Aquarium sticky or catfish cleaners
Soma - suckers due to its exotic appearance and simplicity of the content are quite popular among aquarists. These catfish belong to the kolchuzhnyh family (Loricarii) capable of reaching a very impressive value even if they are kept in captivity. But at the same time these bright and unusual fish for other inhabitants of the aquarium do not represent any serious danger.
It's all about the special structure of their mouth, which nature has ideally adapted to scrape algae from leaves of aquatic plants or stones, and in aquariums - glasses and a variety of decorative elements. To say that catfish are vegetarians is hardly possible. Sticking with the content in the aquarium will not give up on animal food.
Features som - suckers
These fish, despite the large number of common features in the structure of the body, can vary considerably in size. The maximum length of some species is only a few centimeters, and the size of the others can exceed half a meter.
Mouth sticking has a special structure. In essence, the mouth of the fish of this family is a sucker, equipped with a kind of "grater" that allows you to scrape off the various surfaces of the algae. In this case, the head is quite large, and the muscles of the jaws are very well developed. Each catfish of this family has very dense scales on its body, which makes up the so-called “chainmail”. Not without reason, the second name of the family is mail somiki. As an additional defense against aggression, quite large spines developed on many kolchuzhnyh gills.
Somiks of this group are distinguished by a flattened body, a streamlined shape with a back. Fish have a flat belly and very well developed pectoral fins. It is they who allow loricarids to move quickly in rivers, even with a very fast current. At the same time, aquarium catfish of most species do not need to imitate a strong flow, which greatly simplifies the task of creating a comfortable habitat for them. It can be said that catfish using powerful pectoral fins are able to plan in powerful streams of water. The tail and dorsal fins are mainly used when moving directly along the bottom of the reservoir. It is worth noting that aquarium fish, in the absence of a strong current, use their sufficiently powerful tail to move in the water column.
Aquarium mail catfish, as well as representatives of other families of catfish, lead a bottom life. The presence of a sufficient number of aquatic plants, suitable soil type, snags and other varied shelters are necessary for these fish for a comfortable life and good health. These catfish tend to lead a night or twilight lifestyle. Almost all of them prefer clean water with sufficient filtration and aeration. It is difficult to talk more specifically about the conditions of keeping these soms in captivity, because each species has its own characteristics and preferences. The most common in captivity are catfish of this family: antsistrus, ototsinklyus, glyptopericht, sturisome.
Ancistrus homeland - the central and northern parts of the South American continent. Its content is not difficult even for beginning aquarists. At the same time, the catfish has a very unusual appearance. In addition to simple antsistrus, aquarists are interested in star and black (dark) antsistrus. There are albino and voile forms. Catfish grown in the wild, can reach 15 cm in length. Aquarium specimens are noticeably smaller. To keep it you need an aquarium from 80 liters.
Acquiring antsistrusov, it is worth remembering that these fish love clean and quite oxygen-rich water. Flow in the aquarium, too, they like it. However, its absence does not cause discomfort in fish. The optimum water temperature is 22 - 26 ° C. But they painlessly endure a short-term decrease or increase in temperature.
Ancistrus feeds on fouling from almost all surfaces of the aquarium. And so many aquarists contain them as a kind of cleaner. But of course, their diet should also include complete feed for suckling fish. It is possible to diversify their diet and some vegetables and herbs. Lettuce, pumpkin, cabbage, cucumber are fine. It is important not to forget to remove the remnants of such food from the water in a timely manner. Otherwise, for ecological balance in an aquarium, this may become too serious an ordeal.
Homeland of otsinklyusov South-Eastern Brazil. It is a rather small fish, not more than 5 cm long. Ototsinklyus live in flocks and fairly undemanding to the conditions of detention. There are about 20 species of these fish. Especially popular with aquarists enjoy: Arnoldi, Affinis, macrospilus, negros, which. Somiki have an elongated body, the color of the back is dark, the abdomen is light. The color of the fins is transparent. Like any other catfish, ozincluses have a mustache.
Look at the otozinclus at work.
