Scalar fish - content in an aquarium

Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior. High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.

Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body. Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options. But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views. Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.

Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and can be as long as 15 cm. Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems. The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters. How many live scalaries? They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.

Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.

Habitat in nature

The scalar fish was first described by Schulz in 1823. It was first introduced to Europe in 1920, and was bred in the USA in 1930. Although they sell fish now and call it ordinary, they already differ very significantly from fish that live in nature. It lives in slow-moving reservoirs in South America: the birthplace of the fish in the central Amazon and its tributaries in Peru, Brazil and eastern Ecuador.

In nature, they live in places with a small number of plants, where they feed on fry, insects, invertebrates and vegetation.

Currently, there are three species in the genus: common Pterophyllum scalare, scalp altum Pterophyllum altum and scalar leopold Pterophyllum leopoldi. At the moment, it is quite difficult to understand which types of them are now most common in aquaristics, since crossing has played a role.

Species differences

Consider each of their wild forms of scalar:

Scalyaria vulgaris (Pterophyllum scalare)

Probably most of the currently sold ordinary angelfish belong to this species. Traditionally considered the most unpretentious and easy to breed.

Wild Angelfish caught in nature

Scalpel leopold pterophyllum leopoldi

It is rarely found, very similar to an ordinary scalar, but its dark spots are somewhat lighter, and there are a couple of black stripes on the body, and one on the dorsal fin, but not moving onto the body.

Angelfish leopoldi

Scallah altum Pterophyllum altum

Or the Orinoco scalar, it is the largest fish of all three species, it can be one and a half times larger than the usual scalar and grow up to 40 cm in size. There is also a sharp transition between the forehead and the mouth, forming a depression. There are red dots on the fins. For many years, this species could not be diluted in captivity, but in recent years it has been possible to get fry from the scalar altum, and it went on sale along with individuals caught in nature.

Scalaria Altum or Orinoco

Altum in nature and in the aquarium, though the video is in English, but it's worth a look:


The scalar living in nature has a silvery body with dark stripes. Body compressed laterally, with large fins and a pointed head. On the tail fin in mature fish long thin rays can develop. This form helps them to mask among the roots and plants. That is why the wild form colors in the form of vertical dark stripes. Angelfish are omnivores, in nature they lie in wait in the ambush of fry, small fish and invertebrates. The average life expectancy of 12-15 years.

Content difficulty

Of medium complexity, they are not recommended for beginner aquarists, as they require decent volumes, stable water parameters and can be aggressive to small fish. Also, they themselves may suffer from fish tearing fins, such as Sumatran barbs and terntions.

Blue Angelfish:


What to feed? Angelfish are omnivores, in the aquarium they eat all kinds of food: live, frozen and artificial. The basis of feeding can be high-quality flakes, and additionally provide live and frozen food: a pipe maker, bloodworm, artemia, and a coretica. It is important to know two things, they are gluttons and cannot be overfeed, no matter how much they ask. And very carefully give the bloodworm, but it is better to give it up altogether. A little overfeed with bloodworms, and the scalar begins intestinal distention, and such bubbles come out of the anal bladder. It is much safer to feed branded feed, the benefit they are now of high quality.

Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, though not often. In my case, they regularly tear off the tops of Eleocharis and tear off the moss from the snag. In this case, you can add in the diet with spriulina.

Discus and Angelfish in the huge aquarium, the Amazon biotope:

Maintenance and care

Angelfish are quite unpretentious fish and can live more than 10 years, if you provide them with suitable conditions. Because of their shape, high aquariums of at least 120 liters are preferred for maintenance. However, if you are going to contain several of these beautiful fish, it is better to get an aquarium of 200-250 liters or more. Another benefit of buying a spacious aquarium is that parents feel calmer and eat caviar less often.

The scalar aquarium fish should be kept in warm water, when the temperature of the water in the aquarium is 25-27С. In nature, they live in subacid, fairly soft water, but now they are well adapted to a variety of conditions and parameters. The decor in the aquarium can be any, but preferably without sharp edges, which the fish may be injured.

Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, but not very much. At me they persistently eat Eleocharis, although they are never hungry and regularly eat food with vegetable ingredients. And the attempt to add moss to the bark, they won is very simple. Regularly cutting off Javanese moss on a twig. It is difficult to say why they behave this way, but apparently from boredom and greedy appetite. In the aquarium, it is advisable to plant plants with wide leaves, such as nymphs or amazon, they like to lay eggs on such leaves.

The body structure of the aquarium scalar is not adapted to swimming in a strong current, and filtration in the aquarium should be moderate. A large flow of water causes stress, and slows the growth of fish, as they expend energy to fight it. It is reasonable to use an external filter, and supply water through a flute or an internal one and spray current. Required weekly water changes, about 20% of the volume.

Compatible with other fish

Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but you need to remember that it is still a cichlid, and it can be somewhat aggressive to small fish. The same goes for fry and shrimp, they are gorgeous and insatiable hunters, in my aquarium there are countless hordes of neocardin shrimps, they knocked out clean. They keep together while young, but adult fish are divided into pairs and become territorial. They are a little shy, they can be afraid of sudden movements, sounds and turning on the light.

Who can you keep a cichlid with? With a large and medium-sized fish, it is desirable to avoid very small, such as cardinals and micro-selection of the galaxy, although they wonderfully live with neons with me. Definitely need to avoid barbs and preferably any, except cherry. In my practice, a flock of Sumaran barbs didn’t touch the angel at all, and a flock of fire barbs almost destroyed their fins in 24 hours. Although you think that should be the opposite. Also fins can gnaw on ternation, tetragonopterus, black barb, schubert barb and denison.

