Gourami - aquarium fish
For beginners in aquarium business, guppies, cardinals, swordtails or catfish are considered the most suitable. All these fish, of course, cute and unpretentious, but they do not cause much enthusiasm. If you want a bigger fish, but the colors are more original, pay attention to gourami. Despite their size and unusual appearance, it is easy to care for these fish, they eat almost everything and have a very pleasant friendly character.
Gourami in nature
Homeland of these fish are considered to be freshwater bodies of Southeast Asia with a slow current or stagnant water. They can be found on the Indochina Peninsula, Malay, the islands of Kalimantan, Java, Sumatra, in South Vietnam. And in different parts of the range, different forms of life live, which differ in color.
A bit of history
From Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia in Europe gourami did not get right away. At that time, all the fish were transported in wooden barrels filled to the top with water. The same ones died during transportation without having lived even a day. They could not find out the reason for a long time, because the water in which they were caught by gourams was very dirty and muddy. After numerous unsuccessful attempts at transportation, the traders considered the fish problematic and abandoned this occupation.
And only at the end of the 19th century, 20 years later, one observant European noticed that the fish regularly rise to the surface of the water and swallow air. This time the barrels of water were filled to the top and did not seal. So the fish finally overcame the ocean and got to Europe without loss. These were spotted gourami.
In Russia, they were only in 1912-1915. Today, the former popularity of gourami has faded, but they are still in demand. Perhaps due to the fact that breeders do not forget about them and display new color variations.
What do gurus look like?
These macropods have an oblong oval-shaped body. At length it is elongated, flattened at the sides. Pectoral fins filiform. From them to the tail is a solid lower fin. The dorsal and anal differ: in males, they are sharp and elongated, and in females they are short and rounded.
Coloring may be different, but spots and stripes are necessarily present. Natural color - light silver. The brighter the fish, the better its health.
As for the size of gourami, there are small individuals (4-5 cm) and there are small fish of medium size (about 10 cm). In the aquarium, the maximum size of these labyrinths can reach 15 cm. There is even a record - 35 cm!
Under good conditions, can live 5-7 years. There are also old-timers who have pleased their owners for 12 years.
These fish have amazing features that have appeared in the process of evolution: a labyrinth and an unusual organ of touch.
Labyrinth - this is an additional respiratory organ to the gills. It is located in the cavity above them and consists of the thinnest bone plates covered with a mucous membrane penetrated by a network of vessels. It develops only 2-3 weeks after hatching of larvae from caviar.The labyrinth allows gourami to live in a small amount of water, in dirty water or even 6-8 hours without it. They must have the opportunity to rise to the surface and trap air, otherwise the fish will suffocate. This should be taken into account both when arranging an aquarium and when transporting pets.
Pelvic fins in the form of threads that gourami use for touch. In muddy and overgrown reservoirs, they can navigate easily.
The most famous representatives of these macropods are as follows:
Common (Spotted). The body is bluish or golden with a barely visible spotted pattern, not more than 13 cm long. There are black specks on the side and tail, pearls on the fins. Very peaceful and able to get along with all other species. They are the progenitors of marble.
Marble. Derived by breeding. Body length does not exceed 12 cm. In the back of the body there are spots of irregular shape in black.
Pearl. Their bodies are long (11 cm) and tall with a silver-violet color. The specks resemble pearls. There is a dark stripe along the whole body.
Grumbling. They make sounds like pigeon cooing.
Honey. They have the color of honey, which during spawning changes to red. By nature calm, but cowardly. In length grow no more than 7 cm.
Golden (sunny). Yellow-orange body with barely noticeable stripes no longer than 8 cm. Fins in red and yellow specks. On the tail is a red or dark rim.
Blue. Do not have spots on the body.
Kissing (pink). Their feature - thick lips, directly on which the teeth are located. Called so for the peculiarity of behavior - touch their mouths.
Flying tiger. They look very unusual due to the wings (growths) on the body.
There are many other varieties: chocolate, moon, dwarf, brown, Sumatran, rainbow, etc.
Who to choose as neighbors?
When choosing companions for gourami, it is worth considering their rather big size and temperament, namely non-aggressiveness, slowness, inability to stand up for themselves and curiosity. With their whiskers, they feel not only the objects around, but also other fish, which can react very nervously to such actions. Frisky and playful neighbors can simply pull and pull them for these mustaches, which causes serious injuries.
Compatibility of all fish can be divided into three groups:
- Nimble, carnivorous, viviparous and too small individuals: cichlids, a parrot, a goldfish, a barb, a swordtail, a cockerel, an astronotus, etc.
- There may be difficulties and conflicts with guppies, shrimps, discus.
- Excellent neighbors - neon, scalar, catfish, rasbor, minor, antsistrus, danios, tetra, etc.
In all disputable situations it is better to find a specialist and get his advice.As for the relationships within their species, the main disputes arise when sharing females, therefore, in order to avoid conflicts, it is better to have 2-3 of them for each male.
What to look for when buying?
You should not refuse to buy if the fish has a faded color. This is not about the disease, but about stress. As soon as the gourams acquire a permanent home and get used to it, the brightness will return to it.
But special attention should be paid to the fins (they should not be torn, not battered and well-straightened) and whiskers (should not be shorter than the body or broken off).
Before replanting into the general aquarium with gourami (as well as other fish) it is advisable to place them in quarantine for a week. Without this procedure, if suddenly the fish is a carrier of the disease, it can infect the remaining inhabitants of the domestic reservoir. Baths (biomitsin + brilliant green + rivanol) are held daily for about 15 minutes this week. After the bath, the fish is placed back in clean, warm and fresh water.
Aquarium. On the choice of the size of the capacity in the sources can be found conflicting recommendations. Some authors recommend taking a vessel with a volume of 100 liters and consider that the bigger it is, the better. Others claim that 40 liters for 2-3 fish will suffice. I adhere to the golden mean and I consider the most optimal aquarium of 70 liters (for a flock of one male and three females). To protect against cold air and drafts from above, the aquarium should have a cover, but not glass! It does not allow air, which is vital for gourami.
