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Sword-bearer of aquarium fish: content, compatibility, reproduction, photo-video review


POSSIBLE content, compatibility, reproduction, photo-video review

Swordsmen know everything, even those who have never encountered the aquarium world. The Sword bearers gained such fame due to their wide distribution (one can say that they were part of the set of every young aquarist of the former USSR), as well as thanks to a special sign - the tail fin in the form of a sword. Actually, it was for this tail that the Swordtails got their name.

Homeland Sword - Central America (South Mexico and Guatemala). They live in reservoirs with stagnant and slowly running water, thickly overgrown with various aquatic plants.

Swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) belong to the family of fish. Xiphophorus helleri is translated from Greek as "xiphos" - the sword, "phoros" - carry. The prefix "Helleri" was assigned to swordtails by the name of German naturalist Karl Bartholomeus Geller, who first caught these fish in the Mexican lakes and successfully transported to Europe.

In 1848, these fish were first described by Dr. Johann Jacob Heckel - preparator of the Museum of Natural Sciences at the Imperial Natural History Study of the Museum of Natural Sciences in Vienna.

The body of the fish is elongated and compressed from the sides. The swordtail's mouth is turned up and adapted for taking food from the surface of the water. Fish can reach a size of 10 cm (without a sword). Females are somewhat larger than males; they are similar in shape to all other petilium. In addition to the presence of a "sword" on the lower edge of the caudal fin, the male has gonopodia, an anal fin transformed into the sexual organ.

Scientific classification

swordtails swordtails:

Latin name:

Xiphophorus helleri.

Class: Ray fish

Squad: Kartozuby.

Family: Pecilia.

Conditions in the aquarium:

Water temperature: 22 - 26 ° C.

(tolerates a temporary decrease in temperature to 15 ° C)

"Acidity" Ph: 7,0 - 7,5.

Stiffness dH: 6-20°

Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%

The complexity of the content: easy

Compatibility of the Sword

Swordtails are not aggressive. They are compatible with almost all small peaceful fish. Among the best neighbors are tetras, minors, terntions, danios, all fish, etc. They are compatible with almost all bottom fish: corridors, akantoftalmusy, platidorus, antsistrusy, bag-tailed catfish, etc. They get along well with peaceful and not large cichlids, for example, with scalars.

Sword-bearers are not compatible with aggressive and large fish that will hunt them, for example with cichlids (Akara, astronotus, diamond chichasomes, etc.). In addition, it is not recommended to push them to the "veil" fish, because they are slow and swordtails can "pinch" them for fluttering fins.

Males of the Sword show some intolerance and aggression towards each other. Cases of males fights were noted up to causing lethal damage to each other. Therefore, in one aquarium should contain only one male, or several at once (but not a couple!), Plus the same or more females. In this case, the intraspecific aggressiveness of the fish decreases markedly. There are a lot of local conflicts in this case, but their heat is relatively low, and the absolute winner, who would then no longer give anyone a pass, would not be revealed. See article compatibility of aquarium fish.

Life expectancy of the Sword

Life swordtails, by the aquarium standards, medium-long. With good conditions, they can live up to 5 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum volume of the aquarium for the swordmen

Many novice aquarists contain swordtails in small aquariums. However, this is not entirely correct. In fact, the swordtails - it is quite large fish. And taking into account the fact that it is recommended to hold swordsmen in proportion 1 male / 2 or more females, the minimum size of an aquarium for them should be from 50 liters per harem family. Aquarium for the Sword should be wide !!!

About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).

Requirements for the care and conditions of the swordtails

The Swordtails do not need any special conditions. In fact, the observance of optimal parameters of aquarium water is the key to their well-being. However, do not forget that:

1. Swordtails necessarily need aeration and filtration, a weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water. It is worth noting that these fish do not need a lot of oxygen, and too frequent change (replacement) of aquarium water is not so useful for them as for other types of aquarium fish. Therefore, if you change the water less often, for example, once every 14 days, and not at 7, nothing terrible will happen.

2. The aquarium must be covered with a lid, because the fish are nimble, can jump out and die.

3. Like many fish, swordtails feel comfortable among the living vegetation. As aquarian plants for them are recommended to use valisneria, echinodorus, cryptocoryne, riccia, duckweed and other plants. Creating thickets of plants imitates the natural habitat of fish.

4. At registration of an aquarium it is necessary to organize in it an open space for swimming. Swordtails are great swimmers. Shelters of the Sword are absolutely not needed.

