Flamingo - fish with a mysterious origin
The cichlid flamingo is a fish from the order of the perciformes of the cichle family, native to Central America and Africa. Many aquarists still do not know exactly the true origin of the fish, since it is not clear whether this tsikhlazomy is an albino cousin of the black-striped tsichlase, a selection form or the result of a gene mutation. In any case, the pink flamingo is recognized as one of the most picky cichlids with a peaceful character, distinguished by its easy maintenance in an aquarium and without conflict.
Cichlid flamingo is considered one of the smallest representatives of Cichlidae, reaching up to 8-15 cm in length. This tsichlasoma owes its name to an interesting shade of the body, which can vary from pale to intense pink. There is a version that the pink flamingo is a selection form from the black-striped tsikhlazomy and not yet formed species. Males are distinguished by larger size, powerful frontal part and the presence of anal tubercles appearing during the spawning period. The males have acute gonopodia, and the female is truncated. The coloring of the females is a bit richer with blurry shiny spots on the sides, but their sizes are smaller.
This tsikhlasoma is quite simple in content and is suitable even for novice aquarists. To do this, you need a capacity of 50 liters, where the bottom is laid medium-sized pebbles and small gravel. It is not necessary to cover the bottom with sand, as this tsikhlazom digs it up and muddies the water. Fishes prefer to spend most of their time in shelters in the form of caves and grottoes, where they will later postpone their offspring. It is therefore recommended to install various decorations, pots, stones and snags as shelters.
Plants fit floating and fast-growing, because the fish loves to dig in the roots of living plants or nibble them. You can also choose powerful plants with developed roots or planted in pots. In the aquarium it is necessary to install aeration and high-quality filtration with a temperature of 25 ° C, hardness of 10-20 °, acidity of 6.5-8. There are also no special problems with lighting, the main thing is that it is not very dark and the aquarium does not stand under bright sunlight. Every week it is necessary to replace a third of the volume of water.
Under natural conditions, small fish eat small insects, crustaceans and algae. Aquarium flamingos can eat both live food in the form of bloodworms, a pipe worker, an earthworm, and steamed oatmeal, small grains, seafood, as well as frozen food. We should not forget about plant foods in the diet of fish and vitamin supplements.
After reaching 9-10 months of life, the flamingo cichlids are ready to breed. During this period, you can determine the sex of the fish by color and size. The breeding season usually occurs from May to September, when the female can lay eggs several times. For the best breeding, it is recommended to plant the producers in a separate aquarium, where the temperature is increased by 1-2 degrees. Color fish acquires more saturated colors. Males attract the attention of females, actively circling in front of them. The female is able to lay up to 300 eggs on a flat rock, after which the male fertilizes them.
Males become aggressive and zealously protect the territory with caviar from strangers, they can throw a butterfly net and even kill unwanted neighbors. It is better to seed young fry from parents so that they do not become their food. For young animals choose a small aquarium of 30 liters with a temperature of up to 30 ° C. On the third day, babies can be fed with special foods, infusoria and soaked hercules.
The unknown origin of the fish should provide for the fact that it cannot be crossed with other species and even with the black-striped tsikhlazoy.
Aquarium flamingos are calm in nature, can get along with many species of fish of similar sizes. Despite its peaceful disposition, the flamingo cichlid may still show some aggression, especially during the spawning season. In addition, they should not sit down small neighbors: guppies, shrimps, neons and other kids, which they can eat.
Flamingo tsikhlazoma is one of the attractive fish that do not require too much attention to its content. It will be especially pleasant for newcomers to grow not small fish, but such a large and interesting beauty - cichlid.
Flamingo Cichlisoma or Black-Striped Tsichlasoma, or Heros nigrofasciatus, belongs to the perch-like order, family of tsikhlovy fishes, Flamingo species. This fish lives in the waters of Central America, in Guatemala, Honduras, it can be found in the region of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, El Salvador. Not so long ago tsikhlazomy appeared in Indonesia. They are quite unpretentious and can inhabit both huge lakes and small streams. But the reservoir must be with dense vegetation. Fishes love greens and various caverns in which they hide and use for laying eggs.
Flamingo fish tsikhlazoma was so named due to its interesting color - from light to deep pink. This flamingo cichlasoma is an unusually beautiful fish.
In nature, a fish reaches a maximum of 10 cm in length; in an aquarium, it does not exceed 15 cm. But most often, its length at home does not exceed 8 cm. It is the smallest fish in the tsikhlovy family.