Water. To the water, these labyrinth undemanding. There is an opinion that any water will suit them, the main thing is not to pour it right from the tap, but to defend it a little. But still, optimal conditions are considered to be 24-27 degrees (they can withstand short-term temperature drops without compromising health), pH 6.0-7.0 and hardness not more than 16. It is advisable to replace one-third of water weekly.
Filtration and aeration desirable but not necessary. Aeration should not create a strong flow.
Lighting better bright. In the morning you can use the natural. But if it is not enough, then you can replace the artificial. Round-the-clock is not required.
Priming better to choose the dark. Well suitable river pebbles and stones.
WITH seaweed do not overdo it, there should be space for swimming. Three types of algae can be used:
- those that float on the surface, for example, duckweed or riccia;
- those that grow on the bottom, for example, Javanese moss;
- those that require rooting in the ground, for example, cabomb, cryptocoryn.
Decor. Decorate the aquarium can be snags. They are not only beautiful, but also provide water with humic substances, creating an environment close to natural, and maintaining the health of fish.
What to feed gourami?
These macropod omnivores. Dry, live, vegetable and frozen types of food take without problems. There are even cases when they savored cottage cheese, melted cheese, scalded with semolina, crushed canned green peas and skewered meat. But especially they love bloodworms, tube makers or daphnia, rich in amino acids and protein.
Basic rules for feeding:
- gourami has a small mouth, so food pieces should be small;
- it is necessary to diversify the diet;
- can not overfeed;
- it is worth remembering that these fish can endure a hunger strike for 1-2 weeks without damage to their health.
These fish are considered mature as soon as they turn one year old. Males are larger, brighter and have pointed fins. During the breeding season, they can be seen in all its glory.
It is necessary to prepare spawning in advance - a separate container for 20-30 liters with softer and cleaner water and floating plants. Reproduction can be accelerated by heating the water by 5 degrees and abundant supply of fish with live food.
Everything will start in about 1-2 weeks. The male proceeds to build a nest of pieces of algae and foam, which creates a mouth of air bubbles, not forgetting to periodically show off in front of the female. After construction, invites her to spawn, nudging. If the female is ready, she follows the nest and sweeps up to two thousand eggs over it. The male picks up the fallen and surfaced and attaches them into place.
All subsequent care for the nest, caviar and fry, he also takes over. Two days later fry appear. No later than 10 days after this, adult fish will need to be transplanted, as they lose their parental instincts and can damage or eat the young.
Malkov first time fed with infusoria, live dust and pounded egg yolk. As they grow, Artemia and nematodes are transferred to nauplii. Due to the uneven growth, they need to be periodically sorted, since the larger ones may not let the smaller ones to feed.
As for adults, 2-3 weeks after spawning, they are again ready for reproduction.
What are sick gourami?
It happens rarely. They can become infected from already sick fish or suffer from poor nutrition. Patients need to be isolated. The most common diseases are:
- Lymphocytosis. On the body there are open wounds, nodules and swelling, a flour patina is formed.
- Pseudomonosis. It appears dark spots, gradually turning into ulcers.
- Aeromonosis. The reason is the overpopulation of the aquarium. Signs: refusal to eat, care to the bottom, disheveled scales, swollen and bleeding abdomen.
A couple of interesting facts.
The larger the volume of the aquarium, the more gurus grow.
If the so-called mustache of these labyrinth, or rather pectoral fins, for some reason break off, they are able to grow back.
As we see, gourams are simple in content, beautiful and it is interesting to observe their habits. I think that they are able to decorate any home pond, especially an amateur fish lover's aquarium.
Video story about breeding gourami:
How to care for gourami?
Gourami - small freshwater fish of the Macropod family, suborder Labyrinth fish. Natural habitat - Southeast Asia and adjacent islands. Species pearl gourami found in the Malay Archipelago, on Sumatra and Borneo. Sometimes it is caught on the island of Java, in Bangkok, but here they appeared because of the carelessness of aquarium lovers. Lunar gourami lives in the waters of Cambodia and Thailand, serpentine gourami - in the territory of southern Vietnam, Thailand and Cambodia.
The spotted gourami is found in the freshwater rivers of India and the Malay Archipelago, and the blue gouras inhabit Sumatra. Some species of these fish were mistakenly recorded in freshwater bodies of other continents - North and South America. Small fishes like standing waters, with a slow current, therefore they search for small rivers, small streams for living. Gourami brown mastered estuaries with brackish water. Nowadays, the maintenance of these species is possible in the home aquarium.
The maximum body size of gourami in their natural environment is 60 cm in length, but in conditions of captivity the length of the body reaches no more than 15 cm. The character of the fish is unpretentious, friendly, with special features in each species. For example, kissing gourami may take a position that resembles kisses, and be in it for some time.
Keeping and caring for a fish will not create a hassle even for a beginner aquarist. It is pleasant to watch these pets - each has its own color, manner of behavior. They are mobile and easily breed in domestic spawning. To create good living conditions in an artificial reservoir, you need to make the maximum amount of effort. Then they will reward the owner with a beautiful appearance and a long lifespan of 5 to 10 years or more.
How to keep fish
These fish prefer a spacious place for swimming, so for several pets an aquarium from 100 liters will suit. They love to hide in the scenery and dense thickets of moss and algae. All types of these fish are gregarious, so in order to avoid stressful situations, they need a company of fellows. Timid, a little shy, swim in the upper and middle layers of water.
Watch the video story about gourami.
