Sword-bearer of aquarium fish: content, compatibility, reproduction, photo-video review
POSSIBLE content, compatibility, reproduction, photo-video review
Swordsmen know everything, even those who have never encountered the aquarium world. The Sword bearers gained such fame due to their wide distribution (one can say that they were part of the set of every young aquarist of the former USSR), as well as thanks to a special sign - the tail fin in the form of a sword. Actually, it was for this tail that the Swordtails got their name.
Homeland Sword - Central America (South Mexico and Guatemala). They live in reservoirs with stagnant and slowly running water, thickly overgrown with various aquatic plants.
Swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) belong to the family of fish. Xiphophorus helleri is translated from Greek as "xiphos" - the sword, "phoros" - carry. The prefix "Helleri" was assigned to swordtails by the name of German naturalist Karl Bartholomeus Geller, who first caught these fish in the Mexican lakes and successfully transported to Europe.
In 1848, these fish were first described by Dr. Johann Jacob Heckel - preparator of the Museum of Natural Sciences at the Imperial Natural History Study of the Museum of Natural Sciences in Vienna.
The body of the fish is elongated and compressed from the sides. The swordtail's mouth is turned up and adapted for taking food from the surface of the water. Fish can reach a size of 10 cm (without a sword). Females are somewhat larger than males; they are similar in shape to all other petilium. In addition to the presence of a "sword" on the lower edge of the caudal fin, the male has gonopodia, an anal fin transformed into the sexual organ.
Class: Ray fish
Conditions in the aquarium:
Water temperature: 22 - 26 ° C.
(tolerates a temporary decrease in temperature to 15 ° C)
"Acidity" Ph: 7,0 - 7,5.
Stiffness dH: 6-20°
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatibility of the Sword
Swordtails are not aggressive. They are compatible with almost all small peaceful fish. Among the best neighbors are tetras, minors, terntions, danios, all fish, etc. They are compatible with almost all bottom fish: corridors, akantoftalmusy, platidorus, antsistrusy, bag-tailed catfish, etc. They get along well with peaceful and not large cichlids, for example, with scalars.
Sword-bearers are not compatible with aggressive and large fish that will hunt them, for example with cichlids (Akara, astronotus, diamond chichasomes, etc.). In addition, it is not recommended to push them to the "veil" fish, because they are slow and swordtails can "pinch" them for fluttering fins.
Males of the Sword show some intolerance and aggression towards each other. Cases of males fights were noted up to causing lethal damage to each other. Therefore, in one aquarium should contain only one male, or several at once (but not a couple!), Plus the same or more females. In this case, the intraspecific aggressiveness of the fish is markedly reduced. There are a lot of local conflicts in this case, but their heat is relatively low, and the absolute winner, who would then no longer give anyone a pass, would not be revealed. See article compatibility of aquarium fish.
Life expectancy of the Sword
Life swordtails, by the aquarium standards, medium-long. With good conditions, they can live up to 5 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!
The minimum volume of the aquarium for the swordmen
Many novice aquarists contain swordtails in small aquariums. However, this is not entirely correct. In fact, the swordtails - it is quite large fish. And taking into account the fact that it is recommended to hold swordsmen in proportion 1 male / 2 or more females, the minimum size of an aquarium for them should be from 50 liters per harem family. Aquarium for the Sword should be wide !!!
About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).
Requirements for the care and conditions of the swordtails
The Swordtails do not need any special conditions. In fact, the observance of optimal parameters of aquarium water is the key to their well-being. However, do not forget that:
1. Swordtails necessarily need aeration and filtration, a weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water. It is worth noting that these fish do not need a lot of oxygen, and too frequent change (replacement) of aquarium water is not so useful for them as for other types of aquarium fish. Therefore, if you change the water less often, for example, once every 14 days, and not at 7, nothing terrible will happen.
2. The aquarium must be covered with a lid, because the fish are nimble, can jump out and die.
3. Like many fish, swordtails feel comfortable among the living vegetation. As aquarian plants for them are recommended to use valisneria, echinodorus, cryptocoryne, riccia, duckweed and other plants. Creating thickets of plants imitates the natural habitat of fish.