Breeding tsikhlazomy flamingo
Fish reach sexual maturity at the age of 9-10 months. A beginner aquarist will find out the floor of the fish. Make it easy. Sex differences of tsikhlazom consist in the size and color - females are smaller and brighter than males and have red spangles on the sides. Males are different from females with a powerful forehead, it seems that they "stuffed a lump".
Reproduction lasts spring and summer, the female lays eggs several times. Whole fish can postpone up to 300 eggs. After the female laid eggs, you need to wait a couple of days for the fry to hatch. The female takes care of the caviar, and the male keeps order and protects the clutch - it is so alert and collected that it can even attack the net. Then all big fish should be planted in another aquarium until the fry swim up. Sometimes parents independently nurse the fry, so that it is not necessary to transplant them. But it is better not to risk it, because some parents can still eat eggs. But even if it happened, you should not get very upset, as the next spawning may well happen in a couple of weeks.
The next step is to transplant the fry into a smaller aquarium (20-30 liters) and provide them with small aeration. The temperature of the water should be maintained around 26-29 degrees. Fry begin to eat on the third or fourth day, you should start feeding with pounded flakes or live food, ciliates.
Flamingo - one of the most unpretentious cichlids. This is a peaceful fish. The tsikhlazoma flamingos in an aquarium gets on with other breeds, males can be aggressive only during spawning. From their owner require only an aquarium (50-60 l) with a lot of caves and shelters. In the aquarium should be floating and fast-growing plants in pots. Fish tend to dig the ground for the aquarium and under the "hot hand" can get vegetation. Desirable filtration, aeration. Water needs to be changed frequently, and its temperature should not exceed 29 ° C. Flamingos are eaten with live food, cereals, flakes, and seafood. In nature, the flamingo cichlasomes prefer insects, algae and other plants of small crustaceans.
Tsikhlazov contain simply, they are unpretentious, beautiful, it is interesting to watch them. This pet is ideal for beginners aquarists. In addition, these beautiful fish breed very quickly. Considering all these qualities, many amateurs contain flamingos in their aquariums, even if not real, but in no way inferior to their beauty, grace and natural charm.
Black-striped Tsikhlazoma: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review
TsHKHLAZOMA BLACK-BLACKED content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review
Black-striped tsikhlasoma - one of the most popular fish of the family tsikhlazom. These are relatively small, unpretentious in keeping fish, possessing a beautiful, sophisticated body color and what is important, unlike many cichlids, have a more relaxed character.
Some may say that the peak of their popularity has passed, that now there are many other more colorful forms of cichlids and cichlase in particular. However, the statistics are not lying! Today, black-striped tsikhlazoma, the most popular of all tsihlazom in search Yandex. Every month more than 2200 users of this search engine apply for this request.
Well, consider this representative of the aquarium world in more detail.
Latin name: Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum. From the Latin words "nigro" - black and "fascia" - ribbon, belt, strip.
Russian synonyms: Black-striped cichlinoma, black-striped cichlasoma, black-striped cichlamose.
Foreign names: Zebra Cichlid, Zebra chanchito, Convict Cichlid, Zebrabuntbarsch Grunflossenbuntbarsch, Blaukehlchen.
Order, suborder, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), Okunevidnye, Tsikhlovye (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 20-28 ° C.
"Acidity" Ph: 6.8-8.0.
Stiffness dH: 8-30°.
Aggressiveness: 30% are relatively non-aggressive, aggression is shown during the spawning and care of offspring.
The complexity of the content: easyCompatibility black-striped tsikhlazoma, surprisingly livable fish. And this is despite the fact that she is a prominent representative of an aggressive family - cichlids. It has a calm disposition and friendly attitude even to small neighbors. With this fish, you can carry out "experiments" and fit relatively compatible fish to it, this issue is described in more detail in this article. Aquarium Fish Compatibility. As recommendations, it may be advisable to contain a black-striped cichlase with other medium and small cichlids: a parrot, a diamond cichlid, pseudotrophy. Barbusses, gourami, swordtails and Terrence, too, can get along with them. Black-striped Tsikhlazoma calmly reacts to labo, combat, thoracato, corridor (speckled catfish). However, in the issue of compatibility of this fish with somopodnym need to be careful. After all, the black-striped cichlase man spawns at the bottom of the aquarium and soma will particularly interfere with this process, swimming on the territory of the cichlids. As a result, in the aquarium there will be skirmishes and fights.
Not compatible: Black-striped Cichlacoma does not get along with large and aggressive fish: astronotus, akara, piranha. And on the flip side, too small and slow-moving fish will not get along with it: small tetras, a family of goldfish, guppies, mollies, and other petillium (with the exception of swordtails).