They do not create problems for the neighbors in the reservoir, but may suffer from the attacks of some. For example, Sumatran and tiger barbs, swordtails and guppy fish may incorrectly perceive their shy behavior and bright appearance. As a result, their fins will be intimidated and gnawed, although there have been cases of physical destruction. There is also rivalry among gourami: if there are few females per male, rivalry will begin between males.
As fishes living in warm waters, their maintenance and care are possible in an aquarium with a water temperature of 22-27 degrees Celsius. Cold water is hardly tolerated, they begin to ache. They prefer good lighting, which can be provided with LB lamps of 0.4-0.5 W per liter. The lamp should be installed at a distance of 10 cm from its surface. Filtration and aeration are necessary.
Like labyrinth fishes, they periodically breathe atmospheric oxygen, getting it from the surface. To do this, the tank lid must be left ajar to allow air to enter. The difference between water and air temperature must be zero, so that the fish will not damage the labyrinth organ. Once a week you need to update 25% of the water for a new and fresh. The permissible acidity of the aquatic environment averages 7.0 pH, the hardness should not exceed 8-10 dGH.
Quality maintenance and care is impossible without proper feeding. All macropods in food are unpretentious, but the diet should be varied. In the aquarium, they can be fed live food, artificial food, frozen food. Sometimes it is allowed to feed curd, oatmeal. The main food is daphnia, bloodworm, tubule, mosquito larvae, earthworms, shrimp meat. They have a very small mouth, so food must be crushed. Feeding - 1-2 times a day, in small portions.
When the fish are going to spawn, they are transferred to a protein-rich food. However, overfeeding is not worth it, it is harmful to health. They suffer hunger more easily than overeating, can live without food for 2 to 10 days, which in some cases makes it easier to care for them. Occasionally, you can put on a diet, but do not overdo it. Like all pets, love treats in the form of special feed, which can be found in the pet store.
Look at the biotope aquarium with gourami.
Compatible with other fish
Although labyrinths differ in exemplary behavior in the general aquarium, they can perceive small fish as food. Shrimps and other crustaceans are also incompatible with them. Sometimes they come into conflicts with each other, if the aquarium is not spacious, there are few shelters in it. Do not settle gourami with predatory and large representatives of the underwater world, because they carry a threat to life.
The best neighbors are: angelfish, rasbor, catfish corridor, minor, zebrafish, combat, mollies, petilia, iris, plexostomy, labo, tetra.
It is not allowed to keep with active and aggressive fish: some species of barbs, with males, large African and South American cichlids, goldfish, astronotus, koi carp. Macropods have such a feature: pelvic fins are long, thread-like. With their help, they feel the space, touching both plants and fish. At first, the neighbors may not like it, but later they will get used to it.
Varieties of aquarium gourami
Gourami (Latin Trichogaster) is a genus of freshwater tropical fish of the suborder Labyrinth, Macropod family. It charges six species. The scientific name Trichogaster (with filaments on the belly) was gourami thanks to the thread-like rays of the abdominal fins, which are additional organs of touch in the aquatic environment.In addition to the gills, all kinds of gourams can breathe with a special labyrinth organ, it dissolves oxygen in the body.
Natural habitat - regions of Southeast Asia. All varieties of these fish are distinguished by a calm and peaceful nature, some display individual traits of behavior. For example, the males of pearl gouras enter fights for the attention of the female. They make loud noises, letting air out of the labyrinth organ, which can last for hours. Endemics of Asian reservoirs grow in length of 30-35 cm.
Many species - aquarium pets. The most popular gourami: dwarf, pearl, kissing, serpentine, honey, marble, blue. They are united by common external features - the body is oval in shape, flattened at the sides, small in size. In some natural and hybrid species, spots or streaks are visible on the body. Gourami have transparent or translucent fins on the body, the abdominal ones end with filamentous processes. On the anal fin can be found red edging. The eyes are small, with a reddish tinge.
Look at the gourami in the aquarium.
Conditions of detention
After buying the fish it may seem that their scales have become faded. This is not a disease, but stress - when they get used to a new home, the body color will return. For two weeks it is better to quarantine a new pet, this procedure is important in order to investigate the state of health before launching into a common reservoir.
This aquarium fish can grow up to 15 cm in size, so the tank for it should be at least medium in size. For a couple of fish, you can use an aquarium with a capacity of 100 liters or more. On top of it you need to cover with a lid, but not glass. Fish prefer warm water. It is important that the air and water temperatures are the same. From time to time your pets will trap air from the surface of the water, so there should be a gap between the lid and the surface of the water.
The permissible temperature of the aquatic environment should be 22-26 degrees Celsius, a significant drop in temperature is harmful to health. Water hardness up to 16 dGH, acidity 6.0-7.0 pH. Every week you need to replace 25% of the water for fresh. Aeration is needed because it prevents the oxidation of organic matter.
Aquarium gourami like a lot of vegetation, where you can hide. Natural biotope will remind floating plants, Javanese moss. It is necessary to set the scenery so that the fish were where to swim. The upper and middle layers of water - their constant space. Dark substrate will be suitable as a substrate; illumination is desirable bright - 10 cm distance from the LB lamp to the surface of the aquarium. You can put in the tank wooden snags, emit humic substances, which are also beneficial to the health of pets. Under favorable conditions and regular care, the fish will live 5-10 years.
Settled in a common tank should be with peaceful and small fish that can swim in the lower layers of water. Predators, even small sizes can pluck them fins or physically destroy them. Suitable aquarium neighbors:
- Barbusses (partially);
Wild gourami are omnivorous fish, in freshwater bodies of water they eat zooplankton, insects, and sometimes plants and algae. They have a small mouth, so food should be chopped. Aquarium species of fish can eat live and frozen, artificial food, plant food. It is recommended to give bloodworm, tubule, daphnia, ciliates, crushed snails, finely chopped earthworms. Sometimes you can add lettuce, food containing spirulina. Giving food better 1-2 times a day in very small portions, it is important not to overfeed, otherwise the fish will appear constipated.
