Fish for marine aquariums
Marine aquarium fish are incredibly popular because of their exotic appearance. Endemics of the seas and oceans, all kinds of marine fish bring many different colors into the room, pleasing the eye of visitors. Fish of various sizes swim in saline and vast bodies of water, and not all can be accommodated in a home aquarium. Not all species will be able to settle down in cramped, and in spacious, public aquariums too. In order for a successful adaptation to take place in a pond, you need to take into account several rules.
Rules for the settlement of marine fish in aquariums
To settle the little sea fish in the home aquarium, you need to know the following rules:
- Take into account the possibility of compatibility of fish with other species - analyzing the size, diet, the degree of aggressive nature, swimming speed.
- In a tank of small capacity, it will be more difficult to establish effective filtration, and daily feeding will accelerate the growth of algae. We'll have to often care for cleanliness in the pond, removing all contamination.
- Small fish are more unpretentious in maintenance and care, but their settlement must be thought out in advance. Choose small, calm fish body size up to 5 cm in length. For now, give up the voracious and predatory species.
Admire the spacious sea aquarium.
To settle larger fish in a spacious tank, you must:
- Choose an aquarium of at least 300 liters.
- Promptly remove waste products and waste.
- Settle in a spacious aquarium better flock species of fish.
- Consider such characteristics of fish as: mobility, poisonousness, food habits (omnivores, herbivores, predators), whether corals are destroyed.
- Do not buy large fish spontaneously - because they are expensive and difficult to care for. Before buying sea fish, you can consult a specialist.
Popular fish for the marine aquarium
- Parrot fish (lat. Chlorurus bleekeri) probably the fish received the name because of the similarity of its mouth with a bird's beak. There are varieties of colors and forms of this fish. Fish use their powerful jaw to grind sea corals, where they search for invertebrates for food. They play an important role in the ecosystem of the World Ocean - due to the fragmentation of corals, sands are formed near coral reefs. Having bitten off a layer of coral, a parrot fish will crush it with a powerful jaw, grasping invertebrates. Then she spits out the remains of coral crumbs.
- Fire Angel Fish (Flame Angel) is a parrot fish congener. Often it can be seen in reef aquariums, where it is replete with its beauty. The fiery angel is capricious to the parameters of the aquatic environment. It gets along well with other marine fish swimming in corals. Diet - invertebrates in live and frozen form, feed of plant origin.
- Fish surgeon (born Regal Tang) - got its name due to the sharp plate, which stands out at the base of the tail, and is used for protective purposes. The so-called "scalpel" fish sends to the enemy, and the conflict can be considered settled. Regal tang - a beautiful marine life, eats algae. Some fish of this family feed on detritus and plankton.
- Zebrasoma (eng. Zebrasoma) is a very beautiful sea fish of small size. In nature, it can be found singly, or in a small group. Body color is bright yellow, the muzzle is narrow, with protruding lips. The nature of the fish is peaceful and curious. They explore the reef bottom, finding algae in it. Prefer bright light for the growth of cyanobacteria. One fish requires an aquarium of 200-300 liters.
- Clown fish (Amphiprion) - characterized by an incredibly beautiful colors, is a real decoration of the marine aquarium. In nature, hiding in poisonous sea anemone - anemones. Fish are immune to poisonous secretions of anemones. The fish have a peaceful nature, they breed well. Body size 10-18 cm. Due to the constant movement, increase the flow of water, which brings actinia food.
See what a clown fish looks like.
- Sapphire Chrysiptera (Chrysiptera Cyanea) is a small fish from the seas, with a bright appearance and large eyes. The color of the scales is sapphire blue, in the spectrum of light the color may vary. The related species of chrysipters conflict with each other, and the sapphire ones do not get along with each other. Content is possible in a wide aquarium where there are enough shelters.
