"The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish" by A. S. Pushkin. Tale of a goldfish in a new way
Who among us since childhood is not familiar with the "Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish"? Someone read it in childhood, someone first met her when he saw a cartoon on TV. The plot of the work is undoubtedly familiar to everyone. But not many people know how and when this fairy tale was written. It is about the creation, origins and characters of this work, we will talk in our article. And also we will consider modern alterations of a fairy tale.
Who wrote the story about the goldfish and when?
The fairy tale was written by the great Russian poet Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin in the village of Boldino on October 14, 1833. This period in the work of the writer is called the second Boldino autumn. The work was first published in 1835 in the pages of the Library for Reading magazine. At the same time, Pushkin created another famous work - "The Tale of the Dead Princess and Seven Heroes".
History of creation
Back in early action, A. S. Pushkin became interested in folk art. The tales he had heard in the cradle of his beloved nanny were preserved in his memory for a lifetime. In addition, later, already in the 20s of the 19th century, the poet was studying folk folklore in the village of Mikhailovsky. It was then that he began to appear ideas of future fairy tales.
However, Pushkin turned directly to the folk stories only in the 30s. He began to try himself in the creation of fairy tales. One of them was a fairy tale about a goldfish. In this work, the poet tried to show the nationality of Russian literature.
For whom did A.S. Pushkin write fairy tales?
Pushkin wrote fairy tales in the highest flowering of his work. And initially they were not intended for children, although they immediately entered the circle of their reading. The tale of a goldfish is not just fun for children with morality at the end. This is primarily a sample of creativity, traditions and beliefs of the Russian people.
Nevertheless, the plot of the tale itself is not an exact retelling of folk works. In fact, not much of Russian folklore is reflected in it. Many researchers claim that most of the poet’s tales, including the tale about a goldfish (the text of the work confirms this), were borrowed from German tales collected by the Grimm brothers.
Pushkin chose the plot he liked, reworked it at his discretion, and clothed him in a poetic form, without worrying about how authentic the stories would be. However, the poet managed to convey, if not the plot, then the spirit and character of the Russian people.
Images of the main characters
The tale of a goldfish is not rich in characters - there are only three of them, however, this is enough for a fascinating and instructive plot.
The images of the old man and the old woman are diametrically opposed, and their views on life are completely different. They are both poor, but reflecting different sides of poverty. So, the old man is always disinterested and ready to help in trouble, because he has repeatedly been in the same position and knows what grief is. He is kind and calm, even when he was lucky, he does not use the offer of the fish, but simply releases it.
The old woman, despite the same social situation, is arrogant, cruel and greedy. She pushed around the old man, tormented him, constantly scolding and always displeased with all. For this, she will be punished at the end of the tale, left with a broken trough.
However, the old man does not receive any reward, because he is unable to resist the will of the old woman. For his humility he did not deserve a better life. Here Pushkin describes one of the main features of the Russian people - long-suffering. That it does not allow you to live better and calmer.
The image of the fish is incredibly poetic and imbued with popular wisdom. It acts as a higher power, which for the time being is ready to fulfill desires. However, her patience is not unlimited.
The tale of an old man and a goldfish begins with a description of the blue sea, on the coast of which an old man and an old woman have been living in a dugout for 33 years. They live very poorly and the only thing that feeds them is the sea.
One day an old man goes fishing. He throws a net twice, but both times he brings only sea mud. For the third time, the old man is lucky - a goldfish falls into his nets. She speaks in a human voice and asks to let her go, promising to fulfill her wish. The old man did not ask anything from the fish, but simply let it go.
Returning home, he told everything to his wife. The old woman began to scold him and told him to go back, to ask the fish for a new trough. The old man went, bowed to the fish, and the old woman received what she asked for.
But that was not enough for her. She demanded a new home. Fish fulfilled this desire. Then the old woman wanted to become a pillar noblewoman. Again the old man went to the fish, and again she fulfilled the desire. The fisherman himself was sent by an evil wife to work at the stable.
But this was not enough. The old woman told her husband to go back to the sea and ask her to make her a queen. This desire has been fulfilled. But this did not satisfy the old woman’s greed. She again called the old man to her place and told her to ask the fish to make her the tsarina of the sea, while she served on her packages.