You can keep with viviparous: swordtails, petilia, mollies, even with guppies, but note that in this case you should not count on the fry. Also marble gourami, pearl gourami, moonlight, congo, erythrosalonus and many other fish.

Gender differences

How to determine the sex of scalar? It is impossible to distinguish a male or female with an angelfish before the onset of puberty. And even that, it is guaranteed to be understood only during spawning, when the female has a thick, cone-shaped ovipositor. Indirect signs are deceptive, the male is lobasty and larger, especially since females can pair, if there are no males. And this pair will behave in the same way, up to imitation of spawning. So you can determine the sex only in adult fish, and even then with some relativity.

Fight of three males:

Reproduction in the aquarium

Angelfish form a stable, monogamous couple, and they actively spawn in the general aquarium, but it is rather difficult to save caviar. As a rule, caviar is deposited on vertical surfaces: a piece of snag, a flat sheet, even on the glass in an aquarium. For reproduction often put special tools or cones, or a piece of plastic pipe, or a ceramic pipe.
Like all cichlids, the scalar developed progeny care. Breeding is not easy to spawn, the parents take care of the roe, and when the fry hatch, they continue to care for them until they swim.

Since the angelfish themselves choose a pair, the best way to get such a pair is to buy six or more fish and grow them until they are determined. Very often the aquarist learns about the beginning of spawning only when he sees caviar in one corner, in the other all the inhabitants of the aquarium. But, if you are careful, you can see a pair that is preparing for breeding. They stick together, drive away other fishes, and protect a secluded corner in an aquarium.

Angelfish usually reach the adult age of 8-12 months, and can spawn every 7-10 days if taken from them. Spawning begins with the fact that the couple chooses a place and begins to methodically clean it. Then the female lays a chain of eggs, and the male immediately fertilizes them. This continues until the whole caviar (sometimes a few hundred), will not be postponed, the scalar caviar is rather large, of a light color.

Parents care for caviar, fan it with fins, eat dead or unfertilized eggs (they turn white). A few days later, the eggs peck up, but the larvae remain attached to the surface. At this time, the larva does not eat yet, it consumes the contents of the yolk sac. After about a week, she becomes a fry and begins to swim freely. You can feed the scalar fry with the nautilia of Artemia or other fry feeds. Millions of scalar fry were raised precisely on the nautilia of Artemia, so this is the best choice. You need to feed them three or four times a day, in portions which they can eat in two or three minutes.

In an aquarium with fry, it is better to use an internal filter with a washcloth and without a lid, as it provides sufficient filtration, but does not suck the fry inside. Clean water is just as important as regular feeding, because of the accumulated harmful substances the fry often die.

Often aquarists ask why the angelfish eat their eggs? This may be due to stress, when they spawn in a common aquarium and are distracted by other fish, or in young couples who are still inexperienced.

What are aquarium scalar

Angelfish (Latin Pterophyllum scalare) is one of the most beautiful aquarium fish, the history of their breeding in aquariums in many countries of the world has been over 100 years old. The natural origin of the fish is the territory of South America, the freshwater Amazon River and its tributaries. In these bodies of water, the water is mild and slightly acidic, relatively warm. In some countries, the fish has been nicknamed the “angelfish” (angelfish) because of its elegant appearance and mannerism, giving it an aristocratic charm. In addition to these signs, the scalar fish has a developed intellect, its maintenance in the home environment is simple. Aquarium fish scalar are also good parents who can independently take care of offspring.

They live in reservoirs with a slow or medium course, where there is a lot of reed beds. Their disc shape is the result of evolution. This body shape allows you to beautifully maneuver among underwater plants. In nature, fish are kept in packs of 8-10 individuals.


Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare

Family: Cichlids (Cichlids)

Comfortable water temperature: 22-30 ° C

PH Acidity: 6.0-7.5

Stiffness dH: up to 10 °.


The nature of the angelfish is peace-loving, some individuals may not attack small fish and their brood, but it is worth remembering that all cichlids are predators. When settling in a common aquarium, you must be careful. Representatives of their species will be good neighbors for them, or other fish: corridors, tetras, gourami, lyalius, iris, plecostomus, combat, barium, rasbor. With large aggressive cichlids, some species of barbs, cockerels, goldfish content is unacceptable. Proper care will ensure the fish a long life - the scalar can live 10 years or more.

Care and maintenance:

  1. The fish requires good aeration and filtration of the reservoir, as it is used to clean and oxygenated water. Replacement of 20-30% of water 1 time per week is required.
  2. The reservoir does not need to be tightly closed with a lid, the scalar is not jumping fish.
  3. Maintenance and care for the scalar will be comfortable if you provide them with moderate lighting with LB lamps of 0.4-0.5 W per liter of water. The tank can be placed in a quiet, quiet place where there is no access to bright sunlight. As plants, use hard-leaved species with wide leaves (vallisneria, echinodorus, cryptocoryne). Soil - washed coarse sand or gravel.
  4. Scenery for the reservoir: rocky rocks, caves, grottoes, snags. They love a large space, so one pair of fish is better to settle in a minimum 100-liter aquarium.

Watch a video about the content of angelfish in the home aquarium.


They are considered omnivorous fish, therefore, in captivity, care for them is not difficult. Can eat live, frozen, artificial feed. The main diet consists of: koretra, artemia, cyclops, daphnia, snails, earthworms. You can give granules with spirulina, lettuce, spinach. It is not recommended to give live cranks and tubers - they are harmful for their digestion. Angelfish after a meal can make attempts to collect food from the bottom, but everything can end in failure - their symmetry of the body does not allow to “get to the bottom” and take the remnants of food. Your scalar may occasionally refuse to eat - this is not always a sign of illness, but rather a saturation - for the next 1-2 weeks she may not eat. Angelfish can be harmful to warm-blooded animal meat: chicken, beef, pork. Products are saturated with animal fats that fish cannot digest.

