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Fish for nano aquarium

The prefix "nano", which came to us from the Greek language, is used to denote something very small. As for aquariums, ultra-small aquariums or, as they are also called, nano aquariums are often present in homes and apartments, office rooms and public places. Naturally, for such small aquariums and small fish are needed.

Fish for nano aquarium: especially the content

There is no clear definition of the extent to which an aquarium should be classified as "nano". As a rule, such ultra-small artificial aquatic systems consider containers for aquatic plants and fish from 10 liters or less. There are, for example, 2.5-liter aquariums equipped with everything necessary.

Creating the required conditions for the normal life of the inhabitants of nano aquariums is no less important than monitoring the functioning of a regular, standard aquarium.

Moreover, the established biological equilibrium in a small container is very fragile. For example, one has only to throw a little more feed into such a nano aquarium, pour out or underfill the periodically replaced water, at least slightly deviate from the maintenance schedule of the aquarium equipment - and this delicate balance will be disturbed, and the fish will immediately feel any negative change.

So, what kind of ornamental fish are frequent inhabitants of nano aquariums?

Micro Erythromycron

Perhaps one of the most popular species for miniature aquarium hobby is rasbora. And in their family, we can distinguish a wonderful, beautiful fish called "micro-erythromicron microselect" (Microrasbora erythromicron).

With a size of only about 2.5-3 cm, it is ideal for a small tabletop reservoir. This micro-collection, brought to us from Myanmar, was opened not so long ago, but it has already gained wide popularity due to the ease of keeping it in small volumes of water.

The fish has a cute tiger color: transverse light stripes pass through the entire gray-blue body, transparent fins have a reddish tint.

There is nothing particularly difficult in the content of this rasbora:

  • optimum temperature - from +22 to +28 degrees,
  • neutral water hardness
  • its weekly replacement in the amount of 20-25%,
  • filtration and moderate aeration.
It is not necessary to create a strong current in the "bank", since the erythromicrons like calm water.

For normal maintenance in a small aquarium there must be a zone of vegetation or at least some floating plants.

The fish feeds on natural conditions by zooplankton, and in captivity it is fed usually with frozen cyclops, daphnia, and commercial dry feed for carp fish.

Alone, this micro-sampling is boring, so it’s better to have a small flock of 4-5 individuals.


Pygmy Corridor or Corydoras pygmaeus

These tiny catfish from Brazil are ideal for a small aquarium (with a capacity of 7-10 liters), as their sizes rarely exceed 3 cm. Nevertheless, these are real soma, only tiny.

They feel great and alone, but usually they contain a flock. For a nano aquarium, 3-4 individuals will suffice.

The color of the fish is not as bright as in some other ornamental species: the color of the body is gray, the black stripe along the sides of the body can be seen.

Aquarists love to contain corridors, and there is an explanation. In food, catfish are not picky: they eat live, frozen and dry foods, including commercial ones, with pleasure. However, there is one feature: the mouth of the fish is rather small, so food should be grind to fine crumbs.

Like all members of the family, the pygmies lead a near-bottom lifestyle, and pick up food from the bottom of their glass house.

There are, however, some difficulties in the content. The fact is that in search of food corridors love to dig the soil, thus lifting mud and dirt from the bottom. That is why effective filtration is vital, and 30% of water should be replaced at least once a week. In order to avoid contamination of the aquatic environment, some owners of these catfish use small, run-in pebbles as soil.

The optimum water temperature should be in the range of +20 to +26 degrees; pH balance is close to neutral.

Despite the insufficiently bright color, the pygmy corridors can become a real decoration of a small table-top reservoir. Their rest on the leaves of the aquatic plant looks very funny!

Pseudomogil gertrude or blue-eyed spotted

This peaceful fish (the Latin name Pseudomugil gertrudae) can not be called very popular, but it is sometimes found in our aquariums.

The brightly colored yellow body of a blue-eyed eye shimmers when illuminated. A distinctive feature of the veil are the dorsal and ventral fins.

Psevdomomily, having a maximum size of 4 cm, very shy. So you can keep them only with calm species of fish.

Blue-eyed normally feel in a narrow temperature range: from +22 to +27 degrees. A neutral acid-base balance is recommended.

You can feed these fish with almost any live (moin, daphnia, microworms) or dry fodder of a small fraction.

Red Badis (Badis Scarlett)

This still rather rare fish in domestic nano aquariums is perfectly suited for small volumes of water. The fact is that the average size of an individual does not exceed 20 mm. The rarity of badis (dario) is due to the fact that breeders have not yet brought out the ornamental views of this Indian little beauty, and in pet stores it almost never happens. Most often, you can purchase such a fish under the order.

That is why owners of this species can rightly be proud of the presence of Scarlett in their nano aquarium.

The color of the fish is bright and memorable:

  • across the silvery shiny body are bright red broad bands;
  • the fins are also painted red, with a narrow blue strip running along their edges. This applies to males.
  • As for the females, their color is much paler, and on the abdomen there is a slight reddish spot.

Dario dario is unpretentious to environmental conditions and maintains a solid range of temperatures: from +16 to +26 degrees. The optimum temperature is 23-25 ​​degrees above zero.

Unfortunately, in nature and in captivity, a badis lives just over 1 year. However, in conditions of a small domestic pond, females spawn well, thanks to which we can hope that the “Indians” will continue to delight their masters.

Rasbora espei (Trigonostigma espei)

Owners of nano aquariums are well known for small fish originally from Southeast Asia. An individual of the carp family in nature reaches a size of no more than 3 cm, and at home about 25 mm.

Appearance - characteristic of all carp:

  • laterally oblate body;
  • olive green, and on the sides from the middle of the body to the base of the tail there are black or dark blue stripes of irregular shape;
  • dorsal fin low,
  • the tail is a perfect V-shaped with sharp rays.

This analysis is different peace loving and gets along well with other calm fish. 3-4 individuals will normally feel in a 15-liter aquarium, but it is better if it is rectangular in shape, because these agile fishes need a place for "walking."

In food, the fish are not picky and normally eat various small food: daphnia, artemia, bloodworms, branded dry food for carp.

Comfortable water temperature should be maintained in the range from +23 to +26 degrees, effective and strong aeration is mandatory. Acid-base balance should be from 5.5 to 7 units.

Epiplatis flare

This exotic fish from Central Africa is sure to decorate any small aquarium. It is also called the pike-clown because of the very bright multi-colored color and some external similarity with the common pike.

True, the size of this African is much smaller - no more than 3.5-4 cm. And the females are even smaller.

Epiplatis cannot be confused with any other fish due to the tail. Large, bright red colors with blue stripes - it really looks like a torch.

Pike clown peaceful and calm. However, it is able to jump out of the water, so the aquarium should always be kept closed.

He likes soft water with a temperature of 23-26 degrees above zero and a neutral pH.

The fish picks up food only from the water surface, therefore feed (artemia, cyclops, daphnia, dry branded mixtures) should be given in small portions.

Orizias

Representatives of this family of fish, which includes about 30 species, are considered to be among the smallest. These crumbs, the size of which is 1.5-2 cm, got into aquariums from the Mekong River Basin.

They do not differ in bright coloring. On the contrary, grayish colors with shades of pale yellow color is not remarkable.

What can they be interested in fans of nano aquaristics?

  • First, they give very viable offspring. Apparently, the conditions of natural habitat contributed to the development of a strong immune system.
  • Secondly, female horns after spawning retain eggs under the belly. Bound by the finest threads, the eggs hang under the belly of the female for a long time. She swims with these original "bunches".

The fish is quite unpretentious and feels good in a large range of temperatures: from +17 to +26 degrees. Water should be neutral in both pH balance and hardness.

It feeds a peace-loving Orizias dry food, as well as daphnia and artemia. Lifetime in an aquarium can reach 3 years.

There are many kinds of nanoribs, and in each specific case one should proceed from the possibilities of content and personal preferences.

Nano aquarium is convenient, inexpensive, takes up little space. Only this does not mean that you can pay less attention to the living conditions of its inhabitants. On the contrary, it is necessary to treat all recommendations and requirements for maintaining the delicate balance of a small aquatic ecosystem with particular thoroughness.

Nano Aquarium and all you need to know about it.

What is a nano aquarium?

Nano Aquarium - this term is now at the hearing of all aquarists. Separately now sold plants for nano aquarium, fish for nano aquarium. But what does this term mean, let's see.

Everyone knows what "nano" is, since nano technology appeared, it is known to everyone - something small. So the expression nano aquarium originally belonged to a miniature sea in the aquarium - the reef. The fact is that marine aquariums are usually of extremely large volumes, with live corals, anemones, other invertebrates immobile in place, and, of course, fish. And when they began to create marine aquariums with a volume of less than 300 liters, they began to be called "micro-reefs", that is, small reefs. When amateur aquarists began to produce the sea in even smaller volumes, 100 liters or less, they began to call them "nano-reefs" - that is, even less.

However, nowadays, when talking about a nano aquarium, it is usually a freshwater aquarium, and it means small volumes - less than 40 liters. While others say that the nano aquarium - it says about the size of relatively large volumes. For example, for the maintenance of goldfish requires a volume of an aquarium of at least 100 liters, and if you keep it in a 10-liter aquarium, then it becomes a nano.

And yet, usually now a nano aquarium is considered a tropical freshwater aquarium with a volume of 5 - 10 - 20 - 30 - 35 liters or a saltwater aquarium up to 100 liters. And when they talk about plants or fish for a nano aquarium, there is a possibility to keep them in this volume. Although most often in the volume of less than 30 liters contains aquarium shrimp, very rarely small fish. Still, the fish need more space, even small - 30 - 40 liters.

Today there are special aquariums from high-quality and extra-transparent glass with a volume of 10–20–30 liters from Aquael and Dennerle, only a container with a substrate or complete with the necessary equipment: a lamp, a filter and even soil.

These aquariums are really awesome, it’s a pleasure to look through the glass of such quality, you will enjoy it every day. And aqua-designers in such small volumes sometimes create truly corners of nature, a small imitation of the environment. Styles Iwagumi, jungle, natural design, with the use of logs and fragments of rocks. Most often, shrimps, neocaridins, or red crystals become their inhabitants. These nano aquariums are especially good if you want to use nutrient soil in them - it will take quite a bit, up to 4 kg.

Equipment selection

Obviously, it is necessary to choose equipment taking into account the size of the aquarium. One of the most common options is the capacity of 8, 20 or 40 liters, which can be bought at any pet store. Finding a filter for such aquariums is not difficult, since by necessity you can take several external filters that will perfectly clean the water. Also, if you search, you can find other options for small aquariums and tanks. A more serious problem is the selection of lighting systems.

In most ready-made covers for light aquariums, it is not enough for the growth of healthy plants. For an aquarium of 40 liters, you can buy a standard cover and screw it into a compact fluorescent lamp. You can read about how to do this better on the Internet. For small aquariums, choose compact fluorescent desk lamps on the knob. Such lamps can be purchased at any appliance store.

They will provide enough light for containers up to 20 liters, and the amount of light can be adjusted by changing the height of the lamp above the aquarium. But if you would like to get a better and more beautiful aquarium, you will have to fork out. Several major manufacturers offer fully equipped nano aquariums, which already have all the necessary lamps and filters. Such aquariums use good quality glass or acrylic seamless fiber so that nothing can spoil the look of your underwater garden. If you decide to purchase one of these systems, make sure that the lighting will be sufficient for growing plants (at least 2-3 watts per 3-4 liters).

There are also some specialty stores that sell small tanks for aquaculture from the countries of the Far East. The range of prices for these aquariums is quite wide. So you can choose from affordable to exclusive options with an open top, seamless walls and excellent quality glass. Some aquariums are sold with a filter and light fittings, while for other tanks equipment will have to be purchased. Before you go shopping, we advise you to look at online stores. It is possible that even with delivery such a purchase will be cheaper. Aquarium in the nano-style (ill. UncleX; aquascapingworld.com)

If you plan to settle a tropical fish or shrimp in an aquarium, then in most cases you will have to buy a heater. A good option is a small immersion heater with built-in thermostat. Currently, it is possible to find heaters that are perfectly installed even in containers of 8 liters. Unfortunately, for smaller aquariums, you can hardly find good heater options. Do not ignore other containers that could serve as a nano aquarium. Large flat vases can turn into a charming water garden.