I gave the fisherman his wife's words. But the fish didn’t answer, just splashed its tail and swam away to the depths of the sea. For a long time he stood by the sea, waiting for an answer. But the fish no longer appeared, and the old man returned home. And there an old woman waited for him with a trough, sitting by the old dugout.
As noted above, the fairy tale about a fisherman and a goldfish has its roots not only in Russian, but also in foreign folklore. So, the plot of this work is often compared with the fairy tale "The Greedy Old Woman", which was part of the collection of the Brothers Grimm. However, this resemblance is very remote. German authors focused all their attention on the moral conclusion - greed is not good enough, you should be able to be content with what you have.
The actions in the fairy tale of the Brothers Grimm also unfold on the seashore, however, instead of a goldfish, the flounder acts as the executor of desires, which later becomes the enchanted prince. Pushkin replaced this image with a goldfish, symbolizing wealth and luck in Russian culture.
Tale of a goldfish in a new way
Today you can find a lot of alterations of this tale in a new way. Characteristic of them is the change of time. That is, from old times the main characters are transferred to the modern world, where there is also a lot of poverty and injustice. The moment of catching a goldfish remains unchanged, like the magic heroine herself. But the desire of the old woman change. Now she needs an Indesit car, new boots, a villa, a Ford. She wants to be a blonde with long legs.
In some alterations, the end of the story also changes. The tale can end with a happy family life of an old man and an old woman who has looked younger by 40 years. However, such an end is the exception rather than the rule. Usually the ending is either close to the original, or tells of the death of an old man or old woman.
Thus, the tale about a goldfish lives to this day and remains relevant. This is confirmed by many of its alterations. The sound of a new way gives her a new life, but the problems laid down by Pushkin, even in the alterations, remain unchanged.
All about the same heroes tell these new options, all the same and greedy old woman, and submissive old man, and a wish-fulfilling fish, which speaks of the incredible skill and talent of Pushkin, who managed to write a work that remains relevant and after almost two centuries.
The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish, the Goldfish, the Tales of Pushkin
Tales of Pushkin - The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish
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The tale is a lie, and there is a hint in it ... The tale of a goldfish is a poetic reconstruction of the images and plots of the most ancient Aryan mythology
Since Russian childhood, every Russian person knows the magnificent tales of Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin, amazing and wonderful in their plot and literary style. All of them are beautiful and seem to affect the living memory in the soul, hidden in the subconscious depths under a bushel of daily fuss and everyday problems. Turning over the pages of Pushkin's fairy tales again and again, you never cease to be amazed at their inner beauty and deep meaning.
It is believed that in childhood Pushkin heard folk tales from his nanny Arina Rodionovna, and later created works based on childhood memories. This is not quite true. The poet turned to fairy tales at a mature age when his interest in Old Russian history and Russian folklore had been formed. The living myth is intertwined in Pushkin's fairy tales with a living history. "The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish", for all its apparent simplicity, is one of the most complex and mysterious Pushkin texts, which has given rise to a great deal of controversy and literary criticism.
Here it is appropriate to recall the Vedic Matsya Purana, which tells about the Lord's Golden Avatar, when He descends in a certain era in the form of a golden fish - Hiranya Garbha. In this Purana (purana means history) there is an ancient amazing story about a goldfish and an old man with an old woman, in which the soul is called an old man, and a false ego, or something that forces us to identify with the material body, is called an old woman. According to another version, this is a fairy tale from the collection "Hitopadesh", which was written in Sanskrit and compiled on the basis of an even more ancient and famous collection "Panchatantra" between the 6th and 14th centuries AD.
And the article by historian and writer Vladimir SHCHERBAKOV invites us to make a journey into the past - to the distant prehistory of Pushkin’s fairy tale, to its mythological roots ...
The fairy tale is fiction, and its heroes are magic: werewolves and fairies talking
beasts. So I treated once a famous Pushkin fairy tale about a goldfish - as a story-parable in verse, created according to the laws of the magic genre. In the 1960s, an event occurred that made me change my position. Bulgarian archaeologist T. Ivanov published pictures of a bronze plate found among other antiquities in the North-Western Black Sea region. The half-figure of a woman in a belted chiton with ornaments on her hands is depicted on the plate, ”art critic MM Kobylin wrote about the find.