These creatures are very peaceful. So it’s easy to get along with any non-aggressive neighbors. For ottsinklyus fish clean water is very important. Strongly overgrown aquarium - their element. Eating a variety of fouling, they greatly contribute to cleaning the aquarium. For many fans, aquarium ototsinklyus is the best and most safe way for other fish to fight unwanted algae.
Despite the fact that the main feed of otzinclus is water fouling, it is sometimes necessary to feed and pamper the most common vegetables. For example, zucchini and cucumber is quite suitable for this purpose delicacy.
Brocade Glyptopericht in the wild is found only in the South American Amazon. This is a rather large fish that can grow up to 60 cm. Catfish glyptopericht can live for more than 10 years in suitable conditions.
The oral sucker glyptopericht is developed so much that it is extremely difficult for fish to be torn off from a smooth surface and not damaged. Antennae small, slightly thickened at the base, located at the mouth. Males are brighter and more slender. Their pectoral fins are equipped with spikes.
For maintenance of glyptopericht an aquarium of at least 200 liters is required. Such a decoration as a snag is necessary - a little bit of worn wood, the glyptopericht receives the cellulose that it needs so much in certain quantities. It is important not to forget that this catfish requires a weekly replacement of up to 50% of the water in the aquarium, since it lives only in clean water.
Look at a couple of glyptoperichts.
The diet of glyptopericht consists of 60% of vegetable feed. The remaining 40% - feed of animal origin. Leads nocturnal, so the feed is better to make the evening. The most balanced feed - special tablets for large bottom fish.
The Panamanian Sturisom is one of the most prominent members of the Loricarije family. This unusual catfish lives in nature in the waters of Colombia and Panama. The body of the fish is low. It is noticeably compressed from top to bottom and stretched in length. The head is equipped with a small process.
This sucker has rather large fins. The fins, like the sturismas' body, have a reddish-yellow hue. A darker brownish strip goes along the whole body. In this case, the belly has a silvery-white color. The male is distinguished by a more intense color, and his eyes are located much lower in comparison with the female.
These catfish are well adapted to life in captivity, even if individuals from the wild enter the aquarium. But this in recent decades happens infrequently. This catfish successfully spawns in the conditions of the aquarium.
Keeping a Panamanian Sturys is easy. The fish is able to adapt to water of any hardness. Only oxygen saturation is important. Therefore, aeration is a must. Water should be warm enough. From 24 to 30 ° C. Illumination these sticky prefer rather diffused.
Keep sturisome only in a fairly spacious aquarium. It is better if its volume is more than 250 liters, because it adheres can grow up to 20 cm. Catfish actively eats various algal fouling from any surfaces. But since a sturisome needs a lot of food, it’s not worth keeping fish in one volume with it, with which it will compete for food resources. Not only special tableted foods can be included in the sturisome’s diet, but also cucumber, zucchini, fresh salad. She does not disdain and animal feed. Artemia, bloodworm, minced seafood or beef will be enjoyed by fish. This catfish in captivity may well live for 8 years or more.
Somiki sticks in an aquarium: types, what to feed
There are fish, interesting both externally and their behavior. These include catfish sticks, which are also called catfish antsitrusy. Such funny creatures have a round muzzle sucker. With its help, they clean the algae from the walls of the aquarium, which serve as food for fish.
Somiki sticks are aquarium fish that cannot be confused with any other individuals. In addition to the mouth-sucker, they have other characteristics:
- large head;
- anteriorly slightly squished teardrop-shaped body;
- bone wide plates instead of regular scales;
- dorsal large fin in the form of a sail, which is constantly pressed against the calf;
- on the ends of fins sharp thorns.
Such fish in color vary mainly from light gray to black individuals. Sometimes there are yellow catfish sticky. You can also see albinos with yellowish mild inclusions.
Somiki sticky: species
Experts identify several types of catfish, each of which has its own characteristics. Consider them in the article below.
This kind of sticking was bred in Germany in artificial conditions. They have a color close to red or orange. Due to the artificial appearance of this type, they have a very high price. Experts consider them to be another kind of common catfish, because the internal structure of this fish is not different from most relatives.