Of course, feeding the fish should be varied, in small portions. 1-2 times a day, you can give food, but metered, so that pets eat it in 2-5 minutes. Some species and breeds of scalar should be given feed with additional trace elements that saturate the color of scales. They are sold in pet stores.


To describe the appearance of the fish, you need to take a standard example - it is an ordinary scalar. The body is disc-shaped, flattened at the sides. Body height is greater than the length. Dorsal fin narrow and high, sail-like, anal fin pronounced. The color of this species is silver with black transverse stripes. As a result of hybridization, other breeds of scalar appeared with different color scales: black, red, gold, zebra, blue, leopard, pearl, etc. The body length of an angelfish is 15 cm, height - 20-25 cm.

The species Pterophyllum scalare charges many species that are natural endemics or bred as a result of breeding. Among them:

  • Albino scalar;
  • Leopold;
  • Blue Angelfish;
  • Gold pearl angelfish;
  • Chocolate Angel;
  • Phantom;
  • White;
  • Cobra;
  • Red and smoky;
  • Scaleless;
  • Diamond and others.

In addition to the species Pterophyllum scalare, there are other species of this fish: Pterophyllum altum, Pterophyllum eimekei, Pterophyllum dumerilli.

Sex and breeding

Sexual dimorphism is poorly expressed, however, over time, even a beginner aquarist will be able to accurately determine the sex of his pets. With the onset of puberty, the fish acquire external features that allow them to determine their sex. You can buy several fish at once, with age they will form pairs. Females are slightly smaller, during anal spawning, the anal fin is rounded; in the male it is bulged out, cone-shaped. How else to determine the sex of the fish?

  1. Pay attention to the behavior - the males are more cocky, active. Well this is noticeable when the pair was formed.
  2. On the frontal part of the head, the males have a hillock, the females lack it. The forehead of females is hollow; it is bulging in males. The dorsal fin in males is more pronounced, with strips visible on its back. The body of the females is angular, in males it is powerful.
  3. The scalar shows the best sexual behavior during spawning. In the male, gonopodia is expressed, in the female there is a short egg-deposit. Males become even brighter, and try to actively care for the female.

See how to breed an angelfish at home.

Fish can spawn in the general aquarium if it has proper water parameters. However, a separate spawning tank will save the brood from death, and prevent stress on the producers. Reproduction is stimulated by water replacement and a gradual increase in water temperature by 2-4 degrees over several weeks.It is important that there is a place for laying (flat stone, broadleaf plant) in spawning. Sometimes they lay eggs on other places: filter, grotto, tank wall. The female cleans the area of ​​sand and plaque, after which spawning occurs. Scalar can set aside more than 500 eggs.

The larvae will hatch in 48-72 hours, a few more days will be fixed. After 3-5 days the fry will swim, then they can be given crushed Artemia larvae, liquid food for the fry, small cyclop. At this time, the parents take care of them, the family floats on the reservoir jamb. If the parents are not going to care for the brood, they are resettled in a 20-40 liter aquarium, where it is necessary to provide him with constant care and maintenance. On the 21st day of life, fry can see dorsal fins.

Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review

SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect. In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.

Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Detachment, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5.
Stiffness dH: to 10 .
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors - discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium. See the article - compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live:
Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum volume of aquarium for scalar

angelfish in the aquarium black and white photo beautiful

From 100 l., In such an aquarium, you can put one, maximum two scalar. Under good conditions, they grow into fish of impressive size, and given their wide fins, it is better to buy an aquarium from 250 liters for them. About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).

Requirements for the care and conditions of the scalar

- scalar necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water.
- it is not necessary to cover the aquarium, the fish are not very mobile and do not jump out of the pond.
- lighting should be moderate. The aquarium is equipped with shaded areas, which is achieved with the help of aquarium vegetation. Fish do not like bright light and shy to turn it on. Vallisneria and other long stem plants are recommended as aquarium plants for scalars. The creation of thickets from such plants imitates the natural habitat of the angelfish.
- Aquarium decoration, at your discretion: stones, grottoes, snags and other decorations. In the aquarium must be provided an open space for swimming. Shelters do not need scalars.

Feeding and diet of scalar

The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia. The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.

The scalar has a peculiarity - they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat - there is nothing wrong with that.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, scalars live in northern South America

in reservoirs with dense reed beds and with standing or slowly flowing water. Actually these natural conditions explain their flattened - disc-shaped body shape, which they need to maneuver among underwater reeds. Kept in nature in groups of 10 individuals.

Description of aquarium angelfish

The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural - the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others. In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived - with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of the angelfish

The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as "pteron" - a feather and "phyllon" sheet, and together with a "winged sheet".

Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier. He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name "Blattfische", translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B. Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.

Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called "Angelfishes" or simply "Angel", in Germany "Segelflosser", which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they "dovozilis", but alas, the dead. Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the "aquarium-scalar boom" begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg - I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L. Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy - the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear. Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov - in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater. The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always - at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred. In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.

Types and breeds of Angelfish

So in order to understand the scale of selection work, I’ll give only an incomplete list of other derived forms of an angelfish: half-hearted, smoky, albino, red-smoky, red, chocolate, phantom, two-spotted phantom, blue, white, zebra, lace zebra, cobra, leopard, marble red-gold, red-pearl, pearl, gold-pearl, red-pearl and others.
The latest achievements are scaleless and brilliant scalaries. Therefore, if we talk about the types of angelfish - they are just countless.