Her hair is loose, with a fluffy mass falling on her shoulders, on her head a crown; at the level of the belly is depicted a fish; her hands were raised symmetrically, palms to the viewer - in a gesture to the sky "testified that this woman is a goddess who came from antiquity. When I learned about this find, I was struck by the name of the goddess, named T. Ivanov - Anahita. After all, the goddess Ardvisura Anahita (avest. Mighty, immaculate ") is well known in ancient Iran, Central Asia, her portrait is given in Avesta - the oldest monument of Aryan writing! "A beautiful, strong, slender, highly belted, straight, noble family, noble maiden", says one of the hymns of this sacred book - "Ardvisur-Yasht". She is the goddess of sacred waters, and a fish is naturally depicted next to her - her second image: of course, it is not difficult for the goddess of waters to turn into fish if necessary. Later saw the light and domestic finds of the same kind ...
In Pushkin’s fairy tale, a detail is very important: the old woman found herself at the broken trough after she had made her old man tell the fish that she wanted to be the ruler of the sea, and the golden fish herself should serve her on the packages. This is not just the reaction of the fish is the answer of the goddess, the place of which the old woman wanted to take, besides turning the goddess into her servant. But is the Pushkin tale really about the mistress of the waters Anahita? What ways did the goddess come to Russia, becoming the heroine of a fairy tale and even so late in time? These questions remained unresolved for the time being. A. Pushkin told so much in his fairy tales that they brought to life an endless series of studies and comments. And yet, as it seems now, it is becoming increasingly clear behind the magic of the stanzas something amazing is emerging - the pictures and images of the most ancient pre-Slavonic mythology two thousand years ago.
Twenty centuries separate us from the era of the Bosporan kingdom on the Black Sea and Azov shores, the spiritual life of which — to the great amazement of the author of these lines — turned out to be reflected in the Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish. ”It was difficult to believe it immediately. "Cicero called the Greek city-states of the Northern Black Sea region a border, hemmed to the vast fabric of the barbarian steppes." The lands of the Bosporian kingdom covered not only the “fringe”, but also the “fabric”: it also included areas inhabited by the Sindo-Meotian tribes of Kuban and the royal Scythians of the Crimea-Kimmeria. The religion of the Bosporan kingdom combined the cults of the Greek and local gods. The goddess of waters, Anahita, was worshiped here. The sacred animal of Anahita was a fish - a golden fish, the very ...
The findings of archaeologists helped translate the proposed assumption from the field of hypotheses to the category of scientifically established, proven facts. Reliefs and images of the ancient Aryan goddess of waters with fish or two fish in their hands were found on the Bosporus lands. And these fish are not simple, but divine, they are like its second way ...
We now turn to the analysis of the very Pushkin fairy tale. It has long been established by Pushkin scholars that when writing their fairy tales, the poet, along with Russian folklore, used the mythological traditions that had developed in Western Europe. Once it was thought, for example, that the beginning of Pushkin's "The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish" (1833) was laid by the Russian folk tale, known from the recording in the collection of A.N. Afanasyev (1855-1863), with the same title. Then the opposite opinion was expressed: it was the poet’s work that was the source of the tale in Afanasyev’s collection. There is no direct evidence that the image of a goldfish was inspired by the poet by the stories of his nanny Arina Rodionovna. This is not excluded, although it encounters objections from philologists.
The fact is that Pushkin's drafts retained the original version of his fairy tale, where it was a question of the greedy old woman’s wish to "be the Roman Pope," as in a German fairy tale from the collection of the Grimm brothers. The book of fairy tales by the Brothers Grimm, published in Paris in 1830 in French, was in the library of the poet. But note that both Russian and German goldfish history goes back to pre-Slavic, Scythian and Sarmatian antiquities. In the epoch of the Great Migration of Peoples in the first centuries of our era, the ancient legend about the magic fish leaves the Northern Black Sea region. A century later, we will meet her in German, Swedish, French, Moldovan tales, not to mention South and West Slavonic - Croatian and others ... The Brothers Grimm "The Tale of the Fisherman and His Wife" was recorded in Pomerania, which has long been inhabited by the Slavs. As folklorists suggest, this is a Slavic fairy tale, which is converted into German folklore. Her Slavic fundamental principle and tried to recreate Pushkin in his "Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish."
