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Sea cardinal fish

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Cardinal fish content breeding description compatibility photo video.

Cardinal fish: compatible with other breeds

Optimal conditions for the flocks of good-natured small cardinals - a separate aquarium. There they will be most comfortable. It is very interesting to watch their quiet games, and to multiply and behave in a calm atmosphere, the cardinals will be clearly more active. Calm and funny fish cardinals are too peaceful.

They can be offended by representatives of aggressive breeds. Dangerous neighborhood with predators such as astronotus, piranha, barbus, angelfish, goldfish. It is necessary to take into account the lack of agility of the Cardinals. Even quite peaceful inhabitants of the aquarium, the size and strength of which is greater than that of these fish, will be their serious competitors in the division of food and territory.

Lack of food or a comfortable place will affect the general state of health, the ability to reproduce, the appearance of the cardinals. If you still want to observe the diverse inhabitants in your glass pond, you can look at guppies, fiery tetras, danios, rhodostomusam, crescents, neons, honey gourami, corridors, glass perches or shrimps.

Description

Despite its unremarkable size, the cardinal is a bright and colorful fish with an elongated and slender body, which is slightly flattened in front, on the sides. On top of the muzzle - a small mouth, which is located as in nature, it collects insects from the upper layers of water. The fish has no antennae, the dorsal fin is in line with the anal fin.

Color bronze brown, with a bright strip passing through the axis of the body. On the tail there is a bright red spot, part of the tail is transparent. The abdomen is lighter, in contrast to the rest of the body, the fins are slightly veiled, also colored in raspberry red. There are artificially derived colors, even albinos.

When the fry reach a length of 4-5 mm, a shiny silver-blue strip appears on their body, which disappears when reaching a length of 2-3 cm, that is, upon reaching puberty. Males are slimmer and more elongated than females, the differences between them are mild. The nature of the aquarium fish active, mobile.

Cardinal (fish) - fish of the carp family, of the class Ray. The name got its due to the desire of easy money merchants, who hoped that it would be better sold for industrial purposes. The Latin, classical specific name is more consonant: "alba nubes", which literally translates as "white clouds". For the first time these fish were found in China.

cardinal fish photo

In Guangdong, China, in 1930, the leader of a pioneering movement named Tang Meng Yo made the first entries about cardinals. In the description, it was stated that this fish survives well in water with a low temperature, and, as it turned out later, aquarium conditions for it are also not a bad place. Later it was sold under different names, and the "cardinal" was not the only one. Chinese danios, false neon, magnificent minnow - such names are often found on the market.

The fast south Chinese rivers are the natural habitat of the cardinals. Keeping and breeding them is available only in aquarium conditions, since they are almost wiped out in the wild. Since the 1980s, there has not been a single notification about the places of their population. In China, this species was temporarily considered extinct. Miraculously, it turned out that a small school of fish was found in some Chinese and Vietnamese provinces. All fish sold today are bred.

Cardinal - content and care

Cardinals are considered to be peaceful and non-aggressive aquarium dwellers, which are recommended to be kept in flocks of 6-8. They get along well with ternetii, red neon, rhodostomusami and danios. Basically, the cardinals are kept in the upper layer. You should not have any difficulties with keeping aquarium fish. Prepare a small aquarium, based on the proportion of 30 liters of water per pack of up to 7 pieces. Make it the water level centimeters 25.

Aquarium soil can be used in the form of river sand, which must be processed before being laid in the aquarium. It is also possible to use small pebbles as a substrate. It is also recommended planting aquarium plants, but not very thick. As a rule, they put an elodea, a people, a hornpole or a vallisneria into an aquarium. The parameters of aquarium water in an aquarium with fish cardinals should be the following: hardness: 4-20, pH: 6.5-7.5, water temperature: 18-21 degrees. The aquarium requires filtration and aeration of water, as well as weekly changes of up to 20%. Cardinals also like bright lighting, especially light is needed in the winter.