Some people plant aquaculture in Petri dishes and even inside a regular light bulb! Of course, such small containers are unsuitable for the life of fish, but there are some pluses: there is no need to worry about filtering and heaters. For a nano aquarium, it is quite possible to choose plants that will not require additional CO2. But with the supply of CO2 in front of you will open the world of very interesting plants. If you have a CO2 supply system in large aquariums, then you will undoubtedly want the same for the nano aquarium. If you have not tried the carbon dioxide supply system, then the nano aquarium is where you can start the experiments. Most likely, after you test this system, you will find complete transformation!

What is good nano aquarium?

  • This is the small size of the tank, which takes up very little space. A ten-liter aquarium can even be installed on your desktop and enjoyed every day.
  • Regular water changes take very little time, because sometimes it is enough to replace only 3 liters.
  • Less soil is required and design is easier to make. Many experienced aquascapers regularly restart nano aquariums, literally every 6 - 12 months, as soon as the picture is tired.

Disadvantages?

The nano aquarium has one, but a very big drawback: instability. In such a small volume it is very difficult to maintain stable water parameters. Therefore, nano aquariums are not recommended for beginners. Most newcomers will face such problems as the death of the population (both in the sea and in the freshwater aquarium) and the regular appearance of algae. Why is this happening.

pH - A small amount of water in the nano aquarium makes it prone to pH fluctuations. Растворение органических веществ - отходов жизнедеятельности животных, погибших растений, все это может привести к падению pH, особенно в новом, свежезапущенном аквариуме, которому лишь пара месяцев. Также отсутствие регулярных еженедельных подмен воды или перекорм рыбы (о подменах воды новички очень часто просто не знают, а перекармливать животных им также свойственно) может понизить рН до опасного уровня. Все это приводит к чрезмерной нагрузке на мини-эко систему, что приведет к гибели рыб, креветок или кораллов, беспозвоночных и рыб в нано море.

Оформление наноаквариума

Установка оборудования в наноаквариум ничем не отличается от каких-либо других аквариумом, за исключением того, что ёмкость действительно компактная. В таких весьма небольших ёмкостях в фильтре и обогревателе нет нужды. Для своего "чада" советуем выбирать лучшие субстраты, которых на рынке предостаточно. If you take such substrates for a large aquarium, the amount will come out pretty "decent", but even one pack of good substrate is enough for several small nano aquariums.

If there is a large amount of organic matter in your chosen substrate, use it only as a baseline, then cover with a layer of fine-grained, well-washed quartz gravel. Thus, the water will not have to be changed too soon, when the excess nutrients from the substrate get into the total flow. Also, in view of the small size of the tank, consider adding a few stones or snags.

You will see: a stunning spectacle can be achieved with very little means. Stones and snags can be bought at the pet store or searched on the beach or in the forest. In the latter case, you will not only save money, but also please yourself in search of what you need. (When collecting materials, follow standard precautions, as with any material that will be used in an aquarium).

Overpopulation - Most beginners can not refrain from not populating a very small aquarium just to the eyeballs. They want to lodge more of the most different fish, snails, shrimps, invertebrates in the nano sea. And very often they lodge fish that are absolutely not suitable for such volumes, for example, scalar or large gourami, because often in the pet store incompetent or unscrupulous sellers convince the buyer that 40 liters for a pair of scalar is enough! All this leads to the accumulation of organic matter and, as a consequence, the gradual extinction of the population.

Temperature A small amount of water nano aquarium leads to a constant temperature fluctuation. And if for most tropical fish this is not so dangerous, for shrimp daily fluctuations in temperature of more than a degree are fraught with consequences. In addition, the vast majority of aquarium fish and shrimp do not tolerate temperatures above 28 degrees, and if you have a hot summer, you will have to think about conditioning. But for the marine life of the nano reef temperature fluctuations are very dangerous, because the sea is a constant value, there are no sharp fluctuations, the temperature is stable. Therefore, depending on your region of residence, you will need to purchase a water heater and / or a cooling device for the aquarium, which is quite a significant financial cost. For sea creatures, temperature fluctuations of more than 2 degrees for 12 hours are severely stressed, which is very dangerous and can be fatal.

Plant selection

Due to the small size of the aquarium, you must be very careful when choosing plants for planting. It is important that the size of the leaves is appropriate, that is, large leaves will look out of place in a small aquarium. Also, do not choose fast-growing plants. Otherwise, you will have to shorten and cut them every few days so that they do not fill the entire aquarium. But in any case, a lot of options.
Slow growing and not requiring good lighting plants, like various mosses, varieties of small Microsorum ferns of the species "nana" or "nana petite", Anubias Barter plants are perfect for a nano aquarium. Also a good option is a small cryptocoryne (Cryptocoryne). While the usual Javanese moss Taxiphyllum barbieri grows too fast and fills the entire small aquarium, other types of moss, such as Vesicularia montagnei, ornamental species, such as moss Flame and weeping moss, grow slower, and in many respects surpass ordinary moss in their beauty In addition, some species of the genus Fissidens look good in a nano aquarium.

You can add the dwarf sedge Eleocharis acicularis or E. pusilla, which will create a dense carpet and will not grow out of the aquarium, if that one is, of course, not too tiny. Such an aquarium will please the eye for a very long time and stay clean. If you are not away from cutting plants periodically and watching your aquasade, a whole world of possibilities opens up for you. While the plants mentioned above grow better with additional CO2, most of them will be fine without carbon dioxide if there is enough organic matter in the substrate.

For most of the more fastidious plants, CO2 supply is very important. One of the most beautiful soil plants is Hemianthus Cuba (Hemianthus callitrichoides), which requires additional CO2. This creeping plant is distinguished by its small leaves of bright green color and gives a lively glow to the aquarium. Low-growth Pogostemon helferi and Staurogyne repens will look good too.

Stem plants, for example, Rotala wallichii, Didiplis diandra and Mayaca fluviatilis, are also well suited for a nano aquarium. A good choice would be Micranthemum umbrosum and Hemianthus micranthemoides. But this is not a complete list. Look through any good book on aquatic plants, and you will find many excellent options for your aquarium. Just remember that it is better to avoid those stem plants that have large leaves or that grow too fast.

Salinity - this indicator usually refers to the nano sea. If you do not have an automatic topping system, the salinity of the water in the nano aquarium will constantly increase due to evaporation. Especially if you have fans or a fridge for cooling water. If the nano sea remains on hot days for 2 to 3 days without supervision, evaporation will already be considerable, and without regular topping up with fresh water there will be an undue burden on the residents.

Due to these factors, a nano aquarium is extremely discouraged from starting by amateur amateur aquarists; this will only lead to problems and frustration. The best volume of aquarium for a beginner is at least 100 liters. And only when you learn how to properly care for an aquarium, making regular water changes, feeding the correct amount of food to the inhabitants, when your population will live happily and happily, without cloudiness or greening of water, then you will be ready to care for a nano aquarium

What can be said about living creatures?

The possibility of placing animals depends solely on the size of your nano aquarium, as well as how much effort you are willing to make to create all the necessary conditions. Our advice: Aquariums up to 8 liters should be used exclusively for plants. Thus, they will become a beautiful pearl of your table, which will delight you every day. At the same time, all you need is to add a little water and, perhaps, occasionally feed the plants with fertilizer.

In small aquariums it is very difficult, if not impossible, to maintain a comfortable temperature for most fish. And if you feed the fish in such a small tank, you will often have to change the water so that your inhabitants feel good, and the algae do not grow too densely. Aquariums of 8–20 liters are too small for most fish species, but they are large enough to maintain the right temperature. If they are planted with healthy plants, then with proper feeding these plants will receive all the necessary nutrients.

An aquarium of this size can be easily revived by a colony of colored shrimp, for example, bright red, crystal species or bee shrimp. All of these shrimp eat a certain amount of algae, so it will be very useful if your pets are slightly hungry. In this way, they will clean the plants when they are looking for food on their own. As for aquariums of 20 or more liters, you can think of various small fish that will feel good in the space they offer. For many of these fish, large tanks will not work, as they will not be able to compete with larger or snooty fish.

Nano-aquarium will be the perfect home for them! As in the case of plants, the variants are apparently invisible, but against this background several most popular species can be distinguished. South American tetra Amanda (Hyphessobrycon amandae) is a tiny red tetra that feels great in a flock of 8-12 individuals. It is so small that an aquarium of 20 liters or more is quite suitable for it.

Also a great option would be a lot of dwarf pestilobrikonov. The real crush lovers are the ruby ​​petsylobrikony Nannostomus mortenthaleri. Of the Asian species, we advise you to opt for a bright dwarf fish called badis red "Scarlet" (Dario Dario) and the incredibly beautiful micro-selection "Galaxy" (Danio margaritatus). In addition to the beauty of the micro-collection, he has a calm disposition and feels rather well even in a small company, in contrast to the truly schooling fish. Ideal - a flock of 6 individuals. Another Asian fish, which will be an excellent option to revitalize the nano aquarium, is a cardinal (Tanichthys albonubes). These fish are not very noticeable in the pet store, but when you run them in an aquarium planted with greens, they will just glow!

Also for a nano aquarium, small Killy (hazel grouse) fish are perfect. One of the preferred species is Pseudepiplatys annulatus or Killy the clown. Individuals with blue eyes, for example, Pseudomugil furcata or P. tenellus, will look good. All these fish really need their own aquarium in which they can behave naturally. Of course, this is only a small part of the living creatures that can be lodged in a nano aquarium.

All you need to remember is that you need to choose small fish and not overdo it with their number. (If you desperately need more fish, put another nano aquarium!) Care Care of a nano aquarium is almost no different from any other aquarium. You just do not need to think on a large scale. A single-edged blade is perfect as a scraper. Mesh for artemia will be useful for any aquariums, if they are, of course, not too tiny. For such cases, you can make the grid yourself. Fishing in densely planted tanks will not be easy, but the net will be useful for screening out plant residues from the surface after cutting them.

Many aquatic gardeners use special tools for planting. And while such tools can be very useful for containers of any size, they are an absolute necessity in a nano aquarium where our fingers are too big for fine work. And since we raised the issue of hands, pour some of the water from the aquarium so that the water does not overflow through the edges when you put your hands in it. Otherwise, the wet table is provided to you! Changing water in a nano aquarium is pretty easy.

You can use a small-diameter tube to transfer water to another container, or simply draw out water using a mug. It is important to remember that water in small tanks needs to be changed regularly. Try replacing 50 percent of the water every week. If you have hard water in your tap, then for some species that live in soft water, it is better to buy bottled water. It would be expensive if the water had to be changed for a large aquarium, which cannot be said about a tiny one.

If you have an open-top aquarium, you need to add water in the intervals between its replacement, as the evaporation process is quite noticeable. In small tanks dressing may present some difficulties. If you have a bigger aquarium, one of the ways to cope with this task is to replace the water in a large tank, add the required amount of top dressing, and then pour the water into the nano aquarium. If this option is not suitable, you will need to carefully calculate everything or learn how to dispense with a pipette or make diluted solutions. If you have used a good nutrient substrate, there will not be a need for any solid feeding for many months.

If you have fish in the aquarium, the food will also contribute to the fertilization of plants. Come with particular vigilance to plant nutrition in a nano aquarium. If something goes wrong or if you are tired of seeing your aquarium, everything will be very easy to remake. Drain the water into a small waterproof container, place the plants and fish there, and then start over. There are specialists who sometimes wash their seamless nano aquarium in the dishwasher!

Until this, of course, extreme. Nano aquariums are not only beautiful, but also bring a lot of joy to their owners. Their design and maintenance does not cause any difficulties, and the ideal beauty will accentuate the comfort of any room. They give you a great opportunity to try your aquarium design skills on a small scale for very little money. You can also experiment with some interesting species that otherwise would not have taken root.