4. At registration of an aquarium it is necessary to organize in it an open space for swimming. Swordtails are great swimmers. Shelters of the Sword are absolutely not needed.
Feeding and Dieting of the Swordsmen
Swordtails unpretentious in food, they are omnivorous and prone to overeating. With pleasure they eat dry and sublimated feeds: flakes, granules, chips. They love live and frozen food (bloodworm, artemia, daphnia, etc.). The food is taken by fish in all layers of aquarium water. Remaining on the surface and fallen to the bottom of the feed also will not remain without attention.
In the diet of the Swordsmen must include vegetable food: flakes or granules with spirulina, special algal tablets. In addition, they willingly eat algae from the walls of the aquarium, plants and decor.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
Varieties of aquarium swordtails
The natural natural color of the swordtails is gray-green. However, as a result of selection, a large number of swordtails of various colors and shapes were bred. Unpretentiousness in breeding and the difficulty of crossing led to the presence today more than two dozen of the accepted types of swordtails. Here are some of the most popular:
Bulgarian white swordtails;
Red-speckled tiger swordtails;
The sword-bearer of Hell;
All kinds of swordtails with photos HERE.
Propagation and breeding of the swordtails
Breeding and breeding of the Swordsmen is absolutely simple. It is similar to the reproduction of guppies and other live-beetles. And, one might say, actually happens on its own.
Sexual maturity of the Sword comes at the age of 5-6 months. For breeding (and for their own comfort) it is recommended to keep the fish in the proportion of one male to three females. In the process of "grooming" the female, the male performs a kind of mating dance - shuttle movements back and forth.
Fertilization of ripe eggs occurs inside the female. This process can take several days. An interesting feature is that the once fertilized female of the swordtail can produce offspring several more times, even in the absence of a male.
The duration of gestation of the female is 4-6 weeks. This period depends on the parameters of the aquarium water, temperature, lighting and feeding.
A pregnant female has a full belly and has a “black spot of pregnancy” under the tail. It is believed that a few hours before the “birth”, the female's stomach becomes “square”, the female begins to move more actively, “toss” up and down along the aquarium glass.
At one time, the female sweeps from 15 to 100 or more fry. Spawning occurs, as a rule, in the morning.
With abundant nutrition and water temperature 26-27 ° C, childbirth can occur monthly.
In the photo male and female swordtail
Perhaps the most important rule that must be observed when breeding swordsmen is a concern for the survival of young. Unfortunately, the producers eat their own offspring, and given the fact that the fry of the Swordtails are quite large in size and bright in color, this process simply turns into extermination. In nature, the Swordtails never see their offspring, because fry immediately blows over. In an aquarium, parents take fry for food.
To save offspring aquarium densely planted aquarium plants. Plants are located at the bottom of the aquarium, in the water column and especially densely on the surface. Thus, juveniles are provided with shelter "from the evil parents" and the majority of fry survive.
Also, for the safety of offspring, special spouts can be used, which are designed according to the funnel type - the female remains in the funnel, and the swept fry falls out of the funnel into the spawning aquarium. Thus, the absence of contact of the producer and the young is initially provided.
The third option for preserving offspring is the jigging of producers immediately after spawning. This option is simple, but requires attentiveness and timeliness from the aquarist.Photo "pregnant" female of the swordtail, or rather born out
Photos of juveniles, fry of swordtails
After spawning, the female is deposited and provide her with abundant feeding.
The initial food for the young of the swordtails is live dust (nauplii, Artemia, Cyclops, micro-worms, rotifers, shreds).
A week later, the young of the Sword began to weed out - divided into strong and "purebred", and weak and defective destroyed.
Juveniles grow rapidly, after two months the anal fin begins to change in males, and by the third month the "sword" begins to grow.
When keeping different types of swordtails, an independent crossing occurs, as a result of which it is sometimes possible to get beautiful offspring.