There is a cardinal live and dry food. Perfectly eats cyclops, bloodworm, dry daphnia. In nature there is almost all the time small insects.

Breeding cardinals.

Breeding cardinals who, being in the general aquarium, are constantly malnourished due to inactivity, require special conditions.

Therefore, in the spring, 10-15 days before the intended breeding, males and females are deposited in separate containers. Otsadniki, where fish are constantly fed small live food, can be three-liter jars filled with fresh settled water, which is periodically aerated. The water temperature is maintained at 22-23 ° C.

The cardinals nest consists of two females and one male. In order to avoid any accidents, two nests are prepared for spawning. The readiness of the fish is determined by the female, whose abdomen acquires a noticeable roundness.

Spawning for one or two nests can serve as a low aquarium from 10 liters of water. The bottom of the vessel is covered with a layer of well-washed coarse-grained river sand, about 1/4 of the capacity is taken away under small-leaved plants, such as perististolemum, golodniknik or nitella.

cardinal fish photo

The Ludwigius planted in the ground, Indian fern, and hygrophil are quite suitable. Water for the breeding ground is preferable to be from the "old" and fresh (separated) water, mixing them in equal parts, but you can use one fresh. The water temperature is not lower than the one in which the fish were prepared for spawning. Its level is small - 20-25 cm. The lighting is moderate.

The fishes placed in the spawning grounds immediately become lively, and the males begin their courtship ritual - make elegant turns around the females. When water temperature is up to 25 ° C, fish liveliness increases.

Spawning can last for two days. During this time, one female sweeps up to 30 eggs. If you need to get a second after the first spawning, and they can be up to ten with 8-12 days breaks, the producers are again seated in different containers and heavily fed with live food. Stopping breeding, the fish are placed in a common aquarium with the usual feed and temperature regimes.

Incubation of caviar lasts from 30 to 50 hours depending on the temperature of the water, which should not be subject to significant fluctuations.

Cardinals' larvae are so small that they are barely visible with the naked eye. The larval period, when these crumbs hang motionless on a particular substrate, lasts up to 2 days.

p> The fledged cardinal fry are fed without departing from table 2, but because of their small size, feeding with infusoria or other starter food is somewhat lengthened. predetermined their content in the aquarium separately from other fish. In the 15-20-liter capacity, you can create a miniature copy of the natural reservoir, observing all stages of life of these fish, without disturbing them with transplants to prepare for spawning and spawning.

The device of a specific aquarium for cardinals (it will also be a breeding ground for 3-4 nests of these fish) provides for the presence of sand and a small number of plants on the bottom. The only difference between such an aquarium and an ordinary breeding ground is that the water in it ages, acquiring an amber-yellow color, and therefore 1/5 of it should be replaced with fresh water every week.

Normally feeding, even with surrogate foods or dry feed, the fish, being in optimal temperature conditions for breeding, are occasionally ready for spawning without special training. This makes it possible to observe the "tournament battles" of the males and see their courtship for the females.

With hasty movements with flowing fins, males hover around females, periodically bouncing off to the side, rushing into the midst of plants, as if inviting them to follow them. When the efforts of the males bring success, the fish hide in the thickets of plants, where the spawning takes place.

cardinal fish photo

Before the eyes go through all the stages of life of a miniature fairy underwater world. A hank of caviar lasts not 2-3 days, as during normal spawning, but about a month, since every day a female spawns only 2-3 eggs. Rest after such spawning lasts about a week or more. After this, the normal life cycle begins.

The fry that have appeared in 3-4 days from the moment of spawning begin to feed, as usual, with small living “dust” or artificially grown culture of ciliates. Since, in contrast to the temporary spawning grounds, there are always a small number of ciliates and other aquatic organisms in a lived-in aquarium, feeding newborns in the first period of their life becomes easier - in one way or another, they find food.