Feeding and Dieting of the Swordsmen

Swordtails unpretentious in food, they are omnivorous and prone to overeating. With pleasure they eat dry and sublimated feeds: flakes, granules, chips. They love live and frozen food (bloodworm, artemia, daphnia, etc.). The food is taken by fish in all layers of aquarium water. Remaining on the surface and fallen to the bottom of the feed also will not remain without attention.

In the diet of the Swordsmen must include vegetable food: flakes or granules with spirulina, special algal tablets. In addition, they willingly eat algae from the walls of the aquarium, plants and decor.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

Varieties of aquarium swordtails

The natural natural color of the swordtails is gray-green. However, as a result of selection, a large number of swordtails of various colors and shapes were bred. Unpretentiousness in breeding and the difficulty of crossing led to the presence today more than two dozen of the accepted types of swordtails. Here are some of the most popular:

Bulgarian white swordtails;

High Swordsman;

Mountain Sword;

Green Sword;

Red-speckled tiger swordtails;

Red Sword;

Lemon Sword;

Lyretail Sword;

The sword-bearer of Hell;

Rainbow Swordsmen;

Calico Sword;

Black Swordsman;

All kinds of swordtails with photos HERE.

Propagation and breeding of the swordtails

Breeding and breeding of the Swordsmen is absolutely simple. It is similar to the reproduction of guppies and other live-beetles And, one might say, actually happens on its own.

Sexual maturity of the Sword comes at the age of 5-6 months. For breeding (and for their own comfort) it is recommended to keep the fish in the proportion of one male to three females. In the process of "grooming" the female, the male performs a kind of mating dance - shuttle movements back and forth.

Fertilization of ripe eggs occurs inside the female. This process can take several days. An interesting feature is that the once fertilized female of the swordtail can produce offspring several more times, even in the absence of a male.

The duration of gestation of the female is 4-6 weeks. This period depends on the parameters of the aquarium water, temperature, lighting and feeding.

A pregnant female has a full belly and has a “black spot of pregnancy” under the tail. It is believed that a few hours before the “birth”, the female's stomach becomes “square”, the female begins to move more actively, “toss” up and down along the aquarium glass.

At one time, the female sweeps from 15 to 100 or more fry. Spawning occurs, as a rule, in the morning.

With abundant nutrition and water temperature 26-27 ° C, childbirth can occur monthly.


In the photo male and female swordtail

Perhaps the most important rule that must be observed when breeding swordsmen is a concern for the survival of young. Unfortunately, the producers eat their own offspring, and given the fact that the fry of the Swordtails are quite large in size and bright in color, this process simply turns into extermination. In nature, the Swordtails never see their offspring, because fry immediately blows over. In an aquarium, parents take fry for food.

To save offspring aquarium densely planted aquarium plants. Plants are located at the bottom of the aquarium, in the water column and especially densely on the surface. Thus, juveniles are provided with shelter "from the evil parents" and the majority of fry survive.

Also, for the safety of offspring, special spouts can be used, which are designed according to the funnel type - the female remains in the funnel, and the swept fry falls out of the funnel into the spawning aquarium. Thus, the absence of contact of the producer and the young is initially ensured.

The third option for preserving offspring is the jigging of producers immediately after spawning. This option is simple, but requires attentiveness and timeliness from the aquarist.

Photo "pregnant" female of the swordtail, or rather born out

Photos of juveniles, fry of swordtails

After spawning, the female is deposited and provide her with abundant feeding.

The initial food for the young of the swordtails is live dust (nauplii, Artemia, Cyclops, micro-worms, rotifers, shreds).

A week later, the young of the Sword began to weed out - divided into strong and "purebred", and weak and defective destroyed.

Juveniles grow rapidly, after two months the anal fin begins to change in males, and by the third month the "sword" begins to grow.

When keeping different types of swordtails, an independent crossing occurs, as a result of which it is sometimes possible to get beautiful offspring.

An interesting fact from the life of these fish is that a female swordtail can at some moment become a male, i.e. change the floor. This occurs under the conditions of "shortage" of males and is explained by the struggle for the survival of the species. The offspring from the pair of female + former female is almost 90% of female individuals.

Diseases and treatment of swordtails

Swordtails are very resistant fish and can tolerate harsh conditions of detention. However, like all living things, such excellent health does not last forever. The key to successful maintenance of fish is to ensure optimal conditions for aquarium water.

Swordtails are prone to all typical diseases of aquarium fish and there are no nuances in their treatment.