Here is a photo of some angelfish - Pterophyllum scalare

But, it is necessary to distinguish the species from the breeds of angelfish

The above scalar is a breed of the same species Pterophyllum scalare. But there are other types of scalar - the main ones are:
Pterophyllum altum (pterophyllum altum), Pterophyllum leopoldi (formerly Pterophyllum dumerilli - Pterophyllum Dymerilli), Pterophyllum eimekei
Here is
Photo of Pterophyllum leopoldi (as a separate type of angelfish)

and here is a photo Pterophyllum altum (as a separate type of scalar)

a photo Pterophyllum eimekei (as a separate scalar)

Scalar content
Taking into account the above mentioned breeding experiments for one hundred years, the scalar adapted so much to the aquarium conditions that their content does not pose any problems. Perhaps the main and prerequisite for their maintenance is a large and high aquarium. As previously mentioned, the minimum volume of an aquarium for a scalar should be 100 liters, but its height should be at least 45 centimeters. In this case, the fish is absolutely not important thickness of the aquarium, on the turn, they are accustomed to pour narrow ducts, thickets and crevices. From my personal experience I will say that the angelfish feel great, are angry with densely planted long-stem vegetation, in which they feel at home in South America.
The optimal temperature of water for scalars ranges from 22-27 ° C. However, these fish are distinguished by enviable frost resistance up to 16 ° C and endurance in the heat up to 35 ° C.
They are unpretentious and to other parameters of water can normally exist both in very soft and rather hard water. Optimum dH: up to 10 °, Ph: 6-7,5.
Angelfish love clean water, so the presence of aeration and filtration in the aquarium is necessary. Weekly need to replace the aquarium water to fresh before? parts.
Angelfish are very hierarchical fish. It is best to keep them with a flock, in which their own ranking will be established - large and strong pairs will dominate, and weaker ones will receive cuffs. However, such intraspecific aggression is not very scary, especially if you zoned the aquarium. For example, I have aquarium plants and decor planted and set so that the aquarium can be divided into four "adjacent rooms". Such a method helps to avoid excessive aggression and stalking of the weak.

Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar

Sex differences between male and female scalar are weakly expressed. They can be seen only when the fish cut their mature age at 9-12 months of age. Up to this point, when you buy young animals in the pet store, no one will tell you who you take. When buying juveniles, the angelfish can be recommended to take two large individuals, most likely they are males and two small scalars, most likely they will be girls.
To determine the sex of the scalar need experience and practice. A full-time aquarist will distinguish a male from a female in two accounts, but for a beginner, it will be a bit hard for a beginner. For this you need to watch your scalar.
Below is a list of typical sexual differences between the male and the female scalar. Well, of course the photo!

The first sign is behavior. Boys behave like boys, girls like girls. This is especially noticeable when the angelfish are broken into pairs. The pair immediately see who the male and who is the female.
The second sign is the structure of the body. The male angelfish has a 100% distinctive feature - this is a fatty knob on the forehead - a hump. Females do not have it. The forehead of the male is convex, on the contrary vice versa in the female. In addition, the body of the male scalar is more powerful, their back has a fin longer and there are stripes on it (on the back).
The third sign is manifested during the spawning period. The male has a narrow and sharp seed tube, while the female scalar forms a wide and short ovipositor.

Here is a good photo of a male and female scalar

(male on the left and female on the right). Having received a review of this article from a fish breeding expert. Vitaly ChernyavskyI consider it necessary to supplement this part of the article with his answer, here it is:
"The article on the scalars looked. As for signs of differences between males and females - not quite right.
1) Behavior is not a criterion. Every now and then 2 females without a male completely even (and in turn) imitate the male's sexual behavior. Only if you look closely, you can see that the "male" and the female will then change places - and the roe (naturally unfertilized) will be put off by BOTH fish.
2) There are males without a forehead and females with a forehead.
3) The only clear criterion for sex differences in adult fish is line of the back and abdomen. In the male: the line of the back and dorsal fin form an ANGLE, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost the DIRECT line. And in the female, on the contrary: the line of the back and the dorsal fin form an almost DIRECT line, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost a direct ANGLE. "
Taking into account the expert's opinion, I add this drawing that will help determine the sex of the scalar, based on the angle of its fins.
The fact that on the Internet this figure of an angelfish is everywhere spread with false information - the male and the female are confused. This drawing is taken from Ilyin's book Aquarium Fish Breeding. So there the fish were entangled by the artist.
Well, on the Internet, those who sculpt this picture on their websites ... they do not chop themselves, where the female is, where the male is, thereby misleading everyone.
!!! This picture is all right !!! With good and comfortable content angelfish spawning happens right in the general aquarium. The impetus for spawning is the replacement of aquarium water with fresh water and an increase in temperature of 2-4 degrees. A very important role in this process is played by the substrate for laying. Angelfish often prefer to lay eggs on a broadleaf plant, but they may like other places: filter tube, glass, grotto wall, etc.
The place chosen by the producers is thoroughly cleaned of any dirt, and then spawning itself follows. Over time, the female can sweep about 500 eggs, large and even more up to 1000.

Photos of scalar roe

The incubation period for caviar is 2 days; during this period, parents intensively fan the caviar with fins and clean it from litters, remove the whitened - dead caviar. After the larvae hatch from the calf, the parents transfer them to another leaf in their mouth. This is done for greater purity and the elimination of the possibility of catching the infection from the rotting shell of the calf.

