and microorganisms are destroyed. That is, when these sporidii break through the scales and begin to look for another fish, then they pass through the water with the water passing through the lamp. But the best option would be to fish this fish with "cones".

Aquarists call lepidorthosis the worst disease (Rus. scattering). Symptoms - when the scales start to stand on end (if you look at the fish from above, the scales look like needles), under it are visicules - bubbles, in which there are pathogens. Lepidorthosis is almost not treated - such a fish must be very carefully pulled out with a net so that the bubbles will NOT crack and the pathogens will not get into the water. Sad and painful, but the fish itself must be disposed of, and the net boiled, or washed with alcohol or formalin. It is also worth to disinfect the aquarium, soil, plants and equipment.

Ways to treat fish:

In general, the treatment of sick fish is carried out mainly in three ways: in the general aquarium, in a separate vessel and individually (with medical lotions). Common and effective treatment is in a separate vessel. With its short course, a therapeutic solution of high concentration is detrimental to the causative agent.

Resuscitation of sick fish in the general aquarium does not always provide a 100% recovery. Low concentrations of therapeutic solutions do not completely kill the pathogens, especially those that are under the skin or in the muscles. In addition, increasing the concentration of therapeutic solutions destroys aquatic vegetation. With this method of treatment, a number of pathogens remain in the soil and water for a long time, so symptoms are often attenuated: a fish with a previously pronounced disease clinic becomes outwardly healthy, and after a while the symptoms recur.
If in the aquarium there are single specimens of fish affected by parasites that can cause mass disease and death, it is necessary to treat all the inhabitants of the aquarium. Often the treatment of several diseases is the same. For example, if pathogens are ectoparasites. Such treatment can be carried out both in a separate dish and in the general aquarium.

Prevention of aquarium fish diseases:

Prevention of fish diseases is very important for the prevention of diseases that often arise as a result of violations of the rules of keeping or the introduction of infections from the outside.

To fish was not bad, we recommend to observe the following rules:

- regularly and constantly carry out weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with the replacement of an average of 1/4 of the volume of water, to prevent overcrowding of the aquarium;

- do not place objects (decor) in the aquarium, which can cause poisoning or injury to aquarium fish;

- acquire only high-quality food for fish and ensure its proper storage;

- it is necessary to observe the feeding regime (1-2 times a day), do not leave the fish hungry and prevent them from overfeeding;

- to maintain in the aquarium an optimal and constant temperature recommended for specific types of fish, to exclude the possibility of sharp drops and overcooling;

- ensure reliable transportation of fish;

- in winter, be sure to use the thermostat;

- to quarantine new fish, placing them in a dedicated brewhouse filled with water from the existing aquarium;

- Aquarium equipment (nets, siphons, etc.) that the patients were served with must be thoroughly disinfected (with potassium permanganate, rivanol, table salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish;

- when treating fish with medicines and chemicals, strictly follow the dosage to prevent poisoning.

We also recommend that you read the brochure Navigator 3: an interview with an ichthyopathologist. Below is a link to the pdf-version, which you can download, as well as its test version.

To read and / or download the Navigator

click on the picture below

If you do not have a PDF reader installed, we recommend that you use AdobeReader by downloading it from the official site.

Very useful video about the treatment of aquarium fish




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Ichthyophthyriosis, how to treat semolina in aquarium fish



Ichtyophysiosis fish
How to treat semolina in aquarium fish?

Ichthyophthiriosis is an infectious disease of fish caused by the attack of an equally effective infusorian ichthyophthyrus.

The disease is manifested by the appearance on the body of a small fish of small tubercles up to 1 mm in size. The number of bumps is growing every day of illness.

This disease is also called - semolina, as the aquarium fish, as if sprinkled with semolina. Some novice aquarists call these hillocks: dots, bubbles, specks. However, these are the bumps - the place from where the ciliate parasites come out. Read more about the life cycle of the parasite on our forum - HERE.