For proper and correct treatment of swordtails, it is necessary to diagnose the disease, and then apply the necessary procedures.

This will help you Treatment and diseases of aquarium fish and sections of the site: DISEASES OF FISH are contagious, DISEASES of FISH are not infectious, AKVA. MEDICINE.


Swordtails Recommended

Viviparous aquarium fish. Guide to keeping and breeding

Livebreeding Fishes Author: Peter W. Scott Languages: Russian Publisher: Phoenix

Popular video with fish swordtails






Beautiful photos of swordsmen












My swordtail

fanfishka.ru

All kinds of swordtails


TYPES OF SURFACERS

(with photo)

The variety of aquarium fish sometimes affects. And given the fact that one species of fish has its own varieties - the aquarium world becomes just gigantic.

Sometimes it is even difficult for an experienced aquarist to tell what kind of fish it is. Hopefully, the following selection of TYPES OF SURFACERS will help you to figure out who is swimming in your aquarium.

Xiphophorus helleri

Order, family: petsilievye.

Comfortable water temperature: 20 - 25 ° C.

Ph: 7,0 - 7,5.

Aggressiveness: not aggressive.

Compatibility: non-aggressive - peaceful fish (tetras, neons, somas, minors, etc.). It is not recommended to push them to the "veil" fish - they are slow and swordtails can "pinch" them for beautiful, large fins.

Everyone probably knows these fish, even those who have never seen aquariums. We can say that these fish are the fish of all children of the former USSR (they were in all Soviet aquariums))). The fish is very beautiful and unpretentious.

SEE, read HERE: Swordtails: description, content, compatibility and feeding

TYPES OF SURFACERS Bulgarian white swordtails

High Swordsman

Mountain Sword

Green Swordsman

Red-Speckled Tiger Swordsmen

Red Swordsman

Lemon Sword

Lyre-tailed Sword

The Swordsman of Hell

Rainbow Swordsmen

Calico Sword

Black Swordsman

Video with swordtails

Swordtails

HECKERS - AQUARIUM FISHES.

Swordsmen know everything, even those who have never encountered the aquarium world. The Sword bearers gained such fame due to their wide distribution (one can say that they were part of the set of every young aquarist of the former USSR), as well as thanks to a special sign - the tail fin in the form of a sword. Actually, it was for this tail that the Swordtails got their name.

Maintenance and care of the swordtails

Contain Swordsmanin in aquariums it is easy enough because of their unpretentiousness to the composition and volume of water. One pair must be at least 6 liters of water. Aquarium needs a long, with a lid (can jump out of the water).

Optimum water parameters: temperature 22-24 ° С, dH 5-20 °, pH 7.0-8.0. Requires strong aeration and filtration. Once a week it is necessary to replace water by 1/3 of the volume. It is recommended to add sea or table salt to water: 1 tbsp. 10 liters of water.

Thick thickets of small-leaved plants (for example, notched elodea, cabomba, wallisneria) are perfect for an aquarium with swordtails. But free space for swimming fish must also be present. On the surface of the water, you can let ricci.

As neighbors fit any peaceful fish. There are conflicts in the group between males of swordtails, so it is necessary that there are more females than males. In this case, the males must be either one or more than three individuals - aggression is sprayed, and not directed directly at each other between the two males.

Breeding swordsmen

Swordtails belong to the family of viviparous. The female at a time is able to give life from 15 to 100 fry, and even more. The number of juveniles born into the world depends on the age and size of the mother, as well as on the conditions of her life. For successful breeding, the pregnant female is deposited in a separate aquarium before birth. So that the fry born to avoid the teeth of an adult female, small-leaved aquatic plants should also be placed there to create life-saving algae thickets in a small pond where it is so good to hide from danger. Breeding will not require any special care from the aquarist.

BLACKMAN

It will be enough only to isolate the female for the time of childbirth from the rest of the aquarium, and after the childbirth to return her to the familiar environment, leaving the swordtail children to develop independently. By the time of birth, fry are completely formed for the beginning of independent life. As soon as they were born, they immediately begin to tirelessly master the space of the aquarium and actively feed. Kids are almost omnivorous, but it is preferable to give them daphnia and cyclops. With proper feeding, the fry grow rapidly, by 3-4 months they already acquire a “sword”, and puberty occurs in 4-6 months.

