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Fish telescope photo and description

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Aquarium fish telescope - from black to gold

Telescope fish, the most prominent feature of which are the eyes. They are very large, bulging and prominent on the sides of her head. It is for the eyes that the telescope got its name. Large, even huge, they nevertheless see poorly and can often be damaged about the objects in the aquarium. One-eye telescopes are a sad but frequent reality. This and other properties impose certain restrictions on the content of the telescope.

Habitat in nature

Aquarium fish telescopes in nature do not occur at all. The fact is that all the goldfish were bred a long time ago from a wild crucian. This is a very common fish that inhabits stagnant and slow-moving reservoirs - rivers, lakes, ponds, canals. It feeds on plants, detritus, insects, fry.

The birthplace of goldfish and black telescopes is China, but around 1500 they came to Japan, in 1600 to Europe, and in 1800 to America. The bulk of the currently known species, including the telescope, was developed in the East and has not changed since then.

It is believed that the telescope, like the goldfish, was first bred in the 17th century in China, and was called the dragon eye or dragon fish. A little later, it was imported to Japan, where it received the name "Demekin" (Caotoulongjing) by which it is still known.

Description

The body of a telescope fish is rounded or egg-shaped, as in a veil tail, and not elongated, as in a goldfish or shubunkin. As a matter of fact, only the eyes differ from the telescope from the valehvosta, otherwise they are very similar. The body is short and wide, also a large head, huge eyes and large fins.

Now telescopes are found in very different shapes and colors - with veil fins, and with short, red, white, and most popular - black telescopes. The black telescope is most often sold in pet stores and markets, but it can change color over time.

Telescopes can grow large enough fish, about 20 cm, but in aquariums, as a rule, less. The life of a telescope is 10-15 years, but there are cases when they live in ponds and more than 20. The sizes vary greatly depending on the type and conditions of detention, but telescopes are not less than 10 cm in length and can be more than 20.

Difficulty in content

Like all goldfish, a telescope can live at very low temperatures, but it cannot be called a suitable fish for beginners. Not because he was particularly picky, but because of his eyes. The fact is that they have poor eyesight, which means that it is harder for them to find food, and it is very easy to hurt their eyes or damage the infection.

But at the same time telescopes are very unpretentious and undemanding to the conditions of detention. They live well in the aquarium and in the pond (in warm areas), if the water is clean and the neighbors do not take away their food. The fact is that they are slow and poorly seen, and more active fish can leave them hungry.

Many contain telescopes or other goldfish in round aquariums, alone and without plants. Yes, they live there and do not even complain, but round aquariums are very poorly suited for keeping fish, impair their vision and retard growth.

Feeding

Feed telescopes is easy, they eat all kinds of live, ice cream and artificial food. The basis of their feeding can be made artificial feed, for example, pellets. And additionally, you can give bloodworms, artemia, daphnia, pipemaker. Telescopes need to take into account poor eyesight, and they need time to find food and eat. However, they often dig in the ground, raising dirt and dregs. So artificial feeds will be optimal, they do not burrow and slowly disintegrate.

Content in an aquarium

The shape and volume of the aquarium which will contain the telescopes are important. This is a big fish that produces a lot of waste and dirt. Accordingly, for the maintenance of telescopes need a fairly spacious aquarium with a powerful filter.

Aquariums of a round shape are absolutely not suitable, but classic rectangular ones are perfect. The larger the surface of the water in your tank, the better. Gas exchange occurs through the surface of the water, and the larger it is, the more stable this process is. As for the volume, it is better to start from 80-100 liters for a pair of fish, and add about 50 liters for each new telescope / goldfish.

Telescopes produce a huge amount of waste, and filtration is absolutely necessary. It is best to use a powerful external filter, only the flow from it must be started up through the flute, since goldfish are not important swimmers.

Mandatory weekly water changes, about 20%. As for the water parameters, they are not very important for telescopes.

Soil is better to use sandy or coarse gravel. Telescopes are constantly digging in the ground, and quite often swallow large particles and die because of this.

You can add decor and plants, but remember that the telescope's eyes are very vulnerable, and eyesight is weak. Make sure all the elements are smooth, they have those sharp or cutting edges.