Immediate treatment is necessary, otherwise the ciliates will deplete the fish and it will die.


photo Ichthyophthyriosis semolina Goldfish - Voilehvost

For a crushing victory and successful treatment of ichthyophtiriosis, two things need to be known:

1. The life cycle of the infusoria parasite.

I will not bore you with a thorough description of the life of ciliates:) .... I can only say that when a parasite gets into the body of a fish, it leaves it in 1-2 weeks (forming a hillock - semolina). Falling to the bottom is fastened and breeds into thousands of larvae, which are beginning to look for a new prey.

2. Given the knowledge of the life of the parasite. We must make his life cycle unbearable.

And it is very easy to do ...
INCREASE THE TEMPERATURE OF AQUARIUM WATER AT 2-4 DEGREES (optimally 30-32 degrees). + ALWAYS INCREASE THE INTENSITY OF AERATION.What gives rise to the temperature of the aquarium water?
First, the life cycle of the parasite is accelerated, which means that it "goes" and dies faster. And second, as the temperature increases, the immune system of the fish itself is activated, which allows it to more effectively fight the disease with its own resources.

In the initial stages of ichthyophthiriosis, a temperature increase may be sufficient ... after a couple of days, the enemy is defeated. But, for greater confidence in the aquarium water, you need to add a dose (see on the package) of tripaflavin or bicillin-5 (the old-time method). You can use more modern treatments for semolina, for example:

TetraMedica Contralck - Contractal (best, recommended).

Sera Costapur - Kostapur (analogue of TM Seru).

TetraMedica GoldOomed - (from ichthyophthiriosis, especially for Goldfish, universally).

These drugs do an excellent job.

However, one should always remember about "secondary infections" - that is, about the diseases that follow the main infection. Additionally, it is recommended to use other drugs leveling secondary diseases (fungal or bacterial infections).

For example, the Sera Brand, recommends using Sera ectopur (ectopur) together with Sera Costapur to prevent and combat fungus and ectoparasites. Methylene blue can also be used as a preparation for a secondary infection.

On the line of aquarium preparations, read the article: TETRA MEDICATIONS AND AIR CONDITIONERS
ALL DRUGS AND AIR CONDITIONERS "SERA"
ALL MEDICATIONS OF THE FIRM "ZOOMIR"

In the future, I recommend to be more attentive to pets! Because parasite infusoria, often falls into the water and develops due to: low temperatures, stress of fish, mud, is brought from unchecked sources, without quarantine of new fish, etc.

P.S. Ichthyophthyroidism of fish is very similar to oodinimosis, which is also caused by infusoria, but the other is caused by flagellates. With this infection, the body of the fish is covered with monkey sand and has greyish, tiny nodules. Which, in the neglected case, form a solid gray cover. The fish is exfoliated skin. Oodinium disease is actually treated in the same way as ichthyophthyrosis. Specialist. drug for oodiniumosis - Sera oodinopur. Proportions and dosage of therapeutic agents, see. AQUA MEDICINE.

Treatment of ichthyophthirius fish, the position of ichthyopathologist

Ichthyophthyrius, semolina, white dots disease, ichik ... Who is he? Let's take a closer look:

Here he is, the hero of today's story.

My dream to sleep today is not destined to come true. In the morning early phone call:
- Ver, in your first aquarium, the chilli were covered with white dots, what to do? - I tear my eyes, trying to pretend that I have not slept:
- A lot of points?
- Well, about 30-40 pieces, all tails are in points, especially in the red ones ...
- Where were you when there were 1-2 points there? - at least do not go away for the weekend - well, pour Kostapur and Mykopur, and I will come the day after tomorrow - I will look.

I put the phone down and here I understand that the patsilias have only been treated for bacteriology, and their water is salty, salt is a tablespoon per 10 liters of water. But even 20 years ago, salt was one of the main ways to treat ichthyophthiriosis.