COMPATIBILITY OF AQUARIUM FISHES

Swordtails are not aggressive, peaceful fish. They are compatible with all similar fish: tetras, neons, minors, terntions, danios, all petilium fish: guppies (can bite), mollies, etc.They are compatible with almost all aquarium catfish - corridoratus (speckled catfish), akantoftalmusy, platidor, antsistrusy, bag-tailed catfish, etc. Moreover, the swordtails get along very well with peaceful and not large cichlids, for example, with scalars. It is not recommended to push them to the "veil" fish - they are slow and swordtails can "pinch" them for beautiful, large fins. Not compatible with aggressive and large fish, for example, cichlids: Akara, astronotus, diamond tsikhlazomy

and etc.

DISEASES OF SURFACERS

What are the diseases and symptoms?

Swordtail Aquarium Fish Diseases There are three main reasons:

  • wrong content;
  • bacterial and fungal infections;
  • parasites.

You would think that only in the first case the fault lies with the aquarist's conscience. But in fact, infections and parasites affect fish with immunocompromised. In other words, even if there is no fungus or parasite in the aquarium, in bad conditions the fish will get sick.

Attentive owner will notice the beginning of the disease Swordtails with daily inspection of aquarium fish. That's what it costs note:

  • fading in place, lying on the bottom;
  • random swimming, rocking, rubbing against stones;
  • loss of appetite;
  • bloating;
  • folding fins;
  • dull and whitish spots on the body;
  • cotton-like shreds.

The diseased individual should be transplanted as soon as possible. It may be possible to save the healthy from infection.

Types and varieties

Green Swordsman has a light olive-brown color with a greenish tint. Along the body is one bright red stripe and several bright ones. The body itself is narrow and flattened at the sides. The sword is beautifully edged. Swordsmen females are larger than males, have a paler color.

Lemon Sword. This is an albino form of green swordtails, which is distinguished by a yellow-green body color. Low stability during reproduction.

Bulgarian white swordtail. Another albino variety of swordtails. Bulgarian swordtails are stronger and more resistant than lemon.

Black Swordsman. Hybrid green Swordsman with black Pelicia. The body of the black swordtail is usually wider and shorter than that of the green. The color is black, has a greenish or blue tint. Fish often suffer from melanosis (pigment oversupply), which makes them difficult to breed.

Red Swordsman. The result of crossing a green swordtail with a red pelicia. It has a bright red body color.

Calico Sword. Named so because of the three-color coloring. It has a white body color with several large bright red and black spots.

Rainbow Sword. The color resembles the Australian rainbow fish. The body is gray-green, has an orange tint. Along the hull there are stripes of reddish-brown color. The fins of the fish are bright orange.

Tiger swordtail. Named so because of black spots on the background of the red case. Has a long black sword. Despite the dark spots, these fish rarely suffer from melanosis.

Mountain Sword. It has a creamy yellow color. Small specks and pale zigzag stripes are visible on the sides.

The Swordsman of Cortez. In nature it lives in the Mexican rivers of San Luis Potosi and Panico. The size of the fish is about 5 - 5.5 cm, the females are larger than the males. From the root of the tail to the eye, there is a dark brown zigzag strip, the scales are reticulate gray - yellow, the dorsal fin is speckled. The sword is about 2 cm long, painted in a grayish - yellow color.

Microscale Sword. Under natural conditions, lives in Mexico in the river Sotola - Marina. The female reaches 5 cm in length, and the male is about 4 cm. It has a beige or olive-gray color with transverse stripes, maybe without stripes. At the root of the tail behind the ventral fin there are rather large dark spots. In males, the sword is transparent to 5 mm in length.

Clementia's Sword. Under natural conditions, lives in the Mexican river Sarabia. Fish from 4 to 5.5 cm long, the female is much larger than the male. The body of the fish is of a silver - blue shade with two red longitudinal stripes. The back is painted in olive-beige color, the sword at the male has a yellowish tint with black edging, the length of the sword is about 3.5 cm.

The Sword of Montezuma in natural conditions lives in Mexico. The length of the female’s torso is 6–7 cm, the male is about 5 cm. The body is colored lilac, the back has a brownish tint, along the body there are 4–5 burgundy zigzag longitudinal stripes and the same number of more pale transverse stripes. The dorsal fin of a male is yellow, dotted with dark patches.

Swordtails

Swordtails belong to the family of viviparous, carp-toothed. The body is elongated, flattened laterally.