If day by day the number of fry increases, then without adding starter feed is not enough.

cardinal fish photo

True, there may be a slight increase in the number of ciliates directly in the aquarium, if you provide them with food. For this, a thin slice of carrot or a small piece (1 sq. Cm) of banana peel is suspended on a stainless wire in the uppermost layer of water.

Getting wet and decomposing slowly (if there is aged water in the aquarium, but you should be afraid that it will deteriorate), they are a good environment for bacteria, and those, in turn, will contribute to an increase in the number of ciliates. After the first portion of the feed for the ciliates is completely decomposed, it will disintegrate, you can hang a new one.

The first fry, attracted by the abundance of small food in a certain place, remain there until this food ceases to satisfy them. In place of the grown-up fry (they go in search of a larger feed) come more and more new generations in need of an initial feed.

You can continue feeding juvenile cardinals on any surrogate feed, not excluding dry feed. Growth rate of fry naturally slows down. And yet the fish eventually reach good size and full development, which allows you to get offspring from them.

Cardinal Fish video

HUPPY ENDLER CONTENTS REPRODUCTION PHOTO COMPATIBILITY DESCRIPTION VIDEO.

SUMATRAN BARBUS BREEDING CONTENT DESCRIPTION PHOTO VIDEO.

Aquarium Cardinals

Cardinal (fish) - fish of the carp family, of the class Ray. The name got its due to the desire of easy money merchants, who hoped that it would be better sold for industrial purposes. The Latin, classical specific name is more consonant: "alba nubes", which literally translates as "white clouds". For the first time these fish were found in China.

In Guangdong, China, in 1930, the leader of a pioneering movement named Tang Meng Yo made the first entries about cardinals. In the description, it was stated that this fish survives well in water with a low temperature, and, as it turned out later, aquarium conditions for it are also not a bad place. Later it was sold under different names, and the "cardinal" was not the only one. Chinese danios, false neon, magnificent minnow - such names are often found on the market.

The fast south Chinese rivers are the natural habitat of the cardinals. Keeping and breeding them is available only in aquarium conditions, since they are almost wiped out in the wild. Since the 1980s, there has not been a single notification about the places of their population. In China, this species was temporarily considered extinct. Miraculously, it turned out that a small school of fish was found in some Chinese and Vietnamese provinces. All fish sold today are bred.


Description

Despite its unremarkable size, the cardinal is a bright and colorful fish with an elongated and slender body, which is slightly flattened in front, on the sides. On top of the muzzle - a small mouth, which is located as in nature, it collects insects from the upper layers of water. The fish has no antennae, the dorsal fin is in line with the anal fin.

Color bronze brown, with a bright strip passing through the axis of the body. On the tail there is a bright red spot, part of the tail is transparent. The abdomen is lighter, in contrast to the rest of the body, the fins are slightly veiled, also colored in raspberry red. There are artificially derived colors, even albinos.

When the fry reach a length of 4-5 mm, a shiny silver-blue strip appears on their body, which disappears when reaching a length of 2-3 cm, that is, upon reaching puberty. Males are slimmer and more elongated than females, the differences between them are mild. The nature of the aquarium fish active, mobile.

Can they live with other fish?

The small golden cardinal, despite its miniature size, can live with other small fish. Guppies, zebrafish, microassemblies of the galaxy can become his housemates. You should not keep them with goldfish and larger aggressive fish.

Look at how beautiful the cardinal fish is.

For a comfortable existence within a limited aquatic environment, there should be a lot of cardinals, preferably 15 individuals in one flock. If there are few of them, fear will not be avoided, because of which the color will deteriorate. Cardinal is a fish that does not like to eat its offspring, so it is even easier to breed.

How to keep in an aquarium

If you are a beginner in aquarism, then keeping and breeding a cardinal will not cause you any particular trouble. They are hardy and unpretentious creatures. However, they do not like to swim in warm water, so the temperature should be maintained within 18-22 degrees Celsius. Warm water reduces their lives, spoils the color.