The day after tomorrow it only got worse, disk squares were covered in dots, like a carpet. The already classic scheme in my practice - Sera Costapur (in full dose every other day) + Sera mycopur (in half dose, daily) - again failed. Made a substitution, filled Sera Costapur + furazolidone at the rate of 1 tablet 50 mg per 15 liters of water. Furazolidone is a nitrofuran preparation, most bacteria and protozoa are sensitive to it. A good tool, but I use it only in extreme cases, it ruins the microflora of the aquarium and for two weeks the water becomes color, I'm sorry, urine, it looks extremely unpresentable in the sales counter.

Two days have passed. The result is zero. It gets worse again. Disk platies began to fall on the bottom, on the body there is no living space. I understand that to continue to treat with furazolidone is also useless. I do a massive substitution again. It remains the last resort - copper. I take a penny drug "Formed", pour. A day later, the points were clearly less, the fish went on the mend. Copper is a powerful tool, but not the best option for a home aquarium. It is destructive for invertebrates (snails, shrimps, etc.), algae, beneficial aquarium microflora, and with minimal overdoses also for fish and plants.

This is already recovering fish, yesterday there were twice as many points, but even now it’s not a fact that it will survive.

This is how diseases evolve with progress in pharmacology. I often hear from my colleagues:
- "Manka"? So I raise the temperature and pour a little blue.
- And how does it help?
- Well, yes ... There were, however, cases when the whole aquarium died and nothing helped ...

We once had a supplier who claimed that if you always keep fish at 30 ° C, it will never get ichthyophthirius. However, as practice has shown - at such temperatures the fish loses weight due to the acceleration of metabolism, but continues to hurt. Not so long ago the discus was sick, whose temperature was always 30-31 ° C.

Do not believe in fairy tales that ichthyophthirius can be brought only with new fish and live food. Under adverse conditions, cysts fall asleep and are able to remain in a viable state for a long time. They remain in the ground, on the body of the fish. There is evidence that live ichthyophthirius cysts were found even in tap water! Just accept as given - in your tank it is always there. What to do?

First: the best treatment is prevention. In our case - control of the most important parameters of water, proper feeding, observance of conditions of keeping (schooling fish are kept in flocks, everyone has enough volume and shelters), all this is prevention of stressful phenomena, and stress is a decrease in immunity and a direct path to diseases.

Second: daily inspection. In most cases, 1-2 points, found in time, are treated very easily. Then, as a neglected disease is almost incurable.
Third: buying a new fish. Carefully watch what you are buying. Ideally, find out when the delivery is in the store, look at what has arrived at the store, and then come up after 4-5 days, the fish will acclimatize by this time and if you are infected with ichthyophthyriosis due to transportation stress, you will see it. Examine each fish, also pay attention to the condition of the aquarium (poor conditions are stressful, see item 1), and the presence of drugs in the water.

Fourth: choice of treatment. If, nevertheless, one day the disease visits your aquarium (as practice shows — sooner or later every aquarist faces this problem), you need to choose the right treatment.

1. If you saw 2-3 points, they are obvious, large (about 0.5-1 mm). You can raise the temperature by 2-3 degrees. Salt water at the rate of 1 tbsp. 10 liters of water. Salt is dissolved in a jar; all salt at once cannot be poured into water, in 3-4 doses with an interval of 15 minutes. Remember that not all fish can be salted. Most soms do not tolerate salt, and Sumatran and mossy barbs do not like it either. Do not salt the aquariums with plants. Strengthen aeration. Malachite green (“Malachite green”, “Ichthyophore”, Zoomir company, SeraCostapur according to the instructions). Before making the drug - the substitution of 30-50% water (with the introduction of salt to the initial concentration). Cleaning the aquarium before making dyes (whether it is malachite green, methylene blue, acriflavin or anything else) is required! With an excess of organic dyes quickly inactivated. Malachite green is applied once every two days in a full dose.

2. If you see a lot of very small, barely noticeable points (and in general if the disease is already running) - do not raise the temperature, tropical forms of ichthyophthirius are activated at a temperature of 30-32 ° C, raising the temperature you will kill the fish.