The natural background color of the males is light brownish-olive, on the back with a green tint. A red two-millimeter strip runs along the sides, and two narrower red stripes below and above it. The long lower ray of the tail fin (sword) has a black clear edging. The color of the female is much paler, the body with a silvery sheen, the middle of the body is occupied by a wide strip, and below and above this strip pass two more narrow strips 0.5 mm wide.

As a result of breeding, the Sword-bearers have not only various forms of fins, but also different colors of their body: black, red, olive, orange, yellow, and their combinations (for example, yellow body and black fins). and the top of the tail.

The body of a male (without a sword) can grow up to 8 cm, and females up to 12 cm.

Swordtails live up to three to five years.

HECKERS VIDEO

HUPPY ENDLER CONTENTS REPRODUCTION PHOTO COMPATIBILITY DESCRIPTION VIDEO.

SUMATRAN BARBUS BREEDING CONTENT DESCRIPTION PHOTO VIDEO.

Propagation of the Sword in Captivity

The breeding of the Sword is one of the main issues that bother novice aquarists. However, it is easy to solve, since breeding of the swordtails is possible both in the general aquarium and in a separate spawning ground. In order for reproduction to turn out to be fast and correct at home, such moments should be taken into account:

  • Creating appropriate conditions for manufacturers;
  • Proper spawning organization;
  • Quality care for the fish.

How to create optimal conditions for reproduction?

Swordtails are viviparous fishes that produce fry ready for a full life. They become sexually mature at the age of 6-8 months, some specimens may be ready for reproduction at the age of 3 months. To reproduce succeeded, you need to pay special attention to the diet of future producers. Protein food will allow you to produce as many healthy fry as possible.

The optimal feeding base for adult males and females is live and vegetable food. A few weeks before breeding, feed the fish with daphnia, cyclops, coregetra, artemia and bloodworms. Food with spirulina, spinach and lettuce leaves, dandelion leaves, and soft cereals (rice, millet, oatmeal without salt) are suitable from vegetable food. To saturate the aquarium with algae food is not necessary so that the water is not enriched with ammonia and nitrates.

See how to breed Swordsmen.

Reproduction can stimulate the substitution of water, as well as increasing its temperature by several degrees. Provide filtration in the aquarium with an internal filter, and aeration. Pure water saturated with oxygen will stimulate the mating of fish. Once a week make a replacement of 25% of water for fresh and clean.

Swordtails, the reproduction of which will take place not in the spawning grounds, but in conditions of a common aquarium, should get used to the gradual increase in water temperature. The temperature regime should be set at 26-28 ° C, raising it for 5-7 days. The acidity of aquarium water is allowed at pH 7.0-8.0, the hardness - 10-12 dH. The number of females and males in the brood depends on the water temperature. In water with a temperature below 24 degrees there will be more females, above 25-25 degrees - males. Similar water parameters should be in spawning. In order for producers not to experience shock when moving to such a reservoir, the same parameters of the environment should be in a permanent aquarium and spawning grounds.


Preparation of fish and spawning for breeding

In order for the offspring to turn out beautiful and healthy, it is necessary to choose males and females for spawning. The age of males should be 8 months, their tail fin should stand out with a long lower ray, and gonopodia should increase in size. The female should be 8-10 months old, large in size and have a rounded abdomen, which indicates readiness for reproduction.

Fertilization of the fish swordtail intrauterine. If fertilization has occurred, part of the male spermatozoa will remain in the female's abdomen, which will fertilize the female again, without the participation of the male individual. Therefore, having gotten the Sword-bearers, you should know that these fish can produce offspring every month. In one spawning, the female sword bearer will give birth to 50-200 fry.


Why exactly this amount? The fact is that young females bring less offspring, mature ones more, and with each birth the number of fry will increase. Also, the number of calves depends on the species, the conditions of the fish. Pregnancy lasts 4-6 weeks; in the female, the belly will become round, before giving birth it will become almost square in shape. A month before giving birth you need to prepare a spawn.

As a spawning tank suitable capacity of 25-50 liters with infused tap water. It is recommended to plant small-leaved vegetation in the bottom of the tank, in which fry will be hidden. After preparing the spawning grounds, a female is fed into it, which is fed with live food. After the birth of the young, the female fish is deposited in a common aquarium so that she does not eat her brood. For delicate felling, use a net.

See how the swordtail fry are born.

Can swordtails change their gender?

Swordtails are special viviparous fishes that are capable of changing sex throughout life. This feature is due to the absence of sex chromosomes. Newborn swordtails do not have obvious sex characteristics, only at the age of 3-6 months they will be noticeable. Some fry breed at the age of 3-4 months, so they should be sorted by gender - females and males should be settled in separate containers.