Great fish for small aquariums

In the last decade, a real boom has occurred in aquarism associated with the emergence of miniature fish and shrimp for nano-aquariums. In any market, you can meet a variety of small fish, and even from the abundance of shrimp eyes run. Manufacturers even began to produce special equipment for nano-aquariums, so they became popular.
Among the fish for nano-aquariums, fish of the genus Boraras (Boraras) or micro-assemblies stand out separately, as long as six species are counted. Courteous that they are very beautiful, livable, unpretentious, besides very small, it is clear the reason for their popularity. But, as is the case with most new fish, a lot of conflicting information was born on the Internet about the content. Let's try to figure out where the truth is, and where not.

Rasbor Briggians

Content

At the moment, there are six species of these fish, and it is better to describe them in millimeters, and not in centimeters. It:

  • Rasbor pygmy (Boraras maculatus) is the largest, as much as 22 mm
  • crumbling micro or micro (Boraras micros) - 13 mm
  • Rasbor firefly (Boraras urophthalmoides) - 16 mm
  • measure or red (Boraras merah) - 16 mm
  • Rasbor briggits (Boraras brigittae) - 18 mm
  • Rasbor nevus (Boraras naevus) - 12 mm

One or two other types occasionally appear on sale, but they do not even have their own name, and are sold under different names. Note that for the Russian-speaking aquaristics, some species are also little known and the names given in the future can still be distinguished from the actual ones. Why, there they are called either rass collections, then micro dissections ... we will call them anyway.

Rasbora firefly

Although all these fish have become popular thanks to nano-aquariums, it is better to keep them in larger banks, 50-70 liter. But, in a large and noticeable flock that looks charming against the background of dark soil, snags, and cryptocoryne or Anubias bushes. In addition, the presence in the water of snags or fallen leaves of the oak is a key point in breeding.
In nature, rasboru are most often found in reservoirs with weak current or standing water, so it is better to create the same conditions in an aquarium. For example, a small internal filter will create a current at the surface of the water, but in the thickness it will be almost imperceptible.

Water parameters are important if you are dealing with fish caught in nature. Most of them come from places where the pH is only 4.0, and the water is very soft. Accordingly, if they are transplanted into water with hard water, then it is a great stress.

Wild Boraras should at first be contained in water, which in terms of parameters will be as close as possible to that in nature. You must use at least 50% of the water from osmosis, plus peat. With the help of small, regular water changes, rasbora adapt to new conditions within a couple of months. They get used to quite hard, alkaline water and live quite well, although not all species can be diluted in such water.
In general, rasboru adapt and live in water with a pH of 6.8-7.2 and medium hardness, no problem. Especially if you buy fish that are bred in your area, and not brought from nature.

Rasbora pygmy

Feeding

Insectivorous by nature, but in the aquarium, they eat flakes, pellets, frozen food (Artemia, Daphnia) and live, for example, pipemaker. But, if you want to dissolve the microassembly, you need to feed only live food, only a couple of times a week to add flakes. An important part of feeding is feed size. They need medium-sized feeds - naupilii of artemia, artemia itself (frozen it consists of small pieces), daphnia, moin and other feeds. According to reports of western aquarists, feeding with nematodes helps especially well, or as they are called a micro-worm. The main thing is to feed not only adult worms that get out into the air, but also to give young ones, those who usually feed the fry.

Important point

Another key point in the content of rasbor, is that in the aquarium with them, the bottom must be covered with dry leaves of trees. The fact is that in the habitats of these species of boraras, the bottom of the reservoirs is covered with fallen leaves, branches, and snags. In some places, the layer is so powerful that the water becomes tea-colored, almost opaque. And in others, the depth of the water is several centimeters, although up to the present day about a meter! All this space is filled with fallen leaves. As the leaves and other plant debris decompose at the bottom, they become home to many different bacteria and microorganisms. Так же они выпускают в воду дубильные вещества, которые снижают жесткость воды и рН, превращаю воду по цвету в нечто подобное чаю. Кстати, об использовании листьев деревьев в аквариуме, вы можете узнать из этой статьи.

Breeding

Все шесть видов расбор борарас имеют четкий половой диморфизм, то есть самцы и самки легко различимы.У пяти видов, самцы с ярко-красной или неоново-оранжевой окраской на плавниках и на теле. У Boraras micros самец ярко-желтого цвета и с прозрачными плавниками. А самки у всех шести видов гораздо более бледно окрашены, без красного цвета, с прозрачными плавниками и более полные. Они немного больше чем самцы, но для рыбки размером в 15 мм, это некардинальное различие…

Самки обычно плавают отдельно, с молодью или не ранговыми самцами. Доминантные же самцы, буквально светятся от ярких красок и ревностно защищают свою территорию. They fight with each other all the time, the truth is expressed in posturing to each other and pinching the opponent for the fins. They also pose for females, spreading their fins and pouring paints. At this moment they release pheromones into the water, which let the females know that the male is ready to spawn. Sometimes they carry the female into the plants on their territory, but more often the female itself follows the male into the bush.
Spawning is instant, and you may blink and not notice it. The pair swims together around the leaf of the plant, and most often lay eggs under the leaf. Moreover, it is not necessary that there be a moss in the spawn, the same Javanese. According to reports from the forums, each species of micro-boraras spawned on other plants. As a rule, the female lays one or two eggs at a time, a dozen or a half dozen eggs are produced per day. The male is always ready for spawning, he cares, fights, poses every day and does not care at all about the offspring after spawning.

In an aquarium with micro dissections, where there are snags, plants, leaves, there are no other fish, and the rasbor itself is fed with live food, there is no need to create special conditions for spawning. They spawn regularly and do not consider their fry as food. Another question is whether there should be shrimp in the nano-aquarium together with the micro samples. If you just keep them for beauty, that's fine. Shrimps will decorate the aquarium and revive it even more. But if you want to breed them, then you should not. It is better to remove other fish, shrimps, snails from the aquarium, even if they do not touch the fry. They will compete with them for food and prevent fish from spawning, plus eating caviar.

Conclusion

If you are thinking about a nano-aquarium and want bright fish, interesting in behavior, easy to care for, then stop at one of the types of Boraras. If your aquarium is more spacious, then even better. There you can get a whole colony of small, bright, active fish. Let them be only one and a half centimeters long.

Nano-fish. Part 1

Nano fish. Part 3

Nano fish. Part 2

Nano - aquaria (start, care, fish).

author Oleg

//aquariymist.4admins.ru/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=175

(This is a VERY big article that came out of a search on the world wide Internet, taken from various sources, at the very end (after all the pictures, some of them are written by Sayana Polska)) there is a step-by-step instruction on how to launch a nano-cube and recommended to run in a nano-aquarium)
The prefix "nano", which has recently become fashionable to add to the most different objects and technologies, has reached the aquarium. So now it is possible to talk about how nano-aquarists in nano-aquariums contain nano-fish. Jokes, jokes, but nano-aquariums have become a phenomenon that can not be overlooked, now it is a well-established and running term, which hides the whole concept.

So, what is a nano-aquarium? First of all, this is a small-sized tank, its volume does not exceed thirty liters, and much more often, it is two to three times smaller. In terms of their proportions, most popular models of nano-aquariums approach the cube (although, of course, a variety of options are possible) and have straight walls. Already in this parameter, nano-aquariums are fundamentally different from any glass balls, glasses and other unimaginable products that are commercially available, which by mistake are sometimes considered an aquarium. Those in which it is difficult to see something and in which it is impossible to create normal living conditions for the fish. By the way, this requirement is the third fundamental difference of a nano-pond - this is a completely full-fledged aquarium, in which you can install and disguise any necessary equipment and create a sustainable and comfortable environment for plants, fish and other animals. A nano-aquarium is a sustainable biosystem that can exist for a long time without cardinal intervention and reorganization.

The last feature of a nano-aquarium is largely determined by its owner, but still, in most cases, nano-aquariums are beautiful.

The small weight, size and enviable compactness of nano-aquariums greatly facilitate the choice of place for their installation. Bedside table, desk, kitchen shelf - there are many options for decorating living space, without restrictions imposed by traditional aquariums. Is that requires proximity to the outlet, because the nano-pond is almost always dependent on various electrical equipment.

Nano-aquarium is not conceivable without live plants, therefore the most important part of the equipment is lighting. There are industrial models with traditional luminaires built into the lid.

But the majority of nano-aquariums are illuminated with household and office lamps on clothespins or flexible legs. Best of all, if they are designed for the use of compact fluorescent or energy-saving lamps.

Heaters for nano-aquariums are also varied. Many manufacturers of aquarium equipment in the model range there are automatic heaters of the traditional type with a capacity of 10-25 watts. Sometimes nano-aquariums are installed on thermo-mat. There are also more exotic ways of maintaining the temperature, and in some warm rooms, a heater is not needed for keeping unpretentious fish at all.

More varied filtering methods in nano-tanks. The most minimalistic approach implies a complete rejection of any filters. At the same time, it is absolutely rightly considered that the best filter is living plants, therefore such a reservoir contains a large number of fast-growing water “herbs”. This approach requires regular and frequent "weeding", and of course, aquarium experience.

It is better for beginner nano aquarists to use some kind of filter. Choose from what. The range of devices of this kind, specifically designed for nano-aquariums, is large enough. The most inexpensive and affordable solution is an air-lift filter powered by an air compressor.

This is a very good and effective solution, but, unfortunately, such filters are not noiseless. For an aquarium installed, for example, in the bedroom, such a filter will not fit perfectly. But the internal nano-filtriki, made on the classical model, are absolutely quiet.

Especially if it is not Chinese crafts, but good things from Europe, such as the Italian EDEN Cleanlet-304, which does not exceed the volume of a cigarette pack and which can be set and masked even in an aquarium of 5-8 liters.

In addition to the usual internal, in the course of a variety of designs of suspension filters. And recently even miniature external canister models appeared, quite like real ones, but only very small ones. The effectiveness of such a decision is beyond praise. And to disguise this filter is easier than others - after all, he himself is outside, and inside the aquarium there is only water intake and discharge. But, unfortunately, it is not always possible to find a place near the aquarium to install such a filter.

There is also any other equipment for nano-aquarium husbandry - CO2 supply systems, miniature flotation plants (yes! The nano-aquariums are even satisfied with the sea), various accessories such as nets, tweezers, tiny scrapers and siphons, etc.

The offer of various decorative elements for a nano-aquarium is even greater. These are soils of a certain fraction in small packages, flat and voluminous backdrops, natural and artificial snags, stones, etc. etc. So you can choose the design of a nano-aquarium, for every taste, focusing on a variety of criteria.

Who lives in a nano aquarium? For many years most of the proposals of this kind came down to the content in the micro-capacity of the rooster. But it turned out that if the right approach to the issue and make a small aquarium full, i.e. with soil, plants, normal lighting and other equipment, then the choice of fish becomes simply enormous.

The most diverse labyrinth fish - liliusi, gourami and rare species of macropods, many small haracin fish from Amanda to red neon, a variety of small carps - cardinals, microassemblies, small barbs, etc. The choice of viviparous fish is also huge. As for the toothfish, the nano-aquarium is simply their original body of water. There are even small irises and atherines suitable for a nano-aquarium, and there are suitable cichlids. There are also catfish species that are appropriate in such an aquarium, although there are not very many of them, as well as various other fish.

And of course, today's nano-aquaria is not conceivable without various dwarf freshwater shrimps (and some craftsmen manage to contain marine species).

The choice of living aquatic plants is equally large and varied. One listing of suitable types may take more than one page. Additionally, the potential choice is increased due to the fact that plants grow better in nano-aquariums than in normal ones.

The shallow depth of the reservoir and the ability to provide a very strong light in the aquarium without much effort and effort leads to the fact that many plant species, considered whimsical and difficult in traditional aquarism, grow in nano-aquariums without problems.
And the last argument in favor of nano-aquarium husbandry: just look at the photos of decorated nano-aquariums.









Run a nano aquarium
Training:
A. Choosing an installation location
- Dark place inaccessible to direct solar paths
B. Aquarium
- Rinse the aquarium with warm tap water without chemical additives.
- Stick decorative film on the back wall of the aquarium
- Place the mat on a flat surface and install a nano aquarium on it
C. Aquatic plants
- At least 3 days prior to planting in an aquarium, it is recommended to place the plants in a tank with water, in which Dennerle additives should be started.
Dennerle: Launch a nano aquarium according to 7 rules.
Step 1: Creating the DeponitMix nutrient medium
- Spread a layer of DeponitMix approximately 2 cm high - this is the bottom nourishing layer
This first layer of soil DeponitMix gives the plant roots nutrients.