Somiki sticks very often turn pale, thus becoming an albino. They are isolated in a separate form. Periodically, these fish become golden color, thus taking a truly fascinating and magical appearance. They have gained popularity with true connoisseurs, being considered an exotic and wonderful addition to an aquarium.
This representative catfish home is the Amazon. He has a dark brown or black color. White large specks gradually turn brown, and the white border of the fins on the back forms pale small dots with a frame of dark shades. Females are larger and lighter than males. In males on the face at the age of 10 months, leathery growths begin to occur.
These catfish were found in Brazil, as evidenced by the name obtained in honor of r. Claro The length of the little body of the fish is about 8 cm. Such a sticky from other species differs in color - it varies from gray to black. At the same time the dark shade dilutes a white large speck. He, unlike lazy relatives, is active throughout the day.
Before you start a fish, you need to know what to feed the catfish-sticky. It will suit the green tender algae, which very often cover the glass of aquariums. You can also feed: boiled leaves of cabbage, nettle, lettuce. Somik is best to feed in the evening when the lights are turned off, and the rest of the fish fall asleep. At the same time, the ancistrus retains its activity for quite some time, crawling along the bottom of the aquarium and finding tubers or moths abandoned by them. In addition, you can use the pellets, which very quickly reach the bottom, which means they go specifically to these fish.
They can adapt with ease to living in any water. The size of the catfish is directly dependent on the volume of the aquarium. So, the bigger it is, the more the fish will become with age. But, basically, they select aquariums, the volume of which is 100 liters and more.
Somiki are usually not active during the day, and "come to life" either at night or when the pressure in the atmosphere changes. Therefore, they need to have a rich filling in the aquarium - caverns, shelters, various plants, pebbles. Somiki sticks in an aquarium usually occupy immediately the best cave in which they hide and rest during the day.
Fish diseases are associated with chemical poisoning or feed of animal origin, as well as gas in the stomach. Although in general they are quite unpretentious and get sick very rarely.
Antsistrusy to the first year of life become sexually mature. In order to put off caviar, it is advisable for small fish to have shelter in the form of pipes, towers of decorative castles, coconut halves, a ceramic flower pot, etc.
If there are no shelters, eggs may be laid at any point in the aquarium. It is advisable to take somics not closely related. For example, you can swap with someone females or males. A mature couple spawns in good conditions once every three weeks. At the same time, spawning is perfectly stimulated by the addition of softened water. At temperatures above 30 ° C, spawning usually stops.
In an aquarium, it is important to have a spawning space - a tube, preferably a ceramic one, 1.5-2 times the size of the male, and the width should be equal to the width of the male with the pectoral fin. The socket at one end is closed. It should not be cross-cutting. You can post several suitable options, in this case, the male will independently choose what he likes more. If the nest is too big, in this case, not all the eggs can be fertilized, and the fry will be much smaller.
The female is able to lay eggs regularly at intervals of one and a half to two months. If you do not plant caviar with daddy catfish in another aquarium, then the probability of eating the calf by the female and the rest of the fish is almost 100%. An air dispenser must be installed near the calf without a male.
During the courtship of the roe, the male Antsistrus, fanning it with its fins, ceases to eat.
Experienced razvodchiki actively use fish-stuck as indispensable assistants in cleaning the aquarium. The unique structure of the mouth makes it possible for ancistrus to stick tightly to various even surfaces. They, crawling on them, carefully scrape off various food debris, as well as the greens of unicellular algae. In the same way stuck cleans the soil. Due to the similar activities of these fish, water spoils the usual much later, while the allowable interval between cleaning the aquarium increases (up to 2-3 weeks).