During the life of the female swordtail can become a male, and vice versa. Such metamorphoses are inherent in those individuals who are trying to preserve the species in the face of the threat of extinction of the pack. In one aquarium can live 1 male and 2-3 females. With the passage of time, the male may die, and one of the females will begin to turn into a male. It forms gonopodium, lengthens the lower ray of the caudal fin. When the fish that have changed their sex from female to male reproduce, their descendants will be female.

You can adjust the sex of the fry of the future pets. If you want to breed males or females for sale, the water temperature must be raised or lowered by several degrees. Avoid early crossing of fry, they are ready for it at an early age. When species are crossed, beautiful offspring can turn out; when breeding breeds are crossed, degeneration will occur.

Live-breeding aquarium fish - what are they?

After acquiring an artificial reservoir from each novice aquarist, the first natural impulse is the desire to fill it with all kinds of fish. But with what, to start?

Today in the world there are many different types of aquarium fish. And the simplest thing that they usually offer or advise in a pet store is live-bearing aquarium fish. They differ from other species of fish in that they are easier to maintain. Also breeding them is not a big deal. They also have very diverse offspring.

This happens by breeding and crossing different species of fish. For some reason, it has already been developed that it is these, the so-called viviparous fishes that are always the first to populate new aquariums. But you get so used to them that you start to get involved in them for many years. Therefore, they occupy the first place among the water aquarium world. Let us consider in more detail what these fascinating representatives of the underwater world are.

Content and breeding

As mentioned above, viviparous aquarium fish, photos of which are quite often found in various aquarium magazines, are very easy to maintain, and there is no problem with reproduction. So, for this it is enough just to create good living conditions. In addition, there is absolutely no need to purchase for them huge aquariums. They tolerate temperature drops very well. Also, viviparous fish perfectly adapt to hard water, which is very important.

For them, you need at the same time a lot of space, and so that there are dense thickets of plants. There are differences between male and female. As a rule, the female is somewhat larger than the male. It is very interesting to watch the female in front of the so-called "clans". The abdomen of the female becomes rectangular. It is better, of course, during pregnancy to place it separately from other fish.

The female releases live fry already. She does not delay caviar at all. Also do not forget to create for her a separate container with the same conditions as in the aquarium. For example, many experts recommend filling it with plants. Fry, to fill their swim bladder with air, immediately float to the surface. In addition, newborn fish are very agile and skillfully survive among adult fish. From the first minutes of life, they can hide between thickets and provide themselves with food. There are also no problems with feeding the fry. They are not picky and eat virtually any feed.

Kinds

The most common and popular types of aquarium fish are viviparous. They constitute a large group of such fish. The list of such fish is very large. To better know what fish belong to the viviparous, you need to get acquainted with the most common species and their names.

Guppy

This type of fish, photos of which can be seen below, is the most popular and most famous. Their homeland is Latin America. They are very calm. They are very easy to maintain. Not picky, tenacious and prolific. Breeding this type of fish is not very complex. Therefore, for beginners aquarists - this is a great choice. There are many varieties, photos of which are presented below, namely:

  1. Skirt.
  2. Fantail.
  3. Lyretails

All of the above varieties of Guppy will be the decoration of any aquarium.

Swordtails

This fish, whose photo you can see below, got its name because of its tail, which is very similar to a sword. Their homeland - the tropical waters of Central America, southern Mexico. She is also a viviparous fish. Also, like Guppy is safe for other fish. Swordtails are very beautiful and have a bright color. A distinctive feature between the female and female is their size. The female is slightly larger in size than the male. She is also not as expressively bright as a male. Their body has an elongated shape. There are many types of swordtails, photos of which are presented below. So, these include:

  • tricolor swordtails;
  • flag swordtails;
  • swordsmen voilehvostnye;
  • swordtails green;
  • black swordmen;
  • swordtails calico

Their maintenance and breeding does not require much effort. These fish differ from other fish in their mobility. Therefore, do not forget about the presence of the cover on the aquarium, as they can jump.

Pecilia

Homeland of these fish - South America. The description of these fish is better to start with the fact that representatives of this species equally well tolerate both fresh and lightly salted water. This species of fish is distinguished by species diversity and all sorts of colors. Males, on the other hand, differ from females in that they have a white-yellow color, which turns into bluish. Females are brownish-gray in color, as indicated in the photo below, and on the sides are small reddish lines. The reproduction of these fish is very simple. The female in just one tag produces up to 80 fry. But unlike Guppy and the Swordsman, Pecilia does not need to be transported to another container.