Step 2: Rinse and add shrimps gravel
- Fill the soil in such a way that the total layer of DeponitMix and Shrimps soil is 3 cm.
Dennerle Shrimps soil (Dennerle Shrimps Gravel Bed) prevents the decomposition of food debris and the livelihoods of living organisms between the soil granules and thus prevents excessive contamination of the aquarium.

Step 3: Installation of decorative elements
- Stones, roots or other decorative elements should not change the water parameters
For shrimps, crabs and crustaceans, it is necessary to equip places where they can hide.

Step 4: Fill the aquarium with water at 2/3 volume
- Fill the aquarium with tap water at a temperature of about 20 degrees for 2/3 volume, pouring water on a flat plate installed at the bottom. Before this, add conditioner to the water (2 drops per liter of water).

Step 5: Plant the plants in the aquarium
- Place the prepared plants in the aquarium
Approximately 80% of the soil surface should be planted with plants.
(use fast growing stem plants).

Step 6: Install the filter and topping up the water
- Place the corner filter in a free corner. Now add water.

Step 7: Install the lamp and protective glass
- Secure the included nano luminaire
Secure the protective glass with the special mounts supplied.

Now you need some patience!
Running shrimp
After 3 days: Replace 50% of the water. Before replacing, add air conditioning to the tap water!
After 6 days: Replace 50% of the water. Before replacing, add air conditioning to the tap water!
After 7 days: Replace 50% of the water again. Before replacing, add air conditioning to the tap water! Run the first shrimp.
Tip: we recommend running 5 shrimp per 10 liters of water.
Nano-tubes recommended for nano-aquariums
Pygmy Corridor, Corydoras pygmaeus

Russian name: Koridoras-pygmy, Somik-pygmy, dwarf catfish
Latin name: Corydoras pygmaeus
Family: Tigerfish, Calligthy (Callichthyidae)
Genus: Coridhoras (Corydoras)
Habitat: They inhabit the stagnant, slow-flowing, silted waters of the Madeira River and its tributaries (Brazil)
Description: Small, elegantly colored pygmy catfish reach a size of 3 cm - females and 2.5 cm - males. It is rather simple to distinguish the female from the male, thanks to its fullness and larger size, the males are slimmer and smaller than the females. The color of the fish is grayish, along the body from the mouth, bordered on the top and bottom by two pairs of antennae, and to the base of the caudal fin a black stripe runs, ending at the tail with a small dark spot. Black stripes are edged with white stripes above and below it. From the anal to the ventral fin there is a small black stripe. The back is gray, much darker than the abdomen, which is green. Fins are transparent ...

Aquarium parameters: For keeping Corydoras pygmaeus, an aquarium of 10 liters is suitable, into which you can run a flock of 4-5 fish. However, the most comfortable pygmies feel in a species aquarium in the amount of 10-15 individuals. Soil is better to use loose, loose, dark tones. It is also necessary to have shelters in the aquarium, which are good for snags, coconut shells, shards, etc. Plants are better to plant around the perimeter of the tank so that there is a place for swimming. The aquarium should be equipped with a filter and a compressor as the corridors like to rummage in the ground, lifting dirt from the bottom. It is necessary to replace weekly 30% of water.
Water parameters: pH 7.0-7.2, DH up to 20
Water temperature: 20-26 ° C
Food: Fish is picky, eat both dry and various live and frozen food. Food is mainly taken from the bottom, as well as from the leaves of plants, but can rise and swallow it from the surface. When feeding should be borne in mind that the pygmy corridor has a small mouth, so the size of the food should be small.

Content: Dwarf catfish are very interesting in their behavior, in contrast to other members of the Koridoras genus, they can often be seen floating in a thick flock of water, they also like to relax on the wide, horizontal leaves of plants and stones. Thanks to their activity and schooling lifestyle, Corydoras pygmaeus deserved the love of aquarists. A flock of these wonderful catfish will decorate any aquarium, but because of their small size, you should keep them only with small peaceful fish (for example, some types of small tetras, iris, etc.). When arranging an aquarium, it is necessary to take into account that, like all corridors, catfish have intestinal respiration, therefore, there must be access to the surface of the water to trap air. It is not recommended to plant an aquarium with them with plants with finely dissected leaves, as catfish during the search for food rummage in the ground raising sludge, which is deposited on the foliage of the plants.

Breeding: Fish become mature and ready for spawning at 4–8 months, as a rule, males mature earlier than females. The female lays from 30 to 50 eggs, sticking them one by one on the walls of the aquarium and the leaves of plants. To stimulate spawning, you can add fresh water. There are several ways to breed pygmy corridors.
The first way is to keep a small flock of catfish (12 and more) in a species aquarium densely planted with plants where they will be successfully bred under good conditions, without much intervention from the outside, because the pygmies do not eat their eggs and fry. Aquarist can only feed the young juveniles as they develop and grow, without removing the producers from the aquarium.
Another way is to spawn one female and 3-5 males in a spawning aquarium (from 10 l), although pair spawning is also possible. To stimulate spawning for 15 days in the evening, 15-50% of water is replaced with a simultaneous decrease in its temperature by 1-3 ° C. Spawning process can last a whole day. After spawning, the producers are immediately deposited and the temperature in the spawning area is increased by 1-3 ° C.
Corydoras pygmaeus females, as a rule, choose well-lit objects for gluing eggs, so you can use glass leaning against a well-lit wall of the aquarium and the other glasses darken as a substrate. Fishes will choose illuminated glass for spawning, which, together with the delayed caviar after spawning, is transferred from the spawning to the incubator. To avoid caviar rotting in water, add a solution of methylene blue to a pale blue color.
Growing fry: Larvae hatch after 4 days, 3 days after hatching, they can be started to feed by infusoria, and as they grow they can be transferred to nauplia of artemia. Juveniles of dwarf catfish pygmy of three weeks of age begins to develop much slower. The color of the fry differs from the color of mature individuals.
Popondetta furcata, Pseudomugil furcatus

Russian name: Popondetta furkata, Fork-tailed blue-eyed
Latin name: Pseudomugil furcatus (Popondetta furcata). Synonyms - Forktail Rainbowfish, Forktail Blue-Eye Rainbow Family: Melanoteny or Iris (Melanotaeniidae)
Habitat: They live in small, clean, fairly fast streams of fresh water streams with abundant aquatic vegetation, flowing into the rivers of tropical forests in the east of Papua New Guinea.
Description: The maximum length of the fish is 6 cm, in the aquarium it usually does not exceed 5 cm. The main body color is yellow-green. Двойной спинной плавник разделен небольшим разрывом, первый гораздо меньше, чем второй. Самцов Попондетты фурката довольно легко отличить от самок, они ярче и с удлиненным спинным плавником. Спинной и анальный плавники у самцов прозрачные с узкими желтыми полями. Анальные и грудные плавники часто с красным оттенком. Лопасти хвостового плавника имеют желтоватые полосы с черной каймой у верхней и нижней границы. У самок лопасти хвостового плавника имеют желтоватую окраску, а грудные и анальные плавники прозрачные. Pseudomugil furcatus отличаются от большинства других форм Pseudomugil из Австралии и Новой Гвинеи более глубоко раздвоенным хвостовым плавником, за что и получили название - Вильчатохвостая синеглазка.


Параметры аквариума: Для содержания попондетты подходит аквариум объемом не менее 40 литров. В аквариуме должно быть посажено большое количество растений, которые лучше располагать вдоль боковых и задней стенок, чтобы оставалось свободное место для плавания. It is also desirable to have floating plants, as these fish like to be closer to the surface. You must have a filter that creates a current. It should be regularly, at least once a week, replace the water.
Water parameters: pH 6.0-8.0, DH 5 - 12
Water temperature: 24-28 ° C
Food: You can feed any dry quality food, but especially love frozen and live food. When feeding, you should consider the size of the feed, as these fish have a small mouth. For better health and health should be fed varied. Eat mainly in the upper layers of water.

Content: Moving, very colorful, schooling fish with a peaceful nature, swimming in the upper and middle layers. It is better to keep a flock of at least 6 individuals (preferably an equal number of males and females) with other peace-loving species of fish, such as tetras, danios, rasbora and medium-sized bottom fish. Males can sometimes be aggressive to females, if kept in pairs, keeping in a group with a predominance of females will help reduce aggression. In any case, there should be enough plants in the aquarium so that the females can hide. Popondetta furcata is susceptible to velvet disease (oodinium), which is provoked by "old" water and with a large accumulation of nitrite in water. Regular water changes, washing the filter and a varied diet will help preserve the health and beauty of these wonderful fish.

Breeding: Breeding is quite simple. Spawning is planted in a small aquarium in the ratio of 2-3 males to 8-10 females, which contributes to a greater number of deferred caviar and gives females a break from vigorous grooming males. The variant of spawning by a pair is possible, but in this case one should monitor the behavior of the male, who may not like the female. He can be very aggressive towards her and she will suffer. In this case, replace the female. Males during spawning behave very interestingly, swim with vertically set anal and dorsal fins and compete with each other.

As a spawning substat, Javanese moss is excellent, on which the eggs stick well. Marriage games begin in the morning, one female sweeps 5-10 eggs at a time, once a day. Eggs of Popondetta furcata, despite the small size of the fish, are rather large. Substrate with caviar after spawning should be transferred to the nursery aquarium with water from the spawn, as producers can eat caviar and fry, and in its place put a new one. As a rule, fertilized eggs produce no more than 75%, this percentage decreases if the producers are poorly fed. Unfertilized eggs should be removed, and methylene blue should be added to water. In spawning and nursery aquarium weak filtration is desirable. Larvae hatch will occur in about 10-15 days. The water level in the rearing aquarium should be low. It should be increased with the growth of fry.

Cultivation of fry: The initial fodder for small fry Popondetta furcata is the ciliate of the infusorium. About a week later, when the fry grow up, you can give them nauplii Artemia. As you grow into the diet of fry, you can enter small dry and frozen food. Unlike most other iris, these fish grow at a very fast pace. They become sexually mature at the age of 3-4 months.
Note: The fish is listed on the IUCN Red List, a list of rare and endangered animals, in the section on minimum risk of extinction.
Iriaterina Werner, Iriatherina Werneri

Russian name: Iriaterina Werner, Iriaterina verneri
Latin name: Iriatherina werneri, Threadfin rainbowfish
Family: Melanotene or Iris (Melanotaeniidae)
Habitat: The habitat is the clear, slow-flowing waters of the rivers of New Guinea and Australia.
Description: In nature, they grow up to 7 cm, but in a tank they reach a smaller size: males - 5 cm, females - 4 cm. Graceful fish, with an elongated, spindle-shaped body, flattened from the sides and unusual fins. An interesting double dorsal fin, the first part of which is pink-orange and has a rounded shape, and the second with 2-3 long black outgrowths that are duplicated on the anal fin. Tail lyre-shaped, underlined in red or orange.
Two color variations of Iriaterin are distinguished - a new Guinean one, which is usually brighter, with an olive-brown body color and an Australian one with a silvery body background. On the main background of the body of the fish is golden metallic plaque, the most noticeable on the back. Depending on the lighting and conditions of detention, the color also varies, pink, green and blue shades can appear, as well as vertical black stripes on the body. The eyes are bright, clear and bright.
Sex differences are fairly well pronounced. Males are larger, brighter, have elongated rays on the anal, second dorsal and caudal fins. Females are slimmer and smaller, paler colored and with shorter fins without rays.
Parameters of the aquarium: Iriaterina Werner is a mobile fish that requires free space for swimming, therefore the aquarium should be 60 cm long. Thickets of plants are needed that should be positioned on the sides and along the back wall of the aquarium for greater comfort of the fish. front wall for free swimming fish. The presence of floating plants is welcomed. Dark soil is desirable. For decoration, you can use snags and stones. Mandatory aeration and filtration of water up to 2-3 volumes per hour, as well as its regular replacement at least once a week for 15% - 30%.
Water parameters: pH about 6.0 to 8.5; dН 2-16 ° if the rigidity is maintained at 15 dH ° and higher, then the fish become more resistant to diseases.
Water temperature: 22-30 ° C
Food: Due to the particular structure of the mouth, Iriatherina werneri takes food in the middle layers of the water, as well as settled on the leaves of the plants and the walls of the aquarium, less often from the surface of the water. The mouth is small and directed upwards, the lower lip is longer than the upper. In its habitats it feeds on phytoplankton, small insects and diatom algae. They are omnivorous, food may be small crustaceans, nauplii Artemia, small mosquito larvae, as well as frozen and dry food. It is very important when feeding to monitor the size of the feed, since even adults have a small mouth.