Ancistrus: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review of catfish suckers, adhesives
catfish sucker stuck cleaner
Antsistrusy - this is the most popular catfish of the aquarium world! They are known and contain everything, both beginners and pros. Ancistrusy deserve such attention due to their qualities: they are referred to as "aquarium attendants", they are unpretentious in content, are uncommon in behavior, and, of course, the structure of the mouth-sucker markedly distinguishes them among many other som-like fish.At the same time, these fish can hardly be called handsome! A strange mouth, some warty growths on the face, dark coloring, and, as a rule, they often hide in snags and grottoes ... like twilight! What is so attracted to aquariums around the world to these fish? I think the answer will give a full story about them! So, the Latin name: Ancistrus dolichopterus (Ancistrus ordinary); Russian name: Ancistrus, catfish stuck, catfish sucker, catfish cleaner, antsitrus;
Order, suborder, family: capes, cat-shaped, chain-mail or Loricariid catfish (Cypriniformes, Siluroidei, Loricariidae). Given the fact that many are confused in the classification of fish, and on the Internet you can often find unreliable information, it should be said that Loricaria and Mail - It is the same. The family of Mail Som in Latin will be Loricariidae - these are antsistrusy, pterigoplichty, loricaria, sturisomes, farlovellas, hypoptomes, ototsinklyusy and others. It is often written that the ancistrus is an armored soma, but this is not true. Crabfish Callichthyidae are corridors, dinemas, brochises, thoracatums, etc.
Comfortable water temperature: 20-28 ° С (for manufacturers 20-26 ° С);
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5 (for manufacturers up to 10 °, KN up to 2 °);
Stiffness dH: up to 20 ° (for manufacturers 6-7,3);
Aggressiveness: relatively non-aggressive (20%);
The complexity of the content of antsistrusov: easy;
Antsistrus compatibility: These catfish can be maintained with virtually all types of aquarium fish, in fact they are peaceful inhabitants of the aquarium bottom. However, to say that antsistrus absolutely harmless fish can not be! Yes, everywhere - in the articles of the Runet they write that these somas behave like "God's dandelions", but on aqua. The forums can often find information that antsistrusy chase fish, stick to them and even spoil the skin ... And it's true! Therefore, it is undesirable to keep them with slow and cumbersome fish, for example, with the family of Goldfish. Also, from personal experience, I can say that it is impossible to keep them with scaleless fish, for example, with bag-tailed catfish, such fish, antsistrusy can inflict serious wounds with their "passionate kisses." Not compatible with: крупными, агрессивными и территориальными цихлидами, особенно в период нереста. Подробнее о совместимости рыб смотрите HERE!
How many live: при надлежащем содержании могут прожить более 7 лет. Find out how much other fish live HERE!
Минимальный объем аквариума для анциструсов: 80l is considered a normal aquarium for a pair of antsistrus, but many keep them in 50, and 30, and even 20l. aquariums. It is not correct, alas, in such conditions the fish will not live for a long time, it will “drain” and die. About how much you can keep fish in the X aquarium see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes). Requirements for care and maintenance: Antsistrusy unpretentious fish. Elementary adherence to the recommended parameters of water - the key to success in their content and even dilution. These catfish suckers do not need personal and excessive attention, the only desirable element in the aquarium should be shelters: grottoes, caves, and especially snags or hemp. Aeration, filtration, weekly water change for fresh - are required. In addition, in the aquarium, it is desirable to set up correctly and a sufficiently active flow of water, which will imitate the natural habitat of catfish.
Feeding and diet: Antsistrtsov, however, as well as other representatives of Loricaria are referred to phytophages, that is, to fish that feed on plant food. It is this feature of the catfish sucker that makes it an indispensable aquarium actor in the fight against algal fouling of the walls of the aquarium and decor. Due to its unique structure of the mouth, ancistrus scrape / scrape off any small plant formations. Thus, we can say that antsistrusy are unpretentious in the diet and can get food on their own. However, this does not mean that an aquarist should not feed them. The diet of antsistrus should be 70-80% vegetable feed and 20-30% protein foods. For complete feeding of catfish cleaners, you can buy special branded feed for loricarine catfish, as a rule, these are green tablets falling to the bottom. Also, many weekly feed their suckers with scalded fresh cucumber, lettuce, spinach, green peas, pumpkin and cabbage leaves. Some aquarists, especially for Ancistrus, abundantly decorate the aquarium with snags and stumps, the Ancistrus gladly “gnaw” the slick and constantly hang on them. And in the stumps, with good conditions of detention, they can even spontaneously and independently multiply.
Photo feeding antsistrusov
Feeding any aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.In nature, live: Ancistrus habitat is the central and northern part of South America. Their biotope - rivers and streams with a fast current, lakes of tropical forests, swamps and ditches, some species inhabit mountain streams.