Water parameters can be very different, but ideally it will be: 5 - 19 ° dGH, ph: 6.0 to 8.0, and the water temperature is low: 20-23С.

Compatible with other fish

Telescopes are quite active fish that love the community of their own kind. But for the general aquarium, they are poorly suited. The fact is that they: do not like high temperatures, are slow and dim, they have delicate fins, which neighbors can tear off and they trash a lot.
Who does the telescope fish with? It is best to keep telescopes alone or with related species with which they get along: veiltails, goldfish, shubunkins. It is impossible not to contain them with: Sumatran barbus, ternitse, denison barb, tetragonopterus. It is best to keep telescopes with related fish - gold, veiltails, oranda.

Gender differences

It is impossible to determine the sex of telescopes before spawning. During spawning, white bumps appear on the head and gill covers of the male, and the female considerably rounded from the calf.

Telescope - goldfish: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review


CARASSIUS AURATUS FISH TELESCOPE

Order, family: Carp.

Comfortable water temperature: 18-25 C.

Ph: 5,0- 8,0.

Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%.

Compatibility: with all the peaceful fish (danios, terntion, catfish speckled, neons, etc.)

Useful tips: There is an opinion (especially for some reason, from the sellers of pet stores) that when buying fish of this type you should be ready for frequent cleaning of the aquarium (almost with a vacuum cleaner))). This opinion is justified by the fact that the "Goldfish" nibbled and left a lot of "kakul". So, THIS IS NOT TRUE !!! He himself repeatedly wound up such fish ... there is no dirt - I spend an easy cleaning of the aquarium about once every two weeks. So, do not be frightened sellers tales !!! Fish look very nice in the aquarium. And for greater purity and control of "kakulyami", bring more catfish into the aquarium (speckled catfish, catfish, acanthophthalmos kyuli), and others.

It is also noted that these fish love to eat vegetation - do not buy expensive plants in the aquarium.

Description:

The telescope is one of the fish included in the so-called "Golden Fish" family. The fish is unusual and very beautiful. Received its name for large bulging eyes, which may have a spherical, cylindrical or conical shape. Fish size up to 12cm.

The body is ovoid, the fins are long, anal and caudal forked.

There are two types of telescopes:

- Scaleless: one-color and pied print;

- scaly (velvet black).

The color of the telescope is variable: red, orange, calico, black.

These fish are not very demanding of conditions. The main thing with its content is proper feeding - the key to success is the balance of the feed. The fish is susceptible to intestinal diseases and gill rot.

For the content you need a spacious aquarium with clean water without impurities. Neighbors should not be active and even more aggressive fish - barbs, cichlids, gourams, etc.

Comfortable parameters of water: temperature 18-25 ° C, aquarium water hardness 6-18 o, pH 5.0-8.0. Reinforced aeration and filtration.

The peculiarity of the fish is that it loves to rummage in the ground. As the soil is better to use coarse sand or pebbles, which are not so easily scattered fish. The aquarium itself should be spacious and species, with large-leaved plants. Therefore, in the aquarium it is better to plant plants with hard leaves and a good root system.

Fish in respect of feed unpretentious. They eat quite a lot and willingly, so remember that it is better to underfeed the fish than to overfeed them. The amount of food given daily should not exceed 3% of the weight of the fish. Adult fish are fed twice a day - early in the morning and in the evening. Feed is given as much as they can eat in ten to twenty minutes, and the remnants of non-eaten food should be removed. Feeding aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feed for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

Photo fish telescope


Interesting video about telescopes

Telescope fish - content breeding compatibility photo video.

Telescope fish - content

The content of these fish is very, very troublesome, because these fish are especially whimsical.

In particular, they are very fastidious about the content of oxygen in the water. An aquarium for such fish is best taken large in size - from forty liters to a couple of fish, and in the aquarium with these fish there should be no stones or decorations with sharp corners

. In general, all spicy foods are strictly forbidden because these fish can easily get hurt. The temperature should vary from twelve to thirty degrees from hardness to 20, pH from six and a half to eight.

Telescopes are peaceful fish, so they can very easily be kept next to other peaceful fish. But be careful, because any, even insignificant aggressive fish can very easily injure the eyes of telescopes.