Content: Peaceful schooling fish with very interesting behavior. It should be kept by a flock of at least 5 individuals, in the absence of congeners it is nailed to fish of similar size and behavior, as in the flock it feels better and more confident. Very mobile, moving rapidly, sometimes hovering in a shady corner in the midst of plants. When frightened hiding in the thickets of plants, where they become almost invisible. They love to play in the stream coming out of the filter water. Males iriaterin constantly find out the relationship between themselves, showing each other their beautiful stretched fins, but it does not come to fight. In the course of these confrontations, interesting hierarchical relationships are established between males.
Werner's iriaterines float in the upper and middle layers of water. They can be kept in a common aquarium with any small, peaceful fish, but should not be kept together with active fish such as barbs and tetras, which can bite off the ends of long rays of male fins. Ideal for their habitat is considered a species aquarium of 60-80 liters, in which you can inhabit 12-15 fish. Also a good solution would be to live together with other iris iris, which will allow you to create a small world of fish from one corner of the world.
Breeding: Pre-spawning games and the spawning process itself are very interesting and give great pleasure to the observer. It was at this time that the Iriaterines vernier appear in all their glory. The male takes place not far from the small-leaved plant he likes and jealously guards him from the encroachments of other males. Fishes swirl in dance, showing straightened fins at the same time making them quick flies, making them look like fluttering moths. The female, ready to spawn, swims up to the male and they swim side by side in the thickets of small-leaved plants, where spawning occurs. Spawning takes place daily. Eggs are deposited in floating and ground plants. Javanese moss is well suited as a spawning substat. Larvae hatch on the 5-7th day, they are very small, but immediately begin to feed.
If Iriatherina werneri are contained in a separate species aquarium, then if there are a sufficient number of plants, their population will gradually increase, the adult fish practically do not eat their eggs and fry. This is the easiest way to reproduce these wonderful fish, it does not require much effort from the aquarist, but there will be few animals grown in this way.
For mass breeding, one should equip a spawning farm and plant fish at the rate of 3 females per male. Spawning should be at least 30 liters and contain a large number of plants and bundles of moss, in which the fish will spawn. The moss should be replaced every 5 days from the moment of the first spawning to a new one, and the moss with already deferred caviar moves to specially prepared containers, where the larvae hatch and the fry will develop. Parameters of water in spawning: dH = 15-17 °, pH = 7.0-7.5, temperature 24-28 ° C

Growing fry: Feeding up the fry is complicated by their small size and low mobility. Infusoria and saltwater rotifers serve as starter feed, which should be very much in the aquarium, as in the first days of life the fry do not hunt, but wait for the feed to get into his mouth. This stage is the most difficult, further feeding the fry, usually at the age of 10-14 days, which can already take Artemia nauplii and larger feeds are not difficult. It should also be borne in mind that, due to the peculiarity of spawning, the fry most often are of different ages and when feeding you should continue to give starting feed while the older and larger fry Iriaterin Werner already feed on artemia.
With good feeding grow quickly enough, up to 1 cm per month. The first sexual differences begin to appear at the age of 6 weeks, and sexual maturity reaches 4-6 months of life.
Microassembly Galaxy (Microrasbora sp. Galaxy)

Russian name: Margaritata, Micro-collection galaxy, Rasbora stellar
Latin name: Danio margaritatus (formerly Celestichthys margaritatus, Microrasbora sp. Galaxy)
Family: Carp (Cyprinidae)
Habitat: Inhabits small, shallow (depth from 30 cm to 1 m), densely overgrown with vegetation lakes of Myanmar.
Description: Fish are very small, the maximum size is 3 cm, but usually does not exceed 2 cm. Margaritates are very bright, unusual fish. The main color of the body is gray-black with numerous bright spots and a yellowish belly. Males are distinguished by bright black fins with bright red stripes and patterns. Females are paler and smaller than males, with more convex tummies, pelvic fins practically not painted.

Lifespan: about two years.
Aquarium parameters: Microdistribution of galaxies is contained in aquariums of any size, from small species 4–20 liters to total aquariums of 300 and more liters. In the aquarium desirable lush vegetation and floating plants. They do not like strong movement of water, but filtration and aeration are desirable.
Water parameters: pH 6.5-7.8, electrical conductivity - 200-300 μS. Fish unpretentious, easily adapted to any water parameters.
Water temperature: 22-28 ° C
Food: They prefer any small live food (nematodes, daphnias, grindal) although they can eat large bloodworms. You can also feed dry quality food. They feed in all layers of water.
Content: Most effectively, these small schooling fish look in a densely planted aquarium. Because of its small size, it looks good only in flocks, but it must be borne in mind that in currently popular nano aquariums of 4-20 liters, a flock of 10 fish will be simply invisible. For such a volume it is recommended to plant 20-30 microassembly. In large aquariums, flocks of these tiny fish can reach up to hundreds of units.
Galaxies are very peaceful fish, they can be kept both in the species and in the general aquarium with any medium-sized non-aggressive fish species. It is noticed that living in a small species aquarium, the galaxies adhere to the middle and bottom layers of the water, and also behave extremely timidly, all the time hiding in the thickets of plants. In the general aquarium, especially with the bottom layer of water densely populated with bottom fish (for example, corridors), the fish feel more comfortable, do not hide, swim mostly in the middle and upper levels of the aquarium and lead a more active lifestyle.
It should be noted that in consequence of such a small size, the full beauty of margaritat can only be assessed by close examination. From afar, their wonderful colors are not visible and the fish appear to be plain and gray. Danio margaritatus behavior is very interesting. Between the dominant males, differing in the brightest color, there is a rivalry, but it never comes to real fights. They also chase females and other males, but everything goes without injury.

Cultivation: Simple enough, can spawn in the general aquarium in a bundle of moss or in the roots of floating plants. Spawning fish begin with three months of age. To spawn, you can settle a pair or a small group. If desired, males and females can be seated for a week before spawning. Spawning can be small in size with a thick bundle of small-leaf plants or moss in which spawning occurs. The temperature of the water in spawning 24-25 ° C, pH 6.5-7.5. You can keep the producers directly in spawning, occasionally catching fry from it, as the adult fish Celestichthys margaritatus eat fry. With a sufficient number of small-leaf and floating plants, as well as in the presence of live food in the spawning farm, eating fry can be minimized. Also in the spawning should not be any snails that eagerly eat caviar microselect.
The eggs will be washed out in portions 2-3 times a week, at a time the female can produce up to 20 eggs, but if the producers kept spawning separately, this figure could increase to 50 pieces.
Caviar small, 0.7-0.9 mm in diameter. Three days after spawning, the larvae hatch from it, after another two days the fry are already actively swimming and feeding.
Growing fry: When hatching fry Microrasbora sp. Galaxy very small - 3-4 mm. During the day they swim in the upper and middle layers of the aquarium, and at night they attach themselves to the glass panes and plants in the lower part of the aquarium and hang like that until the morning. Starter feed is ciliates or rotifers, a little later - Artemia. With normal growth, fry in one and a half months reach the size of 1-1.2 centimeters, at three months their size is already 1.5-2.0 cm. Coloring begins at 2 months, and the full coloring of the fish reaches 5-6 months.
Note: The fish Danio margaritatus is listed in the Red Book of Myanmar.
Telmaterina ladigeza (Marosatherina ladigesi)

Russian name: Telmaterina ladigeza (sunbeam)
Latin name: Marosatherina ladigesi
Family: Melanotene or Iris (Melanotaeniidae)
Habitat: inhabits the mountain rivers of the island of Celebes in which the hard clear water flows
Description: In nature, telmarines grow to 7.5 cm, in the aquarium they usually do not exceed 5 cm. The body of the fish is elongated, the belly and back are yellow, the sides are yellowish with a green-blue luster with a longitudinal blue stripe running from the tail to the middle of the body of the fish. Males are larger than females, brighter colored, on anal and dorsal fin they have long outgrowths of yellow color.

Aquarium parameters: Aquarium at least 60l. In order to maintain a general aquarium, it is necessary to have plants in it and free space for swimming. Water parameters: dGH 10-30 °, pH 7-8, the addition of salt 3% is recommended, water changes up to 25% per week, active filtration and aeration are necessary.
Water temperature: 22-25 ° С
Food: Marosatherina ladigesi are omnivorous. It is recommended to give live and high-quality fortified dry food.
Content: Small, spectacularly colored, schooling, mobile fish. It draws attention with its coloring and unusual structure of the fins of the males, for which it received the name "sunbeam". Due to its peaceful temper it can be contained with any non-aggressive fish species. Swims in the upper and middle layers of water. Feels best in a moderately planted aquarium with dark ground and ample swimming space. Poorly tolerates contaminated old water, so it is recommended to replace it as often as possible.

Dilution: In good conditions, Telmaterin Ladigez can spawn almost every day, using thickets of small-leaved plants for spawning. Spawning aquarium is desirable 40-50l, without soil, with small-leaved plants floating in the water and Riccia. The water level is 15-20 cm. The parameters of water in the spawn are: 25-28 ° С, dН 11-20 °, pH 7.2-8.
You can determine the readiness for spawning by the rounded abdomen of females and the pugnaciousness of males. It is recommended to spawn males and females for a week before spawning. Spawning is planted in groups, 2-3 males per male, spawning occurs daily for several weeks. During spawning, fish are fed live food 1-2 times a day. After 9-10 days the group is deposited in another aquarium, as the fry of the first spawning begin to hatch and gather near the surface of the water.
Выращивание мальков: Стартовым кормом для солнечного лучика являются коловратки, инфузории, науплии артемии. Мальки довольно крупные, охотно поедают артемию, но растут достаточно медленно. Половой зрелости достигают в 7-8 месяцев.
Элеотрис ковровый, Tateurndina ocellicauda

Русское название: Ковровый элеотрис
Латинское название: Tateurndina ocellicauda
Семейство: Головешковые (Eleotridae)
Ареал обитания: обитает в неглубоких медленно текущих или стоячих водоемах юго-востока острова Новая Гвинея
Описание: В природе самцы вырастают до 7 см, самки до 5 см, в аквариуме обычно не достигают таких размеров. Отличить самца и самку Элеотриса довольно просто: самцы длиннее и немного ярче самок, отличаются более крупной головой и высоким лбом. Самки же имеют более покатый лоб и острую мордочку.

Параметры аквариума: Пара элеотрисов комфортно чувствует себя в 10 литровом аквариуме. Для большего количества особей требуется сосуд от 60-ти литров, желательно с множеством укрытий.
Параметры воды: dGH 4-18° лучше не больше 12°, рН около 7. For the most comfortable living Eleotrisam requires filtering and water change at least once a week. Water temperature: 22-26 ° С
Food: Eat any live or frozen food, very fond of artemia. Dry food is disdained, but can be eaten if there is no live food.
Content: Carpet eleotris is a very peaceful fish that does not pose a threat to its neighbors regardless of their size. Perfect for keeping in a common aquarium. Having an excellent color, distinguished by unpretentiousness and endurance of Eleotris, is perfect for both beginner and experienced aquarist. The behavior of the fish is calm, slow, swim in all levels of the aquarium, but prefer the middle and bottom layers, like shelters. Due to its sluggishness, especially if there are a large number of other fish in the aquarium can be left without food, this should be considered when feeding. Males, especially in the absence of a sufficient number of shelters, show rivalry, but it can only be done by intimidating an opponent with frightening postures without bodily harm.