Photos of scalar larvae

Over the next 7 days, the larvae, under the watchful supervision of parents, hang on a piece of paper. When the larvae run out of nutrients from the yolk sac, they turn into fry. From now on, they should start feeding.
Starter feed for young scalar should be of high quality, alive and well washed. Can advise - nauplii, nematodes. It is not desirable, but it is possible to feed the fry with any frayed dry food (the number of dead fry will increase with such feeding). It is also recommended to clean the spawning tank from food residue and other dirt twice a day.

Photo fry, young scalar

The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too. Of course, this does not lead to anything good. There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring. This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders. Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and the angelfish,
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar

Recommended literature and books about scalars

A. N. Gurzhiy "Skalyarii" 2009 Kochetov Sergey "Skalyarii" 2005

Beautiful video with scalars

A selection of beautiful photos with scalars

Angelfish care and maintenance spawning breeding description

  • Angelfish content and care

    These fishes liked many aquarist lovers for a long time. They contain and breed scalar fish in aquariums for a long time, so these fish managed to adapt and get used to any conditions. What allows you to call them unpretentious fish. Scalyarium is suitable as soft water, and water with medium hardness.

  • The optimum temperature for a comfortable fish is 23-26 degrees Celsius. They can withstand the gradual cooling of water to 16 degrees. If necessary, fish can and transfer the temperature rise to 38 degrees. Scalarfish grow large, especially males, and therefore for their favorable maintenance you will need an aquarium that will be high and in volume from 120 liters.

  • And the width of the aquarium can be any. These fish prefer fresh and clean water, so you will need to regularly change the water in the aquarium. Angelfish love when calm and peaceful fish in the neighborhood. Not a single fish of prey can resist its long fins, an irresistible desire to bite and pull will appear.

  • Therefore, for these fish, the best neighbors will be guppies, gourami, neons. But you should follow the rules, hook the fish about the same size. After all, an angelfish like any other large fish will be happy to eat fry of swordtails or neons.

  • These beautiful angelfish are usually kept in groups of 4-6 individuals. During the life of the fish themselves are divided into pairs. In such groups, the principle of hierarchy prevails. The largest pair takes the best place in the aquarium. Those fish that were left without pairs become an object that everyone else is chasing. The latest single scalar get access to feed. In order to avoid actively chasing groups in the aquarium, it should be planted abundantly with plants or even fish should be planted.

    Fishes love to eat bloodworms, pipemakers, gamarus. Fry love to eat daphnia. In the diet need to introduce granulated feed and flakes. You should take into account the fact that with such a discoid body shape, the angelfish is difficult to lift the food from the bottom, so the fish should be fed in small portions, in different parts of the aquarium. Sometimes fish may refuse to feed, but this is temporary and completely normal. Content angelfish will require good aeration.

Aquarium fish angelfish. Description of angelfish

Scalyarius fish belonging to the family of cichlids. Their homeland is South America, its central part. In reservoirs dense with plants, they acquired their form. Its name is translated as winged sheet.

She looks like a leaf. And in Europe she was given the name angel fish. A flat body allows it to move easily among plants. Aquarium angelfish grow up to 15 cm in an ordinary aquarium. If the goal of an aquarist is to grow only them, and all the necessary conditions are created for them, then their value can reach 26 cm.

How many live angelfish in an aquarium? Well, somewhere around 10 years, although there have been cases when this period was increased almost 2 times. This allows the choice of the inhabitants of the aquarium to give her preference.

Because if the inhabitants of the aquarium do not live long, and you get used to them, then the death from old age of those who have a life span of just over 2 years very sad aquarist.


if you want to get a baby angelfish, you need a ready to spawn couple. How to get it? Consider that the scalars themselves choose their partner, so make sure that they have someone to choose from.

It is better to acquire several individuals fry and grow them. The number of individuals should be about six, and this is not a far-fetched figure. Some fry may die in the process of growth, since the scalar is very sensitive to changes in water parameters; Another option is that the fry you grow may not grow to normal size, the reason for this is frequent intraspecific crossing.

You can choose a fry in a store or on the market as follows: keep an eye on the two biggest fry (these must be males), take them; choose the two smallest (most likely females), and take two fry at random, this time of medium size. This method of selection does not guarantee you one hundred percent success, but the chances of success are quite large. You can say for sure that a pair has formed in you, when two fishes determine some territory for themselves and start protecting it from alien invasion.

The sexual maturities of the scalar reach ten to twelve months. If by this time both partners have reached approximately equal sizes and are large enough, you will be able to count on the pair’s spawning soon. You may have some difficulties with determining the sex of your fish, but believe me, the fish will not have such problems, so let them choose their own partner - they will not be mistaken.

A tall aquarium of about 80-100 liters for an spawning angelfish pair is what you need. It is desirable to have plants, koryag, but we should not forget about the place in the center of the aquarium, which must be left free for swimming. Scalarium eggs can be laid on the bottom, or on a wide flat leaf of a plant. Sometimes, not finding a convenient place for laying, the angelfish lay eggs on the filter and on the thermometer.

It is better that this does not happen, so it is possible that you yourself will put a flat stone (for example, slate) on the aquarium, on which the angelfish will lay eggs, after having cleaned it (note that these cichlids prefer to lay eggs on the top of the aquarium) . The day before the spawning of the female, the egg-deposit is visible, and the male has a narrow seed wire.

The female, when the time comes, lays its eggs on the chosen place in even rows, followed by the male, fertilizing the eggs. This action takes about an hour. Spawning takes place in several stages. The total number of eggs ranges from 100 to 500, possibly more.

Caviar can do differently. If you have a separate aquarium specifically for the spawning angelfish pair - this is good. Especially if it is large enough. If you plan to give parents their own care for caviar and fry, a couple and a brood of 200-250 fry should have plenty of room for swimming (and in a large aquarium, the couple will not have a sense of danger for the offspring, in a rush of which they can eat caviar and fry).