According to V.Ya. Propp's classification ("The Morphology of a Fairy Tale", 1947), Pushkin's goldfish belongs to a special kind of fairytale heroes - "magic assistants."
Fabulous "helpers" who magically fulfill the desires of heroes and heroines are a great multitude in the works of world folklore, but I could not find an analogue of a goldfish - divine, unique - among them. In the fairy tale of the Brothers Grimm, the usual flounder acts as a goldfish. But neither flounder nor other breeds of fish, known from foreign fairy tales, give an idea of this ancient mythological image. Golden fish looked different. How so?
Now the answers to this question are given already mentioned excavations of the ancient cities of Bosporus. One of them is Tanais, Tana, founded in the III century BC at the mouth of the Don by Bosporan rulers from the Scythian-Iranian dynasty.
The relief of Tanais depicts the goddess of the sacred waters of Anahita, her arms raised to the level of the chest, each about the size of a fish in the size of a human hand. A relief from Tanais was discovered not so long ago in the repository of the Novocherkassk Museum of Local History (Rostov Region) by the researcher A.I. Boltunova. The discovery of a terracotta fish is also relatively recent - a publication about it appeared in print in 1970. The terracotta figurine from the Northern Black Sea region of the I century BC gives a much more distinct idea about the inhabitant of the sea, sung by the poet. The terracotta fish has large, almost perfectly round eyes, pressed to the body of the upper and lower fins, transmitting a rapid movement, and a rounded tail. The body of the fish is unusual, almost rhombic. Everything together creates an impression of energy, strength and at the same time - grace, grace. I have not had to meet such outlines in real fish. Perhaps the prototype should be sought not at all in the underwater world, but in the sky. The epithet "golden" in mythology and folklore is endowed with all the miraculous associated with the idea of the divine, as well as with the symbolism of light, the sun, the month. The sun seemed to the ancient people a golden fish, crossing the sky, only in later myths it was transformed into a golden boat of the sun god. " "Из ворот в ворота лежит щука золота"; говорится в русской загадке о солнечном луче. Так что, может быть, золотая рыбка - это отражение солнца на поверхности воды, нерукотворный - и потому священный для древних - образ небесного светила.Кстати, древние иранцы считали, что Анахита покровительствует не только небесной влаге - дождю, как богиня вод, но и солнцу - небесному огню, как супруга солнцебога Митры и дочь Ахура-Мазды - Божественного Света…
Размышляя об этом, нельзя не отметить бросающуюся в глаза странность созданного поэтом образа. Привычно и естественно, когда морской царь распоряжается в своей собственной стихии - на дне морском он волен даже закатывать пиры. But when a goldfish in the blink of an eye creates huts and lordly mansions on land, and then whole royal palaces, it is perceived, speaking in modern "pure business" language, as going beyond its authority. Even taking into account the important fact that the fish is divine and completely represents the goddess of the sacred waters Anahita. This is the external strangeness of the "Tales of the Fisherman and the Fish", which must be mentioned, because the ancients clearly demarcated the functions of various gods, and, say, Roman Neptune and his trident ruled the sea, within the boundaries of their rightful possessions. So what happened to the goldfish and why did its role suddenly turn out to be so global, comprehensive? How to explain the fulfillment of a goldfish, or, more precisely, a sea, water goddess in her guise, the purely "land-based" requirements of an old woman who became with her help both a column noblewoman and a crowned special? After all, these land affairs seem to be beyond the jurisdiction of the goddess of waters. To understand this, let's fast forward - unfortunately, only mentally - at that remote time, compared to which even the beginning of the chronicle in Russia seems quite recent. One of the most important articles of the Bosporan export was fish, mainly sturgeon, which were highly valued in Greece. Sturgeon even decorated Bosporus coins. But mostly our ancestors on the Don and in the Black Sea region were engaged in farming, the leading crops were wheat, millet, barley, and the wheat ear was often depicted on the coins of the Bosporus kingdom. Here they grew plum, cherry plum, pear, pomegranate, apple, grapes - it is not by chance that one of the ancient villages of Bosporus was called Kepy, literally “gardens”.
A patron of farmers and gardeners of Bosporus ... the goddess Anahita, the keeper of Ardvi, the source of world waters flowing from the top of the original mountain ridge in the Divine realm of Light; The ancient Aryans believed that these sacred waters give rise to all the waters and rivers on earth that feed the gardens and fields, and therefore the goddess of waters, Anahita, was also considered to be the patroness of fertility. Scythians related to Iranian Aryans were honored by her name Argimpasi. The Iranian origin of the Spartokids royal dynasty of Bosporus, their belonging to the highest aristocracy of the royal Scythians caused the connection of the lifetime cult of the ruling Bosporus monarchs with the main deity of the official Bosporian pantheon - Aphrodite Urania Apatura (avest. Apa - water, atar - I am firing). Anahita and Scythian Argimpasy. Long before the creation of the Avesta, in the twelfth and eleventh millennia BC and in subsequent centuries, Anahita was known in Asia Minor as Anahitis / Anatis, the Mother of the Gods. Goldfish folk tales,
representing this ancient deity, retained the power of the Great Mother Goddess - Anahitis-Anahita - in its various forms. The Slavs had the name of the ancient Aryan goddess of sacred waters tabooed and replaced with the epithet-allegory Mokosh, Mokresh, Makusha (from wet, soak). From the days of the week she, like the Iranian Anahite, was devoted to Friday. In the Christian era, its cult merged with the veneration of St. Paraskeva Friday (October 14/27). By the way, on the author's manuscript "Tales of a Fisherman and a Fish" is the date: "October 14 (November) 1833" ...
Thus, the fairy tale of A.S. Pushkin is not just beautiful poems that have been memorable to all of us since childhood. This is a poetic reconstruction of the images and plots of the most ancient mythology of the Aryans - Scythians and Pre-Slavs, stretching back to the even more distant, immemorial depth of millennia.
Together with people, they made long-distance voyages not only images and plots of fairy tales, but also products of masters. The artistic traditions themselves were carried over thousands of kilometers. Things and decorations from ancient tombs and hill forts indicate migration from the Lower Don to the north - to the floodplain of the Oka, and then even further, all the way to Vyatka. After getting acquainted with such finds, you come to the conclusion that the fairy tale of A.S. Pushkin about a fisherman and a fish is really built according to the laws of the ancient mythology of our ancestors. But only a poet managed to make out or guess the magical image in its essential features at the beginning of the 19th century - archeology, at that time, was still silent on this subject ...
The capital of the Bosporian kingdom was the city of Panticapaeum (modern Kerch). The future author of "Tales of a Fisherman and a Fish," while in the South exile, visited him on August 25, 1820. Imagine the sacred region, "he recalled in Onegin's Journey (1830) about the Taurida shores, about Kerch-Panticapaeum. We arrived in Kerch by sea," he wrote to Brother Lev then, in 1820. - Rows of stones, moat , almost level with the land - that’s all that remains of the city of Panticapaeum. There is no doubt that a lot of precious things are hidden under the earth that has been poured over the centuries. "
From what legend did the golden fish "sailed" into the fairy tale of A. Pushkin?
Sublime (on Kvamushka) nature
The fact that A.S. Pushkin borrowed the plot from the Brothers Grimm, only the lazy one does not write. More insightful add that the brothers were not writers, but also were not folklorists-collectors according to the modern standard. They recorded folk tales, but they were processed, so we cannot consider these works to be folklore in the strict scientific sense of the word. Even sprat in tomato is clear that if the Brothers Grimm recorded folk art, it reflects the Indo-European and more ancient universal understanding of the world, therefore fairy tales with similar motifs and storylines can be found in most nations, no matter how they are written. Those interested can familiarize themselves with the Russian folk tale "The Greedy Old Woman", in which instead of a fish stands ... a tree. No, “the mermaid is hanging on the branches” is not at all a transitional link from fish to tree and back, it is a completely different story ...
The fact is that we were confronted with the fact that V. Ya. Propp called "donor helpers", grateful animals - a reflection of the totem-animistic predstavleniyami primitive man. Totem animal need to serve. It can never be killed. "The soul of a dying totem animal goes into the newborn of the family that bears his name. Therefore, the animal should not be killed and not eaten, because otherwise a relative would be killed and eaten." In the same way, as in the Russian fairy tale "The Burenka", a cow is the deceased mother of a girl, and to eat her meat meant to eat the flesh of her own mother. It is not by chance that in the version of the Brothers Grimm the fish was an enchanted prince. This fish just had to be special. Not for the love of Paint, I placed at the beginning of my answer images of ancient fish-like deities.