Watch a video about breeding pearl gouras.
Breeding gourami - a simple process, it is enough to know when they are ready to breed, and where to settle them during the spawning period. Of course, the best way to acquire fry is to establish a separate spawning ground. Increasing the temperature in it to 28-29 degrees, bringing the hardness to 10 °, the acidity of water to a pH of 6.5-7.0. A few weeks before spawning, you need to feed a couple of fish a live feed with protein content. A few weeks after preparation, the female will round up, and caviar will develop in her. Next, manufacturers run into the aquarium with clean water, but not strong over. In the tank should be floating plants, shelters. In the labyrinth nest, the male usually nests, and he also cares for the eggs. Some species have peculiar premarital behavior, but often the rules of breeding are common. The male builds a nest of bubbles and plants, bonding the "structure" with saliva.
During spawning, fish can make sounds that resemble rumbling or croaking of frogs. This is a consequence of the work of the labyrinth organ located under the gills. The male invites the female to his nest, and begins a dance with her, helping to free herself from her calf. Then he fertilizes her and transfers her to the nest, the fallen eggs return to their place. Some gourami produce 200-300 eggs, the serpentine female produces up to 1000 eggs and more. The incubation period is from 24 to 72 hours depending on the water temperature.
After spawning, the female can be immediately deposited, and the male should be left until the fry are billed. First, they eat up the contents of the yolk sac, later they will begin to swim independently in search of small food. Starter feed - ciliates, liquid feed for fry. Later, the larvae of Artemia can be given, but make sure that they are small. Children also need access to atmospheric oxygen for the proper development of the labyrinth organ. Fish become sexually mature at the age of 6-12 months.
Gourami marble: reproduction and content
Surely everyone who has little experience in keeping and breeding fish or does not have it at all wondered: "Are there any fish that are easy to care for, but which will look gorgeous in an aquarium?". One of these options is Gouram Marble. This is a fish with an interesting body shape and beautiful colors. They are perfect for both breeders with experience and beginners, as they are easy to maintain and breed and live long enough.
Gourami marble in nature
In nature, these fish you will not find. This is a completely artificial form that was bred using breeding (by crossing the blue and spotted varieties) and is contained only in the aquarium. Marble gourami are absolutely the same in size and habits as their relatives, and differ only in color. The second name of the fish - Cosby - from the names of the American breeder Cosby, who brought them.
Blue gourami from which this breed was obtained, lives in Asia. They can be found in countries such as Indonesia, Sumatra and Thailand. They can live in the flooded lowlands, marshes, streams, irrigation canals, in rice fields and even in ditches. The main thing is that the reservoir should be with stagnant or slow-flowing water and with abundant vegetation.
When the rainy season comes, these fish can migrate to the spill sites, and after its termination return. Their main food in the wild is bioplankton.
What does Gourami look like in marble
The body of the fish is elongated in length and compressed from the sides. Form it resembles an oval.
The fins are large and rounded (all but the ventral). These look like thin mustaches and serve for touch.
The tail, as well as the dorsal and anal fins are dark gray with yellow speck. Anal stretches to the tail and is sometimes edged red. The fins located on the chest are transparent.
The color of the fish is dark blue or silver-blue. The whole body is covered with spots of different shapes, resembling a pattern on marble.
Gourami is a labyrinth fish. This means that in the oxygen-poor water he is able to breathe atmospheric air and thus survive.
The maximum size of Cosby is 15 cm, but more often they do not grow more than 10-11 cm. They live from 4 to 8 years.
It is easy to distinguish the female from the male at the age of 6-8 months (it was then that puberty begins in these fish): it has a less long, rounded fin on the back. In addition, the males are larger and slimmer than the females.
The nature and compatibility of Marble gourami
These are rather peaceful, slow and quiet fishes. They prefer to be in the upper and middle layers of water. Gourami are perfect for keeping in a common aquarium with fish of similar size and temperament.
The neighborhood with minors, neons, races, scalars, corridors, antsistrus, apistograms will be a good one.
And marble is absolutely incompatible with aggressive cichlids, parrots, labidochromis, goldfish, etc.
But for fry and small fish, these labyrinths can themselves be dangerous, since they will easily consider them as food.
Inside the species, clashes between males can occur, but their outcome is always safe. To avoid this, you can keep a pair of fish or two females and one male. If there are more than one males, then it is advisable to plant more plants and make shelters so that the weaker can hide in them.
Gourami Marble: content
Can size. For fry there will be enough an aquarium of 50 liters (for 5-7 fish), and for adults you will need at least 80 liters. If there is a lid or glass on top, then they should fit snugly, as Gourami needs breathing air.
The optimal distance between the lid and the water surface is at least 5-8 cm. The difference between the water and air temperatures should not be large, so that the fishes, swallowing cold air, do not catch a cold.
Water parameters. Despite good adaptability, it is better to adhere to optimal indicators for water: the temperature is within 23-28 degrees, the acidity is from 6 to 8.8 and the hardness is from 5 to 35.
Filter it is better to set the minimum for the current, as they do not like strong fish. Aeration is optional. Weekly recommended to replace one-fifth of the water.
Lighting better bright top, and in the morning, preferably sunny.
Priming dark is recommended, then the color of Gourami will be as bright as possible, which means the fish will appear in the most advantageous light. Fine pebbles, granite chips, coarse sand will do.
Plants better to plant thickly in groups. Do not forget about the place to swim. It is usually left in the center, and the side and the background are planted with peristophagia, elodeis, cryptocoryne, vallysneria, tuna, echinodorus, Thai fern. Floating too should be. They will be needed to build a nest if spawning is planned in general. On the surface, you can put duckweed, Ritchia, piste, salviniya.
Decor. In addition to the overgrowths, it is not bad to construct several shelters of clay shards and snags.
How and what to feed the Marble gourami
These fish can eat almost any kind of feed:
- living: artemia, bloodworm, pipeker, coretr;
- frozen, including shredded meat;
- dry: gammarus and cyclops in the form of flakes or granules;
- vegetable: pre-chopped dandelion or lettuce leaves, bread crumbs, oatmeal.
When choosing food, the main criterion is the size of its particles, since the mouth of the fish is small. Large, they can easily choke. Well, the diversity and balance has not been canceled. Calmly endure a hunger strike lasting 1-2 weeks.
Gourami also destroy parasites (for example, the hydra of the planarian) that have fallen into the aquarium with food. They do not mind to eat and snails.
Gourami marble: reproduction
Most of these fish begin breeding at the age of 8 months to 1 year.
This procedure is not very complicated, but a spacious spawning tank (at least 30-50 l.) With an abundance of plants is required. The temperature of the water in it must be maintained at a level of 26-27 degrees, and its height should be about 13-15 cm. Soil is optional. Stiffness should be at level 10, and acidity - 7. It is recommended to cover the front glass. In the general aquarium, spawning is undesirable, since the fry may not survive.
For 1-2 weeks manufacturers share by sex, sit down and practice heavy feeding several times a day. You can give a live bloodworm and chopper. It is possible to determine the female's readiness for spawning by its full calf belly. Next, a couple is deposited in the prepared spawn.
The male begins to build a nest of foam and floating plants in the corner of the aquarium, holding them with saliva. It will be fry. During this period, he may begin to chase the female and she will need shelters. When the nest is built (approximately one to one and a half days), the marriage games begin. The male will flaunt and straighten the fins, trying to show themselves in the best possible way.
The ready-made female swims to the nest, settling under it, the male clasps her body and helps to lay eggs, as if squeezing her, and at the same time inseminates. Ikrinok is about 700-800. The male collects them by mouth and puts them in the middle of the nest. Despite the fact that there are quite a lot of eggs, most of the offspring, as a rule, die at this stage or at the age of fry.
After it is all over, the female is removed so that the male does not kill her. And he remains to care for the nest and offspring. Within a day and a half he does not eat anything, keeping his watch.
The male is removed when the fry begin to swim out of the nest (this is after about 3 days) so that he does not eat them or damage them when trying to return them.
The fry begin to feed "live dust", a microworm and an infusoria, as they grow up, transferring Artemia and nematodes to nauplii. Feeding dry food increases their death. Feed residues should be removed immediately. Maintaining the purity of the water and providing it with oxygen is very important, since the labyrinth organ of the Gourami does not form immediately. Fry need to be sorted by size, as they grow unevenly and larger individuals tend to eat their small counterparts.
Diseases of Marble gourami
After buying the fish you need to quarantine for one week. They themselves are resistant to bacterial infections, but are often carriers and can infect other fish. During this period, they are recommended daily 15-minute baths with solutions from salt, the antibiotic biomycin or oxytetracycline, a weak solution of greens, methylene blue or rivanol. Between the baths they are kept in a separate container with clean water.
The main pathogens of the disease are viruses, bacteria, worms, ciliates and microscopic fungi. They breed in the diseased fish, and then move to other inhabitants, causing the sea. Worsening conditions and feeding can provoke disease.
The following diseases are the most common among Gorami:
- Lymphocystic. Signs: open sores, grayish nodules and flat black growths, surrounded by swelling. Fish looks like sprinkled with decoy.
- Pseudomonosis. Signs: dark spots turning into reddish ulcers. Often accompanied by secondary infection with saprolegnios.
- Aeromonosis. Infection occurs from food, most often in overpopulated household water bodies among weakened individuals. Signs: raised scales, inactivity, refusal to eat, swollen abdomen with bruises.
To avoid these troubles, it is enough to ensure proper care and proper feeding. But in general, it is very unpretentious, friendly, interesting and beautiful fish, which even a beginner can handle. And the ability to destroy aquarium parasites makes them doubly useful.
Marble gourami - the favorite of aquarists
Those who love nature and wildlife, it is very good to have an aquarium in the house. Having joined a huge community of aquarists is not always easy to navigate in the world of fish. There are a great many species of them on earth, however, they all need to create individual conditions for them, including marble ones.
What does a fish look like
This interesting species of fish hails from Southeast Asia. His relatives in the wild, identical in shape, but not in color. This unique, amazing, beautiful, sophisticated color and design of the fish was derived by the method of selection, i.e. artificially. Nevertheless, they breed well in captivity, unpretentious in content, subject to good aeration and lush vegetation in the aquarium. This species of fish lives for a relatively long time - more than 4 years. Beginner aquarists can afford, content, breeding a decorative look. Since all the necessary qualities for this are preserved in the genes of this species. They are hardy, like their wild relatives, who in nature in their southern latitudes live in the most inappropriate places for ordinary fish. The selection view has not changed in shape, the gourami marble has a body extended in length and flattened-compressed laterally. Remembering the geometry, this body looks like an oval. All fins are round, only the abdominal ones look like thin and long mustaches with which the fish gropes for objects. Pectoral fins are colorless. The dorsal, anal fins and tail are dark gray. The base of the body is dark blue or silver-blue with a pattern, resembling marble stains. Its size is from 10 cm to 15 cm. There is one more feature of this fish: if there is not enough oxygen in the aquarium, it will survive with gourami, because it can breathe atmospheric air. Males differ from females in greater grace, large fin on the back, and they are somewhat larger in size.
Keeping fish is not difficult. For a start, you can get 5-6 young individuals and settle them in an aquarium up to 50 l. If the aquarium is with a lid, then its tight fit is unacceptable, because gurammramorny needs atmospheric air.It is necessary to maintain the optimal distance between the lid and the surface of the water - from 5-9 cm. It is necessary to maintain approximately the same temperature of the water in the aquarium and the room, because, breathing "cold" air, the gourami can get sick. After some time, the fish should be placed in a larger reservoir.
