Starting the aquarium from scratch: step-by-step instructions for creating a new aquarium
LAUNCH OF AQUARIUMThe launch of the aquarium is the most important starting point in the life of the aquarium world! That is why, this issue should be given maximum attention. Due to the fact that Forum FanFishka.ru users regularly ask questions about the proper start of the aquarium, about the first month of its life, it became necessary to supplement this article with this preface, the goal of which is to expand the aquarium novice everything in a simple and understandable way and give a basis for understanding the essence of the aquarium. The first thing you should pay attention to is that we all have different aquariums: in terms of parameters, in aquatic organisms, etc. In this connection, it is simply not possible to display the standard of launch and further care of the aquarium. Each "bank" has its own specifics, its own nuances. From this, it is possible to make an important conclusion - before doing something, a novice aquarist should independently read, study information on the specificity of the content of certain aquatic organisms, a beginner should thirstyly absorb information about the nuances of the content of his aquarium. Without this, nowhere! As they say, you will not help yourself, no one will help you! A common misconception of people is their understanding of the essence of the aquarium - as a kind of can of water and fish. Far from it! An aquarium is not only water, fish and aquarium plants. This is a whole microcosm - an almost closed biological system, in which, as in nature, everything is interconnected. It should be understood that the aquarium is a collection of hydrobiotic, i.e. of all living aquarium organisms and these are not only fish and plants, they are also mollusks, crustaceans, algae, protozoa, bacteria and fungi. Can say that The aquarium as such is a compound organism consisting of a chain of "living links"!
From this we can draw another important conclusion that the primary task of an aquarist is to establish a well-coordinated work of all links in the chain. You can often hear the expressions: "aquarium balance", "biological balance", "healthy aquarium", "right aquarium", etc. - in essence, this means that the aquarium works like a clockwork, where all the gears are in place and perform their function.
Also, it should be understood that the aquarium is a complex mechanism. The processes that take place in it are complex and diverse. A frequent delusion of a newbie is the thought that: “Here I’ll throw a pill right now, which I’m recommended and everything will pass,” no ... no ... no and no! There are no magic pills. All aquarium hydrochemistry only makes life easier for an aquarist, but is not the key to success. For a deeper understanding, here are some examples of some processes (chains) that take place in an aquarium.
Example number 1. The so-called "Nitrogen cycle"
Fish waste and dead organics (hereinafter referred to as "PJ") are regularly released into the water.
Under the action of beneficial bacteria - nitrifying, PJ breaks up into poisons:
first ammonia / ammonium (NH3 / NH4),
then nitrites (NO2),
then to nitrates (NO3),
and then, by bacteria denitrifiers, nitrates decompose to a gaseous state and are removed from the aquarium.
Example number 2 "Nitrogen cycle with plants"
PJ, regularly fall into the water.
Under the action of beneficial bacteria - nitrifying, PJ breaks up into poisons:
then to nitrates
NO3 nitrates (or more precisely nitrogen N) are fertilizer for aquarium plants and are used by them in the process of photosynthesis.
If the process of photosynthesis is adjusted (there is a proper amount of refreshment, CO2 and other fertilizers in the aquarium), the plants “pull out nitrates” take nitrogen (N) and release water H2O and oxygen (О2), which is very useful for aquatic organisms and in general for oxidation processes.
Example number 3 "Negative"
PJ, regularly fall into the water. And in the aquarium there are not enough good bacteria, no plants.
The concentration of poisons accumulates, deadly for all living things.
Aquarium, as a holistic organism "Sits and thinks what should I do? How can I reduce the concentration of poisons ... and here I am reminded of algae disputes that are always in a state of depression in aquarium water"
There is an "algal flash" - the aquarium is covered with the lower plant world: green, brown, black algae.
Due to the algae, the aquarium is trying to get rid of harmful substances.
Well, then, if you don’t remember it in time ... the aquarium is overgrown with "greenery", goes dead, turns sour and dies!
You can continue to continue to give examples of the relationship of individual elements of the aquarium chain. A lot of them! But I think the essence is clear. Additionally, see the material: MUTT AQUARIUM, Nitrates and nitrites in an aquarium. And here we come to the main task of this article - to the question, how can an aquarist help his family aquarium, at the start and the first month of life?
The most important thing that a happy owner of a new aquarium should understand is that in a young aquarium there is no bioblans at all - that is, in fact, nothing works: there is no proper amount of bacteria, fungi, freshly planted plants have not yet been strengthened, etc. ... and the fish already give out PJ, some leaves of the plants die, the remnants of under-fed food decompose ....
In this connection, below I will cite a set of rules for the care of an aquarium in the first month:
1. As a general rule, in the first month of fish in the aquarium, for obvious reasons, should not be. Often, newbies ask ... well, you can, well, you can already plant a fish))) By myself I know, this is a heel-burning desire to have the first fish! Therefore, I will answer this way - it is possible, but carefully))) ... it is desirable to at least wait two weeks ... well, at least a week))) At the same time, it is necessary to start populating the aquarium with fish gradually, starting with the most stoic and unpretentious. Which often are catfish like fish (for example, Corridors, Ancistrus). Well, then, if everything is normal, you can already look at and sit down "the main characters of your aquarium theater."
Often in the vast Runet can be found opinions and statements, such content: "Ty you think, I immediately put the fish in the aquarium and everyone is alive!" I note that this attitude to the question is not valid. Why? The answer will be given by this visual table about the growing concentration of poisons in the first month of aquarium life.
From this table it is clear that poisonous substances simply "climb up" and go off scale, because there are no bacteria, no balance. And now imagine, you bring the first cabin from the pet store! I note that in most pet stores fish are in poor conditions, and therefore, the health of most of them is not the best. So, from transplantation and transportation of your fish, in addition, stress, here it is also planted in a new aquarium with other parameters of water, and besides, the concentration of ammonia, nitrites and nitrates is too high in the water !!! What happens to a fish? ... A fish with a strong immunity will "tolerate" and everything can cost, a fish with weak immunity will get sick and will need to be treated, the treatment will negatively affect the condition of the aquarium as a whole and complicate the life of the aquarist several times, well, and the fish without Immunity just a day, two "stick together flippers."