3. Treatment with short-term baths is ineffective, since the parasite is under the epithelium and the medicine cannot reach it. The main impact is on strollers, and they freely swim around the aquarium.

4. I have already said that one of the best remedies for ichthyophthiriasis is malachite green, I personally use a drug based on it - Sera Costapur. It works much better in combination with Sera mycopur (in half dosage). Checked - Sera Costapur does not kill plants and invertebrates, used in herbalists and shrimp. But lately, malachite green is getting worse and worse.

5. An even stronger combination (available to the general public) is Sera Costapur (according to the instructions every other day) + furazolidone (1 tablet per 15 liters of water). Furazolidone kills not only ichthyophthirius, but also plants and useful flora.

6. Preparations of copper, has repeatedly come across - they help even when nothing helps. Copper is extremely toxic to invertebrates, the slightest overdose can kill fish. I use Zoomirovsky “Formed”, purely empirically - it poisons fish less than pure copper sulphate (it can withstand even capricious and treated-over-fished fish), but it works no worse.

Vera Dudina
Veterinarian, ichthyopathologist
Moscow

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Treatment of aquarium fish with salt

Ornamental and aquarium fish have many diseases, and not everyone can make a sick fish an accurate diagnosis. And if you do not know what to treat, then you will not find the necessary medicine. Choosing medications at random, you waste time and money. And, if you don’t feel sorry for the money on the fish, then you won’t return the time spent in vain.

One of the good tools that can help your pets, is quite inexpensive - it is salt. It is a traditional folk remedy in the treatment of fish.

Treatment of aquarium fish with salt is not suitable for the following varieties: catfish, tarakatum, corridors, as well as anticycros and pterygoplichts. Long baths in an aquarium, even with a low salt concentration, are very harmful to them. Also do not like salt Sumatran barb and its variants - for example, mossy barb (otherwise - "mutant"). Carefully treat young labyrinth fish. Short baths in which the salt concentration is more than 1.5% are poorly tolerated by them. And if the concentration of salt is less with the prolonged bathing of fish, the therapeutic bath will not be effective.

Some razvodchiki put salt a little (for 10 l - a couple of teaspoons) right in the nursery aquarium. Over time, the fish begin to get used to the increased salinity, and they, in fact, start to hurt less, but will not be able to live in fresh water.

Не используйте соль в общих декоративных аквариумах с растениями - водные высшие растения не любят повышенные концентрации ионов хлора и натрия, но водорослям они не мешают размножаться.

Также не лечите поваренной солью ихтиофтириоз.

Когда же лечение рыбок солью оправдано?

Short salt baths help with the following diseases of aquarium fish: tetrahymeniosis, kosoz, oodiniumosis, chylodonellosis, dactylogyrosis, apiosomas, gyrodactylosis, trichodynosis, saprolegniosis. Saprolegniosis is a fungal disease, the rest cause various ectoparasites. The means of dealing with them can be varied, but an increased concentration of salt will kill them.

With these diseases, the fish begin to itch about the leaves of the plants and the ground, their fins are compressed, they stay near the water surface in the corners of the aquarium or around the air diffuser. If you have noticed these dysfunctional symptoms, and you cannot make an accurate diagnosis, then it is better to make sure that all conditions for fish life in the aquarium are acceptable. And when you find out that life is suitable for fish in an aquarium, but for some reason it is bad for them, only then decide that the fish are sick, and proceed to treatment.

All the "evil" will kill 4-5% salt solution, but the fish in it can hold out for about a minute. It is better to use a 1.5% solution - the fish is transferred for 10 minutes. To begin, spend a swim with a pair of low-value fish - see how they will transfer it. Watch the fish carefully. If they lie on the side on the surface, and from the water they begin to push - stop the procedure.

Diseases of aquarium fish-treatment

Aquarium fish disease is a very bad moment in the life of an aquarist. Even skilled aquarists with great experience are not insured against this trouble.