At the bottom of the aquarium you need to lay out the dark ground or river sand, snags, stones and many plants for shelter (elodey, ferns, myriophyllum). Before placing the sand in the aquarium, it is better to rinse it thoroughly and boil for 40 minutes to destroy the parasites. You can leave a soft spot to watch their game.

Water parameters: pH 6.0-8.5, hardness 4-20 dH. Regular change ¼ of the water required. Additionally, install a compressor for aeration and water filtration. Cardinals are very sensitive to copper, so do not use it for preventive procedures. In Asia, cardinals are kept in ponds as fighters against mosquitoes, but not near large fish.

Feeding

For cardinals suitable food, which is eaten by many aquarium fish:

  1. Small crank;
  2. Daphnia;
  3. Cyclops;
  4. Flakes;
  5. Tubber;
  6. Artemia;
  7. Small granules.

It should be remembered that they have a very small mouth, so that large food with large pieces will not work.

About breeding cardinals

As a short-lived aquarium fish, the cardinal can spawn all year round. Breeding is simple because they do not eat their caviar. There are several ways to breed cardinals. The first method is that adults begin to breed themselves, provided that no other species of fish live in the aquarium. The second way is to prepare a small tank for a spawn (from 20 to 40 liters in volume), where you can transfer the most active and vibrant males and 4-5 females. Spawning lay out the plants, they will be laid caviar.

Look at the marriage dances of the cardinals.

Dilution is possible at a water temperature of 18-22 degrees, pH 6.5-7.5. Soil for such an aquarium is not required, the internal filter will improve water filtration and aeration, a small flow will be a plus.

Spawning is possible when producers are ready. Feeding live food (shrimp, daphnia, pipe maker) stimulates readiness for spawning.

They become sexually mature at the age of 4 months, only after that spawning is possible. In adult females, the belly becomes “full”, and the males become brighter. Over the course of several days, females spawn eggs, which fertilize males. The problem is that spawning in the general aquarium will be difficult when the young fry eat the eggs of their younger relatives. Therefore, it is better to spawn in a prepared, safer place.


When spawning takes place, the producers are sifted out. After 3-4 days a fry will appear, which is fed with rotifers, egg yolk pounded, live dust, ciliates, nauplii, oat flour.

Colorful and live aquarium fish as representatives of the exotic water world, are easily recognized by many lovers due to their peaceful behavior and ease of breeding.

Cardinal - aquarium fish

Tanichthys albonubes, or simply cardinal - an ideal fish for those who are just starting their acquaintance with aquarist. Эти маленькие и подвижные создания не только красивы, но и очень просты в содержании и уходе. Но, обо всем по порядку.

Кардинал в природе

Исторической родиной этих карповых считаются горные ручьи с быстрым течением, расположенные на юго-востоке Китая.

Оттуда кардинал был завезен в Канаду (1935 г.), затем попал в США, а после этого и в Европу, а точнее в Германию (1938 г.).

Нужно отметить, что с 1980 года и по настоящее время кардиналы считаются в Китае вымершим видом. This is due to the influence of man on wildlife and its transformation into parks, hotels, sanatoriums and so on. A small number of fish survived in the provinces of Goundong (China) and Quang Nin (Vietnam), but it is negligible. The Chinese government is taking measures to preserve and restore the population.

And all the fish that go on sale and which we see in pet stores, are raised in captivity.

What does the cardinal look like?

His body is slim. It is elongated and slightly oblate from the sides. The dorsal and anal fins are located on the same line. The tail fin is divided into two lobes. Antennae not. The mouth looks up, as these fish take food from the surface of the water. Males have a flatter belly and are colored brighter than females.

Cardinals are small. They rarely grow more than 3-5 cm. Life expectancy is also short - from 1 to 1.5 years.

The color is bronze-brown, with the stomach lighter than the rest of the body. From the eye to the tail is a luminous band, which ends with a small black dot. The tail is transparent, it has a spot of red color. There are they on other fins.