Pecilia is unpretentious and peaceful. You can feed the fish and dry, and live food. The optimum water temperature is 23-25 ​​degrees. Also must be water filtration. Keeps in flocks.

Species of Pecillia:

  1. Calico pecilia
  2. Moon moon
  3. Petilia is red.
  4. Petilia tricolor.
  5. Pechiliya spotty.

Mollies

Homeland Mollies - South America. These fish, the photos of which are shown below, prefer a little salty water. But not in any way iodized. It is best to use a special salt for aquariums. You just need to add the right amount and the right amount of salt. This can be 1 teas or 1 tablespoon of salt per 10 liters of water.

Mollies has a flat elongated body shape. Slightly similar to the Sword. The back of the body ends with a rounded tail fin. Their color is varied. There should be a lot of space in the aquarium, as the fish are very mobile. Swordsmen are also very playful and can jump out of the water. Therefore, the aquarium should be equipped with a lid. Representatives of this species breed as well as all viviparous fishes. Eat a variety of foods. Varieties of Mollies:

  • black mollies;
  • sailing mollies;
  • splenops mollies;
  • freestyle mollies;
  • Velife mollies.

And finally, I would like to say that no matter how viviparous fish was acquired, no problems with it are foreseen. The only thing that needs to be done is to comply with the minimum conditions for keeping fish in an aquarium.

Swordtail aquarium fish: maintenance and care

One of the most popular exotic domestic fish is the old-timer of many aquariums and the favorite of not only experienced, but also beginner aquarists - the swordtail. Xiphophorus Helleri was liked by many breeders for its cheerful disposition, mobility, variety of shapes, types and colors, as well as unpretentiousness to living conditions. Nevertheless, some of the subtleties of the maintenance and care of these fish will not hurt to learn, and this article will help with this.

Central America, South Mexico, Honduras and Guatemala are considered the birthplace of the Sword. These fish have chosen there overgrown reservoirs with slow or standing waters.

In nature, only green swordtails are found, and all aquarium species are bred artificially by breeding and crossing with petillia.

The fishes were brought to Europe by doctor and botanist B.K. Geller They received their name for the xiphoid growth on the caudal fin, which is available only in males (translated from the Greek xiphos - a sword, phoros - bear).

Description

Aquarium swordtails have a body of 5-8 cm, extended in length and compressed from the sides. Their mouths are slightly twisted to make it easier to take food from the surface of the water. The females are larger with noticeable belly and rounded fins, dimmer in color and do not have a sword on the tail fin. With good care, these fish can please owners up to five years, which is considered the average life expectancy.

Originally, the swordtails had only a brownish-olive color with a silver sheen, a pale reddish band along the body and a yellow, red or green sword. But today many varieties of black, lemon, and red have been bred, there are even spotted individuals. Experienced breeders with fins, as a result of which appeared fish with elongated fins and even with two swords.

Behavior in the aquarium

The nature of the swordsmen is peaceful; they, as a rule, do not show aggression towards representatives of similar species. It can be kept in the same container with neons, tetras, minors, ternetias, danios, guppies, mollies, various types of catfish, scalars, etc. It is undesirable to settle with veil fish, as the tails and fins of the latter are at risk of being plucked.

Swordtails should not be placed together with large aggressive fish, such as astronotus, akara, tsikhlazomy and the like.

Within the species, skirmishes and fights can arise between males, especially if there are only two of them in the aquarium. Therefore, experienced aquarists recommend settling at least three male swordsmen at the same time.


How to equip a habitat?

When choosing an aquarium, it is better to dwell on a wide version, with a volume of at least 30 liters. The calculation should be such that three liters of water are needed per fish. The length of the container is recommended not less than 30 cm. A lid or glass is obligatory from above, as the swordtails are very quick and can jump out of the blue.

As for the quality of water, it is better to adhere to the temperature in the range of 18-26 degrees, hardness 8-22 DH, acidity 7-8 pH.

The purity of the water is very important, so it will be useful to install a filter. Regularly (about once a week), you need to replace the water with a third of the volume of the aquarium, before standing for about a day.

For the prevention of diseases of swordsmen, experts recommend for every 10 liters of water to add a tablespoon of sea salt or table salt. But this is not always possible, as it can negatively affect other inhabitants of the aquarium and plants.