An interesting fact from the life of these fish is that a female swordtail can at some moment become a male, i.e. change the floor. This occurs under the conditions of "shortage" of males and is explained by the struggle for the survival of the species. The offspring from the pair of female + former female is almost 90% of female individuals.
Diseases and treatment of swordtails
Swordtails are very resistant fish and can tolerate harsh conditions of detention. However, like all living things, such excellent health does not last forever. The key to successful maintenance of fish is to ensure optimal conditions for aquarium water.
Swordtails are prone to all typical diseases of aquarium fish and there are no nuances in their treatment.
For proper and correct treatment of swordtails, it is necessary to diagnose the disease, and then apply the necessary procedures.
This will help you Treatment and diseases of aquarium fish and sections of the site: DISEASES OF FISH are contagious, DISEASES of FISH are not infectious, AKVA. MEDICINE.
Viviparous aquarium fish. Guide to keeping and breeding
Livebreeding Fishes Author: Peter W. Scott Languages: Russian Publisher: Phoenix
Popular video with fish swordtails
Beautiful photos of swordsmen
Aquarium fish swordtails: reproduction and maintenance
Swordtails are very popular among professional aquarists, and among fans. But before you get these bright fish, it is better to find out the details of care, breeding, compatibility with other types of fish, etc.
The natural habitat of the swordtails is Central America and South Mexico. Such an interesting name was given to these fish because of the unique shape of the fin. It is only for males and is used by them for reproduction. Surprisingly, females of the swordtail can change their gender by growing a sword fin, and even in such a state give birth to offspring. In length, they are from 8 to 12 cm, not counting, of course, its fin. Swordtails live about 4-5 years.
Swordtails - aquarium fish: species
The natural swordtail is usually green, all other multi-colored fish are hybrids bred artificially. Varieties of swordtails:
- high altitude;
- Bulgarian white;
- red-speckled tiger;
- the black.
Aquarium for fish
Swordtails do not require any thorough care. This way they are easy to maintain. They do not need a special composition or a certain amount of water, they withstand a good lowering of the temperature (the optimum water temperature for them is 23-25 ° C). Water hardness also does not become a problem for these fish - 8-25. Acidity is acceptable within 7-8.
To equip an aquarium, you first need to figure out what shape it will be. It is better to take a rectangular aquarium without any decorations, which only interfere.
As for the volume, then for two representatives of this species or fish of similar size, an average of 8–10 liters of water is needed, that is, 10–15 individuals per capacity of 50 liters.
Install the aquarium should be closer to the window, because the light is needed and the fish themselves, and plants. But putting it on the windowsill is a bad idea, because the sun or the heat of the battery will overheat the water and it will bloom.
The surface must be flat, otherwise the walls of the aquarium may burst (if this happened, the article “Repair the aquarium at home” will help to correct the situation).
It is better when there are plants in the tank, then you can not be afraid to leave your pets without food in rare cases. Aquarium plants should be selected as thick as possible so that the fry can hide from more adult individuals. But there should be a space for the free movement of fish. To do this, fit, gloss and glossy cabomba.
At least once a week, it is recommended to replace 20-30% of the aquarium water with clean water, and you can also add sea salt to it.
As the soil for the aquarium, you can take the usual pebbles. Aeration of water is desirable, but not necessary, at a low density of fish population.
As for food, here too the swordtails are universal - any food, live or dry, is suitable for them. It is recommended not to forget about vegetable types of feed, and to use them in addition to algae. For this fit variety of lettuce, spinach or oatmeal.
Having decided to start these fish, you need to remember the so-called hierarchy, and therefore it is better to place more females in one aquarium. There will be enough males and a few, preferably 3-4, so that between them there is no particular competition.You should always cover the aquarium with something from above, as the swordtails are very nimble and like to jump out of it.
Aquarium fish swordtails: compatibility with other species
These are, in general, fairly calm fish; they only sort out relationships with each other, so you can keep them in the same container with other species. The only thing that they can aggressively treat smaller fish.