Cultivation: Cultivation of an eleotris rather simple, but interesting. The readiness of the female for spawning can be determined by the pronounced fullness and yellowness of the abdomen. A couple is deposited in a spawning aquarium of at least 10 liters with a lot of shelters (eleotrissa spawn in the general aquarium, but to observe this interesting process most likely will not succeed). The temperature in the spawning ground can be raised 1-2 degrees above the temperature in the general aquarium. Before spawning there is an interesting ritual of courtship. Externally, the producers practically do not change, with mating games, the abdominal fins instantly colored, turning black in females and dark brown in the male. After the games, which can last a very long time, the couple chooses a shelter (usually the narrowest) and carefully prepares it. Up to 200 transparent eggs, about 1 mm in size, are deposited on the prepared substrate. After spawning, the female should be transplanted, the male remains to care for the roe, but there are cases of eating by the hard-working father of the roe, so it is advisable to do it too. Install the sprayer next to the brickwork and add methylene blue to pale blue water. Larvae appear depending on the temperature in the aquarium, at 27-28 ° C after about 6 days, with a lower one 1-2 days later. The pair is ready to re-spawn in two weeks.
Cultivation of fry: Infusoria, rotifers, Artemia naupliuses, which should be fed for a sufficiently long time, sometimes up to a month, can serve as a starting feed for the eleotris species. The fry of the carpet eleotrix are very lazy, so the concentration of food in the aquarium should be very high, which requires more careful monitoring of water quality. Fry grows with abundant feeding and good conditions about 1 cm per month. After a month, a dark spot appears at the base of the caudal fin, full color is acquired only 4 months after the larvae hatch.
Barbus hulstaerti:

Nannostomus nitidus:

Nannostomus espei:

Poecilocharax weitzmanni

Guppy Endler

Dwarf gourami, trichopsis - Trichopsis pumila.

Scarlet "Badis" (Dario dario).

Nano-loach Protomyzon pachychilus

Bullhead Stiphodon ornatus:

Simpsonichthys punctulatus

Taeniacara candidi

Brachygobius xanthozona

Tetraodon travancorius

Biotoecus sp.NEW TAPAJOS

photo: Sergey (kokon2208) (with gratitude from the site).
Aplocheilichthys (blue-eyed) normani.

Author photo: Sayana Polska (Sayana Polska)
(with respect and gratitude from the site).
Danio sp. Panther

Rasbora spilocerca

Clown killifish
Pseudepiplathys annulatus

Horadandia atukorali

Brachygobius nunus

Microdevario nanus

Hara jerdoni

Brachygobius xanthomelas

Tanichthys micagemma

Burma Yellow Neon Rasbora Microdevario kubotai

Boraras micros

Zebra Rasbora. Danio erythromicron

Phoenix Rasbora. Boraras merah

Sparrow Rasbora. Boraras uropthalmoides

Chili Rasbora. Boraras brigittae

Spotted Rasbora. Boraras maculatus

Corydoras panda

Pseudomugil gertrudae

Sources:
//www.franksaquarium.com/nanofish.htm
//www.tropica.ru/

AUTHOR Oleg

//aquariymist.4admins.ru/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=175

Nano - aquaria (start, care, fish).

Quote Post Nina_Andreevna Read your entire quote book or community!
Nano - aquaria (start, care, fish).

author Oleg

//aquariymist.4admins.ru/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=175

(This is a VERY big article that came out of a search on the world wide Internet, taken from various sources, at the very end (after all the pictures, some of them are written by Sayana Polska)) there is a step-by-step instruction on how to launch a nano-cube and recommended fish to run in a nano-aquarium)
The prefix "nano", which has recently become fashionable to add to the most different objects and technologies, has reached the aquarium. So now it is possible to talk about how nano-aquarists in nano-aquariums contain nano-fish. Jokes, jokes, but nano-aquariums have become a phenomenon that can not be overlooked, now it is a well-established and running term, which hides the whole concept.

So, what is a nano-aquarium? First of all, this is a small-sized tank, its volume does not exceed thirty liters, and much more often, it is two to three times smaller. In terms of their proportions, most popular models of nano-aquariums approach the cube (although, of course, a variety of options are possible) and have straight walls. Already in this parameter, nano-aquariums are fundamentally different from any glass balls, glasses and other unimaginable products that are commercially available, which by mistake are sometimes considered an aquarium. Those in which it is difficult to see something and in which it is impossible to create normal living conditions for the fish. By the way, this requirement is the third fundamental difference of a nano-pond - this is a completely full-fledged aquarium, in which you can install and disguise any necessary equipment and create a sustainable and comfortable environment for plants, fish and other animals. A nano-aquarium is a sustainable biosystem that can exist for a long time without cardinal intervention and reorganization.

The last feature of a nano-aquarium is largely determined by its owner, but still, in most cases, nano-aquariums are beautiful.

The small weight, size and enviable compactness of nano-aquariums greatly facilitate the choice of place for their installation. Bedside table, desk, kitchen shelf - there are many options for decorating living space, without restrictions imposed by traditional aquariums. Is that requires proximity to the outlet, because the nano-pond is almost always dependent on various electrical equipment.

Nano-aquarium is not conceivable without live plants, therefore the most important part of the equipment is lighting. There are industrial models with traditional luminaires built into the lid.

But the majority of nano-aquariums are illuminated with household and office lamps on clothespins or flexible legs. Best of all, if they are designed for the use of compact fluorescent or energy-saving lamps.

Heaters for nano-aquariums are also varied. Many manufacturers of aquarium equipment in the model range there are automatic heaters of the traditional type with a capacity of 10-25 watts. Sometimes nano-aquariums are installed on thermo-mat. There are also more exotic ways of maintaining the temperature, and in some warm rooms, a heater is not needed for keeping unpretentious fish at all.

More varied filtering methods in nano-tanks. The most minimalistic approach implies a complete rejection of any filters. At the same time, it is absolutely rightly considered that the best filter is living plants, therefore such a reservoir contains a large number of fast-growing water “herbs”. This approach requires regular and frequent "weeding", and of course, aquarium experience.

It is better for beginner nano aquarists to use some kind of filter. Choose from what. The range of devices of this kind, specifically designed for nano-aquariums, is large enough. The most inexpensive and affordable solution is an air-lift filter powered by an air compressor.

This is a very good and effective solution, but, unfortunately, such filters are not noiseless. For an aquarium installed, for example, in the bedroom, such a filter will not fit perfectly. But the internal nano-filtriki, made on the classical model, are absolutely quiet.

Especially if it is not Chinese crafts, but good things from Europe, such as the Italian EDEN Cleanlet-304, which does not exceed the volume of a cigarette pack and which can be set and masked even in an aquarium of 5-8 liters.

In addition to the usual internal, in the course of a variety of designs of suspension filters. And recently even miniature external canister models appeared, quite like real ones, but only very small ones. The effectiveness of such a decision is beyond praise. And to disguise this filter is easier than others - after all, he himself is outside, and inside the aquarium there is only water intake and discharge. But, unfortunately, it is not always possible to find a place near the aquarium to install such a filter.

There is also any other equipment for nano-aquarium husbandry - CO2 supply systems, miniature flotation plants (yes! The nano-aquariums are even satisfied with the sea), various accessories such as nets, tweezers, tiny scrapers and siphons, etc.

The offer of various decorative elements for a nano-aquarium is even greater. These are soils of a certain fraction in small packages, flat and voluminous backdrops, natural and artificial snags, stones, etc. etc. So you can choose the design of a nano-aquarium, for every taste, focusing on a variety of criteria.

Who lives in a nano-aquarium? For many years most of the proposals of this kind came down to the content in the micro-capacity of the rooster. But it turned out that if the right approach to the issue and make a small aquarium full, i.e. with soil, plants, normal lighting and other equipment, then the choice of fish becomes simply enormous.

The most diverse labyrinth fish - liliusi, gourami and rare species of macropods, many small haracin fish from Amanda to red neon, a variety of small carps - cardinals, microassemblies, small barbs, etc. The choice of viviparous fish is also huge. As for the toothfish, the nano-aquarium is simply their original body of water. There are even small irises and atherines suitable for a nano-aquarium, and there are suitable cichlids. There are also catfish species that are appropriate in such an aquarium, although there are not very many of them, as well as various other fish.

And of course, today's nano-aquaria is not conceivable without various dwarf freshwater shrimps (and some craftsmen manage to contain marine species).

The choice of live aquatic plants is equally large and varied. One listing of suitable types may take more than one page. Additionally, the potential choice is increased due to the fact that plants grow better in nano-aquariums than in normal ones.

The shallow depth of the reservoir and the ability to provide a very strong light in the aquarium without much effort and effort leads to the fact that many plant species, considered whimsical and difficult in traditional aquarism, grow in nano-aquariums without problems.
And the last argument in favor of nano-aquarium husbandry: just look at the photos of decorated nano-aquariums.









Run a nano aquarium
Training:
A. Choosing an installation location
- Dark place inaccessible to direct solar paths
B. Aquarium
- Rinse the aquarium with warm tap water without chemical additives.
- Stick decorative film on the back wall of the aquarium
- Place the mat on a flat surface and install a nano aquarium on it
C. Aquatic plants
- At least 3 days prior to planting in an aquarium, it is recommended to place the plants in a tank with water, in which Dennerle additives should be started.
Dennerle: Launch a nano aquarium according to 7 rules.
Step 1: Creating the DeponitMix Nutrient Medium
- Spread a layer of DeponitMix approximately 2 cm high - this is the bottom nourishing layer
This first layer of soil DeponitMix gives the plant roots nutrients.

Step 2: Rinse and add shrimps gravel
- Fill the soil in such a way that the total layer of DeponitMix and Shrimps soil is 3 cm.
Dennerle Shrimps soil (Dennerle Shrimps Gravel Bed) prevents the decomposition of food debris and the livelihoods of living organisms between the soil granules and thus prevents excessive contamination of the aquarium.

Step 3: Installation of decorative elements
- Stones, roots or other decorative elements should not change the water parameters
For shrimps, crabs and crustaceans, it is necessary to equip places where they can hide.

Step 4: Fill the aquarium with water at 2/3 volume
- Fill the aquarium with tap water at a temperature of about 20 degrees for 2/3 volume, pouring water on a flat plate installed at the bottom. Before this, add conditioner to the water (2 drops per liter of water).

Step 5: Plant the plants in the aquarium
- Place the prepared plants in the aquarium
Approximately 80% of the soil surface should be planted with plants.
(use fast growing stem plants).

Step 6: Installing the filter and adding water
- Place the corner filter in a free corner. Now add water.

Step 7: Install the lamp and protective glass
- Secure the included nano luminaire
Secure the protective glass with the special mounts supplied.

Now you need some patience!
Running shrimp
After 3 days: Replace 50% of the water. Before replacing, add air conditioning to the tap water!
After 6 days: Replace 50% of the water. Before replacing, add air conditioning to the tap water!
After 7 days: Replace 50% of the water again. Before replacing, add air conditioning to the tap water! Run the first shrimp.
Tip: we recommend running 5 shrimp per 10 liters of water.
Nano-tubes recommended for nano-aquariums
Pygmy Corridor, Corydoras pygmaeus

Russian name: Koridoras-pygmy, Somik-pygmy, dwarf catfish
Latin name: Corydoras pygmaeus
Family: Tigerfish, Calligthy (Callichthyidae)
Genus: Coridhoras (Corydoras)
Habitat: They inhabit the stagnant, slow-flowing, silted waters of the Madeira River and its tributaries (Brazil)
Description: Small, elegantly colored pygmy catfish reach a size of 3 cm - females and 2.5 cm - males. It is enough to simply distinguish the female from the male, due to its completeness and larger size, the males are slimmer and smaller than the females. The color of the fish is grayish, along the body from the mouth, bordered on the top and bottom by two pairs of antennae, and to the base of the caudal fin a black stripe runs, ending at the tail with a small dark spot. Black stripes are edged with white stripes above and below it. From the anal to the ventral fin there is a small black stripe. The back is gray, much darker than the abdomen, which is green. Fins are transparent ...