There are other artificially derived forms of cardinals, although they are not as popular as those described above. These include albinos, gold cardinals and voile varieties.


Similarity of the cardinal with neon

Undoubtedly, there is a similarity. And even some amateur hobbyists consider these fish to be related. However, this opinion is erroneous, and the similarity is nothing but the whim of nature. In fact, there is no relationship. Cardinals belong to carp and their homeland is China, and neons are characteristic and live in the waters of South America.

How to choose the cardinals of the neighbors?

Tanichthys albonubes should preferably be settled in an aquarium with a large flock of 15 or more individuals (and there should be 2-3 males in the flock, not more). If the cardinals in the home pond will be a bit, then they become fearful, most of the time hiding and losing the brightness of the color.

And so it is very peaceful and friendly creatures that do not conflict with each other, do not touch their fry, and treat representatives of other species very well.

About how to choose the right fish in the aquarium will tell our article.

We advise you to read the article Unpretentious aquarium fish.

Small neighbors, similar in temperament, will become good neighbors for them: a galaxy, a guppy, a zebrafish microassembly, etc.

Big, aggressive fish for which the cardinal will easily become food are categorically inappropriate. The neighborhood with goldfish is also not very good - they can eat. It is also better not to keep along with catfish, gourami, laliusi and similar slow-moving calm fish, in which the cardinals will divert food from under their noses.

How to create optimal conditions?

Aquarium better to choose an oblong shape. It will be enough and a small 15-liter for 5-7 fish. But the ideal is still a 40 liter spacious container. The water level should not be below 20-25 cm.

Water. Cardinals do not like warm water. In such conditions, their coloring fades and their life expectancy decreases. Also, there should be no sharp temperature changes, otherwise the fish will get a fungus. The optimal parameters of water is considered to be the temperature of 18-22 degrees, the hardness of 4-20 °, pH 6.5-7.5.

Filtration and aeration very desirable. Every 1-2 weeks is required to replace 30 percent of the volume of water.

Lighting Fish need bright, so you need additional lighting.

Priming better to choose the dark. Suitable as sand and small pebbles.

Plants. Despite the fact that the cardinals prefer dense vegetation, the algae must be placed so that the light can reach the bottom, and there is a place for swimming. Fern, myriophyllum, Ludwigia, Elodaea, Limnophila, Wallisneria and other small-leaved varieties are well suited. On the surface, you can arrange duckweed or riccia.

Decor. For decoration, you can install snags and stones.

What to feed the cardinals?

Anything These carp eat all kinds of feed: live, frozen, dry in the form of flakes or pellets. The main thing is to remember that they can take food only from the surface of the water, and not from the bottom (due to anatomical features), and the food should not be too large, as the fish themselves are small. Moth, artemia, tubule, cyclops, daphnias, small worms and insects will do. If live food is unavailable for any reason, then you can give dry ones by adding vitamin B to them.

How to get offspring?

Cardinals can breed throughout the year. They are considered sexually mature from four months of age. You can breed them in two ways:

The first way. In the general aquarium. And keep there only cardinals. Due to the fact that these fish do not touch their eggs and fry, their numbers very quickly increase.

Second way. In spawning. It is a small container (approximately 20 liters) with soft cool water (pH 6.5-7.5, t 18-22 ° C), plants, filtration and aeration. Soil is optional.

2 males and 4-5 females are placed there. They are abundantly fed. After some time, the female lays about 300 eggs. After that, adults can be planted, but they can also be left in the spawn. Approximately in 36-48 hours fry will appear, which can independently eat in 3-4 days.

For starters, they can be given rotifers, live dust, ciliates and egg yolk. Later it is worth translating into small cyclops and daphnids. As they grow, they are sorted by size and deposited.

A special feature of the fry is a shiny blue strip on its side. When the fish reaches puberty, this band disappears.