These are heat-loving fish, accustomed to the Asian climate, and the water temperature in the aquarium should not fall below 24 ° C *. Also, it is necessary to withstand other parameters - the acidity and hardness of water. The filter is obligatory, but in the "moderate" mode, and aeration is necessary, if there are other types of fish in the aquarium, but if gourami live on their own, then aeration is not necessary. In this case, replace each week about 5th part of the volume of water in the tank.
It is necessary to equip the reservoir with light in the upper part, and install a domestic pond so as to allow the morning sun to the fish. Dark ground is recommended for advantageous shading of fish colors:
- from pebbles;
- granite chips;
- coarse sand.
Plant thick vegetation in it, having previously grouped it on the sides of the aquarium. This is in order to have a swim. If you plan to breed fish, then floating plants are also necessary, because duckweed, salvinia. Their gourami uses to build a nest, without this reproduction is impossible. In this periodwithIt will take care of decorative structures - snags, clay structures. There gourami love to hide, they serve as shelter.
Eats gourami marble all available food:
They must be all thoroughly shredded. After all, the mouth of the fish is small and large food they do not swallow. They love variety, and without food they can live a whole week without pain.
Reproduction of the species is possible at the age of about a year. Marble freshwater gourae can breed, but for this fish create special conditions. Reproduction is not an easy process, but under certain conditions, it is quite possible. Spawning should be at least 30 liters. It should be a lot of plants. The water temperature is higher, 3-4 degrees higher than in the aquarium. The height of the water in such an aquarium is up to 15 cm. It is not necessary to place the soil, but it is necessary to withstand the acidity and hardness of the water, 10 and 7 units, respectively. Do not overdo it with the light and do not let it spontaneously spawn in the general aquarium.
It is important to do breeding in a timely manner. A female and a male (to determine the floor in advance) for 1-2 weeks are deposited in a breeding ground. At this time, the male begins to build a nest (1-2 days) in the corner of an aquarium of plants, fastening them in a special way. During this period, it is necessary to provide the fish with abundant feeding, preferably with tasty live food. Breeding is impossible, without following the rules of feeding.
After that, he starts the mating games: dissolve the fins, drive the female, present himself until the female arrives at the nest, settles beneath it. Then the male begins to help her lay eggs spraying-squeezing movements, immediately seeding her. Usually eggs are deposited up to 800 pcs. The male carefully collects them with his mouth, and arranges eggs in the center of the nest. A large number of eggs does not mean that they all turn into fry. Most of the eggs die almost immediately, and many more fish die by fry.
The female is not involved in the care of offspring, its role is reproduction and laying of eggs. It should be immediately after its laying, to separate the female, so that the male does not destroy it. He remains himself and at this time does not eat anything. It is important to keep the water temperature around 27 С *, its lowering will lead to a negative consequence, since the male can destroy the fry and destroy the nest. He is cleaned on the 3-1 day after hatching the fry, otherwise he may eat them. Juveniles are fed live, but carefully crushed to dust feed.
Gourami - the best fish in the aquarium
After the fish grow up well and they will not be threatened by anything, including parents, who sometimes travel their offspring, they are resettled in a common aquarium. On this reproduction, as the procedure is completed. But the fry, too, must be sorted by size. Quite small ones should not be moved to a common reservoir. Yet the danger for them is high there, they can be taken for food.
In general, the marble gourami peaceful. But males rivalry is inevitable. Therefore, it is recommended to have 3 females per 1 male. Many species of fish get along with gourami, except frank and large predators. Since they grow to the optimal size of aquarium fish, they have virtually no enemies. Recommended for cohabitation are those types of fish that have the same temperament and character, as well as size. If you follow all the tips and recommendations, gourami will feel comfortable with all their relatives.
This type of ornamental fish will decorate any aquarium, because such a color in a transparent and illuminated aquarium is very noticeable. It is interesting to watch this species of fish. They create the impression of curious, looking at them, it seems that they are interested in everything that happens, observe, examine and study their world. The owners get used to them, because their gentle and good-natured temper captivates anyone. Rarely fish behave like the owners of the aquarium, on the contrary, they are hospitable and peaceful.
Gourami - one of the most famous aquarium fish, they are unpretentious in maintenance and care, have a good character and are almost omnivorous. For the combination of all these factors, gourami fishes were liked by many aquarists.
There are pearl, marble, blue, honey and spotted gourami. In fact, the species even more, they differ in color and size. However, all representatives of gourami fish get along well under the same conditions and stand out only in color.
Gourami in the aquarium
Fish gourami came to us from the reservoirs of Southeast Asia, where she lived in both stagnant and mobile waters. The main requirement of gourami is the availability of space for cheerful movements around the aquarium and a sufficient number of plants, among which you can make a secluded nest for yourself.
As for the neighbors, you can choose haracin fish, such as neon, as well as scalar, catfish. Exclude predatory and viviparous fish, they do not fit in partners gourami. Too small fish, including fry, can be perceived by goura as food.
An aquarium for gourami is advised to choose from 70 liters, so that several fish live comfortably in it. Soil for the aquarium is better to choose a dark color, suitable river pebbles and pebbles.
Plants for gourami are necessary: it can be both algae and floating plants. However, do not get carried away by the swamping of the aquarium, it is better to leave space for swimming.
Add to the aquarium and snags. In addition to the aesthetic function, they produce special humic substances that bring water closer to the state of the natural environment and have a beneficial effect on the health of the fish.
How to keep gourami?
The optimum water temperature for gourami is + 24-270С. It is better to change the water in the aquarium about ⅓ part every week. The temperature for gourami is of great importance, however, when changing water, they are able to withstand a short-term rise and fall in temperature.
The conditions of the gourami allow the aquarium without filtering and aeration of water, but it is better if these systems work. Lighting for fish is quite an important factor. Well, if in the morning it will be natural sunlight, but you can replace it with bright artificial lighting. Fish do not need around the clock light, arrange a night for them, turning off the lamp.