However, most diseases are well treated. If you are extremely attentive to the inhabitants of your aquarium, ready to look for information in special literature and online resources, you can successfully cope with it with a bang.

Ichthyopathology - the science that studies fish diseases - subdivides them into infectious and non-infectious. Infectious diseases are divided into infectious and invasive. Infectious diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi. Invasive - parasites of animal origin.

Diseases of aquarium fish

The parasites, in turn, can be divided into two groups - unicellular (protozoa) - flagellates, sporozoans, ciliates and multicellular - helminths and crustaceans. Non-contagious diseases occur when optimal conditions for fish are disturbed and mistreated.

Poisoning fish with chlorine

Refers to chemical factors. The first symptom of aquarium fish disease is difficulty breathing in fish. The gills brighten and become covered with mucus as a result of prolonged exposure to water with chlorine. Fish rushing around the aquarium, possibly trying to jump out of it. Then, become lethargic and do not react to anything. Death can come suddenly and quickly.

To avoid such consequences, chlorine disinfection should be carried out. Each time, changing the water in the aquarium, you need to check it for the level of chlorination. In the case of the first signs of poisoning, you must immediately pull the fish into another container with clean water.

Nitrate

Nitrates are relatively harmless to fish, but sensitive species are sensitive to nitrates. When poisoning with nitrates pale gills, suffocation occurs, the fish become lethargic. In case of poisoning, it is recommended to change the water more often and add 1-0.5 tsp to 100l of water to the water.

Remember: everyone can get sick, even goldfish. Aquarium diseases can occur for many reasons. To establish the diagnosis correctly, answer the following questions: How has the behavior of the fish changed? What has changed in the habitat before infection, perhaps the source of infection has become the new "neighbors" or algae?

Has the water temperature in the aquarium changed? Was there a release of harmful substances near the aquarium? Pay attention to the feed, especially if you have not used feed of this brand before. Has the pH changed? May be triggered by an acid or alkaline disease. And this still does not list all the factors that could harm aquarium fish.

The maintenance of aquarium fish directly affects their health and appearance. After the source of the disease is detected, determine whether it is infectious or not. If the symptoms say that the disease is non-infectious and does not threaten other inhabitants, then you treat only the sick fish. Otherwise, all aquarium animals are treated.

Diseases of aquarium fish

THIS PROCESS is carried out in a separate quarantine aquarium, and the main one is thoroughly washed and disinfected. Obesity. If the fish for a long time to overfeed, give them a monotonous food, then they may happen obesity. This seemingly harmless disease can cause a number of acute problems related to the health of your pets.

The kidneys and liver are the first to suffer, then the rest of the organs, the fish may even become infertile. What is obesity in fish? The answer is simple: watch the fish, if it is observed apathy, lethargy, the sides become much rounder, it began to move less - these are signs of obesity. For the prevention of overweight, it is recommended to feed the fish in small portions several times a day, at about the same time, including high-quality food in the fish ration, alternating between them.

It is advisable sometimes to give the fish live food and periodically arrange fasting days for them. You can reduce the number of feeds from 2-3 to 1 per day, and it’s better not to feed fish at all, 1-2 times a month.

Hypothermia. Reason: too cold water in the aquarium. In fish, the activity of the swim bladder is disrupted, and they fall to the bottom. If time does not take action, the fish will die.

Treatment: it is necessary to raise the temperature in the aquarium to the optimum. But not abruptly, but gradually - no more than 3 degrees per hour

Injuries. Fish can get hurt about the interior of the aquarium, during transportation, as a result of a fight with other fish.

Treatment: In principle, as such, treatment of injury is not required: the fins and the skin will eventually recover on their own. But infection can penetrate through the wounds. Therefore, the injured fish for 10 minutes should be put in a bath with 5% salt solution. The procedure is repeated 3 times a day for 2-3 days. All this time, the fish should be in a quarantine aquarium.