How many live: Black-striped Cichlasma are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10-15 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!The minimum volume of the aquarium: black-striped tsikhlazomy not very large cichlids, for their content will be the best aquarium of 100 liters. for a couple. However, there are cases of keeping black-striped and in the aquarium 50l. In such an aquarium, the fish will not be comfortable, they will not grow, and the breeding process will be questionable. About how much you can keep other fish in the X aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).
Requirements for care and maintenance: Black-striped Cichlacoma is unpretentious in care. Ensuring optimal parameters of aquarium water is the key to their successful keeping and breeding. That is why many aquarists recommend everyone to start practicing cichlids from these fish.
Perhaps, special attention should be paid to the bottom and bottom of the aquarium, as well as to competent zoning of the aquarium when keeping the black-banded cykhlasoma.
on the picture
Male Cichlasoma nigrofasciatumThe fact is that these tsikhlazomy very fond of "rummaging in the soil" turning it at their discretion upside down. As the soil can be recommended medium and fine-grained pebbles, gravel, granite chips. More shallow soil, for example, sand for tsiklazom not suitable.
Aquarium zoning is done by such decorative elements as grottoes, rocks, snags, caves, etc. Proper separation of the aquarium into zones can also be carried out with the help of plants with a strong root system, for example, cryptocorinas or echinodorus, as well as vallisneria. At the same time, it is important to properly root the plants - they are lined with and pressed by larger stones with a different decor, so that the black-striped tsikhlazomy not dug them.
If you are planning to breed these fish, then the aquarium bottom must also be equipped with a flat stone, a pot, and other similar decorations, which tsikhlazymy use as a substrate for spawning. In my opinion, even if you do not have a particular desire to engage in breeding your pets, such a decor should be in the pond. After all, an aquarium is an imitation of the natural (natural) habitat conditions of fish and the atmosphere as close as possible to them in the aquarium will be comfort for fish.Filtration, aeration and weekly substitution of up to 1/3 of the volume of water is also necessary. There are no special requirements for lighting the aquarium.
Feeding and diet: fish are omnivores, they are happy to eat live food, including ice cream (bloodworms, Artemia, pipe worker, etc.). Cychlasmas, also need vegetable feed, remember that a third of their diet should be exactly vegetable food. What is achieved by purchasing the appropriate feed in pet stores, or by growing inexpensive and fast growing plants, for example Roasters. In addition, they can be given cabbage leaves and lettuce, oatmeal flakes pre-scalded with boiling water. Fish calmly tolerate dry food and substitutes. Prone to overeating.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
In nature, these tsikhlazomy live: lakes and streams of Guatemala, Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
Description: tsikhlazomy body high, slightly extended in length and compressed on each side. The head is large, the eyes are large, the lips are thick. The body and fins of tsikhlazomy painted in grayish-blue, gray color. Along the body are 8-9 black stripes. The size of the fish in the aquarium reaches a maximum of 10 cm. The male is larger and brighter than the female.
Story: The first description of fish in 1867, first brought to Europe by Johann Paul Arnold in 1934.
Cultivation, reproduction of cichlid
All aquarists in one voice say that the breeding of these black-striped tsihlazom - not difficult. And this is absolute, true! We can say that their reproduction occurs independently. But, as in any other business, in order to achieve good results, experience, and above all, effort, is nevertheless necessary.
Black-striped Tsikhlazoma is a monogamous fish, producers still form stable pairs of young people on their own. For the formation of pairs, it is initially better to keep them in a small flock in equal proportions between males and females. Sexual maturity comes at the age of 7-10 months.
Sex differences of male and female black-stripped cycloseThey are quite clearly expressed. The male is obviously larger than the female. The endings of the dorsal and anal fins in males have the appearance of a scythe — are pointed. With age, the male on the forehead appears characteristic growth. The female has a fuller abdomen, usually colored in a brighter orange color.
In the photo, the sex differences of the male and female black-band tsikhlazomy
Spawning of black-striped tsikhlazomyIt can occur all year round with short breaks, both in the general aquarium and in a separate spawning reservoir. In order to achieve better results, it is recommended to nevertheless be more productive in spawning, thereby reducing the stress factor, territorial turmoil with other fish, and moreover with this method more offspring are retained.
Parameters of aquarium water for spawning do not play a special role. As a stimulus for spawning, 1/4 - 1/5 of the aquarium water is changed and the temperature is increased by a couple of degrees (approximately 28-29 ° C).
After a short period of grooming, the female lays her eggs in a vending place; it can be a stone, and the bottom of a pot, a shell, another shelter, even a coconut shell will be suitable for these purposes. Sometimes caviar is deposited on the leaf of the plant. After spawning, parents show excessive aggression towards all "uninvited guests" who swum into their territory. Even if it is a big fish, parents will fight for caviar and fry to the last.
On photo, black-striped tsikhlazomy caviar
During the incubation period, manufacturers carefully care for caviar, monitor cleanliness, clean unfertilized and dead eggs.
After the appearance of the larvae, the parents (female) transfer them to another secluded place, as a rule, this is the corner of the aquarium with suitable shelter. After two or three days (when the yolk sac disappears in the larvae), the larvae emerge from the shelter and begin to swim under the close attention of their parents. To feed the young, the female swinging the fins understands the dregs from the bottom of the aquarium, and in the evening gathers everyone back to the shelter.
On photo of black-stripped Tsikhlazyoma larvae
As you understand, fry are grown without sowing from producers. However, sometimes the male may show excessive aggression and in such cases it is better to set it aside, leaving the young to care only for the female.
During this period, the aquarist is required to monitor the enhanced aeration and do not forget to replace 1/3 of the water twice a week.
It is not difficult to feed the black-streaked fry of Tsikhlamoza. As a starter feed, you can use any finely powdered dry or combined feed. You can feed the chopped live food, but you must be confident in its quality.
On the photo youngest - fry tsikhlazomy black-haired
After about three weeks, the young can be transplanted into a nursery aquarium while observing the conditions described above and gradually transferring them to adult food and housing conditions.
There are also other ways of breeding dark-skinned cichlosis. For example, here is a way for those who do not want to fool around with a spawning aquarium, but are afraid of aggressive behavior of fish or want to get more offspring than in the general aquarium. For this, a partition is made across the width of the aquarium, for example, from plexiglas, which is installed in the general aquarium, separating the producers from other fish. In this case, the spawning zone should be 1/4 - 1/3 of the aquarium, depending on the size of the reservoir. The other material at hand can serve as a partition, including a frame with a mosquito net, which eliminates the installation of two aerations in different compartments (zones) of the aquarium.
Some aquarists in order to achieve the best results immediately after spawning transfer caviar with a substrate to an otsadnik with a low water level of 8-16 cm. Water is taken from the spawning aquarium. At the same time, a so-called aeration point is installed in the settler, and a weak dose of methylene blue is introduced into the water. In this case, all the care of the offspring falls on the shoulders of the aquarist.
Interesting: There is an albino form of the black-striped cichlasome! It is not a separate species, but is obtained as a result of a rare gene abnormality. Albinism is manifested in the offspring of any kind of living things. "Black-striped albino" lives both in the natural range of fish and in aquariums. Conditions of maintenance and cultivation of this form are similar to the above. However, the albino form has a weaker immunity and is more susceptible to diseases.
And, there is still Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum var. Flamingo black-striped cichlazy form - "Flamingo".
Interesting video tsikhlazomy black-striped
A selection of beautiful photos with black-striped Cichlase
Japanese goldfish - brilliant calico
In the family of goldfish there is one, especially a bright representative, which can become a luxurious decoration of an aquarium, and at the same time it is surprisingly easy to care for, and even a novice aquarist will be able to cope with it. The name of this fish is shubunkin, or Kaliko, and it comes from Japan, where it was artificially bred at the beginning of the 20th century. At home, the shubunkins are bred in small ponds and reservoirs and valued for the special beauty of their coloring.
Shubunkin is considered one of the hardiest goldfish. It is unpretentious in conditions and feeding, it gets on well in common and even round aquariums.
The beauty of shubunkina lies in its coloring. It consists of bright spots randomly distributed on the body. They can be of different colors: yellow, black, red, blue. The most valuable are the specimens whose color turns into violet-blue or just a blue tint. It occurs in individuals at about three years of age. Because of the similar coloring, Shubunkin received another name - calico.
This aquarium fish has a body that is elongated and slightly flattened from the sides, different from the shape of other types of goldfish, which are owners of a short and round body. Shubunkin's fins are long, in a constant upright position, the tail is forked.
The size of the fish can reach different - it will directly depend on the size of the reservoir in which the shubunkin is contained. In a close aquarium, the fish will reach a length of 10 centimeters, and in a large volume of water and the absence of overpopulation, it can grow up to 15 centimeters. If calico is bred in large ponds, its size sometimes reaches more than 20 centimeters.
Aquarium fish reaches sexual maturity after the second year of life. It is impossible to distinguish the female from the male until the time of spawning. Then the male develops bumps of white color, like pearls, on the head, and the female is noticeably rounded off from the calf.
Shubunkin’s lifespan averages 12–15 years, but under good conditions it can be up to 20 years, sometimes longer.
It was mentioned above that Shubunkin is one of the most unpretentious and hardy goldfish. But still it is not necessary to neglect the creation of conditions for her life. The size of a fish of 10-15 centimeters requires a fairly large space, considering also its activity. Therefore, the size of the aquarium should start from 100 liters.
Another important feature in preparing for settling in a shubunkin aquarium is filters. These fish are very restless, and their favorite activity is to crawl in the ground, searching for food debris, thereby raising dregs in the aquarium and touching the plants. Therefore, a powerful external filter is needed, and the plants choose the most unpretentious. Not be superfluous and the aerator. Although the fish are very hardy, they do not like the lack of oxygen in the water.
As a soil, sand or coarse gravel is best suited. To choose a soil with small or medium fractions is not worth it, because they can be dangerous - the fish swallows grains and dies. Lighting should be natural.
- Temperature - 20-23 ° C
- Acidity - 6.0 - 8.0 ph
- Stiffness - 5 - 19 ° dGH
Although Shubunkin tolerates water pollution quite well, changing water once a week is obligatory - approximately 20%.
Like all goldfish, Shubunkin is very voracious. When overfeeding, he may well die from obesity, because he eats everything he is given. He is omnivorous, with pleasure eats various kinds of artificial, frozen and live food.
From artificial feed, you can use high-quality flakes or pellets. It should be remembered that such food should be given in smaller amounts, otherwise they can cause constipation and digestive disorders. At the same time, you shouldn’t restrict them only, it is better to add moth, earthworms, tubers and artemia to the diet. It is also necessary to regularly give vegetable food, for example, chopped lettuce and young cabbage leaves, after pouring boiling water over them.
Upon completion of feeding, all excess feed must be removed so that they do not become a source of water pollution in the aquarium. If possible, it is better to give food several times a day, in reduced portions, which will be fully eaten by fish. In normal cases, they are fed a couple of times a day - in the morning and in the evening.
It is quite possible to breed shubunkin at home. The spawning site should be about 100 liters, and the breeding season usually occurs in the spring. To stimulate spawning, water in the spawning area is softened, and the temperature is increased by 3-5 ° C. The water should stay fresh and lit in the early morning. Clean sand is laid on the bottom of the spawning area, small-leaved bushes are placed in the corners.
Fry feed with rotifers, artemia. It is desirable to separate the young depending on their size.
The goldfish Shubunkin is a schooling one, and it is better to keep it in an aquarium of 4-6 individuals.
Kaliko is active, peace-loving, so it is undesirable to populate her together in aggressive fish that will constantly pinch her fins. Small fish and fry are also not the most successful neighbors, since Shubunkin can easily take them for lunch. Because of her love of digging in the ground, you should not populate it with soms.
Other goldfish and veils, as well as any calm species of fish, can act as ideal neighbors.
Shubunkin will be a good option for both experienced and novice aquarists. Their bright color will emphasize the beauty of any aquarium, and a variety of colors allows you to find a copy in harmony with the design of the aquarium. For the successful maintenance of calico there is no need to exert too much effort - it is enough to comply with the basic requirements, and your pets will delight you with good health and longevity.
Pangasius: active, but fearful catfish
Pangasius is a very interesting freshwater fish. The catfish lives in the waters of Asia (its habitat is in the south-east), and also lives in the Chao Phraya and Mekong rivers and the Tonle Sap lake. In some countries, this creation is bred for commercial purposes, as well as one of the exotic dishes on the menu of restaurants.
Pangasius has fins, the color of which ranges from dark gray to black. Total Pangasius has six fins-rays. Gray color is characteristic for adults of the Pangasius, while the young Pangasius is distinguished by two black stripes. Mouth and belly have a silvery shade. The Pangasius also possesses a dark strip of mid-anal fin, and the large gill plates at the Pangasius alternate with relatively small plates. Females are somewhat larger than males, moreover they are distinguished by a paler color.
Characteristic features: flat head, rather large mouth, presence of two pairs of whiskers, large eyes. Externally, the pangasius looks almost like a shark, and therefore it is also called shark catfish. The dorsal fin is shaped like a shark, tail - two-bladed. Anal fin long enough.
Types of fish
Pangasius aquarium is represented by only two species: one shark catfish has low fins, the second catfish has high fins. Because of this, it is not particularly difficult to distinguish the Pangasius species from each other, since the difference lies only in the fins. Differences between species are already noticeable in fry (we note that the pangasius fry grows to 15–20 cm). In addition to the features associated with the fins, the pangasius with high fins is characterized by a more consistent color. Pangasius with low fins looks different - it is a fish with a pair of light stripes on its sides.
But perhaps the most noticeable difference that distinguishes one type of pangasius from another is the mouth. The low-end pangasius has a small maw. For this reason, such a pangasius is a very peaceful aquarium fish. If you got a Pangasius with high fins, then note that this fish has a big mouth, therefore, it is better not to plant in the same aquarium with such an underwater inhabitant of other fish: they simply will not survive there.
Shark catfish, or Pangasius, is a cautious and shy fish. And if there are any shocks (for example, in those places where the fish is usually found, the habitat changes as a result of external influence; either the shark migrates to another aquarium, or the neighbors settle down), then the pangasius simply stops. The somik Pangasius retains its immobility for a certain period of time (relatively short). Sometimes in this position, the pangasius even looks like a deceased person. But as soon as the fish fully becomes accustomed to the situation, the following is observed: the shark catfish continues to lead its normal, rather active lifestyle.
We have already noted that the Pangasius, which has low fins, is peaceful enough. As neighbors, the Pangasius accepts Labo, barbs, iris and some other fish. It is just that when selecting neighbors it is important to proceed from the assumption that the pangasius was not too large for them. Otherwise, any neighbor fish may suffer in the conflict, because the catfish Pangasius under consideration carries a potential hazard.
Consider that the underwater inhabitant in question is susceptible to various kinds of poisoning, as well as ulcerative diseases. With this, however, you can successfully fight. So, from ulcers should be recommended implementation of cauterization by means of malachite green potassium or potassium permanganate crystals. After such cauterization, it is necessary to place the aquatic inhabitants in a salty solution (prepared per calculation: about a gram of salt per liter of water) for one week. As for the poisoning, in case of their occurrence it is necessary to organize a daily fasting and subsequent protein diet.
The content of pangasius of one and second species in an aquarium does not differ in principle. So, Pangasius prefers that the water temperature for living in an aquarium in any case is not more than 27 degrees, the best option is 25-26 degrees. Acceptable water hardness is a frame from 2 to 15 degrees, and acidity, which the pangasius in an aquarium accepts, is from 6.5 to 8.0.
It is very important that the water containing the pangasius is constantly filtered. Pangasius also needs abundant air supply.
These underwater inhabitants require a sufficient amount of space that will be free of unnecessary scenery. Then the inhabitants of the underwater world can swim freely. It is very important that there are no items of any kind with sharp edges in the container. The fact is that the pangasius sometimes makes sudden movements, therefore, can seriously injure his body.
In general, the shark catfish loves space, and therefore the Pangasius swims very quickly throughout the entire aquarium area.
With regard to the proper amount of water in the aquarium, here it should be based on the number of individuals and their size. So, for Pangasius vysokoplavnichnogo, which is quite large, quite comfortable and solitary living. Pangasius with low fins is, in fact, a schooling fish.
In any case, it is important to cover the aquarium so that the pangasius does not jump out during one of its frights.
When feeding it is very important not to overfeed the pangasius. It is even useful that once a week the pangasius should not eat all day. But at the same time, keep in mind that this little shark is a very voracious fish, and therefore, due to inexperience, it is sometimes fed too richly. The diet that the pangasius feeds on is based on lean fish, calamari, dry food. As a rule, such a shark eats from the surface. The low-fangled Pangasius collects food from the bottom, but for a Pangasius with high fins, this behavior is almost uncharacteristic, so he will need to find good neighbors-assistants who prefer to dig in the ground.
If we talk about a particular food, then it can be: bloodworm, tubule, lean fish (as already mentioned; it can be given both frozen and live), squids (which was also noted), shredded veal, beef heart.
Note that Pangasius breeding is rarely practiced. If the habitat is natural, then the shark catfish goes to spawn between June and November. Reproduction is characterized by the fact that for all the spawning this fish lays about hundreds of thousands of eggs. When the habitat is characterized by proper temperature (about 30 degrees), then after two days fry emerge from the eggs, which immediately begin an independent life.
Such information must be taken into account if you are interested in pangasius when choosing an aquarium inhabitant. Note that in the conditions of the aquarium, he will be able to grow up to 60 cm. Of course, it will be possible only with careful observance of all the described rules of fish care.