- The royal gram (Gramma Loreto) is a small and variegated fish with a fastidious temper, but it is easy to keep it in a domestic saltwater aquarium. Gram is different territorial behavior, and it should be settled only with compatible species of fish. It is not recommended to settle several varieties of grams in one tank at a time. Young grams get along better with other fish, so the first few months of life will decorate a homely body of water. Royal grams feed on small zooplankton.
- The wrasse-fish pajamas, pseudo-cheilin six-hairs (lat. Pseudocheilinus hexataenia) are a fish with an amazing color and wayward behavior. Guban pajamas can be aggressively tuned to the Pseudocheilinus family members. Periodically terrorizes neighbors, harassing them psychologically and physically. If this fish is well adapted to the marine aquarium, then in beauty and mannerism it will not be equal. Diet - frozen food, plant food. It is recommended to settle in a spacious aquarium with shelters and free space for swimming.
Marine Aquarium - we launch a competently photo video step-by-step description.
EQUIPMENT FOR THE MARINE AQUARIUM
The first important purchase will of course be the tank itself. Its shape can be different, most often it is a container with a base in the form of a square, a rectangle, less often forms with a convex front (viewing) wall occur. Displacement matters - it will take at least 200 liters, preferably 400 and more. Do not be tempted by 50 and 100-liters - sea animals in them get sick and die.
Most probably the main purchase will be an external canister filter. Experienced aquarists recommend Eheim 2260 or 2250 and Fluval 403 or 303. Special filler materials will also be needed, such as ceramic chips, coal and sponge.
Purchase a thermostat, a skimmer (a device for removing foam), as well as a pump or pump filter - this is a device for saturating water with oxygen, and in combination with a filter there is also a waste disposal mechanism. Be sure to arrange the grounding of the aquarium: buy a RCD (residual current device) and call an electrician who will correctly bring it out and connect it.
The next purchase is a stock of coal and salt, bacterial preparations, acidity tests, a simple hydrometer (a float that shows how dense the water is) and a siphon for cleaning the bottom.
If funds allow, take another UV lamp with a capacity of 15 watts and a large canister (about 50 liters) to dilute the salt in it. The first month of caring for the aquarium will require significant costs and effort, and then everything will become much easier - daily feeding and about an hour a week for the maintenance of equipment.
marine aquarium photo
Select the desired volume
It goes without saying that the larger the volume of the aquarium, the more expensive its equipment. Although the best volume for the "sea" is considered a capacity of 200 - 250 liters. (it is easiest to maintain a balanced ecosystem), you can start with a smaller displacement aquariums - the best option would be 50 - 80 liters.
A very small aquarium (for example, 20 liters) can also be made “marine” if desired, but it is rather difficult to maintain constant water parameters in it. In this case, the rectangular shape of the container is preferable to the cubic one, and this is due to the possibility of organizing the proper lighting, as well as the placement of stones.
STONES FOR THE SEA AQUARIUM
Such stones are also called living, since they are genuine fragments of coral reefs from the ocean, and numerous colonies of beneficial bacteria live in their cavities. Some specimens have real thickets of polyps (anemones) on their surface, and inside - small crustaceans, crabs and sea worms.
From such guests need to get rid of, moreover, to do it on time. We do not want to frighten you, but in saltwater aquariums, without your control, life can flow like in a real ocean - some eat others, others parasitize everything alive. Learn how to install live rock, namely, how to get rid of carnivorous sea anemones, poisonous snails, cones and murex, crayfish, predatory shrimps and all kinds of worms.
Having brought home the purchased stones, they should be treated - washed under running hot water, be sure to wear durable gloves, as these types of unwanted inhabitants leave painful and dangerous burns and bites. Having installed the stones, observe life in it in the dark time - the hungry and active passengers will soon find themselves. At the stage of dealing with them, use special medications or remove animals with tweezers.