2. In the first month of the life of the aquarium, they try not to bother him! What does it mean? This means: you do not need to constantly climb into it, you do not need to do the cleaning, change the water, or siphon the aquarium floor! Yes Yes Yes!!! Exactly!!! It would seem that if we clean everything thoroughly, siphon and rub everything, then there will be no PJ, and therefore no problems! But, unfortunately, with these actions we only prevent useful microorganisms from developing.
For example, only in water, only a colony of beneficial bacteria has formed, only a favorable environment has been formed, and we have to change the water again and fill in fresh “empty” water! Or, for example, the bottom of an aquarium ... after all, in essence, this is a biological filter - “a house where 90% of our beneficial bacteria live” ... for the first, second week they just started to “occupy a new place”, and we siphon them suck out of the house !!!
Of course, the above is not a dogma, but as a general rule, it is recommended not to clean the aquarium (and all its equipment) during the first month. Thus, we give the opportunity to the aquarium, which is called "insist".
3. Since water is not sterile, sooner or later the aquarium will independently “fill” with invisible to the human eye organisms. Nevertheless, it is possible and even necessary to use aquarium hydrochemistry, which helps the aquarium to gain bio-balance. it Tera safestart and Tetra aquasafeand Tetra bactozymand Tetra NitratMinus, Tetra NitrateMinus Pearls, Sulfur nitrivek, zeolite and many, many other analogues, about which you can read the full information on the pages of our site. The essence of their action is simple:
- some preparations “ennoble water”, i.e. they make water suitable for habitat of aquatic organisms (AquaSafe) and contribute to their reproduction of beneficial bacteria (Bacozyme).
- others are ready concentrate, those most useful bacteria that fight poisons (Tetra SafeStart, Sera Nitrivek).
- either at a biological or chemical level, the concentration of poisons is reduced (Zeolite, Sulfur Toksivek, Tetra Nitrate Minus).
All these drugs can be used both individually and together. THE NOTE: In a pet shop or with friends of aquarists, you can ask for a squeeze from a filter that worked in a healthy aquarium. This squeeze - brown slurry contains a huge number of beneficial bacteria, i.e. essentially replaces starter drugs. You just need to pour it into your aquarium for three hours after squeezing.
1. It is important not only to install the aquarium correctly and connect everything, this is only half the battle.
2. It is necessary, as thoroughly as possible, to understand and understand that an aquarium is a complete organism, a closed corner of nature in your home, and not just a vessel with fish.
3. Aquarium is not a picture, set and forgotten. It requires attention, patience and perseverance. It is necessary to read, learn and try to improve your aquarium - this is the beauty of aquarism. You need to learn to see "aquarium by eye", you need to learn how to "feel it."
4. At the same time, you should always follow the golden rule - the aquarium does not like sudden movements. Everything needs to be done with the mind, gradually and not from the bay-floundering!
Below are links to forum branches, guys who have already launched an aquarium and have passed the test of the "first, aquarium month at FanFishka", from which you can additionally gather information:
Launch and arrangement of the aquarium of 132 liters - Forum
New one hundred liter aquarium, start from scratch. - Forum
Run a 200 liter aquarium with scalaris - Forum
Launching a new aquarium - Fish are dying - Forum
My first aquarium is 100 liters - Aquarium forum
Equipment and running aquarium 200 liters - Forum
My first aquarium is 180 liters, help with the launch - Forum
Launch of shrimp on 70 liters - Aquarists Forum
Below is a link to the material of our "forum bee" and moderator Yanina, in which she shares her impressions and experiences when launching her 600l. aquarium with goldfish.
STARTING A GREAT AQUARIUM
step-by-step example of arrangement of the aquarium world
And also, the curious story of our forum member Iren2321, about his impressions when launching the first aquarium
My first aquarium is a novice pathFrom admin: About ten months ago, Irene appeared on the site FanFishka.ru Iren2321 - a girl with a kind and sympathetic heart, dreaming with all her soul about her first aquarium ... It was communication with her that finally formed my opinion then that the key to success of any site is: kindness, love for everything you do and selfless help to your neighbor ...
Now, FF is a huge circle of friends, it is a lively, interesting communication, it is an exchange of experience and emotions, AND THIS MEANS THAT THE STRATEGY OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IS TRUE!
The following article is a report of Irina, the result of the help of all members of the forum of FF set out in this forum thread - / forum / 4-243-1.
* * * The last 5 years, one of my most cherished wishes was to acquire an aquarium! I really wanted to see - this is a “bubbling gurgling” miracle, with bright inhabitants and beautiful design inside. Sit in the kitchen, drink tea and admire ... And so! Dreams Come True! Thanks to the forum users of our beloved FF, I decided to purchase an aquarium. At once I will say that pleasure is not cheap, therefore, having a fairly limited budget, I tried to balance my “want” and “I can” as much as possible.
The aquarium itself can be bought cheaply, but everything, even the most necessary, equipment and accessories "will fly into a pretty penny."
The first thing that I pushed off when choosing the shape and size of the aquarium is the place where it will stand. Based on the recommendations of Feng Shui equipment, personal preferences and maximum efficiency of space use, the only place in our small apartment that was suitable for an aquarium was only the kitchen. It is quite large and spacious, moreover, there was a free space between two windows with a width of 70 cm.
In my opinion, quite a good option:
1. Kitchen - it is always convenient to maintain the aquarium.
2. The flow of the filter does not interfere with sleep (as a result, it turned out to be noiseless).
3. A great place to properly admire the aquarium - just opposite the dining table. The center of the aquarium is at eye level.
It turns out that you need an aquarium that would fit in the width between the windows, but was not too small to be in harmony with the interior of the kitchen.
The second thing I was thinking about for a very long time was how much I could properly equip the aquarium without having the slightest experience in aquarism.
After much deliberation, consultations with experienced aquarists, I stopped at an aquarium of an average volume of 100 liters. This is not much, but not enough. A larger aquarium will be of unacceptable size for me, and a smaller one will cause a lot of difficulties in setting up a biosystem.
The next question is the shape of the aquarium.
I liked the traditional rectangular shape of the aquarium and the lens (with a convex front glass). The decisive factor in determining the shape of the aquarium was the financial aspect. To save money, I decided to order the manufacture of an aquarium, so the choice fell on a rectangle. He glued him not a professional (as I understood later), but simply a man who had already pasted several aquariums and had succeeded.