If you do not have the opportunity to deposit spawning angelfish from the common aquarium, it is better to take the delayed caviar from the pair. The potential danger posed to scalar parents by every fish in an aquarium, and even by a partner, will cause restless parents to eat offspring.

To avoid this, remove the plant or stone with caviar and place it in a special incubator, not forgetting caviar aeration, temperature inside the incubator, and general water parameters. It is recommended to add antifungal medication to the incubator so that non-fertilized eggs will not harm the fertilized ones.

The larvae hatch in about a day or two after fertilization, if the temperature is optimal. About a week from now, they feed on the shell of the egg they were in, so they do not need feeding. Then dry, frozen food and substitutes will make up the diet of your growing fry.


Angelfish VIDEO


Pearl Angelfish

Among the few most popular aquarium fish, the angelfish occupies a worthy place. This is largely determined by the richness of her body color, her peace-loving character, which allows her to live in the same aquarium with most species of fish, natural grace, grace and slowness. Sometimes it seems that aquarium fish angelfish with their leisurely as if specifically allow you to admire their beauty. And believe me, there really is something to admire.

angelfish leopoldi

The discoid flat body of an angelfish with crescents of the dorsal and anal fins and long filiform ventral fins is remembered at a glance. At home, the angelfish, in South America, its name sounds like "winged leaf." The length of the body in the aquarium can be up to 20 centimeters, and the distance between the tips of the fins is up to 30 centimeters. However, the size of the fish has a great influence on the size of the fish.

Most attracts a variety of body color of this aquarium fish. Over the long years of change of generations and efforts of breeders, its natural silver color, embellished with black vertical stripes, has changed quite a lot. Today you can see the scalar of many with a single coloring, from velvet black to golden with a pinkish tinge. There is a scalar chocolate, blue and smoky, golden pearl and marble-gold.

Marble angel

There are also angelfish with natural body color. For example, the scalar zebra has dark vertical stripes on its sides, with black strokes and spots on the body of a marble fish. In short, a variety of body color can satisfy the needs of any aquarist. Currently, there are three main varieties of the scalar aquarium fish. Among them: common (Pterophyllum scalare), high-body (or high) (Pterophyllum altum) and Leopoldi (Pterophyllum leopoldi). Previously, this fish was known as the humped scalar or Dumeryl (Pterophyllum dumerilli).

Conditions of detention

To ensure optimal living conditions, an angelfish must first of all take care of the proper size of the aquarium. The recommended volume of the aquarium is not less than 100 liters, the height of the walls should be at least 50 centimeters. The soil should be dark, suitable as coarse sand and fine gravel. In the wild, in the Amazon, scalars prefer to stay near dense vegetation. This allows the fry to hide from predators, and older fish to lay eggs on plants with wide leaves. In fact, the scalars in the aquarium did not get rid of these habits. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a sufficient number of plants for shelters and with wide leaves for spawning in order to provide conditions for breeding of scalarias, while not forgetting about the free space for walking. In the aquarium, you can also place snags, stone gorges and ornamental rocks. Fish it does not hurt. Angelfish are very demanding on the quality of food, and although they feed on both dry and live food, they prefer live food.

Although the aquarium with scalars can have both soft and hard water, cleanliness should be perfect. It is necessary to provide aeration, filtration and weekly water change up to 20 percent of the total. Fish will enjoy living in water with a pH value from 6.0 to 8.0. Experienced aquarists recommend for ideal living conditions to be within the pH range 6.5 - 7.4. The hardness of the water should be in the range of 5.0-13.0 dGH, and the temperature in the aquarium for the scalar should be in the range from 24 to 30 degrees.

It is also recommended to provide the aquarium with bright lighting. At the same time, a sharp change in lighting should be avoided. Angelfish, in principle, are quite peace-loving fish, and can easily get along with other fish of non-aggressive breeds. Although it happens that the angelfish show aggression towards their smaller relatives when the owner is late with feeding. It is also not recommended to launch certain species of fish into the aquarium with angelfish, including African and South American cichlids, cockerels, guppies, discus, Koi carps and astronotus.

Cultivation of Pterophyllum Scalare

Scalarians spawn at the age of 8 - 12 months. At this time, a couple is formed, ready to acquire offspring. For the breeding season, the scalar is recommended, firstly, to select a mature couple and move it to a separate aquarium (breeding ground) of at least 80 liters. Secondly, it is necessary to provide the temperature in the aquarium for scalar at this time in the range of 28 - 30 degrees. Broadleaf plants, such as echinodorus or cryptocorynes, should first be planted in the spawning grounds.

Immediately before spawning, the fish thoroughly clean the selected leaves, then the female begins to lay eggs in even rows. Behind her, the male fertilizes each egg. Spawning, as a rule, lasts for several hours. During this time, the female can lay up to 700 eggs. It should be noted that in the breeding process the scalar from the moment of spawning to the first walk of the fry takes part both parents.

Before the appearance of the fry, the couple together ventilates, fanning it with fins, and cleans the clutch, removing the dead eggs. Developed in the fry eggs, the female and male free from the egg membrane and spit on the leaves. Somewhat later, the parents transfer the fry to a hole previously dug in the sand, where the fry spend up to 5 days. After a couple of days the whole family goes for the first walk. From this period you can begin to feed the fry with very small live food. And after some time, the fry begin to eat larger feed.

Who do the scalar get on with? What fish do the angelfish live with?

The mysterious world of the aquarium attracts many people. How wonderful after work to sit and watch the unhurried flow of life of its inhabitants. To avoid dramas in the blue waters, you need to carefully consider the choice of fish, today we will talk about who the scalar gets on with.