A few words about the second favorite element of the decor - it is seashells in the aquarium. Decorating the seabed, they are absolutely not suitable for our purposes, but beginners often want to use them - it's beautiful! The main reason to abandon the shells is the hardness of the water, which invariably grows due to these sources of calcium carbonate (in fact, chalk). Not all aquarium fish will hurt and die, their possible proximity to the sink depends on the species, but they certainly can not reproduce.
marine aquarium photo
Filtration and water recovery systems
The most important and complex point in equipping a marine aquarium, because the water in it must be perfectly clean and contain a minimum amount of nitrates. If in nature the nature itself takes care of this, and the sea currents constantly bring fresh and clean water, then in an aquarium the problem of water purity can be managed only with the help of special equipment. Samp is a container made of organic glass, divided by partitions into compartments in which various aquarium equipment is installed.
The sump is usually equipped in an aquarium cabinet, but has direct communication with the aquarium. It can be purchased (there is now a large selection of sumps with all the necessary equipment on the market) or it can be made by itself, in this case the aquarist has the opportunity for a unique selection of the aquarium equipment that is most suitable for him. The basic principle of operation of a sump is a closed loop.
With the help of a return pump, water flows from the sump to the aquarium, and then, exceeding a certain level, it enters the overflow box and then flows by gravity back to the sump. What should be in the sump? Foam separator (skimmer). With the help of this device organic matter, constantly present there, is removed from the water, even before its disintegration begins. Even invisible to the naked eye, the dirt is quickly collected on the bubbles, which creates a skimmer and accumulates in a special compartment, from which it is then easily removed. Biological filter. For these purposes, a separate sump compartment is usually filled with filter material.
marine aquarium photo
This may be coral chips, as well as special bio-balls or other porous organic material. The larger the surface of the biological filter, the more bacteria are there, and accordingly the quality of biological filtration improves. We must not forget about the required amount of oxygen for the process, as well as the speed of water flow through the filter. Together, these three factors create the biological stability of the entire system. Algae (refujium).
Algae are capable of very effectively eliminating nitrates from water, and microplankton propagates in the alga, which serves as food for many inhabitants of the marine aquarium. To organize an algae above one of the compartments of the sump with running water, lighting is provided, and the lamp must be sufficiently powerful (70-100 W). Algae (hetamorph) are placed at the bottom of the compartment, which grow well and multiply in conditions of high nitrate content and bright light. Their number must be kept under control, since with excessive growth of algae absorb too many trace elements from the water, and this is harmful for corals.
The flow of water in the alga should be slower than in the entire aquarium. Return pump. It is usually installed in a special compartment of the sump with a variable water level. At the same time, the compartment is made sufficiently bulky so that in the event of an emergency power outage or breakdown of the pump to accommodate the entire volume of water that will merge from the aquarium. To reduce the amount of water that is draining when a similar situation arises, holes are made near the end of the return tube, which is lowered into the aquarium at a distance of 1.5 cm.
When the level falls, air enters the holes and stops draining. We must pay attention to the power of the return pump. The best solution would be a pump that can pump about 10 volumes of an aquarium per hour. In this case, decomposition products will be removed from the aquarium in time, and the water will be sufficiently saturated with oxygen. Avtodoliv. The system of compensation for water evaporated from an aquarium, which makes life easier for its owner, since daily level tracking is quite tedious.
The pump (in specialty stores at the moment their large selection is presented) is installed in a separate sump compartment according to the instructions. Additional compartments. It is recommended to purchase or manufacture your own samp, providing for the availability of spare compartments. Methods of water purification in the marine aquarium are constantly being improved and, perhaps, to install any innovations will require the presence of additional compartments. In addition, a water heater can be installed in the sump, which in this case does not spoil the appearance created by the aquarist of the “sea” landscape.
FISHING FOR THE SEA AQUARIUM To make your home sea enjoy not only bright beauty, but also a peaceful atmosphere, populate the reservoir with small and non-aggressive views. As new species are added, study the literature to find out which ones easily get along and which ones conflict. If you decide on the maintenance of exotic predator fish, you will have to confine yourself to one species in order not to turn your aquarium into a torture chamber.