The size of the aquarium is 70 * 35 * 40 cm, i.e. in fact, not even 100 liters, but 90 liters.
Yes, it came out cheaper than buying an aquarium in a store, but there are still some flaws. Stiffeners were glued at the top of the aquarium with a height of 7 cm, which visually and functionally reduced its height. Self-adhesive was glued poorly and during transportation scratches were made on the glass. All this, of course, made me very upset, but this is my FIRST aquarium !!!! After 3 months, no problems with the quality of glued seams have arisen, which means that everything is not so bad! :)
Installation of an aquarium For the time being, she adapted an old Soviet book table as a pedestal for the aquarium: they removed the castors and extendable supports, put pieces of linoleum under the legs, checked both sides of the table with a level. A piece of polystyrene 5 cm high was put under the aquarium (which house they found). Later disguised him with MDF sheets. Already 3 months is so aquarium, the table cover is not bent.
Preparing the aquarium for launch Aquarium washed without diligence, i.e. without washing and cleaning, filled with water for a day to check the quality of the seams. All is well! Water leaked.
Lighting The issue of lighting dealt with my husband. He took out a Soviet lamp from the bins and glued it to the glass, the dimensions of which corresponded to the width of the aquarium, but less than its depth, so that there would be a gap for the wires and the possibility of feeding the fish. To the inside of the lamp pasted mirror as reflector. The luminaire has built-in 2 LD fluorescent lamps of 20 W each (which were also available).
Equipment While I was waiting for the aquarium, I ordered the most necessary equipment in the online store:
1. Internal filter, Aquael FAN 3 Plus.
2. Thermostat Xilong AT-700, 200 watts.
3. Timer Feron TM12 - timer daily electro-mechanical compact.
4. The background is two-sided.
The filter, in my humble experience of a novice aquarist, copes well with cleaning 100 liters of water.
The timer is a necessary thing, you can buy it at an electrical appliance store, it costs 5 cu very helpful. Set the lighting time and the light turns on and off when needed.
With gluing the background did not work out. The background was pasted together with her husband in a hurry, they hurried to launch the aquarium. Husband insisted glue on the soap, he just knew how to do it. Glued from the outside of the aquarium.
- the background never stuck.
- there were terrible soap patterns, which were perfectly visible in the foreground of the aquarium.
In the end, I watched this unpleasant picture for another month, and then spat - peeled off the background, rubbed the back wall dry and glued it on the sides with adhesive tape, temporarily. It became easier for me, even if the terrible white divorces are not visible.
Conclusion: you need to glue the background correctly and from inside the aquarium. See the article on FF - here.
The choice of soil and its preparation. Errors made. Soil I chose the black basalt fines. I needed 20 kg of soil for my volume of aquarium, which is, of course, right next to it, and a little more.
Soil I washed 3 times. Tired and decided that would be enough. Was wrong. После того, как залила воду в аквариум, поднялась страшная муть и осела на его стенки.Dirt had to tear off around the perimeter of the aquarium, which, in turn, settled on the equipment and plants. The spectacle is not pleasant!
!!! The soil must be washed until the water is completely clean !!!
In addition, for good plant growth, you need to fill the top dressing layer in the ground. I did not do this, which I later regretted.
Decor Though I am a novice, I did not imagine artificial decorations in my aquarium. I dream of a chic herbalist, created by hand. Therefore, a beautiful snag, entwined with moss - the most it!
One snag, I ordered via the Internet, already ready for placement in the aquarium, and the second my husband and I decided to do it ourselves.
Since I was just delighted with somics (and later it turned out that all the other family members, too) chose a vine for this purpose. Her husband cleaned and brought me for further processing. I boiled a snag in a solution of salt for half a day, and after two days I soaked it in water.
Selection and planting plants For me, an aquarium without live plants is not an aquarium, so I read information about plants for beginners, which were not particularly demanding in terms of water parameters and lighting, I had seen photos and descriptions of aqua design and acquired the following plants:
1.Parthorn Thailand - 2pcs.
2. Cryptocoryne (I don’t know which one) - 10 pcs. (I don’t remember exactly).
3. Moh javanese - 1 sp. Box (attached to the snag)
4. Anubias -nana - 3 pcs. (attached to snags)
5. Indian Indian brackerel - 2 pcs. (while floating on the surface)
6. Limnobium - 5pcs.
7.Pissures - 3pcs.
I filled the soil in the aquarium, as it should be - to the back wall the ground level is higher than in the foreground (to enhance the effect of the depth and volume of the aquarium). Filled the aquarium up to half defended water, with the addition of Tetra AquaSafe. She weaved a snag with a fishing line, securing Yavan moss on it and planted the plants. Completely filled the aquarium with water.
A week later, I became the happy owner of a whole bucket of plants that our beloved admin Oleg sent me.
There were the following plants:
1. Cryptocoryne - 8 pcs.
2. Vallisneria - a lot.
3. Echinodorius - 1 pc.
4. Ludwig red.
All gladly landed.
Basic aquarium accessories After the launch of the aquarium in the next few days in the store of my city, I bought the following accessories for the aquarium, without which one can not do:
1. Thermometer - JERO sticker (the most expensive one that was in the store).
4. Magnetic brush.
The only thing I am pleased with is a net, but, strictly speaking, there are no serious technical requirements for it.
Due to my inexperience, I did the stupid thermometer - I stuck it inside the aquarium, not outside. I learned about that much later after I threw such an expensive purchase in my product category into the urn. Placed in the water, he showed it is not clear that, one could only guess, at the same time several temperature indicators were glowing at once. Behind him was going to the dirt, which terribly annoyed me. As a result, I peeled it off, but he did not stick back ... threw it out. At the moment there is no thermometer in the aquarium. I repent, I forget to buy, I hope for the excellent work of the thermostat.
Siphon bought the only one that was in the store - the cheapest for 35 UAH., There was no choice. I am not happy with it. I plan to buy this:
From the magnetic brush, I was at first simply delighted with a calf. After she quickly cleaned all the dirt that had accumulated from the start of the aquarium, I considered it one of the most successful inventions of mankind. Then I noticed that all this mud settled on plants, soil and decor. This sight resembled the terrain near a metallurgical plant. Fortunately, the filter did not let us down and in a few days cleared everything up. After a while, I made this brush scratches on the inside of the glass. If even the slightest little cave, even the most imperceptible will fall between the teeth of the brush - all terrible scratches on the glass are inevitable. And to my utter disillusionment with this device, I noticed that as it was used, its cleansing abilities fade away. As a conclusion, you need to look for an alternative to it.
Aquarium dwellers The following inhabitants live in my aquarium:
1) Som Antsitrus - the very first resident, settled on the launch day, despite all the prohibitions and warnings. Moved great! My little son's favorite fish!
2) Angelfish - the main in the aquarium, periodically chasing everyone, fish with character.
3) Swordsmen - 5 pcs.
4) Algae - just a wonderful fish, bringing a lot of benefits to the aquarium.
5) Apistogram ramiresi - a beautiful and unusual little innocent Tsykhlida.
6) Chery shrimps - I don’t know exactly how many pieces there are at the moment, because they are rarely even seen one by one. There is a fear that the scalar is hunting for shrimp.
7) Ampularia - 2 pcs., Got into my tank in a very neglected state - the greenest! Their husband brought from the kindergarten aquarium where he works. I'm even afraid to imagine what kind of water there is! A month later, both snails are almost completely pretty orange!
There were 2 Gorami - Honey and Marble. Marble did not grow at all and died before my eyes, and Medovaya lived for a long time behind the filter, her other aquarium inhabitants somehow didn’t complain much, and then suddenly and completely disappeared (she didn’t know that this was the case).
Difficulties after starting the aquarium During the first two days after the launch of the aquarium, a part of the floating plants turned yellow and Cryptocorynes began to actively stratify. I did not place any fertilizer for plants in the aquarium, so I immediately ran to the store and bought Aqua Bio Start and PlantaMin. The first, opening 1 capsule, I sprinkled into the water, and the second poured as indicated in the instructions 5 ml per 100 liters.
I do not know how effective these actions were, but a month later half of Kryptocoryn died (apparently, they started Kryptocorynous disease).
Today, 3.5 months after the launch of the aquarium, the state of the plants is as follows:
- Cryptocoryne narrow-leaved hilinkie and especially do not multiply.
- Piste disappeared, apparently Limnobium squeezed it out.
- Thai fern on the last breath.
- There are almost no red plants.
- Javanese moss is hardly holding on.
- Indian fern breeds and grows.
- Growing Limnobium.
“Slowly but surely Anubia Nano is growing.”
Aquarium care problems. My observations.
The problem of lighting and alga Blackbeard
The worst news in the second month, after the launch of my aquarium, was the appearance of one of the nastiest algae - Black beard. After reading the recommendations on FF and other resources, I took action. After 2 weeks, only short, whitish hairs remained from the terrible long hairs of the Blackbeard, barely visible on a couple of plants. I hope there will be no relapse. I analyzed and realized my mistakes, I mean the reasons for the appearance of such an unpleasant aquarium guest.
As I guess, as a result of poor lighting, the plants in my tank felt bad. Therefore, 2.5 months after launch, I replaced one ordinary one with a special Sval Aquastar F18W / T8 / G13 special aqualamp. At first, for joy, I left the lighting for 10 hours with a break of 2 hours. After 3 days, all plants turned brown - reduced daylight hours to 6 hours. Honestly, I did not see any positive changes. The plant grows poorly (in my opinion it is even worse than before), the red ones did not turn red, and besides, the pleasure of observing the aquarium is much less, because the illumination is only 6 hours. What to do? I don't know yet. But, I will definitely follow the instructions of this article. Aquarium lighting and choice of lamps.
Pleasant surprises and impressions from the new hobby At the end of the second month of my aquarium life, my husband and I made an installation for supplying CO2, using the instruction. The result is very pleased - the plants are significantly accelerated in growth.
For a long time I did not dare to acquire an aquarium, not only due to financial reasons, but also as a result of doubts: “Can I?”, “Do I have enough time for that, because I have a small child?”, “Is it enough patience? "... I could! Enough of everything! Care of the aquarium takes a little time. I have about 1 hour a week. Of course, it is possible to replace water faster and siphon a primer, but I get tremendous pleasure when picking up plants, replanting them, so I do everything slowly. At the same time, I do the cleaning of the aquarium not when the child sleeps, but with it. He likes to click on the siphon's pump so that some water begins to flow, sit and wash his hands in a bucket or touch the remains of plants. Time can always be found. After all, it’s still better to care for the fish with your child than to sit in front of the TV.
Sometimes the aquarium helps me a lot when I need to distract my son for a while, I start asking: “Where's the catfish?”, “Show me a new fish that we bought yesterday?”, “What do snails now do?”. The child instantly runs to the aquarium and can get stuck near it even for a few minutes! And for a young mother with a huge pile of cases every minute counts!
My child is not yet two years old, until she speaks, but she is perfectly distinguished by the names of the fish - what is not developing a lesson with a baby?
The aquarium fell in love with our whole family, even the husband who bukhtel, that it is expensive, where to put it, when you take care of it, that you fall into childhood, sometimes it puts a chair in the aquarium and sits watching television.
The aquarium has become part of the life of our entire family! I would like to thank Oleg once again - adminaff and all concerned forum members who gave me the opportunity to enter such a mysterious and magical world of aquarism!
How to run the aquarium for the first time?
It is decided that we will have an aquarium! He has already been selected and purchased, the equipment is waiting for the coolest next to him in beautiful boxes, the bottom is already filled with bright red brilliant, terribly spectacular soil, and there is a ceramic crocodile on it that will blow bubbles. Now we pour water and, while she stands up for an hour or two, let's go to the pet shop and buy the best fish there - those with long fins, and other yellow ones with red dots (whatever they are called? However, it doesn't matter, the main thing is beautiful) ...
Stop! No matter how commendable is the desire to join the fascinating world of aquarism, this process should not be forced, otherwise the first experience may be so deplorable that one does not want to continue. Let's tolerate a little more and see what should happen to a glass jar full of water in order for it to become an aquarium.
Aquarium is a balanced biological system in which many living organisms coexist. These are not only fish and plants planted by the host, but also self-inhabited small invertebrates, protozoa, algae, bacteria. And in order for the aquarium to be beautiful and comfortable for life, the whole system must be in balance. Substances entering it from the outside should be processed without deteriorating the vital indicators of water and not causing death or, on the contrary, uncontrolled outbreak of the number of any inhabitants, and then removed from the system during water changes and cleaning the aquarium.
What you need to do before launch?
Even before the launch procedure, it is necessary to solve a number of critical issues and take some necessary steps:
- Decide what kind of fish or aquatic animals you want to have. Find out what conditions they need. Be sure to find out if they are compatible with each other!
- Depending on the decisions on the first item, choose the volume and model of the aquarium, as well as a list of necessary equipment and design items. Based on the species and number of future inhabitants, decide whether you need a heater with a thermostat, for example, how powerful the filter should be, whether an additional compressor is needed, how to decorate an aquarium: stones or driftwood, which plants to plant, and so on.
- Choose a place for the aquarium - not in the draft and not in the sun. It is also important that access to the aquarium was convenient, and there were a sufficient number of outlets nearby.
- Buy and install an aquarium (necessarily on a flat surface, so that its edges do not hang from the shelf or pedestal even per centimeter). Pre-aquarium washed without the use of chemical detergents.
- Place the equipment in the aquarium: filter, compressor, heater and thermometer, lighting. Fill the soil with a layer of 3-4 cm. Depending on the type of soil and its source of origin, it may be necessary to pre-heat it, boil it or rinse it. The same applies to stones and snags.
Now the aquarium is ready to fill up with water and start running. But before we give a step-by-step start-up instruction, we will try to figure out what this notorious launch is for and what is the difference between running aquarium and not running.
Quite a bit of theory
As we already wrote above, the aquarium is an open-loop system, where various substances come outside. This is mainly fish food, which the fish eat, while releasing waste. In chemical terms, ammonia is the most significant and toxic part of this waste; even in low concentrations, it can cause poisoning and subsequent death of fish and other aquatic animals. However, in nature there are bacteria (they are called nitrifying) that consume ammonia, oxidizing it to nitrite. Nitrite for fish is not much better than ammonia, but there are other types of nitrifying bacteria, which in turn bind them, turning them into relatively harmless nitrates.
This whole system of bacterial colonies, which makes water with nitrates from poisonous ammonia water, quite suitable for fish, is called a biofilter. Since the efficiency of the biofilter directly depends on the number of its constituent bacteria in the aquarium (it is clear that two or three microscopic nitrosomonas cannot convert ammonia, selected by a dozen large goldfish, into safe compounds), these bacteria need to be allowed to multiply to the desired number. For this they need three things:
- nutrition (ammonia and nitrite);
- substrate (surface to which they can attach);
- and for some time, as bacteria multiply rapidly, but still not lightning.
Run (instructions for beginners)
So, we will analyze the points, how to run the aquarium correctly:
- The run starts with water pouring. Water must be poured plumbing, pre-defend it is not necessary. After pouring water turn on the filter with aeration. If the filter does not have an aerator, then the compressor must additionally work, since nitrifying bacteria require a lot of oxygen and a heater (set at 24-25 °). In this form, with the lights off, the aquarium is left for 5-7 days. All these days they spend only monitoring the operation of the equipment: check whether oxygen is supplied, measure the temperature of the water.
- After 5-7 days, unpretentious fast-growing plants are planted, after which they turn on the lighting for 4-5 hours a day.
- After 1-2 days you can start the first aquarium animals. This may be small unpretentious fish (viviparous or, for example, danios), but it is better to use snail ampoules or hymeno-viruses that are more resistant to water quality. Animals should be a bit. Feed them once a day in very small portions. It is necessary to constantly monitor their behavior and appetite. Ampulyaria, for example, are excellent indicators of water quality: in clean, good water, they rush around the aquarium at cruising speed, straightening antennae and looking for food. At this stage, the light is turned on for the whole day (8--12 hours), you can add special bacterial cultures to the aquarium to start (they are available from different companies, for example Sera Nitrivek).
- After a week, the remaining plants are planted and begin in parts (at intervals of 1-2 days) to launch the main fish population. For each released party you need to carefully monitor, feed moderately.
That is, in fact, all science. True, nothing complicated?
Of course, the equilibrium in the aquarium is still unstable, and some time after the launch such unpleasant phenomena can occur, such as outbreaks of diatoms. But if the launch was carried out correctly, these problems are usually not catastrophic, do not lead to a massive freezing of fish and are solved in working order. To combat these diatomies, for example, a small charming catfish otozinclus is successfully used.
How to facilitate the process of starting the aquarium?
Above, we wrote that for the reproduction of beneficial bacteria need nutrition and substrate. And, of course, the initial number of the bacterial colony matters. Thus, in order to accelerate the maturation of the biofilter and, accordingly, the launch of the aquarium, you can immediately add a significant amount of bacteria to the artificial reservoir and prepare a large area substrate for them (there is enough nutrition for the bacteria in the starting aquarium).
Bacteria are introduced with the help of industrial starter culture (we also mentioned about them above) or with water, soil, filter filler from the existing, safe aquarium.To ensure a sufficient area of the substrate for bacteria, it is recommended to use filters with fillers made of porous ceramics or filters of considerable volume with other fillers, plant plants with narrow, feathery leaves, and use fine gravel of even size as the soil. All these surfaces will inhabit nitrifying bacteria.
Startup control of the aquarium greatly facilitates the use of tests for aquarium water for ammonia and nitrite. These tests are produced by different manufacturers and are not uncommon in pet stores. With their help, you can track the level of these toxic compounds in the water and adjust the population of fish in the running aquarium.
As you can see, the correct launch of the aquarium takes not so much time - it is quite possible to suffer two or three weeks. It does not require a colossal amount of strength and special academic knowledge. But it helps to avoid many problems in the future, preserves the life and health of the fish, and therefore, the nerves and good mood to their owner.
How to run a new aquarium?
In this article we will continue the discussion about the installation of the aquarium, which began with the article: Aquarium for beginners. Now let's consider how to properly install and run the aquarium, without harming yourself and the fish. After all, the launch of an aquarium is at least half of a successful business. Errors made at this time, can still interfere with the normal balance for a long time.
Installation of an aquarium
When the aquarium is already installed, it is filled with water and fish are running into it, it is very difficult and problematic to rearrange it. Therefore, it must be properly installed from the start. Make sure that the place and stand where you are going to put it - will hold the weight of the aquarium, do not forget, the mass can reach large values. Be sure to check the distortions using the level, even if you think that everything is smooth. Do not place the aquarium so that the edges hang from the stand. It is fraught with the fact that it just crumbles. The aquarium should stand on a stand all the bottom surface.
Glue the background before installing the aquarium; the easiest way to do this is to put a thin layer of glycerin on the background. Glycerin is sold in a pharmacy.
Do not forget that the aquarium should be free space for maintenance and pipe filter. Finally, when the place is chosen and it is reliable, do not forget the substrate under the aquarium, which will smooth out the irregularities and help to more evenly distribute the load on the bottom of the aquarium. As a rule, it comes complete with an aquarium, do not forget to check with the seller.
Running aquarium - a detailed video in several parts:
Ground laying and filling
All soils, except the original in the package, must be thoroughly cleaned before they sleep in the aquarium. A large amount of fine dirt and debris is present in all soils, and if you do not rinse it, you will seriously clog the water. The process of washing the soil is long and dirty, but extremely necessary. The easiest method is to wash a small amount of soil under running water. Strong water pressure will wash all the light elements and leave the ground almost intact. You can also just pour a small amount of soil into a bucket and put it under the tap, while forgetting about it for a while. When you return it will be clean.
Laying the soil can be uneven, it is best to place the soil at an angle. The front window has a smaller layer, the rear one has a larger one. This creates a better look at the review and makes it easier to clean up the garbage that accumulates near the front glass.
Soil thickness is important if you are going to plant live plants, and should be at least 5-8 cm.
Before pouring water in, check if the aquarium is level. This can be done with a building level. Distortion can increase the wrong load on the walls, and it just does not look aesthetically pleasing.
The second part of the launch:
Then it's time to fill the jar, usually with tap water. Just let it drip slightly to avoid debris and stagnant water. If possible, fill slowly, trying not to blur the soil, it is better to use a hose for this. Even well washed soil will give dregs the first time. You can simply put a plate on the bottom and direct the flow of water to it, the water will not erode the soil and the turbidity will be minimal. Filling the aquarium should be to the top, but leave a few centimeters underfilling. Do not forget, the plants and scenery will take the same place. After the aquarium is filled, add a special conditioner to the water, it will help to quickly remove chlorine and other elements from the water.
You can add water from the old aquarium (if you already have one), but only after the fresh water in the aquarium warms up. You can also put a filter from the old aquarium.
The third video about the launch:
After the aquarium is full, you can proceed to the installation and testing of equipment. The heater should be installed in a place with a good flow, for example, near the filter. So the water will warm up more evenly. Do not forget that the heater must be completely submerged under water! Modern heaters are sealed, they work completely under water. Do not try to bury it in the ground, or the heater will break or the bottom of the aquarium will crack! Set the temperature to about 24-25 ° C, as it warms up, check with a thermometer. Unfortunately, heaters can give a difference of 2-3 degrees. Most of them have a light bulb that lights up in the process of work, you can understand from it when it is on.
Internal filter - if the filter does not need aeration (for example, there is a compressor), then it should be placed on the very bottom, since all the dirt accumulates there. If you sculpt it in 10-20 cm above the ground, then there will be no sense from it, and the whole bottom will be littered with garbage. The closer to the surface, the better the aeration, if needed. So the filter mounting is the choice of the optimal depth - it is necessary that it be as low as possible, but at the same time, aeration works ... And this is already determined by experience. But it is better to read the instructions for the model that you purchased. When you turn on the filter for the first time, air will come out of it, perhaps even more than once. Do not worry, it will take several hours before all the air is cleaned with water.
External filter is a little more difficult to connect, but again - read the instructions. Be sure to place the pipes for intake and discharge of water in different ends of the aquarium. This will eliminate dead spots, places where the water in the aquarium stagnates. It is better to place water intake near the bottom, and do not forget to put a protection on it - a prefilter, so that fish or large debris do not accidentally suck in. The external filter must be filled before operation. That is, before being included in the network, it is filled with water using a manual pump. I'll tell you that on some models it is not so easy, I had to suffer. As in the internal filter, in the external one there is air that will be released with time. But at first, the filter can work quite loudly, do not be afraid. If you want to speed up the process, gently tilt the filter at different angles or shake slightly.
Driftwood must be thoroughly rinsed and then boiled. This applies to both branded and those that you have found or bought on the market. Sometimes snags are dry and float, in which case they need to be soaked in water. The process is not fast, so do not forget to change the water in the tank with the wet rod. How, where and how many elements to put this business of your taste and not for me to advise. The only thing - make sure that everything is firmly installed, and the glass will not break if you break it. In the case of installation in the aquarium of large stones - 5 or more kg, does not interfere with the ground, put foam under it. This will ensure that such a large cobblestone does not break the bottom.
Running fish and planting plants
When can I run the fish in a new aquarium? After the water is filled, the décor is installed, and the equipment is connected, wait 2-3 days (4-5 is even better) before planting the fish. During this time, the water warms up, cleared. You make sure that the equipment works as it should, the temperature is stable and what you need, the dangerous elements (chlorine) have evaporated.
AquaSafe for water.
At this time, it is good to add special preparations to facilitate the establishment of balance in the aquarium. These are liquids or powders that contain beneficial bacteria that live in the soil and filter, and purify water from harmful substances. Plants can be planted a little faster, before planting the fish, but not before the water warms up to 24 C. Plant the plants, wait a couple of days until the raised dregs settle and launch your new pets.
Many, wanting to get an aquarium, believe that the fish - those pets that bring the least trouble. And only experienced aquarists know that this is far from true. Many people are convinced by their own experience that launching an aquarium is a complex process that is built up depending on a large number of factors. However, those who start, making the first launch of the aquarium, do not even suspect about all the stages that should precede such a joyful event as the launch of fish.
Start the aquarium correctly - the first task of the aquarist
Many reference books and manuals tell you how to run an aquarium. But in order to apply this knowledge gained in practice, it is not enough to increase the number of all the components necessary for the livelihood of an aquarium in proportion to its size, area and the number of its future inhabitants.
And even, at first glance, a successful launch can turn into frustration and death of the inhabitants of the aquarium. This happens because the created aqua-system is not supported properly and its initial parameters are lost.
To avoid this, the aquarist should understand the processes of this small ecosystem. It is worth noting that the larger the ecosystem, the easier it is to maintain balance in it. Of course, the number of fish and other organisms living in it plays an important role in its sustainability, but often for the sake of diversity it is necessary to manage to maintain rather fragile ecosystems.
Soil, plants and snails: first
Preparation of the aquarium for launch begins with the introduction of soil into it
The added tap water for some time should just be left in the aquarium so that it will settle. The duration of this period for supporters of traditional methods is several days. At the same time, there are special modern tools, adding which you can shorten this period to one day and carry out a quick launch of the aquarium.
Then the water is inhabited by microorganisms that are involved in the processes occurring in the water. To make this process faster, it is recommended to turn on the filter and saturate the water with air.
After the water is saturated with the simplest life, unpretentious plants are planted in the ground. And although some types of plants are quite acceptable to transfer the landing before filling the aquarium with water, it is better to do it after. Plants should not be much.
Together with the planting of plants, you can begin to turn on the light for a short time: 4-6 hours.
A day later it will be possible to launch snails into the aquarium. Thanks to the products of their vital activity, the number of bacteria will increase, which will help to establish equilibrium in the nitrogen cycle.
Only in 3 weeks from the moment of launch it will be possible to plant half of the total planned "green spaces". At this time, there will already be enough light for them, and they can no longer upset the balance.
We let out in an aquarium small fishes
Launching the aquarium, each owner is looking forward to the moment when it will be possible to run fish into it. After a few days from the very beginning of the process, it is possible to increase the lighting time of the aquarium to 9 or even 12 hours. At the same time, unpretentious types of fish are launched. Their number should not exceed one third of the population allowed for the selected aquarium volume. With the proper start of the aquarium, it is very important not to feed the fish at this time. It will not suffer from such a forced starvation diet, but it is easy to break the forming nitrogen cycle by feeding, which will lead to the need to restart the aquarium. It will be possible to organize food for the fish only 4 days after their stay in the emerging ecosystem.
A few days after the launch of the first fish, you can populate the aquarium with fish in half of their estimated number. At this time, it is already possible to release more capricious species of fish - the threat to them is minimal.
At the same time, it is already worth replacing one-fifth of the water, and at the same time siphoning the primer. It is also time to rinse the filter.
A week later, all the fish will be planted, the same amount of water will be replaced again, the filter cleaned and the soil cleaned.
The decomposition products of fish and other macro-organisms living in an aquarium, when decomposed, are converted into ammonia, which is dangerous for them at even low concentrations. This is such a toxic compound that its concentration at the level of 0.2-0.5 mg / l is fatal for the inhabitants of the reservoir, and when the content of ammonia in the water in a proportion of 0.01-0.02 mg / l in fish, immunity is significantly reduced. As a result, they become very vulnerable to all sorts of diseases and parasites.
Proper start-up of the aquarium is aimed at ensuring that microorganisms inhabiting the water could process the entire volume of ammonia. Then it practically will not be in the aquarium, which can be verified with the help of special tests.
The role of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle
The preparation of the aquarium for start-up must be carried out primarily because in the new aquarium the volume of ammonia grows very quickly and the fish, getting into such conditions in most cases either die immediately or start to hurt. In this case, only the restart of the aquarium can help.
The process of reproduction of beneficial bacteria can be accelerated in several ways. Traditional: add water and dirt from the old one to the new aquarium. Along with them will be made a significant number of bacteria, which then inhabit all of its volume. If there is no other aquarium, the bacteria can be bought at a regular pet store. The process of their reproduction is accompanied by the appearance of the effect of turbid water. Launching a new aquarium for the first time, at this time you can make a big mistake: change the water. This is not necessary. The water will become clear again after a couple of days.
The initial stage of the aquarium start-up cycle averages two weeks, during which the number of bacteria increases, but not as rapidly as in the first days.
The overgrown population of bacteria successfully processes ammonia into nitrites, which are also toxic, but to a much lesser extent. Other beneficial bacteria recycle nitrites and they are converted to nitrates, which are also toxic. Both nitrites and nitrates can reach a critical volume when they adversely affect fish.
To avoid further restarting the aquarium, which is also associated with significant inconveniences, it is better to carry out a slow start of the aquarium from the first time and not rush to populate it with fish.
The role of filters in the nitrogen cycle
External and internal filters are installed in aquariums. They are divided into those that carry out mechanical purification of water from protein suspensions, and there are biofilters.
The main function performed by biofilters is to create conditions for the successful reproduction of bacteria, which should always be in water in large quantities. They populate the filling filter, as a rule, porous materials. Together with water, they receive oxygen and food in the form of protein deposits. The launch of a new aquarium is accompanied by another event: the connection of the biofilter. When you turn on the filter in the first few weeks (up to a month) the amount of nitrite and nitrate in the water increases. This factor during the first start of the aquarium in inexperienced aquarists often causes the death of fish, which is simply poisoned by toxic substances.
Preparing to start the aquarium
So you decided to buy an aquarium, run exotic fish there, creating an atmosphere of pacification in your apartment or office. At first glance, it seems there is nothing easier. I bought an aquarium, filled it with water, covered the ground and put fish there. And then it remains to enjoy the process of contemplation. But in fact, this is far from the case. Proper preparation of the aquarium for operation will take more than one week. In fact, it is a long process that can be influenced by many different factors.
The choice of the aquarium and its inhabitants
The choice is influenced by many different factors.
- Place in the apartment or office where the aquarium will stand.
- Your financial capabilities.
- Recommendations on the content of your favorite fish. Some fish can live in a small aquarium, and for many it will be required with a minimum capacity of 100 liters. By the way, the more fish, the more they need an aquarium. In large volumes, fish of different species get along better with each other.
- A small aquarium requires less maintenance costs, but care must be taken more often.
- Aquarists recommend not to buy round aquariums. Because of its round shape, and the optical properties of water, optical distortion will be present.
- Choosing an aquarium of more than 250 liters, you will have more room to maneuver in the choice of inhabitants. In this volume, several species and sizes of fish can easily get along.
Selection of soil and other fillers
Knowing what the inhabitants will settle in the aquarium, you can proceed to the selection of soil, pebbles, koryag, and other necessary accessories.In addition to the decorative load, these components will be part of the biological environment. In it will grow plants in which small fish can hide and feed. The microorganisms and bacteria that have taken root in it, will create a biosphere that will process products traces of fish life.
Installation and Filling
Usually, aquariums are located near the wall of the room farthest from the window. Aquariums do not like to hit them in direct sunlight. Near the installation site, it is desirable to have a power outlet. It is needed for lighting, air compressor, and possibly heating. It must be beaten to him, free access is provided for the maintenance robot. You need to periodically clean it to change the water.
Speaking of water, it must be prepared. Preparation of water for the aquarium occurs by filtering, and then defending it at least a week. You can purchase ready-made water at companies and stores specialized in servicing aquariums. Or use tap water. Bottled water from stores can be supplemented with antibiotics. This will adversely affect the condition of the fish and microfauns of the aquarium. After pouring water, you can start planting in the soil of plants.
Connecting the filter and other equipment
The filter for the aquarium is an integral part of the life support system. It is designed to remove the remnants of fish life. Some fish waste, with a high concentration may be toxic. Filters from different manufacturers may vary. Therefore, when installing follow the instructions.
Illumination plays not only a decorative role, many fishes need the sensation of changing day and night. And if they do not have enough sunlight, then it can be disastrous for them. There are many different backlights, LED backlight is coming into fashion now.
This is probably the most crucial moment. All work has been completed prior to launch. But there is no need to hurry. The launch of the fish in the aquarium is preceded by gradual preparation. Start the launch with 2-3 fish, then slowly add at intervals of 5-7 days. This is necessary in order for it to establish biological balance.
How to run the fish in the aquarium :: run the fish in the aquarium :: Aquarium fish
Tip 1: How to run the fish in the aquarium
Many dream of having a little piece of the underwater kingdom at home. The aquarium allows not only to contemplate the beautiful, but also to join the amazing world of underwater inhabitants, to learn a lot of new and interesting things from their life.
The question "opened a pet shop. Business is not going. What to do?" - 2 answers
1. So you decided to start an aquarium. First of all, study the literature on aquarism, decide what type of aquarium you want to buy and what fish you want to keep in it.
2. Do not rush to buy everything at once. First you need to purchase the technical part: the aquarium itself, a filter and an aerator, a light, a heater, a thermometer. Then you need to choose the soil, plants and snails (if you plan to start them). Fish at this stage is not worth buying, you first need to equip them with a house.
3. Install the aquarium, pour the washed soil into it, fill the tank with 1/3 of the distilled tap water. Install hardware. Then plant the plants, put decorations on the ground in the form of embossed stones, specially prepared snags, sculptures. Fill the aquarium with water and connect all the equipment. Now you can run a few snails.
4. After that, the aquarium begins to "ripen." Water is colonized by microflora, various chemical and physical processes occur. During this period, the water is not suitable for settling fish. It is necessary to wait until it dims (this is a natural process), and then again becomes transparent. As a rule, "maturation" lasts about one to two weeks.
5. The process can be accelerated with the help of various water conditioners that are sold in pet stores. After the water becomes crystal clear, you can go for the fish.
6. When choosing fish, their compatibility should be considered, as well as similarity in keeping conditions (hardness, water temperature, illumination, etc.). It is also necessary to correctly calculate the number of fish in your aquarium so that all inhabitants feel comfortable.
7. Try to buy fish in a pet store, which is located near the house, since transportation over long distances has a negative effect on their well-being.
8. Arriving home do not rush to run new tenants in the aquarium. First rinse the bag with fish under running water, and then place it in the aquarium to equalize the temperature. After 10 minutes, add a bag of fish with aquarium water to equalize the chemical composition and wait another 15 minutes. After that, carefully release the fish to the new house.
9. At first, the fish may become clogged under a filter or plants - this is a normal reaction to a change of scenery. Give them a little look around and come to their senses, then feed them a little. A few days later the fish will get used to the new conditions of detention, and you will be able to watch the little underwater world in all its glory!
Tip 2: How to run the fish in a new aquarium
Have you decided to purchase a new aquarium and have prepared it to receive new inhabitants? Please note: you cannot run all the fish there at once, as this can lead to dramatic consequences for both individuals and for the entire aquarium ecosystem.
1. Thoroughly clean the aquarium with baking soda and salt. Avoid using detergents, as their residues on the walls of the aquarium can harm plants and fish.
2. Place the aquarium on a perfectly flat surface so that the glass does not show cracks due to fluid pressure on one of its walls.
3. Lay the soil, pre-rinsing and boiling it. The thickness of the soil layer should be at least 5 centimeters.
4. Install equipment for normal functioning of the aquarium. Such equipment includes:
- the filter necessary to clean the aquarium from waste;
- a compressor that will saturate the aquarium water with oxygen;
- A heater for heating water during the cold season;
- thermometer to monitor water temperature.
5. Having installed the equipment, start planting. Be careful not to plunge the growing point into the ground, otherwise the plant roots will stick out in different directions.
6. Having thus prepared the ecosystem of the aquarium, fill it with water. Use only tap water, do not bring water from rivers and ponds, as it may contain dangerous bacteria and heavy metal particles. Wait 2 weeks.
7. If your fish live in natural conditions in the same climatic zone, launch all at once into the aquarium, but if they are natives of different latitudes, then when sharing your neighbors you are unlikely to be able to avoid victims. In any case, it is better to run the fish in batches so that they gradually get used to the aquarium ecosystem.
8. Quarantine each subsequent batch up to several weeks. Before starting the next group, gradually change the chemical composition of the water in the tank in which your pets are "on overexposure." Within a few hours, gradually pour water into the transit tank with the fish there and carefully observe their behavior. When you start each next batch of fish do not need to feed, they are at this point not to eat.