GOLD FISH CARE CONTENTS BREEDING COMPATIBILITY DESCRIPTION.

The best option for keeping telescopes is at a distance from all other fish and in a spacious aquarium in which water is very rich in oxygen. It will also be good to contain telescopes along with the tail fish - goldfish.

In an aquarium in which you will contain telescopes, there should be excellent air blowing and excellent water filtration. Also, it would be useful to triple the aeration of water.

Telescopes are not very good friends with plants that are not well rooted, because telescopes simply pull them out. Plants with delicate leaves, they are biting.

Breeding and spawning

The reproduction of telescopes is possible in an artificial reservoir in the springtime, when the water is warming. As in the reproduction of goldfish, the female and the male telescope are planted for two weeks in separate aquariums, giving live and artificial food.

Before settling in spawning, they are satisfied with the fasting day. Spawning occurs in fresh and softer water with a temperature of 23-25 ​​degrees. The required spawning volume is 50 liters, a separator grid and several hard-leaved plants are placed there.

Usually one female and 2-3 males spawn. The female lays many eggs - more than 2000. Incubation lasts 3-4 days. 5 days after spawning, the larvae will hatch, which will swim in a few days if the water temperature is from 21 to 26 degrees Celsius. The fry are weak and helpless, barely noticeable.

Starter feed - live dust. Later you can eat artemia and rotifers. Caring for fry requires constant observation in the spawning aquarium - in order to prevent cannibalism between brothers, large fry should be separated and settled separately from smaller ones.

Compatibility of telescopes with other fish Now about compatibility with other aquarium fish. All golds are rather slow and contain them better with fish.

the same temperament, and ideally with their own kind. They are definitely not suitable for neighbors, so to speak, fast-moving fish (such as shark balls), which can easily cause gold injuries.

There is also no talk about suckling fish, such as gerinokhailus or antsistrusov with pterigoplichtami, as they like to travel around the aquarium, clinging to slow-moving fish.

These journeys do not pass without a trace for the "driver", traces remain on the body of the fish, and far from being harmless. On the ground, the scales often peel off the scales, or even bloody wounds remain.

Telescopes, like all goldfish, become sexually mature in the second year of life and can reproduce from now on. In the aquarium under optimal conditions of existence of the fish, telescopes live up to 15-17 years.

External description

A goldfish telescope has a swollen round or ovoid body, reaching up to 12 cm in size, and more than half the body length in height. The tail fin is forked and hanging down, the dorsal is vertical, and the remaining fins are long and veil.

Head large, mouth like an accordion pointing down. The eyes are symmetrical, directed slightly forward, each eye is perpendicular to the surface of the head. The special telescopic shape of the eyes is formed by 3-7 months, depending on the temperature in the aquarium.

Telescope fish

Scaleless telescopes are distinguished by their beautiful scarlet color, but not having the brilliant metallic tint that scaled telescopes have.

KOEP CARPES CONTENTS REPLENISHMENT DESCRIPTION PHOTO VIDEO.

Types of telescopes

Telescopes are divided into many different types according to certain characteristics:

  • scales form;
  • coloring;
  • shape and size of fins.

Fish are also divided into species according to the structure of the tail fin:

  • skirt
  • tape

Type of telescope fish in color, which may be affected by the care and conditions in the aquarium, the quality of water or soil:

  • the black one is the most common, has a small caudal and long lateral fins, scales are evenly spaced;
  • magpie is white, and fins are black;
  • panda - body pattern represents the alternation of black and white shades;
  • Chinese red - white fishes with large bright red spots;
  • calico - have a motley color, a mixture of black, red, white and blue colors;
  • orange - with a metallic sheen, have a black tail and fins.

    Telescope fish

Differences in eye shape:

  • spherical;
  • cylindrical;
  • dish-shaped;
  • cone-shaped;
  • spherical

The black velvet telescope was developed by the famous Russian aquarist Kozlov at the end of the 19th century.

This aquarium version of the telescope was highly valued due to its unusual color and luxurious skirt tail. This telescope belongs to the scaly type, the color of the abdomen is weakened, gives a grayish-blue or golden hue.