But do not be embarrassed, the choice of fish without exaggeration is great. Rate the diversity of marine aquarium dwellers: parrot fish; backspins; hedgehog fish (without neighbors); fish soldiers; angels: centropig, diakantus and about 20 subspecies; moray eels (without neighbors); fox fish; a wide family of butterfly fish; zebrasome and other surgeon fish; pseudochromisms; clown fish; grams; dogs (without neighbors); tangerines; argus; bullies and many others.
The life expectancy of all is different, but with good care, successful acclimatization and timely treatment, most species live 3-4 or about 10 years, and angelfish are all twenty. Naturally, from the first days you will need to take care of feeding for the fish, given that different species feed in different ways: there are herbivores, carnivores and omnivores, and some, for example, squirrel fish, eat exclusively living food.
Choose the inhabitants so that it is easier to put together a diet for most or all at once. Do not flatter yourself that you can dig up worms, feed house flies or get along with bread crumbs. For sea fish, branded food is not a whim, but a necessity, so be aware of your responsibility to animals and be ready to constantly buy good food of a certain type.
Organization of the correct flow in the marine aquarium
Current is a vital factor for marine life. It purifies water, brings food and oxygen, and determines all the natural cycles of marine animals. In a marine aquarium, flow is especially important for "live" stones. Only with intensive water movement, they are able to fully perform the function of a biological filter.
Under natural habitat conditions, marine animals become accustomed to fairly strong currents, which sometimes give way to calm. Therefore, in the marine aquarium, some pumps can be turned off at night. The minimum volume pumped by the pump per hour for the "sea" should be 10-15 volumes of the aquarium, although the best figure would be 50 volumes. The flow of water should not fall directly on invertebrates.
It is better to direct it to the stones so that they are washed as intensely as possible. For these purposes, usually use two pumps installed opposite each other. In this case, the minimum number of stagnant zones remains in the aquarium, in which the microfloat can die due to the absence of oxygen.
STARTING THE SYSTEM
Before you start such a hobby, it will be correct to read as much literature on this topic as possible, so as to avoid common mistakes at first. Ну а главные пункты плана, как самому сделать морской аквариум, предоставит наше пошаговое руководство: соберите резервуар, установите основные декоративные элементы, присоедините выключенные фильтры, засыпав в них наполнители, проведите заземление; наполните резервуар водой из-под крана, отстаивайте сутки, слейте; залейте воду из-под крана на три четверти объёма, включите фильтры, подогрев (25-26 °C)
and pump, uphold the system for seven days; turn off the apparatuses, clean the carbon filler filter and lay a new portion, add sea salt to the water (37 grams of salt for 1 l of water); turn on the pump so that the salt mixes and dissolves, then turn off; when the water settles, clean the bottom with a siphon - there will be a muddy sediment, it must be removed; lay the soil and make all your algae and decorations (stones, houses, shells);
measure the water density with a hydrometer, bring the indicator to 1'022-1'024 g / l, pouring either fresh water or saline solution, at the same time fill the tank almost to the edges (space from the top edge is 4-5 cm); wait a week for the water to settle, but after about three days turn on the filters, pump, skimmer and heating, add the drug with bacteria or live rocks (reefs); a week passed, the bacteria had time to decompose the dead organics,
and filters cleaned the water; check the test content of ammonium, nitrite and phosphorus, as well as acid-base balance (the rate of the first not more than 0.5 mg per liter, the second - not less than 8.0); if the indices deviate, it means that the decay has not yet ended, to put it simply, something is rotting in the water - this needs to be found and removed (remove and clean all the stones and scenery);
when all indicators are normal, you can run the first settlers - fish, 2-3 small individuals; At this stage, you need to check the indicators daily and make water changes until the bacteria colonize the contents of the aquarium and can not completely process the waste of fish; when the process is established, launch new fish, 1-2 per week, carefully checking the indicators with tests, changing the water; everything gradually enters the rut, and in three months you will have a reliable biosystem!