Barbs, cockerels, discus, tetra, labo, guppy, gourami get along well with swordtails.
Not very successful combination with them are eels and shrimps, but cichlids, goldfish and astronotuses are completely incompatible with swordtails.
For mating, the choice of the female falls on the most active and brightly colored male, that is, on the most productive. The more his fin, the better. In females it is an internal fertilization, therefore it brings fry several more times without the participation of the male.
Carrying fry lasts about 40 days, and their number is always different. This number ranges from 150 fry per pregnancy, but sometimes more.
At the time of gestation, the female individual is taken from the rest of the fish and transplanted into a small container of 20 liters.You also need to constantly monitor that after birth, she did not touch the babies, it is better to leave them alone, and return the mother to the aquarium.
Fry quickly form and swim almost immediately and eat well. For the normal development of children need to feed them as often as possible. You can use, for example, artemia, microcores, or shredded tubers.
Each individual develops differently, so from time to time it is necessary to select grown-up fish from still small ones and replant them separately. Once fish reach 4-5 months, they can be considered adults and are capable of breeding.
Before the acquisition is recommended to check the fish for infections. Need to pay close attention to the rash, fluff or sores. If something like this is present on the body of the fish, then it is sick.Even with full confidence in the purchase of healthy swordtails, just in case, they should be left for 10-15 minutes in a container with salt water, and then transplanted into an aquarium.
With a clear disease of the fish, for example, the appearance of white fluff, it is placed first in a salted bath, then a weak solution of methylene blue is made and the swordtail is kept in it for 2-3 days. The temperature of this fluid must be at least 24 ° C. Tripapaflavin and biomitsin help in infections and diseases of the gills.
It is interesting and very exciting to keep and breed the Swordsmen. For example, you can cross fish of different breeds and get unique fry with new coloring or fins. And even a child can cope with elementary ways of caring for them.
Video on how to keep the Sword in the aquarium:
Propagation of the Sword in Captivity
The breeding of the Sword is one of the main issues that bother novice aquarists. However, it is easy to solve, since breeding of the swordtails is possible both in the general aquarium and in a separate spawning ground. In order for reproduction to turn out to be fast and correct at home, such moments should be taken into account:
- Creation of proper conditions for producers;
- Proper spawning organization;
- Quality care for the fish.
How to create optimal conditions for reproduction?
Swordtails are viviparous fishes that produce fry ready for a full life. They become sexually mature at the age of 6-8 months, some specimens may be ready for reproduction at the age of 3 months. To reproduce succeeded, you need to pay special attention to the diet of future producers. Protein food will allow you to produce as many healthy fry as possible.
The optimal feeding base for adult males and females is live and vegetable food. A few weeks before breeding, feed the fish with daphnia, cyclops, coregetra, artemia and bloodworms. Food with spirulina, spinach and lettuce leaves, dandelion leaves, and soft cereals (rice, millet, oatmeal without salt) are suitable from vegetable food. To saturate the aquarium with algae food is not necessary so that the water is not enriched with ammonia and nitrates.
See how to breed Swordsmen.
Reproduction can stimulate the substitution of water, as well as increasing its temperature by several degrees. Provide filtration in the aquarium with an internal filter, and aeration. Pure water saturated with oxygen will stimulate the mating of fish. Once a week make a replacement of 25% of water for fresh and clean.
Swordtails, the reproduction of which will take place not in the spawning grounds, but in conditions of a common aquarium, should get used to the gradual increase in water temperature. The temperature regime should be set at 26-28 ° C, raising it for 5-7 days. The acidity of aquarium water is allowed at pH 7.0-8.0, the hardness - 10-12 dH. The number of females and males in the brood depends on the water temperature. In water with a temperature below 24 degrees there will be more females, above 25-25 degrees - males. Similar water parameters should be in spawning. In order for producers not to experience shock when moving to such a reservoir, the same parameters of the environment should be in a permanent aquarium and spawning grounds.