Oranda - fish with a hat
The oranda red cap belongs to the decorative selection form from the goldfish of the carp family, the main distinguishing feature of which is the outstanding fatty growth of red color on the head. Its removal takes origins in Japan, the fifteenth century. According to Japanese beauty standards, it is customary to believe that the larger and brighter the growth on the head of a fish, the more beautiful it is.White
The aquarian red cap is a helmet-shaped variety of artificially bred fish, differs from other similar species by an unpaired dorsal fin. У других шлемовидных пород спинной плавник отсутствует. Остальные плавники у рыбки раздвоенные свисающие, включая и хвостовой, в длину составляющий от 70% всего тела оранды. У самых ценных экземпляров красной шапочки хвост напоминает юбочную форму, как у вуалехвоста. Хвост не должен быть вилкообразным, что свидетельствует о браке в породе.In length, adults reach 16–24 cm.
The body is egg-shaped and short. The fins are translucent and elongated. By sex, fish is difficult to distinguish. Males are smaller than females; during the prespawning period, white specks appear on their heads.
There are various versions of this fish, among which white fishes are especially beautiful, whose heads are decorated with a red cap. Black, blue and chocolate varieties are also known. The black fish is painted completely black with its hat. You can often find a golden orange and calico. By the nature of these creatures are pretty sweet and gentle, in need of accurate and caring content. Good and high-quality care will allow you to enjoy the company of Orange under 15 years.
Most often this fish is kept in ponds and pools in the warm season. But with the onset of cold snaps, be sure to move the red cap to the home aquarium of 100 liters. With an insufficient amount of free space for swimming in the fish can begin health problems. Proper care of the orande should include constant monitoring of the temperature. The optimum temperature should not fall below 18 ° C and be more than 24 ° C in the aquarium, otherwise its famous cap may disappear. In order not to cause disease of the fish, it is best to ensure a temperature of 20-22 ° C. Optimum rigidity 12-16 °, acidity 6-8. Lighting should be bright.
Powerful and large branches of elodea, vallisneria, sagittaria and cabomba are planted as living plants. It is advisable to strengthen the roots of plants by pressing them with flat stones or plant them in pots. In the tank with this voracious fish you will need a powerful filter and an aerator. Weekly need to change 1/4 of the volume of water. The soil in the aquarium is chosen light and rounded so that these aquarium fish do not damage their delicate fins and eyes. Well suited large river sand. Decor objects are also selected without sharp ends and edges.Gold
Aquarium oranges are omnivorous, have a large and constant appetite. Young fish need to be fed 2 times a day, adults 1 time. A sign of overfeeding is swimming on the side of the fish. After that, you should put an orange on a unloading diet, reduce the dose of food or give it a little starve. From plant foods, fish feed on chopped lettuce, spinach and pieces of vegetables. They also use dry food, flakes and specialized additives for goldfish or for cold-water ornamental fish.
It is best to keep an orande with your kindred or other peace-loving neighbors. Even the smallest neighbors like cockerels, mollies and swordsmen are able to offend these tender fish.
The aquarium red cap becomes sexually mature by 1.5 years. For breeding individuals are selected from 2 years. Orange breeding is best done in springtime, when the female's abdomen begins to fill with caviar, and the males stay at the egg deposit. You will need a capacity of 50 liters with a temperature of 23 ° -24 ° C. The female and a pair of males are pre-seated for weeks 2 and fed with live food. In spawning stack smooth substrate, protective mesh and plants. Early in the morning spawning begins and lasts for several hours. The number of eggs depends on the health and maturity of the female, usually these prolific fish throw from 2 thousand eggs.
After spawning producers need to be removed. It is also necessary to examine the eggs and remove turbid and whitish. The incubation period lasts 2-3 days. Live feed is the starting food for swimming fry. As they mature, the fry are sorted to avoid eating smaller and weaker fish. Fry are also fed with rotifers and special goldfish feeds. Fry are born with yellow caps and grow slowly. To achieve a red tint on the cap can be special feed to improve the color and the introduction of coloring injections.Black
A sensitive and slow red cap can be attacked by neighbors and damage its fins. If water parameters are incorrect, fins may begin to rot. At low temperatures and overpopulation of the aquarium, white grains may appear on the body of an orange, meaning signs of ichthyophthyriosis disease. With poor aeration and excessive dirt in the tank, poisoning and death of the fish can occur.
Little Red Riding Hood is an unusual and colorful fish for any aquarium. Its soft temper and cute appearance distinguish this breed from other forms of goldfish and add interest to it from many aquarists.
Comet Fish - Long-tailed Eaters
The comet fish is one of the selection forms from a goldfish from the genus of carp carp family. Thanks to the attractiveness of the fish has become popular around the world. There are several versions of the origin of comets. One indicates that the fish were bred in America in the 1800s, and the other to Japanese origin. Comets are beautiful and unpretentious pets, the content of which is within the power of all aquarium hobbyists.Gold
The comet has an oblong body and a beautiful long tail, often 2–3 times longer than the body length of the fish. The shape of the tail is fork forked, which resembles a voile-tailed fish. The fins are also elongated, fluttering like ribbons. The body shape ichthyologists distinguish signs of degeneration of the breed. The body should be flat and elongated, and a rounded abdomen indicates changes in genetics. The value of comets is also determined by their color. The most valuable are the fish with different colors of the body and fins. Comet goldfish has a red-orange color with white or yellow spots. Red fish can be various shades of this color, from orangish to blood-scarlet. There is also a black breed called "black velvet", when the fish is painted completely in pure black.
By the nature of the comet is peaceful and calm, they develop rapidly and actively. Keep in the middle and lower layers of water. In the aquarium comet can live up to 14 years.
Adult specimens are up to 18 cm in length; their content is more suitable for a pond than for a small aquarium. Therefore, for these fish will need a large capacity of 120 liters per pair. Mandatory cover, as the fish often jump out of the aquarium. Need enhanced aeration and high-quality filtering. Regularly replace a quarter of the volume of water, because the fish do not tolerate dirty water. In the warm season, the temperature in the aquarium is maintained from 18 to 23 ° C, in winter from 15 to 18 ° C. Hardness 9-25 °, acidity 6.5-8.
Like goldfish, comets love to rummage in the substrate, so coarse sand or unsharp pebbles are chosen as soil, placed on the bottom 5-6 cm thick. Plants need the most powerful, able to withstand both the onslaught of comets and dust rising from their ground and settling on the leaves. Suitable Vallisneria, Elodieus, arrowhead, sagittariya, pod. You can’t place spiky objects that comets can injure their fins about. Comets need good lighting and shelters. In the shaded areas, the fish often hide. For registration of capacity use snags, smooth stones, plastic plants.Red
Comets are picky about food, like a lot and eat tasty food. Therefore, you should not overfeed them, otherwise they face obesity, fraught with sterility of fish. If the fish nevertheless began to get better or turn over on their backs, they should be immediately put on a unloading diet. Healthy fish can last a week without food. Adult fish are fed 2 times a day, and leftover food is removed. Each feeding procedure is designed for 10–20 minutes of eating the feed, after which food residues must be caught to avoid poisoning of the water with rotten food.
Aquarium comet eats live and frozen food in the form of bloodworms, earthworms, seafood, feed. From plant food fish eat nettle leaves and lettuce. For feeding gluttonous comets in the aquarium, you can keep floating plants such as riccia and duckweed. To maintain the brightness or improve the color of comets can be fed with specialized feed for goldfish.
Comets reach sexual maturity by 2 years. In females, the belly is full, full of caviar. Males on the gill covers and pectoral fin show signs of readiness for reproduction in the form of chipping or grains. Breeding of comets is best done in the spring in a separate pond from 35 liters. Sandy soil, small-leaved plants and a protective net for catching eggs are placed. For one female, 2-3 mature males are selected. Previously they are kept separately for 2-3 weeks. In spawning temperature rises to 24-26 ° C. Stimulation of spawning occurs by gradually heating the temperature. Males chase the female, which scatters eggs throughout the spawning ground. Eggs settle on the leaves of plants or fall into the protective grid. In total, the female spawns up to 6000 eggs. At the end of spawning, the producers are removed, otherwise the parents will begin to devour the eggs. After 2-3 days, the eggs mature and the larvae appear. After hatching the fry they are given starter feed in the form of live dust or special feed.Black velvet
Comets are usually kept with calm peace-loving fish. Optimal content with danios, catfish, neons, terration. To assist in cleaning the aquarium, you can choose to neighbors to the comets of sweepers such as antsistrusov, speckled catfish and other orderlies. It is not recommended to combine comets with large and aggressive cichlids, scalars, gourami, cockerels, barbs and tetras.
Comets tolerate salinity up to 12-15%, so when a distinctive disease appears, 5-7 grams of sea salt per liter is added to the water. The signs of disease include the appearance on the body of fish plaque type semolina, as well as gluing fins. The fish may begin rubbing against objects and swimming in jerks. Comets can be subject to the following diseases: mycobacteriosis, carp pox, gastric inflammation, inversion, common cold, dropsy, ringworm, scabies, scale clouding. Fish are deposited in a separate container and begin treatment that is suitable for a particular disease.
Aquarium comets are excellent inhabitants of aquariums that have earned the genuine interest of many aquarists for their beauty and character traits. By following all the rules and providing the fish with good care, you can enjoy their company for many years.