The black telescope is considered to be the most perfect pedigree among the other telescopes.

TELESCOPE - CONTENT, BREEDING, COMPATIBILITY, PHOTO

TELESCOPE FISH VIDEO.

Big-eyed sissy

The fish telescope is an artificially bred species of goldfish from the carp family. From Japanese "demagin" translates as "water dragon" or "bug-eyed goldfish." The unusual name of these aquarium fish was due to the structure and shape of their bulging eyes, the size of which in some specimens bred in China reaches 5 cm.

External description

A goldfish telescope has a swollen round or ovoid body, reaching up to 12 cm in size, and more than half the body length in height. The tail fin is forked and hanging down, the dorsal is vertical, and the remaining fins are long and veil.

Head large, mouth like an accordion pointing down. The eyes are symmetrical, directed slightly forward, each eye is perpendicular to the surface of the head. The special telescopic shape of the eyes is formed by 3-7 months, depending on the temperature in the aquarium.

Scaleless telescopes are distinguished by their beautiful scarlet color, but not having the brilliant metallic tint that scaled telescopes have.

Types of telescopes

Telescopes are divided into many different types according to certain characteristics:

  • scales form;
  • coloring;
  • shape and size of fins.

Fish are also divided into species according to the structure of the tail fin:

  • skirt
  • tape

Type of telescope fish in color, which may be affected by the care and conditions in the aquarium, the quality of water or soil:

  • the black one is the most common, has a small caudal and long lateral fins, scales are evenly spaced;
  • magpie is white, and fins are black;
  • panda - body pattern represents the alternation of black and white shades;
  • Chinese red - white fishes with large bright red spots;
  • calico - have a motley color, a mixture of black, red, white and blue colors;
  • orange - with a metallic sheen, have a black tail and fins.

Differences in eye shape:

  • spherical;
  • cylindrical;
  • dish-shaped;
  • cone-shaped;
  • spherical

The black velvet telescope was developed by the famous Russian aquarist Kozlov at the end of the 19th century. This aquarium version of the telescope was highly valued due to its unusual color and luxurious skirt tail. This telescope belongs to the scaly type, the color of the abdomen is weakened, gives a grayish-blue or golden hue. The black telescope is considered to be the most perfect pedigree among the other telescopes.

Content in an aquarium

Caring for telescopes in an aquarium requires a lot of space, where there is at least 50 liters of water per fish. Fish love to dig the ground, so the plants should be chosen with powerful leaves and root system: vallisneria, elodeyu, sagittariya and pods. As a substrate for soil suitable pebbles or coarse sand, which the fish can not easily scatter. But do not place decorative objects with sharp edges, about which telescopes can injure their vulnerable eyes or fins.

It is necessary to provide natural light, good filtration and aeration. Telescopes are very pampered and thermophilic creatures, water hardness should be 8-24 °, acidity 6-8, temperature 12-27 ° С. Regular replacement of part of the water will be the key to the health of the fish.

Nutrition

Telescopes are quite unpretentious in food, eat a little variety of food and know how to slurp funny. Live food and plant foods should be included in their diet. But you need to be careful in terms of overfeeding these fish, the daily dose of food consumed should be about 3% of the weight of the fish. Adults can be fed in the mornings and evenings, and the remnants of uneaten food can be removed from the aquarium.

Breeding

The telescope reaches sexual maturity by 1.5-2 years. For breeding telescopes need a separate spawning or a cell inside the aquarium. During the spawning period, the fish show high activity, the males appear bright spots on the gills, and the females begin to recover. The male pursues the female, chasing her around the aquarium, after which she scatters her eggs. In order to avoid eating eggs, the number of which can reach 5-10 thousand, fish are deposited immediately after throwing eggs.

After about 5 days, the eggs mature and become larvae. They do not need to be fed before they turn into fry.

It should be noted that the crossing of different types of goldfish will lead to the birth of barren outbred hybrids, which is fraught with their degeneration.

Compatibility

Telescopes are peace-loving small fishes, but their slowness and poor eyesight make them unprotected against aggressive representatives of the aquarium who can attack and injure telescopes. Especially unacceptable compatibility of telescopes with cichlids and barbs, which can seriously injure their eyes.