Preparation of fish and spawning for breeding
In order for the offspring to be beautiful and healthy, it is necessary to choose the right males and females for spawning. The age of males should be 8 months, their tail fin should stand out with a long lower ray, and gonopodia should increase in size. The female should be 8-10 months old, large in size and have a rounded abdomen, which indicates readiness for reproduction.
Fertilization of the fish swordtail intrauterine. If fertilization has occurred, part of the male spermatozoa will remain in the female's abdomen, which will fertilize the female again, without the participation of the male individual. Therefore, having gotten the Sword-bearers, you should know that these fish can produce offspring every month. In one spawning, the female sword bearer will give birth to 50-200 fry.
Why exactly this amount? The fact is that young females bring less offspring, mature ones more, and with each birth the number of fry will increase. Also, the number of calves depends on the species, the conditions of the fish. Pregnancy lasts 4-6 weeks; in the female, the belly will become round, before giving birth it will become almost square in shape. A month before giving birth you need to prepare a spawn.
As a spawning tank suitable capacity of 25-50 liters with infused tap water. It is recommended to plant small-leaved vegetation in the bottom of the tank, in which fry will be hidden. After preparing the spawning grounds, a female is fed into it, which is fed with live food. After the birth of the young, the female fish is deposited in a common aquarium so that she does not eat her brood. For delicate felling, use a net.
See how the swordtail fry are born.
Can swordtails change their gender?
Swordtails are special viviparous fishes that are capable of changing sex throughout life. This feature is due to the absence of sex chromosomes. Newborn swordtails do not have obvious sex characteristics, only at the age of 3-6 months they will be noticeable. Some fry breed at the age of 3-4 months, so they should be sorted by gender - females and males should be settled in separate containers.
During the life of the female swordtail can become a male, and vice versa. Such metamorphoses are inherent in those individuals who are trying to preserve the species in the face of the threat of extinction of the pack. In one aquarium can live 1 male and 2-3 females. With the passage of time, the male may die, and one of the females will begin to turn into a male. It forms gonopodium, lengthens the lower ray of the caudal fin. When the fish that have changed their sex from female to male reproduce, their descendants will be female.
You can adjust the sex of the fry of the future pets. If you want to breed males or females for sale, the water temperature must be raised or lowered by several degrees. Avoid early crossing of fry, they are ready for it at an early age. When species are crossed, beautiful offspring can turn out; when breeding breeds are crossed, degeneration will occur.
Koi swordsman: care for swordsmen
Fish, called swordtails, have long conquered the hearts of aquarium owners. This species is a representative of the order karpsuboobraznyh.
The popularity of these pets is due to their bright colors, cheerful disposition, mobility and an abundance of breeding forms. In addition, these fish are unpretentious, so their purchase and further maintenance can be recommended to beginners. The name of the fish received because of growth on their tail, which in its outlines resembles a sword.
Which breed to choose?
The most popular species is the koi swordsman. This breed was the result of professional breeding work. Usually koi have a tricolor color: white, yellow, red. Females of this species are larger than the male and reach a size of 15 centimeters.
Conditions of detention
The aquarium for swordtails should be large enough, and it should be settled at the rate of 3 liters of water per individual. The longer the tank, the more comfortable it is in the fish. Water temperature is preferably from 18 to 26 degrees. Aquarium must be kept clean. Sea salt can be added to the water (a tablespoon per ten liters), if it is not contraindicated for other types of fish living together with the swordtails.
In general, the care of the swordtails does not require a lot of effort, as the fish are completely non-demanding to conditions.
Swordtails are peaceful inhabitants and can get along with other species of fish that do not show excessive aggression. At the same time, males fight among themselves very often, building a certain hierarchy. To reduce the hassles, you need to keep in the aquarium 3 or more males. Some individuals may be so cocky that they will start chasing fish of a different species. But in general, it is fun and active fish.