Gourami fish has many species, for example, marble and pearl gourami, the content of which does not differ from the general conditions. But in order to contain commercial gourami in an aquarium, you should acquire the youngest individuals. With proper care, they can grow up to 35 cm in an aquarium.
Gourami in the aquarium can live 5-7 years, if you observe the conditions necessary for their life: temperature and light, water changes, the presence of plants, regular and varied feeding.
What to feed gourami?
Food for gourami you can use any type:
Small fishes are unpretentious in food and will gladly enjoy what you offer them, even if it is cottage cheese, melted cheese or scrape meat. A small mouth is a feature of the structure with gourami, feeding is therefore possible only in small pieces. Otherwise, gourami will not be able to capture and digest feed particles.
You should also not overfeed the fish, better make the menu for gourami varied. In the morning you can feed your pets with dry food, and offer them live in the evening.
If you are going on vacation for a week or two, then the question of how to care for the gourars may not worry you. Adult fish can survive 1-2 weeks without food and not lose weight at all.
Gourami - care and maintenance
Lovers of aquarium fish and those who have not yet decided for themselves what types of aquatic inhabitants will delight their eyes, it is worth asking about the type of gourami.
External features gourami
These are quite large aquarium fish, whose length reaches from 5-12 cm. The body of these pearl species is often silver-violet in color and covered with spots. The color of the males is usually much brighter than the females. The body of these fish has an elongated flat shape. Particularly noteworthy are the pectoral fins of gourami, which have a whisker-like whiskers, the length of which is equal to the length of the body. The purpose of these organs is touch. In case of damage, they are capable of regeneration. Thanks to a special labyrinth (nadzhabernuyu) body, gourami can live without water for about 6-8 hours.
Fish gourami - maintenance and care
The aquarium can be small in size (from 40 liters) if you plan to place 3-4 individuals there. It is necessary to be guided by quantity, since gourami is a rather big fish and it is desirable to avoid crowding. At the bottom of the aquarium is better to put a dark ground. The obligatory presence of not only benthic, but also floating plants. In order for the gourami to feel good, the conditions of detention must provide for sufficient lighting and daylight, at least in the first half of the day. These types of fish are not capricious in eating. They use both dry and live food. Adults can easily go without food throughout the week. These fish have a very small mouth. They can be given semolina, which must be scalded with boiling water or crushed canned peas.
Gourami are very hardy, and they do not need special care and maintenance. They do not need special parameters and water quality. Stiffness and acidity can be absolutely acceptable norms. The only indicator that is important for comfortable maintenance of gourami is water temperature. It should not be below 20 ° C. Still, these are tropical species and they need a certain warmth. Another advantage of these fish is the lack of need for aeration. This will give the opportunity to place the aquarium in any room, without fear that the noise of the pump will interfere with your or your child's sleep. If the aquarium has a large number of snails, which rapidly multiply and can be harmful to the plants, then the gouraras will easily cope with such annoying "neighbors." They can eat small snails and other insects that accidentally got into the aquarium with food.
By the type of behavior of gourami, peaceful and calm fish, the maintenance of which with other fish does not present any difficulties. Their neighbors can be both small and rather large species. For example: neons, skliarii, rasbora, antsistrusy, minors, apistogrammy, corridors. It is worth avoiding the coexistence of goura with such aggressive species as: pseudotrophus, parrots, cichlids, goldfish and labidochromis. Gourami very curious fish that everyone learns with the help of their whisker threads. Therefore, new settlers may react nervously to this. These fish can move gregariously, this is especially evident when lifting to the surface for a breath of air and the same synchronous lowering to the bottom.
A peculiarity of breeding is the fact that it is the males who build nests at the bottom of the aquarium. In this case, the distance between them may be very small. On this basis, some skirmishes may arise between males that do not lead to injuries and often end peacefully. If you want to breed this type in quantitative composition, then you should think about the presence of a hotel home for newborn fry.
Gourami marble. Fish gourami marble. Reproduction and content
An aquarium in a house is not only a rather exquisite decoration (unless it is, of course, artistically equipped and carefully looked after). Fish as pets are a spectacle that you never get tired of watching. And doctors advise to buy an aquarium and for medicinal purposes:
- those who are prone to depression or have heart disease;
- hyperactive children;
- an autistic child or a cerebral palsy;
- allergies with a reaction to animal hair.
Fish - a worthy alternative to the same turtle, which is not very active and gives much less emotional impact when living in a house.
Most often, novice aquarists populate glass houses guppies or swordtails; the bravest of the newcomers dare to buy a scalar. But all this is a small fish. If you want something bigger, but with a beautiful color, but so that the care was not too complicated, pay attention to the fish called gouram marble.
These fish are from Indochina. They are freshwater, and live either in stagnant waters - fresh lakes, dams and stakes - or in slow-flowing rivers. Europeans brought gourami in 1896, so that he has a rather large "experience" of living in aquariums. The unusual species of fish prompted the breeders to work on a variety of appearance, and now these inhabitants of aquariums flaunt flowers that nature has not endowed them. However, it is the aquarium fish gourami marble that is painted naturally: it is found quite often at home, although there may be differences in color - shades depend on the specific conditions of life.
All species of these fish have an elongated, oblong body, flat on the sides. Lower fin begins near the thoracic, and ends already near the caudal. And the pectoral fins are modified into something resembling long, whole body length, threads, and this is not an ornament, like, for example, some goldfish veils, but an additional tactile organ.
In nature, gourami rarely grow more than 10-11 cm, but in an aquarium there are specimens up to 15 cm. Coloring can be, as already mentioned, of several shades, but it is necessary to have spots or stripes. No wonder this particular gourami is a marble one. The photo well demonstrates the stains peculiar to this stone.