But the telescope is quite unpredictable in coexistence with other goldfish. Due to poor vision, telescopes take longer to find food than other nimble fish.

It is best to keep telescopes in a separate container with the same telescopes or peaceful goldfish of other varieties with which it more or less gets along. Good compatibility will be with such neighbors as aquarium catfish, which are orderlies of the aquarium.

There have been cases when the telescope peacefully got along with large characteristic fish like Congo or ternation.

Hazards and diseases

Proper care of these fish implies frequent water changes, as telescopes are particularly susceptible to intestinal and rot gill diseases. Such diseases as scabies, dropsy, changeling, common cold, ringworm can be treated, but excessive use of antibiotics leads to infertility of fish.

There are several features by which the health of telescopes is determined: vertically raised dorsal fin, mobility, shine of scales, brightness of color and appetite. At the first signs of illness, you need to carefully examine them and correctly identify the disease of the fish. Sick fish should be isolated and treated, and the aquarium and the ground should be thoroughly cleaned.

In addition to diseases, there are other dangers for telescopes in the form of a Cyclops, which the fish did not eat. He attacks their fry and eats, for a week can destroy about 2000 pieces. For adult telescopes, leeches and swimmers are dangerous.

The content of such a fish as a telescope at home is within the power of amateurs and beginners, but this will require compliance with mandatory conditions. Faithful and conscientious care of telescopes and proper compatibility in an aquarium will help to preserve their life and beauty for a long time. In a comfortable environment for health telescopes live up to 17 years.

Fish telescope

Aquarium fish telescopes or water whelps are a type of goldfish, care for which is very difficult. And, if you want to buy telescopes, you should know that they will constantly require your attention. Telescopes are scaly, which are distinguished by metallic luster and scratchless, which are divided into one-color and calico. These fish are distinguished from others by the bulge of their eyes, which comes in a wide variety of shapes. It is the eyes of these fish - the most vulnerable place, so the arrangement of the aquarium should be safe for the eyes. No stones with sharp edges, only polished. For the soil is suitable fine river sand, in which telescopes like to rummage.

Maintenance and care of telescopes aquarium fish

Fish are very sensitive to lack of oxygen. They love clean water. Therefore, aeration and continuous filtration of water, its replacement, the most important conditions for their maintenance. Slight turbidity of the water or algae bloom can lead to the death of the fish. Telescopes love heat. They tolerate water temperatures of 12–28 ° C, but better than 26 ° –27 ° C. Acidity of pH 6.5–8. Telescopes are not demanding for water hardness.

To food fish telescopes unpretentious. If you feed fish with live food, it must be pre-frozen. Dry food should preferably not be given more than once a week. Telescopes are very fond of plants, this should be taken into account when landscaping an aquarium. Algae with soft leaves will be circled, so it is better to plant plants with hard leaves and strong roots. From plant foods telescopes give duckweed, valisneria, salad.

Fish telescopes voracious, prone to obesity. They are fed no more than 2 times a day, sometimes they do fasting days.

Aquarium fish telescopes - breeding

Aquarium for spawning should be 50 liters and more. One female and two or three two-year-old males are selected, which before spawning are divided into 2 or 3 weeks. Spawning is best done in the spring. Water in spawning should be fresh and soft with a temperature of 3 - 5 ° C higher than in the general aquarium. Better than 24 - 26 ° C. Active males chase females that spawn, scattering it on the algae in the aquarium. At the end of spawning, the fish are removed from the aquarium. The fry appears after 2 - 5 days, is born weak. The best food for him is "live dust" or special food. The fry grows differently, therefore, to avoid cannibalism, it is sorted.

With whom the telescope gets on, the fish are just like water dragons. They are very slow. Because of this, they are offended by smaller fish. Terascopic fishes can snatch fins. And cichlids and fighting even suck their eyes.

Fish telescopes live up to 30 years, but how long they live depends on your care.

Aquarium fish telescopes and their diseases

Goldfish suffer from diseases of freshwater tropical fish. These are various bacterial and fungal diseases, as well as infection by parasites. The cause of the disease can be stress or injury, water pollution in the aquarium or poor-quality food, lack of oxygen.