You can see that aquarium fish swordtails, photos of which can be found on the Internet, have a variety of colors. Such diversity is connected with the fact that all types of Swordtails can interbreed with each other. Part of the mixed offspring acquires the characteristics of the male, and some - the females. Some aquarists are so lucky that they get a completely new color fish. Hybrids are characterized by larger sizes compared to their parents. When kept without males, female hybrids can change their sex. The process of reverse transformation was not fixed.
Swordtail Aquarium - a source of new discoveries and impressions!
Botsiya clown: maintenance and care
For lovers of aquarium fish of different breeds, the purchase of a clown fish is becoming increasingly important every day. It is bought not only in Russia, but also in other countries. She has a bright, original, unusual motley color and a peace-loving character. It is also worth noting a rather long lifespan.
But there is a nuance - this is an unusual price. Botsiya clown is quite expensive. And if you consider that she is not interested in living in proud solitude and will have to buy several such individuals, the price will be quite high. But it is clear that she will please her master for a long time, and this justifies the price.
This species takes its roots from the islands of Indonesia. Botsia originally lived in rivers. This habitat is more comfortable for her. Recently, this species is bred on specialized farms in Asia.
Botsiya clown has a very attractive and original appearance. The body is bright yellow-orange, while decorated with black stripes. It has six fins, one of them is black on the back, the other lower ones are red. A curved little mouth and a number of funny mustaches.
This representative of the aquarium world has one interesting feature - the presence of special spikes, which are located under the eyes. When the fish is nervous, they appear. In a calm state, the spikes are hidden under the skin. You can observe this process, as a rule, in the evening or when trying to catch it from the aquarium.
The size of an individual kept at home does not exceed 27 cm. At will, it reaches a length of about 50 cm.
Conditions of detention and care
This type requires quite complex care. For comfortable living they need a spacious, long aquarium, about 200 liters in volume with dim lighting. Poor living conditions can be the cause of death or persistent disease.
It is necessary to replace the water in time, while the latter should be undoubtedly soft and warm. The ideal water temperature is 27 degrees Celsius.
Space is necessary for comfortable living of the battle, therefore it is not recommended to settle it to a large number of other inhabitants of the underwater kingdom. But in solitude to contain it will not work.
To equip the aquarium preferably artificial plants. Real vegetation, it will quickly destroy. Since the battle likes to eat greens, then soon all living plants will be bitten to swim on the surface of the water.
But the combination of small and large parts, such as snags, smooth stones and other furnishings, are welcome. She will use them as shelter.
Botsiya peaceful and very mobile. Therefore, he can live peacefully with his relatives, but problems may arise with other types of fish. Its mobility can cause stress in residents with a calmer nature. Guppies, cichlids, roosters and other species with a veil fin structure are definitely not suitable for living together. But carp-shaped species can become ideal neighbors.
Botsii live long enough. In some cases, their age reaches 20-22 years. For a long and comfortable life you need a varied diet. Representatives of the family of convolvulaceae, as a rule, like to dig in the soil, respectively, the best choice would be worms or other types of invertebrates. The alternative can be live, frozen bloodworm, shredded shrimp, mosquito larvae. If suddenly the color of the fish has become less bright, this is a sure sign that it is time to change the diet.
Reproduction of this species is quite complicated. Few can create this process at home. For breeding requires the following nuances:
- temperature (up to 28 ° С), chemical composition of water (pH 6.0);
- pure water;
- sandy ground;
- intensive movement of water rich in oxygen;
- the presence of smooth, medium-sized stones;
- additional variety of snags (they should be in the thick of the flow).
After spawning, the fish is transplanted into warmer water (approximately 32 degrees).
The hatched fry begin to eat at the end of the third day. The most difficult period in the life of fry is the first month.
Thus, it turns out that once you spend a significant amount on a school of this type of fish, you can enjoy their beauty and activity for a long time. The main thing - the right care, and they will live happily ever after. Do not forget to change the water in time, maintain the required temperature, select the right neighborhood, feed a balanced diet - these are the basic conditions for good development. If you creatively and responsibly approach their content, then the fish will delight the eye with their beauty for many years, lift their spirits and create comfort in the house.
Video about the maintenance and care of the fish clown battion: