Types and content of aquarium crayfish
Crayfish (lat. Astacidea) is an infra-series of decapod crustaceans (Decapoda). Freshwater crayfish accrue to more than 100 species, some of which have been cultivated in home aquariums. All aquarium crayfish require special maintenance conditions, with quality care, they will live 2-5 years or more.
The rules of the content in the decorative aquarium
The maintenance of crustaceans is possible in small tanks with fresh, prepared water. If you carry out regular water changes, then an aquarium with a volume of 40 liters per individual is sufficient. Crustaceans can hide their food, so install grottoes or caves in the nursery. Filtration of water and siphon of the bottom is necessary so that the remnants of the feed will not start to rot. Periodically check all shelters. Use the internal filter for the aquarium, on the outer crayfish can easily get out.
The maintenance of two or more crustaceans will require a larger tank with a capacity of 80-100 liters. The fact is that 1-2 times a year, aquarium crayfish molt, and if one congener catches the eye of another, they will eat the last one. Spacious aquarium with caches will protect everyone from cannibalism.
What is molt? Like all arthropods, crayfish molt. Their body is covered with a hard chitinous cover that is growing, and for the growth of the new, the old must be dropped. If the aquarium crustacean hides more often, it means that it is preparing for the process. After molting, he will eat his old shell, because there is still a lot of calcium in it to grow a new one. Fully cover will resume in a few days. Juveniles are subject to frequent molting, unlike mature ones.
Look at the feeding of Cuban crayfish.
In the natural habitat (and crayfish are found on almost all continents), they eat mostly plankton and plant food. Content in captivity involves feeding with special feeds for crustaceans, sinking granules and tablets. You can give vegetables - spinach, cucumbers, zucchini, lettuce, the remnants of aquarium plants. Also add to the diet protein foods, only 1 time per week: fish fillet and shrimp, live food in frozen form. Feeding - once a day in small portions. All crayfish are easily divorced in captivity, but the rules for each species are different.
The body size of the crustaceans also depends on the particular species. The largest freshwater cancer in the world is the Tasmanian giant cancer (50 cm in length, weight - 5 kg). Other species are small, reaching 12-20 cm in length.
Is it possible to settle in a common tank?
Is crayfish compatible with fish? Keeping with fish is difficult because either fish or crayfish can be eaten. The clamshell animal with its claws can have a bite in two of such small fish as guppies, molly, neons, corridors. Crayfish hunt at night, so in the morning you can not see your favorite pets. A species aquarium is an optimal security condition for all.
Also crustaceans do not get along well with fish of the Cichlid family. These are rather large fish, and the crustacean can easily break, during the molt they are attracted by the old shell. With shrimps, their distant relatives, crayfish also live poorly - small ones can easily be eaten.
All types of crayfish eat, uproot plants. Therefore, it is not recommended to keep them in aquariums with dense vegetation. Only one species - this is Mexican dwarf cancer, ignores the underwater flora. Crayfish are cold-loving animals, which are adversely affected by the warm water temperature, so the water parameters need to be adjusted in the water tank. Each type of cancer requires certain conditions of detention.
Varieties of beautiful aquarium crayfish
- Yabbi - body size can be up to 20 cm in length. This is an aggressive look, which is called a "destroyer." Body color is blue, lives 2-4 years in an aquarium. Natural habitat - Australia, loves muddy water and a slow current, a lot of thickets. Allowed content at a temperature of 20-26 ° C, with a change in the temperature range, may die. A female apple gives birth to 500-1000 small crustaceans.
Observe the life of the apple cancer in the general aquarium.
- Florida Blue (Procambarus Alleni) has a brown shell color in nature, but a beautiful blue cancer was obtained by breeding. The natural habitat of brown is freshwater with a slow flow in the territory of Florida (USA). Body size is 8-10 cm in length. The female can produce 100-300 rachat, which grow very quickly.
- Australian red-fingered (red-flesh) cancer (lat. Cherax Quadricarinatus) - like many species, grows 14–20 cm in length. The color of the shell is variegated: bluish-green with yellow patches, the claws of the males have bright red stripes and growths in the form of thorns. In nature, lives in Australia, at the bottom of rivers and lakes. It feeds on small plankton and plants. Reproduction occurs with the participation of the female and male. The female crustacean produces 500-1500 calves, which are incubated in caviar for one and a half months.
- At first glance, the Louisiana dwarf crustacean (Latin Cambarellus Shufeldtii) looks simple in appearance. But if you look closely, you can see the reddish tint of the shell, which can be seen horizontal black stripes. Claw cancer has a small, long and smooth texture. It does not live long: a year or a year and a half, the life expectancy of males is longer than that of females. Dimensions of the form: 3-4 cm in length, so he is rather shy and shy, does not pose a danger if he lives with small fish in a common tank. Natural Habitat: Louisiana (USA). For one breeding, females bring caviar (30-40 pcs.), Bearing it for 3 weeks. This can happen twice a year.
- Blue Cuban crayfish (Latin Procambarus Cubensis) - one of the most common types of aquarium crayfish. Natural habitat - Cuba. The color of the shell is very bright - blue-blue, body length 10 cm. Hardy look, tolerates changes in the parameters of the aquatic environment. However, he eats aquatic plants, and his behavior with fish is quite aggressive.
Mexican Dwarf - Orange Cancer
Dwarf Orange Cancer
Observing the life of aquarium dwellers is a tremendous pleasure. This process distracts from the cares of being and harmonizes our inner world. It is always interesting to look at playfully floating fish, to contemplate frozen ones, as if frogs are hanging in space, or to watch creeping streets.
But the more unusual and fascinating sight is a dwarf orange crayfish - creatures that are especially popular among aquarium lovers. These tiny and bright friends will revive and decorate any aquarium, give it an incomparable charm. Let's take a closer look at them.
Type of: arthropods;
Squad: 10-legged crayfish;
View: Cambarellus patzcuarensis;
Comfortable water temperature: 25-27;
PH Acidity: above 7;
Water hardness kN: from 5;
Aggressiveness: not aggressive;
How many live: 1.5-2 years;
The complexity of the content: easy;
Compatibility: any non-aggressive fish;
The structure of the dwarf cancer
The body of Mexican cancer is covered with a powerful chitinous shell of bright orange, or even red color, due to which the cancer got its name. The division into massive cephalothorax (cephalothorax) and abdomen (pleon) is clearly visible. Also striking a large number of limbs. They have 19 pairs of Oriental Cancer! And everyone has their own purpose. There are five pairs of walking legs, hence the name of the squad. The first pair to move is only indirectly, it is a characteristic claws. They serve as an additional support for cancer, a means to collect food, an instrument of attack and defense. For orientation in space of the cancer are antennas and antennulas. There are also three pairs of maxilla (maxillopods) for feeding food to the mouth. Mandibles and two pairs of maxillae - upper and lower jaws, respectively. On the abdomen there are four pairs of swimming limbs, and on the tail are two pairs of swimming legs of the uropods and a tail blade - telson. Crayfish move along the bottom with the help of legs, and in case of danger they sharply bend under their abdomen with tail blade and back, moving in the water column. I must say that the trajectory of the cancer movement is unpredictable, so catching the cancer in the aquarium, oh, how difficult it is =)
The size of an adult orange cancer reaches about 4 centimeters, which is why it is called dwarf, however, it is a real cancer, not an overgrown shrimp.
The content of dwarf cancer
Dwarf Mexican cancer is undemanding in content. A pair of crustaceans will live quite comfortably in a 50-liter aquarium. However, if you want to contain more than four dwarf crayfish, then an aquarium of 100 liters will be just right. The soil can be any, plants, snags, grottoes, stones, and other shelters are indispensable conditions for their maintenance, since crayfish need places where they can hide, this is especially important during shedding when the cancer becomes completely defenseless. In addition, females with caviar also need shelter. The temperature of the water for the maintenance of dwarf cancer - 25-27 degrees, make sure that it does not rise above 28. "Acidity of water" (pH) optimally 7.5-8. Carbonate hardness (kN) must be at least at the level of 6. In soft and acidic water crayfish will live, but not for long. If there is soft water in your region and you are going to contain crayfish, the problem can be solved by putting a piece of limestone or chalk in the aquarium.
Cancers are extremely sensitive to elevated concentrations of nitrogenous compounds (NH4, NO2, NO3)therefore, it is not worthwhile to settle them in a newly launched aquarium. It follows from the above that good filtration and aeration are mandatory. Weekly water changes are also required. With their help, we reduce the concentration of nitrogenous compounds and, moreover, molts and the mating season are usually associated with water changes in crayfish.
Is it possible to keep dwarf orange crayfish in a common fish tank? Of course! But there are some nuances. Since these aquarium crayfish prefer a pH above 7, the so-called "alkaline" fish are ideally suited as neighbors. petilia, mollies, and others who prefer a pH of around 7.5. Fish should not be large and aggressive (for example, cichlids).
How to feed aquarium cancer?
Feeding orange crayfish is not a problem. They feed on any organic matter, for example, plant residues, and crayfish will gladly accept any food for fish in their diet. Especially good are feed tablets for catfish-like fish and sinking granules. They enjoy eating live food: bloodworms, artemia, daphnia, etc. Scalded slices of cucumber or zucchini, carrots eat perfectly. It is worth noting that crayfish are referred to as "aquarium attendants" - they will always eat carrion.
It is no secret that all crustaceans periodically molt. And orange cancer is no exception. Replacing the old chitinous shell with a new one is the only way to grow. Juveniles molt frequently, about once a week. Adult dwarf crayfish shed less frequently. During the molting period, it is especially important for the cancer to have a shelter where the animal is, until its new shell has hardened. Also, shedding is a way to restore lost limbs. Cancers lose them under a variety of circumstances (most often claws suffer). Also, the cancer can lose its legs during the molt itself - if the cancer cannot remove any limb from the old shell, it tears off or bites it off. Both in the first and in the second case this phenomenon is called an autotomy. In general, if you suddenly see a cancer with one claw, do not worry, it will soon grow with the next molt.
The success of molting depends on many factors. One of them is the presence of calcium in the water. Calcium is the basis of chitin for shell. Also very important is such an element as iodine. It is a coenzyme for chitin synthesis. With iodine deficiency is likely that cancer can not molt and die. Therefore, if crustaceans live in your tank - iodinol your best friend. From branded drugs can be recommended. Tetra vitalwhich also contains iodine.
Reproduction, breeding crayfish
Dwarf crayfish are not long-lived, live for 1.5-2 years, however, there is information about a longer life. So, if you like these creatures, you have to think about breeding them. Crayfish dioecious creatures. Males are smaller than females, have more powerful claws and on one of the abdominal segments have an aggregate apparatus - a modified pair of limbs. Reproduction of crayfish does not require the intervention of an aquarist. Mating occurs immediately after shedding. Then clusters of eggs become visible on the abdomen of the female, on the swimming legs. They are quite large, opaque, easily visible. The female with caviar tries unnecessarily not to leave the shelter, so it will be problematic to see her. For breeding crayfish, it is better to prepare a "nursery" capacity, where there are more chances for the survival of the young crayfish! Crayfish are indifferent to their own and others' offspring, but they do not take care of crustaceans either.
How to prepare a spawning, nursery aquarium for breeding dwarf cancer? An aquarium of 20–30 liters is needed, which we fill with 80% of the water from the general aquarium, the rest is fresh. We equip the chiller with a heater and a compressor or an air-lift filter with a sponge. The bottom is covered with a layer of soil with a fraction of 1 - 3 mm, we fix a pair of lush bushes of moss or some small-leaved, long-stemmed forest spruce. All is ready! It remains to get shelter along with the female and put in a bailout.
If you are a bit late and the female is already hung with young, not scary. You need to arm yourself with a tight net and gently scrape the female along with the offspring with this tool. After that we send everyone to the bailout. Do not be alarmed, if at the same time a part of the crustaceans fled, after a while they will return again under the female's abdomen.
It is also worth noting that the incubation period depends on a number of factors, including the temperature and the chemical composition of the water. On average, at 24 - 26C, embryo development lasts 12-14 days. All this time the female, if she risks leaving the shelter, is very briefly and behaves extremely timidly, therefore it is better for her to throw food as close as possible.
And then came the young crustaceans. There are no features in their cultivation. For feeding suitable various grated branded feed, for example, from Tetra companies.
Beautiful photos with dwarf, orange cancer
Interesting video about dwarf cancer
Aquarium crayfish - a general description
In the wild, crayfish live in reservoirs of all types, live in both fresh and salt water. They have a very specific appearance, if we take into account the shell and claws. In some ways they can be called beautiful - this is if we are talking about ordinary crayfish. But there are among these invertebrates and very special species that can adequately decorate any aquarium.
The tendency to breed crayfish in aquariums appeared relatively recently. Some time ago, aquarists did not take the crayfish seriously, paying more attention to the fish, and the crayfish were rather exotic. However, today the picture is changing, and more and more often in the aquarium of a keen enthusiast you can also see crayfish. Especially because they are very interesting to watch. They are distinguished by a calm disposition, interesting behavior, and care is not distinguished by high complexity. On the whole, breeding aquarium crayfish is a fascinating and interesting process.
The maintenance and reproduction of crayfish
The content of crayfish means using clean, oxygen-rich water in an aquarium. This is different from, for example, the characteristics of the content of frogs. The number of aquarium crayfish must be calculated on the basis of one individual measuring 5 centimeters per 15 liters of water. The temperature must be maintained in the range from 21 to 27 degrees Celsius.
Reproduction of crayfish in aquarium conditions requires a special approach from the aquarist. The mating process takes place, as a rule, after molting, and during the mating dance the raki touch each other with antennas. 20 days after mating, the female begins to lay eggs, which are attached under her abdomen. With them, it moves along the bottom of the aquarium. It is best to plant it in a separate aquarium for this period, because in the presence of eggs it is too keen to perceive any movements and seeks to defend itself.
After the young crustaceans hatch from the eggs, at first they hold on to the torso of the female, and only after their first molt they begin to gradually move away from her, trying, nevertheless, to constantly keep close. If there are young stock in the aquarium, such elements as protrusions, stones, snags should be present - the fact is that young crustaceans sometimes have a need to hide, as they can be attacked by older animals. Therefore, in order for them to survive, it is necessary to provide for the presence of shelters. Yes - the content of crayfish also requires a certain approach. Below we look at specific types of aquarium crayfish, popular among aquarists.
Types of aquarium crayfish for your collection
Wide crayfish - the most common type. Under natural conditions, it lives in the waters of Europe, and is found in Russia near the Baltic Sea. Населяет реки, озера, предпочитает твердый грунт, где роет норы. Длина туловища взрослого самца составляет примерно пятнадцать сантиметров, самки же на три сантиметра короче. Самцов отличают крупные, мощные клешни. Продолжительность жизни особи - приблизительно пятнадцать-двадцать лет. Содержание таких раков не вызывает особых сложностей.
Тонкопалый рак - обитатель южных регионов. Inhabits the waters of the basins of the Caspian, Black and Azov seas, although it is found in Siberia. The type of water in the reservoir does not greatly affect the thin-crayfish - it can live in both flowing and stagnant water. Unlike the wide-bred relative, the thin-skinned crayfish does not dig burrows, but prefers to settle in natural shelters - under snags or stones, among the algae. As an aquarium inhabitant it is very interesting, since its activity lasts around the clock, which is why it is interesting to watch him. The only problem is that this species does not breed in aquariums.
Red florida cancer - originally comes from another continent. It is undemanding to the type of water, inhabits lakes, rivers, ponds and swamps. For this reason, these individuals have significantly expanded the range of the original habitat, settling reservoirs of Europe. Quietly related to temperature changes, can live both in warm and in cold water, tolerates the European winter normally. Florida cancer breeds well in captivity, and aquarists, having acquired several individuals, will surely wait for the young. Lives with fish, insensitive to distemper among crayfish - in a word, the perfect look for an aquarium. Their content will not be a problem for a novice aquarist.
Papuan cancer - quite fashionable appearance in the circles of aquarists. Differs in beautiful appearance, an unusual coloring of an armor. In length reaches twelve-fourteen centimeters, although some very large individuals reach up to twenty! As in the case of red florida, the reproduction of such crayfish is also possible in aquarium conditions.
Herax Cancer - An exotic breed, whose representatives are supplied from Australia and New Guinea. As part of the breed there are different types of aquarium crayfish under the general name Herax. Some of them are huge and look more like small lobsters. In length, such an individual can reach up to 40 centimeters, although others do not exceed the size of European relatives. It has a very beautiful bright colors, turning from pink to blue. Coming from hot countries, tolerates high temperatures well. Again, it is enough just to get along with the fish, so they can be made in the aquarium, originally intended for fish.
Blue Cuban Cancer
Blue Cuban Cancer - Like herax, comes from hot countries. At one time, he became the first tropical crayfish available for domestic aquarists. As the name of the species, originally inhabited the waters of the island of Cuba. Unpretentious, non-aggressive with respect to fish about other individuals, able to breed in an aquarium.
Types of aquarium crayfish
Crayfish became full residents of the aquarium not so long ago. Previously, they were perceived rather as a rare exotic. These arthropods attract both beginner aquarium lovers and breeders with experience in this business. Bright colors, large sizes, calm character, interesting behavior, simple care - these are their main advantages. In addition, crayfish are also sanitation aquarium. As in the case of other inhabitants, before you start them, you need to familiarize yourself with the peculiarities of the content, which we will try to cover in this and the next article.
Crayfish in nature
Wild owners of shell and claws are able to survive in any water bodies: fresh and salty, large and small. Freshwater crayfish are represented by several families, but the most interesting are two of them: Parastacidae and Cambaridae.
The first are inhabitants of the southern hemisphere. Madagascar, New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, parts of South America (western and eastern coasts), Fiji are some of the places they have chosen. From the family of parastacid crayfish from the genus Cherax are most often settled in an aquarium. They have a bright color and fairly well tolerate life in captivity.
The latter are found in the Northern Hemisphere, where they inhabit various reservoirs (from large rivers to small ponds). Crayfish of the genus Cambarellus and Paracambarus are chosen for home keeping. All their representatives are also distinguished by the wealth of colors and serve as an indisputable decoration of the aquarium.
Appearance and character of crayfish
The special features of these aquatic pets are shells and claws. The chitinous shell covers the body completely and protects it. Natural color is dark green. On the head are whiskers, with the help of which the cancer perceives. There are white round teeth in the mouth. They cancer grinds food. Pincers allow him to move, defend and catch food. The tail is segmented, on the end has chitinous roundness. The average body length is about 13 cm. Natural individuals are larger than aquarium. There is a giant (Tasmanian) cancer with a length of 50 cm and a weight of 5 kg.
Despite the calm nature, crayfish love loneliness and are rather jealous of their dwelling, even enter into a fight, protecting it. If the aquarium is not equipped with a sufficient number of shelters, they will dig holes using legs and tail.
Like other arthropods, this unusual animal is capable of shedding, that is, periodically shedding hard cover in the form of chitin-calcium shell. This design protects the body, but it also inhibits growth. Juveniles molt to 8, and adults up to 2 times a year. The process can take from several minutes to several days. At this time, the animal does not eat and hides until the new cover hardens.
If the owner of the aquarium sees an empty rachi shell, then it should not be removed, since it will be eaten by the former carrier. This shell contains a large amount of calcium and helps to quickly restore new cover.
Types of crayfish
River arthropods should not be kept in an aquarium for a number of reasons: the water here is too warm for him, he lives a little, and he doesn’t work with fish and plants at all (he eats and pulls up). However, there are many types of aquarium crayfish. Consider the main ones.
Red-clawed Australian Cancer (Cherax quadricarinatus)
In nature, they can be found in Australia and New Guinea. Irrigation canals, small rivers, streams, ponds are practically paradise for them. To habitat undemanding.
The largest of them can have armor up to 20 cm long and weigh up to half a kilogram, however, it is impossible for them to achieve such parameters in an aquarium. The background of the body is bright blue with yellow dots. Between segments, the joints can be painted in orange, pink, red or blue. The males have powerful claws. After puberty, a protrusion appears on their outside, tinged with cherry red. For this feature cancer and got its name.
Ideal aquarium conditions are:
- volume for a pair of 150 liters;
- hard water with a temperature of 20-24 degrees;
- a thick layer of soil;
- many shelters (snags, pots, tubes, etc.).
Australians are fed vegetables, leaves of oak or beech, and dry bread. Sometimes you can treat a snail, earthworm or freeze for predatory fish.
Zebra Cancer (Cherax papuanus)
The natural habitat is New Guinea. It has a small size. Even in the wild, it does not grow over 15 cm. The color is fully confirmed by the name. These are friendly and peace-loving creatures. Surprisingly, they get along even with small fish and shrimps. However, you can forget about the beautiful landscape and plantings in the aquarium - everything will be dug up and pulled out by the roots. Active at night, day leads a secretive lifestyle.
Conditions of detention are similar to previous crayfish. The only thing I want to add to this is that the diet can be supplemented with pieces of fruit and vegetables, the Papuanus loves it.
Blue crab (Cherax tenuimanus)
Its homeland is considered the south of Australia. It will be the perfect pet for lovers of large aquariums from 400 liters capacity. Water in them should be no colder than 15, and no warmer than 24 degrees. The length of this arthropod can reach 40 cm, and the weight - three kilos. The most valuable are specimens with a sky-blue body color. They are active during the day, so nothing will obstruct observation.
American red swamp cancer (Procambarus clarkii)
In nature, it lives in the marshes of the southeastern United States and northern Mexico. Amazing undemanding to the environment, easy adaptation to new places and high fecundity led to the fact that these medium-sized (up to 15 cm) arthropods captured many reservoirs, displacing local inhabitants from them.
Painted can be varied, most often in lilac-black color with small red spots. There are also pink, blue, orange and red individuals.
He gets used to life in an aquarium very quickly. For a pair of crayfish you need a 200-liter capacity. Care of him will not cause difficulties even for beginners. The ideal water temperature is in the range of 20-25 degrees, but the red American swamp cancer can transfer its individual fluctuations from 5 to 35 ° C.
Preference is given to animal food. You can give worms, pipe worker, bloodworms, frost for predator fish. For variety, add peas, tree leaves and dry food.
Blue Florida Cancer (Procambarus alleni)
It is clear from the name that he lives in nature in ponds, lakes, and swamps of Florida. The natural color is plain brown, and the bright blue color scheme is selected selectively. The length of the shell does not exceed 10 cm, which means for a pair of such crayfish a 100-liter vessel will suffice. The optimum water temperature is 18-28 degrees, the rigidity is 6.5-8. A weekly replacement of half the volume of water is required. Males do not get along with each other. A good neighborhood can turn out with large calm fish.
Orange Dwarf (Mexican Yellow) Cancer (Cambarellus patzcuarensis)
These arthropods do not grow longer than five centimeters. Color again derived breeding method. Dwarfs are probably the only ones who do not destroy living plants. On the contrary, a seventy-liter aquarium with an abundance of driftwood and aquatic plants is an ideal option for them to arrange a place of residence.
Marble crayfish (Procambarus sp)
Beautiful, unpretentious, shell pattern looks like a marble surface on a black, brown or green background. The drawing in the young is pale, but darkens with age. An interesting feature of this species is that during molting the shell comes off with claws and antennae.
Wide-fingered and fine-fingered crayfish are common in Russia. The main difference between them is in the size of claws and that the first ones dig holes, and the second ones do not. The length of the body is not more than 15 cm in both. It is easy to contain them in the aquarium. It is interesting to watch them, as they are active almost around the clock. The only drawback - do not breed in captivity.
As we can see, there are many varieties of aquarium crayfish. And if you decide to have these amazing creatures in your home pond, then you just have to choose an arthropod for the soul. Read about compatibility, feeding, reproduction and conditions of crayfish in the next article.
In this video, students of the Ecological and Biological Center talk about their own experience of breeding Florida cancer:
Dwarf crayfish: species and content issues
Observing the life of aquarium inhabitants is often a great pleasure. This process distracts from worries and calms our irritated nerves. It is pleasant to look at iridescent fish, it is interesting to contemplate frozen frogs or slowly moving snails.
But the more unusual and fascinating sight is represented by dwarf crayfish - creatures that have recently been very popular among aquarium lovers. What do we know about these little representatives of crustaceans? Quite a lot to successfully take care of them and promote breeding.
Dwarf cancer: content
Homeland dwarf aquarium crayfish - Mexico and the banks of the Mississippi River in the United States, which is why their other name - dwarf crayfish. They belong to the family Cambarellus, having in its composition several genera.
Underwater pets get along well with small peace-loving fish, preferring the middle and upper layers of water. Do not tolerate the presence next to a shrimp. To the dwarf cancer was comfortable, he needed:
- an aquarium with a volume of 25 liters, filled with clean, oxygen-enriched water with a temperature of 17 to 21 ° C;
- the aqueous medium is not too soft (pH 8-9), so as not to harm the formation of cancer shell;
- lighting is better scattered.
They feed the crustaceans once in two days. Their diet should include more plant food, which they can get themselves in their own aquarium.
Pets are excellent eat fallen leaves, substrate and decay products of organic matter.
However, as a top dressing they often use
- water lily
From protein food they are suitable for bloodworms, tadpoles, worms, small pieces of fish or meat.
The lifespan of young handsome men is only 14-30 months, so it is important to regularly reproduce livestock. In this case, at least two but not more than three females should fall on one male.
In captivity, they breed well, breeding up to four times a year. After shedding, they begin their mating season, accompanied by unusual dancing of individuals and the joining of their antennae.
After 20 days, the female lays eggs and waits for babies to appear. During this period, it is necessary to deposit it in a separate container in order not to provoke aggression.
After the birth, up to the first molt, small crustaceans exist inseparably from the mother and move across the water, clinging to its shell, and then grow and hide in the depths of the aquarium.
Some types of dwarf crayfish
Let us consider in more detail a few members of the Cambarellus family.
Dwarf orange (mandarin) cancer
Cambarellus patzcuarensis sp. Orange are distinguished by their bright color. This species comes from the surroundings of Patzkauro, a small town in Mexico.
Its natural color is brown. Orange color he acquired as a result of experiments of Dutch breeders.
In adulthood, a representative of this species reaches from 3 to 5 cm in length, while females are always larger than males. However, claws resembling a lancet in shape are smaller in females.
Dwarf orange cancer lives about 20 months, reaches adulthood by 5 months.
Acceptable water temperature for it is from 15 to 28 ° C.Tangerine pets are not recommended to be kept together with other representatives of crustaceans.
Dwarf mexican cancer
Differently spotted eubliphar, stream cancer or Cambarellus montezumae. He also hails from Mexico.
In the color there are different shades of brown, dark brown spots close to black. Adults reach 6 cm in length.
Mexican cancer is a non-conflicting neighbor and is suitable for sharing with the fish. He eats them only dead.
At the same time, Mexican cancer is not inclined to damage algae, prefers thick vegetation.
During the molting period, he needs a shelter with a diameter of at least 2 cm.
It is quite satisfied with water with a temperature of 15 to 30 ° C.
Dwarf swamp cancer
Or Cambarellus puer. Arrived on our mainland from the shores of a distant Mississippi.
The color of the crustacean can be different: from gray to reddish-brown, with characteristic wavy or dotted lines along the back.
In the middle of the tail is usually located a dark speck. Adult dwarf puerh cancer is only 4 cm long.
This species requires the presence of a special soil in the aquarium, saturated with oak or almond leaves, alder cones and pebbles. The female buries in them and so hides while carrying and feeding offspring.
Water for swamp cancer is suitable at room temperature from 20 to 23 ° C.
Dwarf Cancer Techanus
A few words I would like to say about this crustacean - Cambarellus texanus. This is the erroneous name of the marble crab Marblecrayfish / Procambarussp, which does not belong to the dwarf family, but is also a favorite pet of aquarists.
The pattern on his armor resembles the stains on marble, the color has shades from black and brown to greenish.
Adult marble crayfish reach 15 cm in length.
Creations are unpretentious in leaving. Water suitable for them should have a temperature of 18 to 27 ° C.
The nature of dwarf crayfish allows an ordinary aquarium lover to get aesthetic pleasure from their content and breeding. Small representatives of crustaceans will please the household and guests, they will become a real pride of their owners. The main thing is to pay enough attention to the care of these amazing pets and their reproduction.
Marble cancer: content
Marble cancer is often diluted and kept in domestic aquariums. His coloring is beautiful, he is unpretentious to food, it is interesting to watch him. But there are certain conditions and rules for keeping such a cancer that you need to know.
Under natural conditions, marble crab is a river arthropod of the order of decapods, it tolerates fresh aquarium water. It is also called gray-spotted cancer, and in science it is called the Latin phrase Orconectes palmeri.
Characteristics and habits of marble cancer
По внешнему виду он незначительно отличается от своих собратьев по типу и классу, но имеет несколько большие размеры, чем обыкновенный речной рак, а также интересный окрас хитинового панциря - зеленовато-коричневый с чёрными пятнами.
Величина такого рака колеблется от 10 до 15 сантиметров (с усами). Необходимо учитывать, что его размер зависит от условий содержания: чем больше объём водной среды, тем больше размер этого представителя членистоногих. Up to certain limits, naturally.
During the day, as a rule, marble cancer hides, it is inactive. It is necessary to take into account that he gets along with other crayfish and fish with difficulty, is aggressive.
A characteristic feature of the animal is reproduction through parthenogenesis, that is, without fertilization. It turns out that decorative marble crab has signs of both females and males.
You should know that the sale of such arthropods in the United States and Europe is prohibited: their rapid reproduction and growth, appetite and omnivorous can harm other species of aquatic life. That is why, before you start a marble cancer, you need to decide where to put the future offspring. And it can be large: from 20 to 100 crustaceans in one childbirth.
Periodically, the marble decorative cancer sheds, sheds the old shell along with the claws. This is a natural process and no need to be afraid of it. The animal then eats the shell back, eating calcium from it. Immediately after shedding, the cancer hides for several days until a new shell grows.
How to contain?
Gray-spotted cancer is best kept in an aquarium of medium size, up to 100 liters. Space is necessary for vital activity - only in this case the pet will grow beautiful and large. It is not recommended to keep more than two individuals in a similar volume of water.
An important condition of the content is the condition of the water. It must be clean and constantly aerated. Therefore, you need a powerful filter with aeration function. The fact is that the marble crustacean leaves behind a lot of garbage and waste that must be removed.
It is advisable to change water every 10-15 days, and the temperature of the environment that is comfortable for an individual should be between +20 and +25 degrees.
As aquarium soil is better to use small pebbles or coarse sand.
The crustacean likes to crawl into all sorts of shelters. That is why it is advisable to place in the aquarium large ceramic shards or small sections of ceramic or plastic pipes of small diameter.
You can build a decorative niche or a grotto from pebbles, lay a wooden snag on the bottom.
Ornamental plants better to have floating. The animal with pleasure bites off the bottom plants of the pieces, leaving after that a lot of garbage.
The aquarium should be kept permanently closed, as the gray-spotted cancer, seemingly slow and unwieldy, cleverly climbs upward on the objects of the aquarium interior. If he comes out of the water, he will inevitably perish.
This aquarium arthropod can be kept simultaneously with the fish. It is important to remember that cancer can eat fish, therefore, bottom fish (ornamental catfish, for example) are not recommended to keep with it, as well as fish with bright fins and tails in the form of a veil.
Sword bearers, guppies swimming near the surface of the water - these are the fish that get along well with the shellfish of the aquarium.
What to feed?
Gray-spotted cancer eats a wide variety of foods. The most common food for him is fodder for antsitrus (decorative catfish). It is a granule of pressed vegetation.
You can give cancer and natural plant food:
- finely chopped spinach or lettuce,
- grated carrots,
- cabbage and zucchini,
- even corn.
Plant foods can also be prepared for the winter by freezing sliced vegetables, roots and greens. Prepare frozen food for feeding in the same way - scalded with boiling water.
For normal development and life of the pet you need to give him and protein food. Pieces of raw fish, liver, shrimp, snails can be fed to the crayfish about once a week. It is better to feed the marble pet late in the evening when it is especially active.
Subject to the listed rules and requirements, marble crayfish will develop and live normally, and their owners will always watch their behavior with interest.
Briefly about the content of invertebrates and other animals in the aquarium
Although in nature invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles live in the same environment with fish, however, it is better to keep them separate or together in an aquarium, but very carefully. In recent years, the number of invertebrates, which are kept in the same aquarium with fish, has grown many times. But at the same time their number is only a tiny part of what it is in nature, and in the future there will be even more available types of invertebrates.
Some species of crabs can be kept in an aquarium with fish, but most still require special conditions. Crabs in a regular aquarium pose many problems. Most live in salted water, they are also unsurpassed experts on the shoots from the aquarium, they are destroyers - they damage the plants and seriously dig up the soil. Ideally, crabs are kept in a separate aquarium, with salted water, sandy ground and plenty of shelter. Avoid keeping with the crabs slow fish, fish living at the bottom, which they will tweak.
Since the crabs are omnivores, in the aquarium they will eat everything they can get to. If they are contained in soft water, then crabs should be fed with a special high calcium diet, which crabs use to create shell. Since crabs are shoots experts, there should be no gaps in the aquarium through which a crab can crawl. In the case when the crab still managed to get out of the aquarium, you need to put a wet sponge next to the aquarium. In order to turn drying, the crab will look for the most humid place, and come across a sponge where it can be caught and returned to the aquarium.
Almost all crabs need access to land. Moreover, some water is needed only periodically and most of the time they spend on land.
There are many freshwater shrimp, but even more of them live in brackish or sea water. Shrimps are very useful in an aquarium, as they eat leftover food and algae, with only a few of them dangerous to the inhabitants. The biggest problem with keeping fish is to pick fish that won't hunt shrimp. But, with the right choice, shrimp are wonderful and very useful inhabitants of the aquarium. For example, Amano's shrimp (Caridina japonica), which perfectly eats filamentous algae and is often found in herbalists.
Or neocardin (cherry as well), a very common and very small shrimp, which can decorate both a huge and very small aquarium.
Very often aquarists try to get rid of snails. Just the problem is that many species of snails multiply very quickly, overflowing the aquarium and spoiling its appearance. There are many ways to get rid of snails, for example, to get predatory snails helen. Of course, this method is the most convenient, along with such methods as keeping fish eating snails or setting traps. Note, however, that a limited number of snails in an aquarium is not only not harmful, but useful, since the snails clean the aquarium by eating the remnants of food and other garbage.
The larger the snail, the easier it is to control the amount in the aquarium and the slower it multiplies. Of the large species, the most popular is ampularia (Ampullaria sp.), Which can grow up to 10 cm. For its maintenance, no special conditions are needed, but it cannot be planted together with large, predatory species. They can eat it or tear off her mustache. When keeping such large snails, it is important to monitor their number and clean the dead promptly. Dead snail decomposes quickly, while spoiling the water.
The content of crayfish in an aquarium creates many problems (and here we talked about the most popular crayfish in the aquarium). They will hunt any fish that dare to swim close. And believe me, with their external sluggishness, they can be very fast! Often, inexperienced aquarists plant crayfish in a common aquarium and then wonder where the fish go ... In addition, they actively dig up the aquarium to suit their design needs and at the same time cut the plants. Suffer from their attacks and even fellow shrimp.
The best thing is to keep the crayfish in a separate aquarium, because they can really be very beautiful. But also dangerous for other residents. If you want to have cancer, then the Mexican orange dwarf cancer will be the most accommodating and beautiful.
Small spur frogs are quite popular and are often sold on the market and in pet stores. Spurs are one of the few amphibians that only have enough water, without surfaces on which it can be climbed. These frogs can live in an aquarium with fish, they are not capricious, they eat all kinds of live food, and their skin releases natural antibiotics into the water, which help to heal diseases in fish. Of the drawbacks, we note that the spur-like swims do not really disassemble the road, and tender plants will have difficulty, like to dig the ground and can eat small fish.
All other species of frogs require a special vivarium to keep, with areas where frogs can get out of the water and strict control of the humidity of the air. Like crabs, most frogs can go for a walk out of your tank, and you need to close it tightly.
The dandelion is the most common commercially available. This is a small reptile that grows no more than 15-25 cm, but it is completely unsuitable for keeping with aquarium fish. It is predatory, eats all the fish, besides, it destroys everything in the aquarium, and produces a large amount of dirt. And yes, this cute animal can bite more painfully than a dog.
Little red-eared turtles
When we buy a new animal in the aquarium, we expect that we will be prompted to make the right decision and be dissuaded from the wrong one. But most often this does not happen. And invertebrates and amphibians enter the aquarium, which are not needed there and even dangerous.
Remember: do not buy species unfamiliar to you, if you do not know what you need for their content, and how to keep them right! This will save your pets from death, and you from unnecessary expenses and stress.