The fungus is manifested in the form of various growths, white or gray. The appearance of the fungus is a signal to check the quality of the water.

The parasites that infect telescopes can be anchor worms that lay eggs in their peel. Have the appearance of threads. Their habitats are infected. Under the skin, flukes in the form of nodules parasitize. Other parasites, this fish louse, crustacean - karpoed, black spot.

Of the simplest, ichthyophthirius and chylodon are dangerous. Symptom is clouding of the skin, similar to salt, acting as an irritant.

For goldfish, eye disease is characteristic. If you are seeing a thorn, cloud or cloudiness, you need to pay attention to the quality of food or water.

They also sometimes have constipation or swelling of the body. Symptom of disease is an unusual swimming fish. A lack of oxygen causes the telescope to rise to the surface of the water.

Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review



SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect. In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.

Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5.
Stiffness dH: to 10 .
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors - discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium. See the article - compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live:
Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum amount of aquarium for scalar

angelfish in the aquarium black and white photo beautiful

From 100 l., In such an aquarium, you can put one, maximum two scalar. Under good conditions, they grow into fish of impressive size, and given their wide fins, it is better to buy an aquarium from 250 liters for them. About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).

Requirements for the care and conditions of the scalar


- scalar necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water.
- it is not necessary to cover the aquarium, the fish are not very mobile and do not jump out of the pond.
- lighting should be moderate. The aquarium is equipped with shaded areas, which is achieved with the help of aquarium vegetation. Fish do not like bright light and shy to turn it on. Vallisneria and other long stem plants are recommended as aquarium plants for scalars. The creation of thickets from such plants imitates the natural habitat of the angelfish.
- Aquarium decoration, at your discretion: stones, grottoes, snags and other decorations. In the aquarium must be provided an open space for swimming. Shelters do not need scalars.

Feeding and diet of scalar

The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia. The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.

The scalar has a peculiarity - they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat - there is nothing wrong with that.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, scalars live in northern South America

in reservoirs with dense reed beds and with standing or slowly flowing water. Actually these natural conditions explain their flattened - disc-shaped body shape, which they need to maneuver among underwater reeds. Kept in nature in groups of 10 individuals.

Description of aquarium angelfish

The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural - the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others. In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived - with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of the angelfish

The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as "pteron" - a feather and "phyllon" sheet, and together with a "winged sheet".

Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier. He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name "Blattfische", translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B. Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.

Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called "Angelfishes" or simply "Angel", in Germany "Segelflosser", which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they "dovozilis", but alas, the dead. Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the "aquarium-scalar boom" begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg - I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L. Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy - the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear. Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov - in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater. The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously.As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always - at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred. In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.

Types and breeds of Angelfish

So in order to understand the scale of selection work, I’ll give only an incomplete list of other derived forms of an angelfish: half-hearted, smoky, albino, red-smoky, red, chocolate, phantom, two-spotted phantom, blue, white, zebra, lace zebra, cobra, leopard, marble red-gold, red-pearl, pearl, gold-pearl, red-pearl and others.
The latest achievements are scaleless and brilliant scalaries. Therefore, if we talk about the types of angelfish - they are just countless.

Here is a photo of some angelfish - Pterophyllum scalare











But, it is necessary to distinguish the species from the breeds of angelfish

The above scalar is a breed of the same species Pterophyllum scalare. But there are other types of scalar - the main ones are:
Pterophyllum altum (pterophyllum altum), Pterophyllum leopoldi (formerly Pterophyllum dumerilli - Pterophyllum Dymerilli), Pterophyllum eimekei
Here is
Photo of Pterophyllum leopoldi (as a separate type of angelfish)

and here is a photo Pterophyllum altum (as a separate type of scalar)

a photo Pterophyllum eimekei (as a separate scalar)