Cardinal diseases

These carp can occur characteristic disease, the origin of which is not clearly understood. These are tumors in various parts of the body. It all begins with the appearance of a tumor the size of a match head on the upper lip. It can be light gray or black. No other symptoms. The fish is active and does not lose appetite. As a rule, all (or almost all) individuals become ill at the same time. This is not transmitted to other species.

Interesting Facts

  1. In Asia, cardinals are sometimes kept as pond fish. They are not only beautiful, but also help in the fight against mosquitoes.
  2. These carp are able to withstand temperature drops from 14 to 30 degrees.
  3. The name Cardinal is a commercial move. The merchants gave it to these fish so that the goods sold better. Such a name was often found in German books on aquarism of the time, from which it got into Russian and took root.
  4. In China and England, fish are called minnows, mountains of white clouds, or Guangdong minnows. They are so named because of their habitat. Cardinals can be found in fast and cool water flows on Baiyunshan Mountain, which is also known as White Mountain Clouds.

As we can see, it’s really easy to care for cardinals. They are loyal both to the volume of the dwelling, and to the parameters of the water, and to the stern. The only thing that is important is to maintain the purity of the water. And so these fish will delight the owner not only at home, but even in a mini-aquarium in the office on the desktop.

Cardinal fish: content, compatibility, photo-video review


Cardinal fish tanichtys albonubes

Order, family: Carp.

Comfortable water temperature: 20-22 C.

Ph: 6,5-7,0.

Aggressiveness: not aggressive 0%.

Cardinal fish compatibility: with all the peaceful fish (danios pink, terntion, catfish speckled, neons, etc.)

Useful tips: not capricious fish, suitable for beginners and young aquarists.

Description:

Homeland - China. Fish size up to 4 cm. Males are brighter colored than females and slimmer.

Cardinals contain a small flock. The fish is mobile, peaceful and unpretentious. Loves medium-sized live and dry food. Effectively a flock of cardinals looks in a spacious, planted and brightly lit aquarium.

Color: from the head to the tail of fish a bright, shimmering band passes, which, on reaching maturity (4 months), disappears. Under good conditions, the Cardinal spawns his whole life.

Comfortable parameters of water: dH 20 °, pH 6.5-7.0, t 20-22 ° C.

Breeding cardinals is not tricky. Fresh water is poured into a spawning aquarium, several small-leaved plants are placed, a sprayer is installed and a group is planted (there should be more females) or one pair of fish. Water for dilution: dH up to 10 °, pH 6.5-7.0, t 24-26 ° C.

Fish Cardinal male and female

The female lays several eggs every day. Calf and fry parents usually do not eat. When floating fry appear, the producers are transferred to another aquarium, and in the first one they begin to feed the fry. Food for the start - rotifers, cyclops nauplii, egg yolk or simply triturated dry food.

Feeding aquarium cardinal fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

Photo selection of cardinal fish

Interesting video with a cardinal fish

Cardinals - aquarium fish that are almost gone

Cardinal (Latin Tanichthys alboneubes) is a beautiful, small and very popular aquarium fish that you probably know. But, you know, what are you ...

Cardinal habitat in nature has changed significantly in recent years, and this has affected the number of fish. Wildlife has become parks, hotels and sanatoriums. This led to the fact that the cardinal disappeared, and since 1980, for twenty years, there has not been a single message about the population. The species was even considered extinct in its homeland in China and Vietnam.

Fortunately, a small amount was found in isolated areas of Goundong Province, and on Hanyang Island in China, as well as in Quang Nin Province in Vietnam. But this species is still very rare, and is considered endangered in China. The Chinese government is taking measures to restore the cardinal population in nature. All individuals of the cardinal, which are now sold - raised in captivity.

Description

Cardinal is a small and very bright fish. It grows up to 4 cm in length, with males more slender and vibrant than females. Life expectancy at all small fish is small, and the cardinals are not an exception, they live 1-1.5 years. They live in the upper and middle layers of water, rarely dropping to the bottom.