The usual temperature for a saltwater aquarium is 25-26 degrees. If its lower limit is easily regulated with the help of a water heater, then in case of strong heat very often there is a problem with cooling the water to the desired parameters. An aquarium refrigerator is not a cheap pleasure, but when you consider that in a particularly hot season, all aquarium inhabitants can die due to overheating, installing it is worth it.
VIDEO OF THE MARINE AQUARIUM
GROWTH FOR THE AQUARIUM BY OWN HANDS, FROM A STONE FROM A TREE FROM CLAY FROM COCONUT
EXTERNAL FILTER FOR THE AQUARIUM OWN HANDS
AQUAIUM SPRAYER AND EVERYTHING THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
What is a fish like? River and sea fish (photo)
In this article we will consider the question of what kind of fish is. It should be clarified immediately that the word "fish" in the meaning of "dish" will not be discussed here. Only a live fish, that is a creature that lives in the aquatic environment, interests us in this case. This is the superclass of aquatic vertebrate animals, the bulk of which is dominated by gill breathing and there is no feeding of offspring with milk by special glands.
Fish habitat separation
These creatures in this vein should be considered on the main sign - whether they belong to freshwater, brackish or salt water. As you can see, the question of what kind of fish is can be answered in detail. In the first case, it is the one that lives exclusively in salty - sea or ocean water. There are still breeds that perfectly survive both in fresh and in salty environments. This happens because a brackish liquid is considered optimal for them, that is, one in which the ratio of fresh water and salt is in a ratio of about 1000: 1.
The inhabitants of the seas and oceans
If the reader is interested in what kind of fish is in the seas and oceans, then the answer is far from a complete list:
- Tiger shark;
- sea pike perch;
- butterfly fish;
- sea Horse;
- sea needles;
- molva - sea pike;
- moray eel;
- electric eel;
- sea smelt;
- hedgehog fish;
- sea devil or European anglerfish;
- sea bass;
- sea bream;
- flying fish;
- clown fish;
- cyanic snapper;
- golden spar, or redfin;
- noodle fish;
- manta, or the giant sea devil.
Already by name it can be determined that the extent to which ocean and sea fishes are different. Photos of some species will only confirm this fact.
When asked what kind of fish it is, they answered you: "Freshwater"? What is fresh water?
It should immediately respond that the water environment, which is practically free of salts, can be called fresh. Usually this is considered to be running water, that is, rivers. But many lakes fall into this category. It is no secret that part of freshwater fish for commercial purposes is artificially bred in man-made ponds and aryks. By the way, considering photos of river fish living in natural conditions, and comparing them with pictures of those that were born and raised in man-made reservoirs, it is almost impossible to notice the difference.
And, which is quite interesting, even swamps can serve as a habitat for some species of freshwater fish.
Many of the above-class aquatic vertebrate animals that do not feed their offspring with milk (refer to freshwater) live in rivers. Their list is also quite large. In Russia, the most common are the following:
- crucian carp;
- fast woman;
- silver carp;
- white carp;
- carp and others.
Photos of river fish are incredibly beautiful. Anglers often take pictures of their trophies, they are extremely proud of them. Unfortunately, river live fish in natural habitat is poorly represented in the photographs.
Who lives in the swamps?
Interesting in this regard, carp. Although he may well live comfortably in rivers and lakes, ichthyologists still believe that it is extremely difficult to meet him in clean mountain waters. But in the lowland swampy lakes and directly in the swamps, he feels just fine.
Many fishermen claim that they often come across hooks in overgrown silt bodies of water carp, carp, bullhead, line and eel. Som, too, though occasionally, but is found here.
The separation of fish species according to the method of nutrition
All river and sea fish, as well as decorative aquarium fish, are classified on the basis of the manner in which they feed. Some of these animals should be attributed to predators, since their main diet is smaller fish, often even fry of the same species. Many predators are not averse to mollusks, caviar, carrion.