Content Features

The scalar is not too fastidious and quite livable with many underwater inhabitants. Does not dig and does not spoil the plants, like other cichlids, in particular beauty chromis. The soil is not her element, the scalar will not dig it up and raise dregs. But these fish are demanding on the chemical composition, the degree of pollution and the level of oxygen in the water.

This is a schooling fish, so if you decide to start them, take several individuals at once. One she often dies in the first days after the purchase, as if not worrying about her loneliness.

Aquarium equipment

If you want to keep the angelfish and still diversify the underwater world with other inhabitants, then take care of a large aquarium. A volume of 100 liters (or even better at 200) is the minimum that is required. A sufficient amount of free space will ensure peaceful coexistence with its neighbors, while a lack of space will provoke conflicts.

The second thing to take care of is the equipment. Good filtration and aeration are necessary for the scalar to feel normal. A heater with a temperature control system will not allow sharp fluctuations, which is undesirable for these heat-loving fish. In addition, you will need tests to determine the various parameters of water. So, too hard water can lead to their death. Optimum acidity Ph 6.0. Favorable temperature conditions of 25-27 degrees.

Areas with abundant vegetation in the aquarium are desirable, they contribute to the normal functioning of the ecosystem and provide shelter for fry or smaller inhabitants. So, with the basic requirements of these cichlids to the environment figured out, now you need to choose the neighbors, which they also fit, and find out what fish the scalarians get on with.

Good neighborly relations

When choosing a composition for your aquarium, first of all pay attention to the size of the fish. Scalaria grows large enough and, like any cichlid, can taste something smaller on a tooth. Therefore, it is better to take at once all the inhabitants of the fry than to run the young to the already adult individuals. Another point: these fish are very slow, and therefore bright neons are well co-located with them.

The first of those with whom the scalar gets along is soms, on the other hand, no one quarrels with them at all. Each of them has its own area. Whatever fish you have brought, they will completely ignore the presence of bottom catfish.

Angelfish and barbs are often recommended as ideal neighbors. They have almost the same requirements for temperature, hardness and acidity. But the temperament is different, and nimble barbs are quite capable of leaving leisurely fish without lunch. Again, it depends on the nature of the specific fish caught by you. Some live very amicably, but somewhere barbs are taken to drive cichlids.

Another win-win is scalar and gourami. This composition looks very bright, all the fish are quite large (which imposes the appropriate requirements for the size of the water area). If you take the fish fry, then problems, most likely, will not arise. Adults gourami can sometimes shake only the imperfections of the scalar by the tails and fins.

Often among fans there are disputes about whether the scalar and guppy will get along.
In fact, this is really lucky. Peace-loving individuals have been caught by someone, and small fish continue to swim peacefully, while for others the cichlids quickly figured out how to corner them and have a snack.If all fish are bought at an early age, the aquarium is big and there are shelters, then, most likely, life will pass peacefully and calmly.

Seasoned aquarists emphasize the tranquil neighborhood of the angelfish and danios, and, in addition, placium is considered to be one of the most accommodating. Labo, tetra, discus, swordtails, roosters and iris are also well suited.

With whom to settle the scalar should not

Despite the fact that they themselves belong to this family, they get along badly with other cichlids. Often the angelfish are slower and calmer, and therefore may themselves suffer from distant relatives. They are incompatible with goldfish. Large predators, like piranha, are intended only for individual content.

Telescopes can not be settled together with flat beauties, quickly losing sight, they will die. By the way, not only cichlids love to beat out their eyes. If you add any new species to the aquarium, even if you are sure that it is precisely those with whom the angelfish gets along, be sure to closely observe the behavior of the fish. If you notice aggressive behavior, dangling fins and tails, then it is better to evacuate the affected fish and give in good hands.

Fish selection

About the fact that the angelfish is undesirable to keep with goldfish, we have already said. Let us explain: cichlids are thermophilic, the same, on the contrary, like cool water. In addition, goldfish are big gluttons, they clog up the aquarium badly and like to dig the ground, and the scalars do not tolerate dirty water.

Do not keep together herbivorous fishes (tilaria, hemigramus, viviparous) and predators, which include scalar. Mixing different foods can badly affect the state of water and the health of its inhabitants.

Breeding period: how the behavior of the angelfish

These are territorial fish and during the spawning period, as well as care for the offspring, can chase all other inhabitants of the aquarium. Even congeners during the division into pairs can fall hard. There are several ways out: either to plant a couple to spawn in a separate aquarium, or to plan the planting of large bushes and build caves and creeks at the bottom of the cave where fish can hide from each other.

It should be noted that the male scalar is usually aggressive at this time, especially if there is another competitor in the aquarium. Several females with one male will be much livable. Spawning of these fish occurs quite often, several times a month, which is a reason to think about whether it is necessary to move neighbors to them at all, or to keep a mono-breed aquarium more easily.

Brief conclusions

Answering the question about who the scalar gets on with, we note the following points. It should be heat-loving fish, as cichlids do not tolerate temperatures below 23 degrees. It is desirable that the neighbors are not too small, that is, predators do not fit in the mouth. Buying too large and aggressive individuals is fraught with unpleasant consequences for the angelfish themselves (an example can be astronotus). Fish should be tolerant of soft water. This condition is not suitable for everyone; Malawian cichlids automatically fall out of the selection list.

Choosing Aquarium Neighbors for Angelfish

Angelfish are peaceful aquarium fish, which in some countries are called "angel fish". As representatives of the Cichlid family, they still possess the predator instinct. Is scalar compatibility with other fish possible? This is a controversial issue, since even schematically acceptable compatibility can end in disrepair for any aquarium fish. If you grow an angelfish with other fish, starting at a young age, they will get along in the future.