Pledge successful purchase
If you have not yet encountered such aquarium inhabitants, be careful when purchasing them. Many refuse to buy, focusing on the fading color of fish. This is not an absolutely correct criterion: at the points of sale, gourami marble somewhat loses its brilliance, since it is under stress. It is necessary to get accustomed to the fins: they should not look scruffy or torn, should be well cracked, and the mustache must be long. If they are less than the length of the body of the fish or broken off - gourami or suffering from poisoning with poor-quality food (and constantly), or experiencing avitaminosis. Of course, it is possible to leave such fish, but it will take time and effort; and if at the same time they are carriers of some kind of infection, they will also infect the other inhabitants of the domestic reservoir.
In principle, not only to buy correctly, it is also important to plant them correctly. Marbles themselves very successfully resist almost all bacteriosis, but may be their carrier. And without temporary isolation, it will repartition the rest, less stable inhabitants. So it is better to hold the new fish for seven days in a separate tank, arranging antiseptic “baths” every day. They add antibiotics (biomitsin or oxytetracycline), a little pharmaceutical greens, methylene blue or rivanol. A new marble should be kept in the solution for 10 to 20 minutes, and in the intervals it should rest in warm, fresh and clean water.
The right glass house
Since gourami marble - fish is quite large, the aquarium will need not too close. At two or three individuals need at least 40 liters of water. The ground at the bottom of the house should be dark; plants are required not only bottom, but also floating. For good development and increased resistance to disease, the gouram marble fish needs sunlight - at least in the morning.
These aquatic inhabitants are labyrinths, that is, they need ordinary air. In order to take a sip, they rise to the surface of the water. So experienced aquarists are advised to equip the home of the trichogaster (this is the scientific name of the gourami) with a special cover that will protect them from the cold air. The glass is not suitable: it blocks the full access of oxygen, and the fish may suffocate. If there is no cover, just put the aquarium away from the vents.
Not capricious gourami marble and food. He consumes both dry food and live food; good eats the usual semolina porridge (only it must be scalded) and for some reason loves canned green peas (of course, crushed).
In nature, the gourami marble chooses stagnant water for life, therefore it is very decisive in home breeding. There are no special claims to water quality (oxidability, hardness, pH, presence of nitrates) in trichogasters.Of course, you should not pour them water from the tap, but you will not have to “bother” too much. It is only necessary to ensure that the water in the aquarium does not reduce the temperature below 20 degrees - still tropical fish and need some heat.
Another nice feature of these fish is the absence of the need for constant aeration. So you don’t have to buy a pump, and the aquarium can be located even in the bedroom, even in the nursery - the engine noise will not interfere at night.
The content of gourami makes their natural struggle with obsessive "neighbors" very easy. So, small snails, which multiply very quickly and can go around all the plants in the aquarium, are eagerly eaten by Trichogasters. If they are hungry, they can destroy the hydras who accidentally get into the aquarium along with the food.
Neighborhood pleasant and unpleasant
One of the most important issues when buying trichogaster is the question of what kind of fish get along with gourami. In principle, they are very peaceful and calm, you can combine them with small species, and with rather large ones. Understandably, predators are excluded. But still there are more favorable combinations, there is less. The gourams get along very well with neons, the same scalars, rassets, antsistrus, minors, apistograms and corridors. But rather badly, trichogasters get on with aggressive species - pseudotrophyus, parrots, cichlids, goldfish and labidochromis. The case will probably not come to the slaughter, but everyone will feel uncomfortable.
Trichogasters are curious fish. Best of all, they study the surroundings with their whisker threads, so each new item in the aquarium is touched by them. The same applies to the new "settlers", who at first can react rather nervously to this.
A funny feature of the gourami of the marble, for which it is very interesting to follow - the simultaneous ascent of all the fish of this species to the top of the aquarium for a breath of air, and then the same friendly descent. Something that resembles the performance of the team in synchronized swimming. Even the reproduction of gourami marble is quite peaceful. Several males organize their "nests" at a fairly close distance, and this does not end with injuries. Some border disputes they happen, but they do not lead to injuries (and even more death).
If you want more of them
We'll have to get a separate "pool". In terms of volume, in principle, you can take the same in which you usually contain them, and the ground can not be put, but plants are necessary. From their fragments and foams males build a nest. To "spur" the breeding of gourami marble, water must be heated by five degrees. Children are usually nursed by their dad, but if the female does not set down, she will also take whatever part they can. After the deposition of eggs, fry appear after a couple of days, and adults can (and should) be left for a week, maximum ten days. Then the parental feelings disappear, gourami can eat their offspring, so it is better to transplant them into the usual dwelling. At the same time, part of the water from the aquarium is removed (the total level must be lowered by at least 10 cm) until the labyrinth gills of the smaller ones are fully formed so that they can trap air from the surface. At this time, they are fed infusoria and living dust; the yolk of boiled eggs will be useful.
What are these fish sick
Despite the fact that it is resistant to illnesses with goura marble, diseases sometimes overtake him. This happens especially often if the nutrition of the fish deteriorates, they are incorrectly kept, or already sick individuals have been planted. The most common is lymphocytosis. It is accompanied by the appearance of open wounds, nodules or flat swellings, sometimes the sick fish appear to be sprinkled with starchy flour. The second place among the painful lesions is pseudomonosis, causing the appearance of dark spots, from which ulcers are then formed. Frequently aeromonosis. They suffer fish living in too small and densely populated tanks, as a result of which they are weakened. Such inhabitants stop eating, their scales bully, the belly swells up and starts to bleed, they lie at the bottom.
All diseased fish should be planted in a separate aquarium; most of them will die, but the uninfected individuals will remain healthy, and the patients have a good chance of recovery.
However, if you follow the "pool" and the quality of feed, you are unlikely to encounter such problems. And the rest of the gourams will only please you - and beauty, and peculiar habits.