Aquarium parameters: For keeping Corydoras pygmaeus, an aquarium of 10 liters is suitable, into which you can run a flock of 4-5 fish. However, the most comfortable pygmies feel in a species aquarium in the amount of 10-15 individuals. Soil is better to use loose, loose, dark tones. It is also necessary to have shelters in the aquarium, which are good for snags, coconut shells, shards, etc. Plants are better to plant around the perimeter of the tank so that there is a place for swimming. The aquarium should be equipped with a filter and a compressor as the corridors like to rummage in the ground, lifting dirt from the bottom. It is necessary to replace weekly 30% of water.
Water parameters: pH 7.0-7.2, DH up to 20
Water temperature: 20-26 ° C
Food: Fish is picky, eat both dry and various live and frozen food. Food is mainly taken from the bottom, as well as from the leaves of plants, but can rise and swallow it from the surface. When feeding should be borne in mind that the pygmy corridor has a small mouth, so the size of the food should be small.

Content: Dwarf catfish are very interesting in their behavior, in contrast to other members of the Koridoras genus, they can often be seen floating in a thick flock of water, they also like to relax on the wide, horizontal leaves of plants and stones. Thanks to their activity and schooling lifestyle, Corydoras pygmaeus deserved the love of aquarists. A flock of these wonderful catfish will decorate any aquarium, but because of their small size, you should keep them only with small peaceful fish (for example, some types of small tetras, iris, etc.). When arranging an aquarium, it is necessary to take into account that, like all corridors, catfish have intestinal respiration, therefore, there must be access to the surface of the water to trap air. It is not recommended to plant an aquarium with them with plants with finely dissected leaves, as catfish during the search for food rummage in the ground raising sludge, which is deposited on the foliage of the plants.

Breeding: Fish become mature and ready for spawning at 4–8 months, as a rule, males mature earlier than females. The female lays from 30 to 50 eggs, sticking them one by one on the walls of the aquarium and the leaves of plants. To stimulate spawning, you can add fresh water. There are several ways to breed pygmy corridors.
The first way is to keep a small flock of catfish (12 and more) in a species aquarium densely planted with plants where they will be successfully bred under good conditions, without much intervention from the outside, because the pygmies do not eat their eggs and fry. Аквариумисту остается только подкармливать подрастающую молодь по мере ее развития и роста, не убирая производителей из аквариума.
Еще один способ - в нерестовой аквариум (от 10л) отсаживают одну самку и 3-5 самцов, хотя возможен и парный нерест. Для стимуляции нереста в течении нескольких дней вечером подменивают 15-50% воды с одновременным понижением ее температуры на 1-3°С. Процесс икрометания может длиться целый день. После нереста производителей сразу отсаживают и повышают температуру в нерестовике на 1-3°С.
Самки Corydoras pygmaeus, как правило, для приклеивания икринок выбирают хорошо освещенные предметы, поэтому можно в качестве субстрата использовать стекло, прислоненное к хорошо освещенной стенке аквариума остальные стекла затемняются. Fishes will choose illuminated glass for spawning, which, together with the delayed caviar after spawning, is transferred from the spawning to the incubator. To avoid caviar rotting in water, add a solution of methylene blue to a pale blue color.
Growing fry: Larvae hatch after 4 days, 3 days after hatching, they can be started to feed by infusoria, and as they grow they can be transferred to nauplia of artemia. Juveniles of dwarf catfish pygmy of three weeks of age begins to develop much slower. The color of the fry differs from the color of mature individuals.
Popondetta furcata, Pseudomugil furcatus

Russian name: Popondetta furkata, Fork-tailed blue-eyed
Latin name: Pseudomugil furcatus (Popondetta furcata). Synonyms - Forktail Rainbowfish, Forktail Blue-Eye Rainbow Family: Melanoteny or Iris (Melanotaeniidae)
Habitat: They live in small, clean, fairly fast streams of fresh water streams with abundant aquatic vegetation, flowing into the rivers of tropical forests in the east of Papua New Guinea.
Description: The maximum length of the fish is 6 cm, in the aquarium it usually does not exceed 5 cm. The main body color is yellow-green. The double dorsal fin is divided by a small gap, the first one is much smaller than the second one. Males of Popondetta furcata are quite easy to distinguish from females, they are brighter and with an elongated dorsal fin. The dorsal and anal fins in males are transparent with narrow yellow margins. Anal and pectoral fins often with a red tinge. The blades of the caudal fin have yellowish stripes with a black border at the top and bottom border. In females, the tail fin lobes are yellowish in color, while the pectoral and anal fins are transparent. Pseudomugil furcatus differ from most other forms of Pseudomugil from Australia and New Guinea by a more deeply forked tail fin, for which they received the name - Fork-tailed Blue-eyed.


Aquarium parameters: An aquarium with a volume of at least 40 liters is suitable for keeping popondetta. A large number of plants should be planted in the aquarium, which should be better positioned along the side and rear walls to allow free space for swimming. It is also desirable to have floating plants, as these fish like to be closer to the surface. You must have a filter that creates a current. It should be regularly, at least once a week, replace the water.
Water parameters: pH 6.0-8.0, DH 5 - 12
Water temperature: 24-28 ° C
Food: You can feed any dry quality food, but especially love frozen and live food. When feeding, you should consider the size of the feed, as these fish have a small mouth. For better health and health should be fed varied. Eat mainly in the upper layers of water.

Content: Moving, very colorful, schooling fish with a peaceful nature, swimming in the upper and middle layers. It is better to keep a flock of at least 6 individuals (preferably an equal number of males and females) with other peace-loving species of fish, such as tetras, danios, rasbora and medium-sized bottom fish. Males can sometimes be aggressive to females, if kept in pairs, keeping in a group with a predominance of females will help reduce aggression. In any case, there should be enough plants in the aquarium so that the females can hide. Popondetta furcata is susceptible to velvet disease (oodinium), which is provoked by "old" water and with a large accumulation of nitrite in water. Regular water changes, washing the filter and a varied diet will help preserve the health and beauty of these wonderful fish.

Breeding: Breeding is quite simple. Spawning is planted in a small aquarium in the ratio of 2-3 males to 8-10 females, which contributes to a greater number of deferred caviar and gives females a break from vigorous grooming males. The variant of spawning by a pair is possible, but in this case one should monitor the behavior of the male, who may not like the female. He can be very aggressive towards her and she will suffer. In this case, replace the female. Males during spawning behave very interestingly, swim with vertically set anal and dorsal fins and compete with each other.

As a spawning substat, Javanese moss is excellent, on which the eggs stick well. Marriage games begin in the morning, one female sweeps 5-10 eggs at a time, once a day. Eggs of Popondetta furcata, despite the small size of the fish, are rather large. Substrate with caviar after spawning should be transferred to the nursery aquarium with water from the spawn, as producers can eat caviar and fry, and in its place put a new one. As a rule, fertilized eggs produce no more than 75%, this percentage decreases if the producers are poorly fed. Unfertilized eggs should be removed, and methylene blue should be added to water. In spawning and nursery aquarium weak filtration is desirable. Larvae hatch will occur in about 10-15 days. The water level in the rearing aquarium should be low. It should be increased with the growth of fry.

Cultivation of fry: The initial fodder for small fry Popondetta furcata is the ciliate of the infusorium. About a week later, when the fry grow up, you can give them nauplii Artemia. As you grow into the diet of fry, you can enter small dry and frozen food. Unlike most other iris, these fish grow at a very fast pace. They become sexually mature at the age of 3-4 months.
Note: The fish is listed on the IUCN Red List, a list of rare and endangered animals, in the section on minimum risk of extinction.
Iriaterina Werner, Iriatherina Werneri

Russian name: Iriaterina Werner, Iriaterina verneri
Latin name: Iriatherina werneri, Threadfin rainbowfish
Family: Melanotene or Iris (Melanotaeniidae)
Habitat: The habitat is the clear, slow-flowing waters of the rivers of New Guinea and Australia.
Description: In nature, they grow up to 7 cm, but in a tank they reach a smaller size: males - 5 cm, females - 4 cm. Graceful fish, with an elongated, spindle-shaped body, flattened from the sides and unusual fins. An interesting double dorsal fin, the first part of which is pink-orange and has a rounded shape, and the second with 2-3 long black outgrowths that are duplicated on the anal fin. Tail lyre-shaped, underlined in red or orange.
Two color variations of Iriaterin are distinguished - a new Guinean one, which is usually brighter, with an olive-brown body color and an Australian one with a silvery body background. On the main background of the body of the fish is golden metallic plaque, the most noticeable on the back. Depending on the lighting and conditions of detention, the color also varies, pink, green and blue shades can appear, as well as vertical black stripes on the body. The eyes are bright, clear and bright.
Sex differences are fairly well pronounced. Males are larger, brighter, have elongated rays on the anal, second dorsal and caudal fins. Females are slimmer and smaller, paler colored and with shorter fins without rays.
Parameters of the aquarium: Iriaterina Werner is a mobile fish that requires free space for swimming, therefore the aquarium should be 60 cm long. Thickets of plants are needed that should be positioned on the sides and along the back wall of the aquarium for greater comfort of the fish front wall for free swimming fish. The presence of floating plants is welcomed. Dark soil is desirable. For decoration, you can use snags and stones. Mandatory aeration and filtration of water up to 2-3 volumes per hour, as well as its regular replacement at least once a week for 15% - 30%.
Water parameters: pH about 6.0 to 8.5; dН 2-16 ° if the rigidity is maintained at 15 dH ° and higher, then the fish become more resistant to diseases.
Water temperature: 22-30 ° C
Food: Due to the particular structure of the mouth, Iriatherina werneri takes food in the middle layers of the water, as well as settled on the leaves of the plants and the walls of the aquarium, less often from the surface of the water. The mouth is small and directed upwards, the lower lip is longer than the upper. In its habitats it feeds on phytoplankton, small insects and diatom algae. They are omnivorous, food may be small crustaceans, nauplii Artemia, small mosquito larvae, as well as frozen and dry food. It is very important when feeding to monitor the size of the feed, since even adults have a small mouth.

Content: Peaceful schooling fish with very interesting behavior. It should be kept by a flock of at least 5 individuals, in the absence of congeners it is nailed to fish of similar size and behavior, as in the flock it feels better and more confident. Very mobile, moving rapidly, sometimes hovering in a shady corner in the midst of plants. When frightened hiding in the thickets of plants, where they become almost invisible. They love to play in the stream coming out of the filter water. Males iriaterin constantly find out the relationship between themselves, showing each other their beautiful stretched fins, but it does not come to fight. In the course of these confrontations, interesting hierarchical relationships are established between males.
Werner's iriaterines float in the upper and middle layers of water. They can be kept in a common aquarium with any small, peaceful fish, but should not be kept together with active fish such as barbs and tetras, which can bite off the ends of long rays of male fins. Ideal for their habitat is considered a species aquarium of 60-80 liters, in which you can inhabit 12-15 fish. Also a good solution would be to live together with other iris iris, which will allow you to create a small world of fish from one corner of the world.
Breeding: Pre-spawning games and the spawning process itself are very interesting and give great pleasure to the observer. It was at this time that the Iriaterines vernier appear in all their glory. The male takes place not far from the small-leaved plant he likes and jealously guards him from the encroachments of other males. Fishes swirl in dance, showing straightened fins at the same time making them quick flies, making them look like fluttering moths. The female, ready to spawn, swims up to the male and they swim side by side in the thickets of small-leaved plants, where spawning occurs. Spawning takes place daily. Eggs are deposited in floating and ground plants. Javanese moss is well suited as a spawning substat. Larvae hatch on the 5-7th day, they are very small, but immediately begin to feed.
If Iriatherina werneri are contained in a separate species aquarium, then if there are a sufficient number of plants, their population will gradually increase, the adult fish practically do not eat their eggs and fry. This is the easiest way to reproduce these wonderful fish, it does not require much effort from the aquarist, but there will be few animals grown in this way.
For mass breeding, one should equip a spawning farm and plant fish at the rate of 3 females per male. Spawning should be at least 30 liters and contain a large number of plants and bundles of moss, in which the fish will spawn. The moss should be replaced every 5 days from the moment of the first spawning to a new one, and the moss with already deferred caviar moves to specially prepared containers, where the larvae hatch and the fry will develop. Parameters of water in spawning: dH = 15-17 °, pH = 7.0-7.5, temperature 24-28 ° C

Growing fry: Feeding up the fry is complicated by their small size and low mobility. Infusoria and saltwater rotifers serve as starter feed, which should be very much in the aquarium, as in the first days of life the fry do not hunt, but wait for the feed to get into his mouth. This stage is the most difficult, further feeding the fry, usually at the age of 10-14 days, which can already take Artemia nauplii and larger feeds are not difficult. It should also be borne in mind that, due to the peculiarity of spawning, the fry most often are of different ages and when feeding you should continue to give starting feed while the older and larger fry Iriaterin Werner already feed on artemia.
With good feeding grow quickly enough, up to 1 cm per month. The first sexual differences begin to appear at the age of 6 weeks, and sexual maturity reaches 4-6 months of life.
Microassembly Galaxy (Microrasbora sp. Galaxy)

Russian name: Margaritata, Micro-collection galaxy, Rasbora stellar
Latin name: Danio margaritatus (formerly Celestichthys margaritatus, Microrasbora sp. Galaxy)
Family: Carp (Cyprinidae)
Habitat: Inhabits small, shallow (depth from 30 cm to 1 m), densely overgrown with vegetation lakes of Myanmar.
Description: Fish are very small, the maximum size is 3 cm, but usually does not exceed 2 cm. Margaritates are very bright, unusual fish. The main color of the body is gray-black with numerous bright spots and a yellowish belly. Males are distinguished by bright black fins with bright red stripes and patterns. Females are paler and smaller than males, with more convex tummies, pelvic fins practically not painted.