VIDEO DISEASES OF AQUARIUM FISHES

BLACK BEARDS IN AQUARIUM, HYDROGEN.

Methylene blue for the treatment of aquarium fish


Methylene blue for aquarium
Methylene blue fish treatment

Methylene Blue - This is a synthetic dye. A 1% solution (1g / l of aquarium water) is used, from which a therapeutic solution is prepared at the rate of 3 ml. methylene blue on 10l of aquarium water. The course of treatment is to complete cure.

The drug is removed by filtration.

Methylene blue - Synthetic dye. You can buy at the pharmacy. Possesses bactericidal and fungicidal properties. For the treatment of external bacterial and fungal infections, as well as from some skin parasites - such as ichthyophthyrus. Applied with Aeromonosis, Branchomycosis, Gyrodactylosis, Ichthyophthyriosis, Kostioze, Plistoforose, Saprolegniosis, Hilodonellosis, Tetrahimenosis, Trikhodiniosis, partially acts on ectoparasites. But it adversely affects biological filtration, and it is better to apply it in baths and individual vessels. The water takes on a blue color, which makes it difficult to observe the fish, soils the equipment and scenery. It is better to carry out the treatment in a separate vessel, since the preparation paints the glass, inventory and water in a dark blue color. The drug is used in the form of 2 ml of 1% solution per 10 l of water. The treatment period is up to 1 month. At the end of the treatment, activated carbon filters are used to remove blue. For baths - 100mg / l, aging 4-6 hours.


Here, still HUMAN !!! Instructions to the drug
Pharmachologic effect:
Methylene blue is a drug of the antiseptic group. The mechanism of action of the drug is based on its ability to form poorly soluble complex compounds with mucopolysaccharides and proteins of the bacterial cell, which leads to the death of microorganisms.
When applied topically, the drug is not absorbed into the systemic circulation.
Indications for use:
The drug is intended for the treatment of damaged skin in patients with burns, purulent-inflammatory skin lesions and pyoderma.
Mode of application:
The drug is intended for external use. It is necessary to avoid falling of a preparation in eyes and on mucous membranes. The drug is applied to the cleaned affected area with a cotton swab. The solution is used to treat damaged areas of the skin and some adjacent portion of healthy tissue.
The duration of treatment is determined by the attending physician.
Side effects:
In isolated cases, the development of allergic skin reactions was noted.
Contraindications:
Increased individual sensitivity to the components of the drug.
The drug is not used to treat children under the age of 1 year.
Pregnancy:
The drug can be prescribed during pregnancy, if the expected benefit to the mother greatly exceeds the possible risks to the fetus.
If necessary, the use of the drug during lactation should consult with your doctor.
Interaction with other drugs:
Without features.
Overdose:
When using the drug on a large area of ​​the skin may increase the severity of side effects.
In case of overdose, drug withdrawal and symptomatic therapy are indicated.
Release form:
Alcohol solution for external use of 10 ml in glass vials.
Storage conditions:
The drug should be stored in a dry place away from direct sunlight at a temperature of 15 to 25 degrees Celsius.
Shelf life - 2 years.
Composition:
10ml solution for external use contains:
Methylene blue - 100mg;
Excipients.

COPPER SULFATE for the treatment of aquarium fish


AQUARIUM AND COPPER SULFATE
How to treat fish with copper sulphate?

Copper sulfate laboratory purposes (technical not to apply). Add 1% solution at the rate of 15 ml per 10 l. aquarium water. The dosage should be accurate, it is better not to top up (the drug is toxic). The water temperature in the treatment of aquarium fish should be optimal, the duration of treatment is 10 days.

The drug is removed gradually replacing water.