The main rule is not to settle them with predatory, fast and aggressive fish and those smaller in size. Who fits in the mouth, those scalar will eat. The compatibility of these aquatic organisms with: catfish, pseudotrophy, danios, petillia, labo and tetras has been proven. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the species compatibility table, which does not guarantee a peaceful settlement in one aquarium, but gives an idea of ​​who the scalars usually get along with.

Also the maintenance of this fish is permissible with those who will ignore its bright appearance, not to wag the fins. The first time after the launch of the fish in the tank, follow their behavior. If there are quarrels, fights, other forms of rivalry, immediately settle the roommates. Consider buying an additional tank.

Compatibility table: scalar and other types

What species do these pets live in peacefully? In order to avoid mistakes in the settlement, should be considered their compatibility with other fish. As a rule, they are livable with many peaceful species, however there are exceptions to the rules.

Look at the common aquarium with scalar.

Barbusses are small fish that strive to pinch the beautiful fins of any neighbors, be it scalaries or other beauties. Sometimes they live peacefully, but Sumatra barbs, cherry barbs, tiger barbs can constantly wipe beautiful cichlid angels. They demonstrate their superiority, and play catch-up, or hide-and-seek, which leads to stress. No shelter or relocation is indispensable. Barbus even though pretty creatures, but too annoying. In addition to them, even gourami, guppies or labo can become strongly unbelted.

Cichlids from Africa and South America - although they are close relatives of the angelfish, they can show territorial aggression and predatory behavior. Cichlids are single fish, or "family men," not many breeders manage to keep them in peace and harmony with other aquatic creatures. The scalar is uncomfortable with them, so the settlement is possible only with individual compatibility, which is checked at a young age.

The cockerels are good neighbors for small cichlids. Can live by themselves. Male males often conflict with each other than with other fish. One caveat - during spawning, the female and male scalar are aggressive to cockerels, if there is no place to move everyone, arrange additional shelters in the tank.

Somiki corridor - almost all of them live without conflicts and claims, the scalar is also no exception. Somiki live in the lower layers of water, scalars - in the middle. Each other can be ignored without interfering with living and eating.

Danio - if the fish grew together, very well. If danios are settled as new neighbors, they will be taken for food. It will not be possible to eat everyone, they will arrange unpleasant endurance tests, proving their superiority. Danio swims in the upper layers of the water, and the scalar well they get. You can install a lot of undergrowth, shelters, a spacious tank so that everyone hides. For small fish, constant stress is extremely harmful, so take a look at how cichlids react.

Goldfish - so luxurious fish can be maintained with a commensurate Karpov. And with the scalar content is unlikely to be successful. Goldfish live in cool water, and cichlids live in warm water. In addition, goldfish and scalar are incompatible in nature - a more active cichlid will tear off the fins of such a neighbor. And another important factor is that goldfish quickly pollute the water, while cichlids love cleanliness.

Guppies are small ornamental fish. Get used to scalars from a young age. But when matured, cichlids can harm guppies. In adults, the predator instincts wake up, which is extremely unpleasant for guppies - it is small, bright and beautiful. If the question arises - where are the guppies gone? The answer is obvious - they were eaten by scalar.

Can I keep in an aquarium with gourami? Quite, gourami are non-conflict fishes that can stand up for themselves. Rarely, territorial disputes arise between gouras and these cichlids, but they can be avoided if there is space for swimming and shelter for all fish.

Look at the confrontation of gourami and scalar.

Mollies are viviparous fishes of colorful color. Content with cichlids of this species will be successful if they grow together. Sometimes mollies gnaw the scalar fins. Over time, they get used to each other, but in case of prolonged conflicts it is better to keep them separate.

Thorns are small omnivorous fish. Naturally, the scalars will be perceived ambiguously, or rather, as food. According to the conditions of detention each other fit, they eat almost the same food. But terration may be physically affected by the harassment of cichlids. Compatibility can be called relative, because for sure there have been cases where ternation and scalar have gotten along. However, terntions are small hydrobionts, large neighbors are dangerous to them.

Discus - these aquarium fish can be good companions for cichlids. The scalar and discus have similar conditions and diet. Even their body shape is a bit identical - and discus and it is difficult for scalars to collect food from the bottom due to disc-shaped symmetry. Therefore, they and others will be able to eat with a special feeder. The differences between them are discus fish flocks, they feel comfortable in a flock of 5-6 individuals, and the scalars swim in a pair, they love a wide space. Having a large tank for both types will be a big plus.

Compatible with mollusks and crustaceans

Snails are not indifferent to the environment clams. Eat everything they see. This does not apply to fish that attack them themselves. However, due to carelessness, the snails launched into the reservoir ate fish eggs. If there is one, the snail needs to be relocated, at least for a while.

As for crustaceans - crustaceans and shrimps, they and tsikhlovye may well cohabit, phlegmatically ignoring each other. Shrimps and crustaceans will not touch the angelfish, because it is a big fish. But the shrimp themselves are not harmless, they are natural predators. Amano shrimp and Macrobenchium tsikhlidki can not offend, but still watch for a start, what they live together. Also, Amano and Macrobenchium shrimps should be settled with scalars in a common aquarium from a young age. Young tsikhlovy fishes are more livable, than adults.

Aquarium shrimp can attack a sick angelfish - they feel weak, so wounds, scratches on the body of scaly ones are formed through the fault of a small creature. There were precedents that a large shrimp finished off and actually ate the weakened fish. Therefore, watch out for all pets carefully, so that everyone will stay alive and healthy.

If you like scalar, look at the scalp Leopold.