Scalar content
Taking into account the above mentioned breeding experiments for one hundred years, the scalar adapted so much to the aquarium conditions that their content does not pose any problems. Perhaps the main and prerequisite for their maintenance is a large and high aquarium. As previously mentioned, the minimum volume of an aquarium for a scalar should be 100 liters, but its height should be at least 45 centimeters. In this case, the fish is absolutely not important thickness of the aquarium, on the turn, they are accustomed to pour narrow ducts, thickets and crevices. From my personal experience I will say that the angelfish feel great, are angry with densely planted long-stem vegetation, in which they feel at home in South America.
The optimal temperature of water for scalars ranges from 22-27 ° C. However, these fish are distinguished by enviable frost resistance up to 16 ° C and endurance in the heat up to 35 ° C.
They are unpretentious and to other parameters of water can normally exist both in very soft and rather hard water. Optimum dH: up to 10 °, Ph: 6-7,5.
Angelfish love clean water, so the presence of aeration and filtration in the aquarium is necessary. Weekly need to replace the aquarium water to fresh before? parts.
Angelfish are very hierarchical fish. It is best to keep them with a flock, in which their own ranking will be established - large and strong pairs will dominate, and weaker ones will receive cuffs. However, such intraspecific aggression is not very scary, especially if you zoned the aquarium. For example, I have aquarium plants and decor planted and set so that the aquarium can be divided into four "adjacent rooms". Such a method helps to avoid excessive aggression and stalking of the weak.

Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar

Sex differences between male and female scalar are weakly expressed. They can be seen only when the fish cut their mature age at 9-12 months of age. Up to this point, when you buy young animals in the pet store, no one will tell you who you take. When buying juveniles, the angelfish can be recommended to take two large individuals, most likely they are males and two small scalars, most likely they will be girls.
To determine the sex of the scalar need experience and practice. A full-time aquarist will distinguish a male from a female in two accounts, but for a beginner, it will be a bit hard for a beginner. For this you need to watch your scalar.
Below is a list of typical sexual differences between the male and the female scalar. Well, of course the photo!

The first sign is behavior. Boys behave like boys, girls like girls. This is especially noticeable when the angelfish are broken into pairs. The pair immediately see who the male and who is the female.
The second sign is the structure of the body. The male angelfish has a 100% distinctive feature - this is a fatty knob on the forehead - a hump. Females do not have it. The forehead of the male is convex, on the contrary vice versa in the female. In addition, the body of the male scalar is more powerful, their back has a fin longer and there are stripes on it (on the back).
The third sign is manifested during the spawning period. The male has a narrow and sharp seed tube, while the female scalar forms a wide and short ovipositor.

Here is a good photo of a male and female scalar

(male on the left and female on the right). Having received a review of this article from a fish breeding expert. Vitaly ChernyavskyI consider it necessary to supplement this part of the article with his answer, here it is:
"The article on the scalars looked. As for signs of differences between males and females - not quite right.
1) Behavior is not a criterion. Every now and then 2 females without a male completely even (and in turn) imitate the male's sexual behavior. Only if you look closely, you can see that the "male" and the female will then change places - and the roe (naturally unfertilized) will be put off by BOTH fish.
2) There are males without a forehead and females with a forehead.
3) The only clear criterion for sex differences in adult fish is line of the back and abdomen. In the male: the line of the back and dorsal fin form an ANGLE, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost the DIRECT line. And in the female, on the contrary: the line of the back and the dorsal fin form an almost DIRECT line, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost a direct ANGLE. "
Taking into account the expert's opinion, I add this drawing that will help determine the sex of the scalar, based on the angle of its fins.
!!!PAYING ATTENTION!!!
The fact that on the Internet this figure of an angelfish is everywhere spread with false information - the male and the female are confused. This drawing is taken from Ilyin's book Aquarium Fish Breeding. So there the fish were entangled by the artist.
Well, on the Internet, those who sculpt this picture on their websites ... they do not chop themselves, where the female is, where the male is, thereby misleading everyone.
!!! This picture is all right !!! With good and comfortable content angelfish spawning happens right in the general aquarium. The impetus for spawning is the replacement of aquarium water with fresh water and an increase in temperature of 2-4 degrees. A very important role in this process is played by the substrate for laying. Angelfish often prefer to lay eggs on a broadleaf plant, but they may like other places: filter tube, glass, grotto wall, etc.
The place chosen by the producers is thoroughly cleaned of any dirt, and then spawning itself follows. Over time, the female can sweep about 500 eggs, large and even more up to 1000.