Fish do not tolerate the lack of oxygen in the water, so aeration is a prerequisite for their content.

Lighting should be good, but not in direct sunlight.

Soil can take any color and texture.

As for the algae, then for the background it is better to arrange dense thickets of camombs, notched elodeans and the like. At the side of the aquarium they plant small-leaved and long Indian limnofilu, glitter, peristristist. On the surface of the water is good to place Riccia. The foreground should be free space for swimming and feeding.

You can decorate the aquarium with stones, grottoes, snags. But this is not necessary, since the swordsmen do not need shelters.

What to feed?

Unpretentiousness in food - another one of the advantages of these fish. But in order for their growth and development to be the best, nutrition should be diversified and alternated. What can be used?

  1. Dry, live and frozen food (bloodworm, artemia, daphnia, etc.).
  2. Vegetable food, cooked independently (algae, spinach, nettle, lettuce leaves are scalded with boiling water, and then ground).
  3. Non-standard top dressing: boiled egg yolk, crackers, dietary meat, squid or boiled fish. Of course, all you need to grind.

Leftovers should be cleaned so that the water in the aquarium stays clean longer.

About diseases

These fish do not get sick often. The main causes of diseases of the Sword are non-compliance with conditions of detention, colds and infections, trapped with food.

They can suffer fungal diseases that are easily eliminated after quarantine in salted water. It cleans the integuments of harmful bacteria and parasites.

After buying new pets, you need to carefully check them for plaque, cannon, rashes or sores. If any of the above is available, then the fish is sick.

A salt bath (at the rate of one tablespoon of salt per liter of water) with a duration of 15-20 minutes will help to treat the pet and prevent general infection in the aquarium. You can fix the effect of the bath by placing the fish for two days in a weak solution of methylene blue (temperature is about 25 degrees).

For the treatment of diseases of the gills, scales, as well as for infectious individuals, trypaflavin and biomycin are used in solutions.

Interesting

If the aquarium is overpopulated with female swordtails, they can change their gender to male. At the same time, the xiphoid process grows in them and gonopodia appear on the anal fin. Males do not possess the gift of reincarnation.

Now, having studied the characteristics of keeping and caring for the swordtails, even beginner lovers of these fish will be able to create ideal conditions for their pets.

For those who do not like to read, we offer to watch a video about the contents of the Sword in the aquarium:

Sword-bearer: pregnant fish, photo

Breeding the Sword is not a problem even for an inexperienced aquarist who first decided to breed fish. Still, the reproduction of any living organisms is a complex physiological process, which in artificially created conditions always takes place differently than in the natural environment.

When it is controlled by a person, he must provide all the subtleties and nuances for the result to be successful. This concerns both the determination of the readiness of individuals for reproduction and their sex. But the most important thing, which many aquarists puzzled over, are signs by which it can be understood whether the female sword bearer is ready for the birth of babies.

Sex determination

Before wondering how a pregnant fish looks like a swordtail, you must learn to distinguish males from females. So, it is not difficult to do this. At the age of six to eight months, the fish reach sexual maturity. By this time, the males are actively developing gonopodia - the aggregate xiphoid organ. In females, such an organ is absent. It is by the presence of the "sword" that the sex of the Sword is determined.

The female became pregnant or not, it is already more difficult to understand. Since the pairing of fish occurs in the general aquarium, the owner of the swordtails may simply not pay attention to it.

After the fertilization of the female in the womb, the fry begin to develop.

Signs of readiness for childbirth

After about a month and a half, it must be deposited in the spawning grounds. Therefore, the question arises - what stands out among the fellow swordsman pregnant? Photos posted online can help the fish breeder solve this dilemma.

The main signs, saying that it is time to separate the female, are her noticeably increased abdomen and the appearance of a black spot in the area of ​​the anus. Tightening with the movement of the fish in a separate container is not worth it, otherwise the newly emerged fry will be taken by all adult inhabitants of the aquarium as a delicacy and will be eaten with pleasure.

However, the rush in this matter is not an assistant. Indeed, in this case there is a risk that the fry will be born underdeveloped and most likely will die.

Many do not bother themselves with such a task, how to determine the pregnancy of the swordtail and his readiness for the birth of babies. Seeing a slight increase in the female's abdomen, aquarists place her in a breeding ground and raise the temperature. The fish reacts quickly to this and gives birth to defective babies who have not yet had time to resolve the yolk sac. This approach is unprofessional - the distributor should be as careful and attentive as possible.

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