Stone statues of fish - Vishans, found on the territory of the Neolithic sites in the burials of primitive people in the Caucasus, Northern Mongolia and Siberia, indicate the attitude to fish, as a sacred animal, from ancient times. The fish motif of the pattern and ornament on the dishes and women's clothing has been known since the fifth millennium. There were prohibitions to pronounce the name of the fish out loud and eat it. The Indians of Peru worshiped fish that they caught in large quantities. They believed that the first fish that was created in the “upper” world gave birth to all the other fish of this species and took care of the mm in order to produce more children - so that humanity would emerge from them. These Indians considered the gods of all the fish that were useful to them. The Kwakiutl Indians believed that when salmon are killed, their soul returns to the land of salmon. They made sure to throw caviar and bones of salmon into the sea so that the soul could revive them. Aftermath in Canada, who believed that the souls of dead fish were transferred to other fish bodies, they never burned fish bones for fear of pleasing fish souls that would not fall into the net after that. Among the peoples of Africa, fish was considered the embodiment of the soul of a deceased person, and according to the ideas of the peoples of Siberia, fish have their patrons, in particular, the "hairy father", herding fish herds and helping fishermen. Fishing was accompanied by special rituals - the fishermen hoped that it would provide a rich catch. "
The first incarnation of the god Vishnu was a fish (see picture). At the same time, a story close in its plot to the Flood also contains the motive of the service to the totem animal ...
The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish
Written in the fall of 1833, printed in 1835. This tale is
a kind of purely Pushkin variant widespread in poetry
different nations tales of an old woman, punished for her desire for wealth and
authorities. In Russian fairy tales for this plot, an old man and an old woman live in a forest, and
the old woman's wishes are fulfilled either by a wonderful tree, or by a bird, or by a saint, etc.
P. Pushkin used the appropriate German fairy tale of the Brothers Grimm, where the action
occurs on the seashore, the old man is a fisherman, and as a performer of all desires
favored fish flounder.
As the researchers note, a husband in a German fairy tale is not just at one with his wife, he simultaneously experiences “awkwardness” before a magical fish, but does not give those “unflattering characteristics” to his wife that are broken from the mouth of an old man: “I’m not giving an old man to the old man rest. " "A grumpy woman asks for izbu", "The old woman has puffed up the forest of the former", "What should I do with a damned woman". However, the husband from the German fairy tale has the opportunity to “hide” behind the spell-asking-request, which is so often found in folk tales. Translated into Russian, it sounds like this:
Little man Timpe-Te, Fish flounder in water, Ilsebille, my wife, Against my will sends me.
Pushkin replaced this malopoetichesky image (besides
In the German fairy tale the flounder is enchanted by the prince! ) - golden
fish, folk symbol of wealth, abundance, good luck.
Another change made by Pushkin in the plot, gives the fairy tale completely
new ideological meaning. In all folk variants, the idea of a fairy tale is reactionary.
It reflects the downtroddenness, the humility of the people. The tale condemns the desire
rise above his wretched state. The old woman wants to get instead
dugouts new home, then become a lady from a peasant (and the old man
becomes the master, then the queen (and the old man the king) and finally the god himself.
For this, they are both punished: in some versions they are turned into bears
(or in pigs), in others - back to the old poverty. The meaning of the tale in her
folk options (among all nations) - "every cricket know your hearth."
In Pushkin's fairy tale, the fate of the old man is separated from the fate of the old woman; he and
remains a simple peasant fisherman, and the higher the old woman climbs along
the “social ladder”, the heavier the oppression experienced by the old man becomes.
The old woman at Pushkin is not punished for the fact that she wants to live a mistress or queen,
but for the fact that, having become a lady, she beats and “for Chuprun drags” her servants,
the husband of a peasant sends to serve at the stable; becoming queen she is surrounded
the formidable guards who nearly hacked her old man, the mistress with axes
she wants to be the sea so that the goldfish can serve her and be with her
on the parcels. This gives Pushkin's tale a deep progressive meaning.
The tale is written by a special poem created by Pushkin, to which he wrote
one of the "Songs about Stenka Razin" ("As in the Volga-Rock on the wide ...") and
most of the "Songs of the Western Slavs".