Photos of scalar roe



The incubation period for caviar is 2 days; during this period, parents intensively fan the caviar with fins and clean it from litters, remove the whitened - dead caviar. After the larvae hatch from the calf, the parents transfer them to another leaf in their mouth. This is done for greater purity and the elimination of the possibility of catching the infection from the rotting shell of the calf.

Photos of scalar larvae



Over the next 7 days, the larvae, under the watchful supervision of parents, hang on a piece of paper. When the larvae run out of nutrients from the yolk sac, they turn into fry. From now on, they should start feeding.
Starter feed for young scalar should be of high quality, alive and well washed. Can advise - nauplii, nematodes. It is not desirable, but it is possible to feed the fry with any frayed dry food (the number of dead fry will increase with such feeding). It is also recommended to clean the spawning tank from food residue and other dirt twice a day.

Photo fry, young scalar


The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too. Of course, this does not lead to anything good. There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring. This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders. Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and scalar
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar



Recommended literature and books about scalars

A. N. Gurzhiy "Skalyarii" 2009 Kochetov Sergey "Skalyarii" 2005

Beautiful video with scalars









A selection of beautiful photos with scalars
















Comet aquarium fish: content, compatibility, photo-video review


COMET

Order, family: Carp.

Comfortable water temperature: 20-23 S.

Ph: 5,0- 8,0.

Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%.

Compatibility: with all peaceful fish (danios, thorns, speckled catfish, neons, etc.)

Useful tips: There is an opinion (especially for some reason, from the sellers of pet stores) that when buying fish of this type you should be ready for frequent cleaning of the aquarium (almost with a vacuum cleaner))). This opinion is justified by the fact that the "Goldfish" nibbled and left a lot of "kakul". So, THIS IS NOT TRUE !!! He himself repeatedly turned on such fish and at the moment one of the aquariums is busy with them ... there is no dirt - I spend the easy cleaning of the aquarium about once every two weeks. So, do not be frightened sellers tales !!! Fish look very nice in the aquarium. And for greater purity and control of "kakulyami", bring more catfish into the aquarium (speckled catfish, catfish, acanthophthalmos kyuli), and others.

It is also noted that these fish love to eat vegetation - do not buy expensive plants in the aquarium.

Description:

One of the fish included in the so-called family of "Golden Fish". The fish is unusual and very beautiful.

The body of the comet is elongated with a long ribbon forked tail fin. The higher the grade of the fish specimen, the longer its tail fin. Comets are very similar to voilehvosta.

Coloring options for a comet are different. Of particular value are individuals whose body color is different from the color of the fins. Basically, the body color is red-orange with the presence of sometimes white and yellow. The color of the fish is affected by the degree of coverage of the aquarium and feed. The best way to preserve the originality of the coloring of a comet's goldfish is fresh food, good lighting and the presence of shaded areas in the aquarium. Fish length up to 18 cm, life expectancy is about 14 years.

These fish are not very demanding of conditions. The main thing with its content is proper feeding - the key to success is the balance of the feed. Fish is susceptible to intestinal diseases and overeating.

For the content you need a spacious aquarium with clean water. Neighbors should not be active and even more aggressive fish - barbs, cichlids, gourams, etc.

Comfortable parameters of water: temperature 20-23 C, aquarium water hardness 6-18, pH 5.0-8.0. Reinforced aeration and filtration.

The peculiarity of the fish is that it loves to rummage in the ground. As the soil is better to use coarse sand or pebbles, which are not so easily scattered fish. The aquarium itself should be spacious and species, with large-leaved plants. Therefore, in the aquarium with the best to plant plants with hard leaves and a good root system.

Fish in respect of feed unpretentious. They eat quite a lot and willingly, so remember that it is better to underfeed the fish than to overfeed them. The amount of food given daily should not exceed 3% of the weight of the fish. Adult fish are fed twice a day - early in the morning and in the evening. Feed is given as much as they can eat in ten to twenty minutes, and the remnants of uneaten food should be removed.

Feeding any aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

Photo with aquarium comet fish

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