To date, the tragic cases of the attack on humans of the largest bloodthirsty fish - sharks - are known. People have legends about how dangerous catfish and big pike are to people. Allegedly, some large individuals of these species can drag a child or a thin woman into the depths of the reservoir, where they deal with their victims. Or, they say, they ruthlessly bite off the limbs of the unfortunate while bathing. However, no reliable facts of this were recorded.
But the sea "sisters" of river pikes - barracudas - are capable of terrible crimes. They are similar to the merciless moray, about whom they say that in ancient times the Greeks, they were widespread aquarium fish, which their owners used as instruments of execution objectionable and guilty of something.
Icy heart stories about piranhas, chimeras, tiger fish and giant gupera - this is also sea fish. Photos of the above killer fish look pretty awesome. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the majority of predators among fish are dangerous only for smaller inhabitants of water bodies. These include burbot, catfish, trout, pike, eel, whitefish, asp, bersh, perch, perch, grayling, who live in large numbers in Russian rivers.
The bulls, loaches, dace, carps, tench, roach, fish, bluebird, barbel, ide, thorns, bleak, common carp, rotan, minnows, bream, crucian carp, busters, elbows, white-eyed, cupids, chubs, ruffs, ruddies, Peled, whitefish and some other freshwater fish.
Most of the living creatures of the vertebrate superclass under consideration are circulating. And here, there is a division, because some species use external fertilization. This happens in cases where the female throws unfertilized eggs into the water, and the males belonging to the same type of fish release a white liquid with sperm into the fertile environment — milt.
There are fish belonging to the egg-breeding. That is, fertilization occurs inside the body of the female. It turns out that already practically formed flesh appears on the light. These include some skates, sharks, eaglets, squirrels, sea bass, tooth-toothed and some others.
Some aquarium fish are also viviparous, photos of which are presented in the article. This, for example, guppies and swordtails.
Breeding salmon and sturgeon
The salmon include sturgeon and salmon (the so-called red fish). A photo of a male salmon before spawning clearly demonstrates how much its appearance changes before this important period in life. A peculiar hump on the back gave the name to one of the salmon species - pink salmon. The jaws of fish are hooked, their body becomes bright, even causing coloring.
It is interesting that most of the red fish species (sockeye, pink, chum, and others) are brackish. They are born in freshwater rivers, then swimming in the marine environment. To spawn males and females move against the current back to the places of their appearance. A very large number of salmon representatives die during this period and have not reached their goal: some because of natural factors, and others because of poaching. After spawning, almost all individuals of both sexes die. Although ichthyologists discovered several exceptions to this rule, that is, they managed to register several females that came to spawn five and even seven times.
Sturgeon fishes are also fawns. The names of some species of this valuable commercial breed are known to almost everyone. This stellate sturgeon, sturgeon, spike, beluga, sterlet and some others.
Photos of these vertebrates attract the attention of even those people who are absolutely indifferent to ichthyology and do not feel the desire to have such peculiar pets. Brightness of coloring, unusualness of their appearance play the main role in this.
However, for those interested in the underwater world and its inhabitants, aquarium fish can be a real practical tool. Observing them, studying their habits, one can single out all the major gradations of this natural vertebrate superclass.
Like all fish, these pets in aquariums are divided into freshwater, brackish and saltwater.
There are also notorious predators attacking other inhabitants from hunger, but because this is their natural essence. Such an example are piranhas and ornamental sharks. Along with them, there are insectivorous fish, as well as those that prefer worms, bloodworms, algae, etc.
Aquarium fishes are divided into fledgling and viviparous. Most, of course, refer to those that spawn in the water and milk.
Briefly about the main thing ...
Observing the life of fish, man draws important conclusions for himself: everything in nature is interconnected, everything is dependent on one another. And man is one of the links in the chain, for the integrity of which he is responsible.