Instructions ZooWorld: Copper sulphate solution is designed to fight against fungal, bacterial and parasitic infections in freshwater aquariums. Copper sulphate is toxic to aquarium invertebrates and plants, as well as to very sensitive fish. In this regard, when using it, you should observe the exact dosage and, if necessary, adjust.
One vial (50 ml of solution) contains 0.3 g of copper sulfate. This amount is designed for use in a general aquarium with a volume of water of 200 liters, that is, 5 ml of the preparation for every 20 liters of water. As a measuring container, you can use a vial cap that holds approximately 5 ml of solution.
APPLICATION OF AIR CONDITIONER IN GENERAL AQUARIUM:
A certain amount of the original solution of the drug, strictly calculated for the entire volume of water in the aquarium, is diluted with fresh, settled water in a glass container with a capacity of 200-250 ml. Then, the ready-made solution is gradually poured in equal portions in three steps at intervals of 20-30 minutes into the aquarium, while gently mixing the water. Pour immediately the entire therapeutic solution is unacceptable. At the time of processing from the aquarium should remove the biofilter and filter with activated carbon.
Treatment is usually sufficient for about 10 days. At the end of the process, the water in the aquarium should be gradually replaced during the month with fresh water.
In addition to this method of treatment with copper sulfate in the general aquarium, you can apply a combined solution consisting of malachite green of the ZOOMIR company and copper sulfate at the rate of 5 ml of the initial solution of malachite green and 5 drops of the initial solution of copper sulfate for every 10 liters of aquarium water. The procedure for preparation and transfusion into the aquarium of the combined solution are the same as described above.
The temperature of the water is raised to 28 ° C and maintained at this level until the end of treatment. The indicated doses of conditioner are applied to the aquarium water every 7-10 days. The processing process can take up to a month or longer. If during this period there is a need to replace the water, the concentration of drugs should be restored.
Malachite green is a stable dye, therefore staining of water and aquarium accessories persists for a long time. To accelerate the release of water from staining, at the end of the treatment course, activated carbon filters are used.
APPLICATION IN QUARANTINE AQUARIUM:
Prepare a diluted solution of the conditioner: 50 ml (1 bottle) in 3 liters of distilled water and pour it into a quarantine aquarium. In this solution, conduct daily short-term bathing of fish for 10-30 minutes during the week.
PURPOSE:
For the prevention and elimination of infections in home aquariums caused by microorganisms and protozoa. Toxic to invertebrates and especially sensitive fish.

ADDITION:
Copper sulphate is an effective remedy against some protozoan parasites. It gives a good result in arguesis, gyrodactylosis, dactylogyrosis, diplozoonosis, costioze, cryptobiosis, hodiniosis, tetrahymenosis, fin rot, fungal diseases and ectoparasites. Toxic to animals and plants, therefore it is necessary to strictly adhere to the recommended dosage. In aquarium medications, chelated copper is used, which is less toxic and more stable. Pharmacies sell hydrogenated copper sulfate in the form of crystals and the finished solution. Do not use technical copper sulphate. However, all copper-based drugs are poisonous to fish, and in soft water, the risk of toxicosis increases. It can not be applied where the snails, crabs, crayfish and shrimp, and other invertebrate animals live, because it affects the respiratory system. Used to destroy the snails, but the dead snails will create a threat of pollution of the aquarium. It is necessary to apply the exact dosage. Prolonged use leads to chronic poisoning, because copper ions precipitate and are deposited in the soil and filter, and are released over time. Therefore, copper treatment is best done in a separate vessel. The effectiveness of copper decreases with increasing pH and organic matter in the aquarium.
To prepare the solution take 1g. chemically pure copper sulfate and dissolved in 1l of water. Then from this solution take 15 ml per 10 l. The temperature in the aquarium does not increase. Treatment for no more than 10 days. Then, by gradually changing the water, all the water is replaced. For baths: 1g. copper sulfate 10l, aged 20-25 minutes. The procedure is carried out once a day for 6-7 days. When conducting short-term baths, solutions of the following medicinal preparations are used: Copper sulphate at the rate of 1 g chemically pure or pure for analysis for 10 liters. Sick fish are kept in the treatment solution for 10-30 min daily for a week.

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