Lifespan: about two years.
Aquarium parameters: Microdistribution of galaxies is contained in aquariums of any size, from small species 4–20 liters to total aquariums of 300 and more liters. In the aquarium desirable lush vegetation and floating plants. They do not like strong movement of water, but filtration and aeration are desirable.
Water parameters: pH 6.5-7.8, electrical conductivity - 200-300 μS. Fish unpretentious, easily adapted to any water parameters.
Water temperature: 22-28 ° C
Food: They prefer any small live food (nematodes, daphnias, grindal) although they can eat large bloodworms. You can also feed dry quality food. They feed in all layers of water.
Content: Most effectively, these small schooling fish look in a densely planted aquarium. Because of its small size, it looks good only in flocks, but it must be borne in mind that in currently popular nano aquariums of 4-20 liters, a flock of 10 fish will be simply invisible. For such a volume it is recommended to plant 20-30 microassembly. In large aquariums, flocks of these tiny fish can reach up to hundreds of units.
Galaxies are very peaceful fish, they can be kept both in the species and in the general aquarium with any medium-sized non-aggressive fish species. It is noticed that living in a small species aquarium, the galaxies adhere to the middle and bottom layers of the water, and also behave extremely timidly, all the time hiding in the thickets of plants. In the general aquarium, especially with the bottom layer of water densely populated with bottom fish (for example, corridors), the fish feel more comfortable, do not hide, swim mostly in the middle and upper levels of the aquarium and lead a more active lifestyle.
It should be noted that in consequence of such a small size, the full beauty of margaritat can only be assessed by close examination. From afar, their wonderful colors are not visible and the fish appear to be plain and gray. Danio margaritatus behavior is very interesting. Between the dominant males, differing in the brightest color, there is a rivalry, but it never comes to real fights. They also chase females and other males, but everything goes without injury.

Cultivation: Simple enough, can spawn in the general aquarium in a bundle of moss or in the roots of floating plants. Spawning fish begin with three months of age. To spawn, you can settle a pair or a small group. If desired, males and females can be seated for a week before spawning. Spawning can be small in size with a thick bundle of small-leaf plants or moss in which spawning occurs. The temperature of the water in spawning 24-25 ° C, pH 6.5-7.5. You can keep the producers directly in spawning, occasionally catching fry from it, as the adult fish Celestichthys margaritatus eat fry. With a sufficient number of small-leaf and floating plants, as well as in the presence of live food in the spawning farm, eating fry can be minimized. Also in the spawning should not be any snails that eagerly eat caviar microselect.
The eggs will be washed out in portions 2-3 times a week, at a time the female can produce up to 20 eggs, but if the producers kept spawning separately, this figure could increase to 50 pieces.
Caviar small, 0.7-0.9 mm in diameter. Three days after spawning, the larvae hatch from it, after another two days the fry are already actively swimming and feeding.
Growing fry: When hatching fry Microrasbora sp. Galaxy very small - 3-4 mm. During the day they swim in the upper and middle layers of the aquarium, and at night they attach themselves to the glass panes and plants in the lower part of the aquarium and hang like that until the morning. Starter feed is ciliates or rotifers, a little later - Artemia. With normal growth, fry in one and a half months reach the size of 1-1.2 centimeters, at three months their size is already 1.5-2.0 cm. Coloring begins at 2 months, and the full coloring of the fish reaches 5-6 months.
Note: The fish Danio margaritatus is listed in the Red Book of Myanmar.
Telmaterina ladigeza (Marosatherina ladigesi)

Russian name: Telmaterina ladigeza (sunbeam)
Latin name: Marosatherina ladigesi
Family: Melanotene or Iris (Melanotaeniidae)
Habitat: inhabits the mountain rivers of the island of Celebes in which the hard clear water flows
Описание: В природе тельмарины вырастают до 7,5 см, в аквариуме обычно не превышают 5см. Тело рыбки вытянуто в длину, брюшко и спина имеют желтую окраску, бока желтоватые с зелено-голубым блеском с продольной голубой полосой, идущей от хвоста до середины тела рыбки. Самцы крупнее самок, ярче окрашены, на анальном и спинном плавнике имеют длинные выросты желтого цвета.

Параметры аквариума: Аквариум минимум 60л. Для содержания в общем аквариуме необходимо наличие в нем растений и свободного места для плаванья. Параметры воды: dGH 10-30°, рН 7-8, рекомендуется добавление соли 3%, необходимы подмены воды до 25% в неделю, активная фильтрация и аэрация.
Температура воды: 22-25°С
Корм: Marosatherina ladigesi всеядны. Рекомендуется давать живой и качественный витаминизированный сухой корм.
Содержание: Небольшая, эффектно окрашенная, стайная, подвижная рыбка. Привлекает внимание своей окраской и необычным строением плавников у самцов, за что и получила название "солнечный лучик". Благодаря своему мирному нраву может содержаться с любыми неагрессивными видами рыб. Плавает в верхних и средних слоях воды. Feels best in a moderately planted aquarium with dark ground and ample swimming space. Poorly tolerates contaminated old water, so it is recommended to replace it as often as possible.

Dilution: In good conditions, Telmaterin Ladigez can spawn almost every day, using thickets of small-leaved plants for spawning. Spawning aquarium is desirable 40-50l, without soil, with small-leaved plants floating in the water and Riccia. The water level is 15-20 cm. The parameters of water in the spawn are: 25-28 ° С, dН 11-20 °, pH 7.2-8.
You can determine the readiness for spawning by the rounded abdomen of females and the pugnaciousness of males. It is recommended to spawn males and females for a week before spawning. Spawning is planted in groups, 2-3 males per male, spawning occurs daily for several weeks. During spawning, fish are fed live food 1-2 times a day. After 9-10 days the group is deposited in another aquarium, as the fry of the first spawning begin to hatch and gather near the surface of the water.
Growing fry: Starter feed for sunbeams are rotifers, ciliates, nauplii Artemia. The fry are rather large, willingly eat artemia, but grow rather slowly. Sexual maturity reaches 7-8 months.
Eleotris carpet, Tateurndina ocellicauda

Russian name: Carpet eleotris
Latin name: Tateurndina ocellicauda
Family: Panhead (Eleotridae)
Habitat: inhabits shallow slowly flowing or standing water bodies of the southeast of New Guinea Island
Description: In nature, males grow up to 7 cm, females up to 5 cm, in the aquarium usually do not reach such sizes. It is quite simple to distinguish the male and female Eleotris: the males are longer and slightly brighter than the females, they are distinguished by a larger head and a high forehead. Females have a more sloping forehead and a sharp muzzle.

Aquarium parameters: A pair of eleotrisses feels comfortable in a 10 liter aquarium. For a larger number of individuals requires a vessel of 60 liters, preferably with a variety of shelters.
Water parameters: dGH 4-18 ° is better not more than 12 °, pH is about 7. For the most comfortable living, Eleotrice requires filtration and water change at least once a week. Water temperature: 22-26 ° С
Food: Eat any live or frozen food, very fond of artemia. Dry food is disdained, but can be eaten if there is no live food.
Content: Carpet eleotris is a very peaceful fish that does not pose a threat to its neighbors regardless of their size. Perfect for keeping in a common aquarium. Having an excellent color, distinguished by unpretentiousness and endurance of Eleotris, is perfect for both beginner and experienced aquarist. The behavior of the fish is calm, slow, swim in all levels of the aquarium, but prefer the middle and bottom layers, like shelters. Due to its sluggishness, especially if there are a large number of other fish in the aquarium can be left without food, this should be considered when feeding. Males, especially in the absence of a sufficient number of shelters, show rivalry, but it can only be done by intimidating an opponent with frightening postures without bodily harm.

Cultivation: Cultivation of an eleotris rather simple, but interesting. The readiness of the female for spawning can be determined by the pronounced fullness and yellowness of the abdomen. A couple is deposited in a spawning aquarium of at least 10 liters with a lot of shelters (eleotrissa spawn in the general aquarium, but to observe this interesting process most likely will not succeed). The temperature in the spawning ground can be raised 1-2 degrees above the temperature in the general aquarium. Before spawning there is an interesting ritual of courtship. Externally, the producers practically do not change, with mating games, the abdominal fins instantly colored, turning black in females and dark brown in the male. After the games, which can last a very long time, the couple chooses a shelter (usually the narrowest) and carefully prepares it. Up to 200 transparent eggs, about 1 mm in size, are deposited on the prepared substrate. After spawning, the female should be transplanted, the male remains to care for the roe, but there are cases of eating by the hard-working father of the roe, so it is advisable to do it too. Install the sprayer next to the brickwork and add methylene blue to pale blue water. Larvae appear depending on the temperature in the aquarium, at 27-28 ° C after about 6 days, with a lower one 1-2 days later. The pair is ready to re-spawn in two weeks.
Cultivation of fry: Infusoria, rotifers, Artemia naupliuses, which should be fed for a sufficiently long time, sometimes up to a month, can serve as a starting feed for the eleotris species. The fry of the carpet eleotrix are very lazy, so the concentration of food in the aquarium should be very high, which requires more careful monitoring of water quality. Fry grows with abundant feeding and good conditions about 1 cm per month. After a month, a dark spot appears at the base of the caudal fin, full color is acquired only 4 months after the larvae hatch.
Barbus hulstaerti:

Nannostomus nitidus:

Nannostomus espei:

Poecilocharax weitzmanni

Guppy Endler

Dwarf gourami, trichopsis - Trichopsis pumila.

Scarlet "Badis" (Dario dario).

Nano-loach Protomyzon pachychilus

Bullhead Stiphodon ornatus:

Simpsonichthys punctulatus

Taeniacara candidi

Brachygobius xanthozona

Tetraodon travancorius

Biotoecus sp.NEW TAPAJOS

photo: Sergey (kokon2208) (with gratitude from the site).
Aplocheilichthys (blue-eyed) normani.

Author photo: Sayana Polska (Sayana Polska)
(with respect and gratitude from the site).
Danio sp. Panther

Rasbora spilocerca

Clown killifish
Pseudepiplathys annulatus

Horadandia atukorali

Brachygobius nunus

Microdevario nanus

Hara jerdoni

Brachygobius xanthomelas

Tanichthys micagemma

Burma Yellow Neon Rasbora Microdevario kubotai

Boraras micros

Zebra Rasbora. Danio erythromicron

Phoenix Rasbora. Boraras merah

Sparrow Rasbora. Boraras uropthalmoides

Chili Rasbora. Boraras brigittae

Spotted Rasbora. Boraras maculatus

Corydoras panda

Pseudomugil gertrudae

Sources:
//www.franksaquarium.com/nanofish.htm
//www.tropica.ru/

AUTHOR Oleg

//aquariymist.4admins.ru/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=175

Nano-fish for the shrimp racer of "Galaxy" and rassvoj "Strawberry"

nano aquarium fish

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