The genus of the cardinal is directed upwards, which indicates the way of feeding - he picks up insects from the water surface. Antennae not, and dorsal fin located on one line of body with anal. The body is bronze-brown in color, with a fluorescent line running in the middle of the body from eye to tail, where it is pumped with a black dot. On the tail is a bright red spot, part of the tail is transparent. The abdomen is lighter than the rest of the body, the anal and dorsal fin also have red spots. There are several artificially derived colors, for example, albino and variation with veil fins.

Compatible with other fish

Cardinals ideally contain a large flock, preferably 15 pieces or more. If you keep a little, they lose their color and hide most of the time. Very peaceful, do not even touch their fry and should be kept with the same peaceful fish. Large fish should be avoided, as they can hunt cardinals. Similarly with aggressive species. Look good with micro samples galaxy, guppy, endler guppy and zebrafish.

Sometimes it is advised to keep cardinals with goldfish, as they also prefer cool water. However, gold can eat cardinals, as the size of the mouth allows them. Because of this, you should not keep them together.

Content in an aquarium

The Cardinal is very hardy and unpretentious, and is well suited for keeping novice aquarists. The only feature is that cardinals do not like warm water, preferring a temperature of 18-22 ° C. They may be contained in warmer water, but their lifespan will be reduced. It is also noted that the cardinal's body color becomes much brighter if it is kept at a temperature lower than recommended for tropical fish, about 20 ° C.
Aquarium with a biotope of the cardinal in nature:

In the aquarium it is better to use dark soil, a large number of plants, as well as snags and stones. Leave free places for swimming, where there will be a lot of light and you will enjoy all the beauty of the cardinal's coloring. The water parameters are not very important (pH: 6.0 - 8.5), but it is important not to go to extremes. Avoid using drugs with copper, as the cardinals are very sensitive to the copper content of the water.

In Asia, cardinals are sometimes kept as pond fish, for beauty and to combat the mosquito population. Do not forget that they can not be kept with large pond fish.

Feeding

Cardinals will eat all types of feed, for example - live, frozen, flakes, pellets. In nature, they mainly feed on insects that fall to the surface of the water. And in the aquarium they eat well small live food - bloodworm, tubule, artemia and a variety of flakes. Do not forget that they have a very small mouth, which is directed upwards and it is difficult for them to eat large food from the bottom.

Gender differences

There are no obvious differences between males and females of cardinals. But the sex in adult individuals is quite simple to distinguish the male from the female, the males are smaller, more brightly colored, and the females have a fuller and more rounded belly.
They become sexually mature between the ages of 6 and 13 months. When the males have reached maturity, they begin to organize demonstrations in front of each other, straightening their fins and showing their most vivid colors. Thus, they attract the attention of females.

On a dark background:

Breeding

Cardinals are quite easy to breed and they are well suited for those that only try their hand at aquarism. They are disabled, they can spawn during the whole year.
There are two ways to breed cardinals. The first is to keep a large flock in the aquarium (only cardinals!), And allow them to spawn there. Since the cardinals do not eat their eggs and fry like other fish, then after a while you will have a full aquarium of these fish. Reproduction is the simplest and does not require any effort.

Another way is to put a small spawn (approximately 20-40 liters) and deposit a couple of the brightest males, and 4-5 females. Put plants in the aquarium so that they can lay eggs on them.

Spawning:

The water should be soft, with a pH of 6.5-7.5 and a temperature of 18-22 ° C. The soil is not needed if you use the spawning aquarium. A little filtering and over do not interfere, you can put an internal filter.

Regardless of the choice of breeding method, it is important for producers to spawn copiously and satisfyingly feed them with live food. For example, shrimp meat, daphnia or shaker. If you can not use live food, you can use ice cream.

After spawning, caviar will be deposited on plants and producers can be deposited. The fry will hatch in 36-48 hours, depending on the water temperature. Feed the fry need a very small starter feed - rotifers, lively dust, ciliates, egg yolk. The fry grows quickly and feeds quite easily.

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