Description of Ancistrus:
Soma body elongated, head and front of the body flattened. From the dorsal fin the body is covered with bone plates, except the abdomen.
Ancistrus mouth - These are suckers with horn-like scrapers, with which they scrape food from the surface.
Dorsal large, flag-shaped, often pressed fish to the body. Thoracic, ventral and dorsal fin wide.
Cultivation and reproduction of acystrus
Antsitrus, male and female in the photo and their laying in coconut shell It is not any difficulty. Often it, under optimal conditions, can occur independently in the general aquarium.
For purposeful breeding of steam, the producers will be deposited in a shallow spawning aquarium - 40 l., Or if the spawning is a large 100-150 l. You can plant one male and two females. The spawning incentive is frequent water changes, abundant feeding, an increase in the amount of protein, live food, and an increase in water temperature.
It is easy to distinguish a male from a female! Males on the head and along the edges have branched, developed leathery processes - tentacles, in the people they are called "antennae". In females, the antennae are located only at the edges of the head, poorly developed or not at all.
Producers must be the same size or the female must be larger than the male. Cases of killing smaller females by male are noted !!!
The aquarium is equipped with pipes or long stumps, only in them the female will lay eggs !!! However, there have been cases when caviar is deposited in pots and just on a snag. Nevertheless, plastic pipes are considered to be the best spawning substrate.
Spawning aquarium is filtered and aerated.
After the female has laid a laying of 30-100 eggs in the tube, the male takes all the care of the offspring. He expels the female and during the entire incubation period of ripening caviar fanning her with fins, creating a stream of water and oxygen access to the clutch, besides the male removes dead eggs. It is not worth worrying the male during this period, otherwise he may eat caviar in a "panic". photo laying antsistrusov caviar
After about five days, little larvae emerge, which the caring male protects for a couple of days.
The hatched larvae hang and the actual does not move. They feed independently during this period - with the reserves of the yolk bladder, due to the exhaustion of which the larvae become fry and from this period they must be fed. The aquarists feed the fry differently, who gives spirulina, who pushes the branded loricarium pills, who immediately starts giving crushed cucumbers !!! The main thing in this matter is the small fraction of feed (dust) and the access of fry to it. see also Antsistrus breeding - Forum aquarists.
Interesting about Ancistrus:
- it is completely unknown why male suckers need “whiskers” on the face. Ichthyologists suggested that the mustache is an imitation of larvae and juveniles. Thus, the male shows the female, they say, see what kind of "I'm a good dad." It is noticed that females prefer males with large whiskers)))
- when launching antsistrus into a good herbalist, you should always remember that when there is a lack of vegetable food, catfish can begin to feed on the leaves of plants and damage them. For prof.travnika better to use otsinklyusov and Siamese algae.
- there are an insane number of species of Ancistrus, their classification is rather confused and complicated by the presence of breeding breeding forms. The most popular types of antsistrus are considered to be: gold, voilean (voilean leopard and other subspecies), red, dark, brown, pink, star-shaped, albino. But what only cost numbered L-catfish, their number is simply amazing.
There are a lot of varieties of antsistrus! Below is a description of the most popular species of this loricaric catfish.
Catfish Ancistrus is one of the most common fish in tropical aquariums. You can watch for hours how this unusual sucker-fish moves along the walls of the aquarium in jumps, without missing stones, equipment, snags and plants on its way. The mouth of Ancistrus is equipped with horn-shaped scrapers, which allow to clean off plant formations on the previously mentioned objects. There are many varieties of this fish, differing in both the shape and color of the fish.
In this article we will focus on Antsistrus ordinary veil. Its name, this unrivaled view of the Acistrus, was due to the specific shape of the oblong fins and tail, which, when opened, resemble a transparent veil.
Latin name: Ancistrus dolichopterus; Order, family: Loricariidae (Loricariidae), mail catfish;
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C;
"Acidity" Ph: about 7;
DGH stiffness: up to 20 °.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatibility of acustrus veil: gets on with a large number of tropical small fishes.
The minimum volume of aquarium for ancistrus veil: makes 50 liters.
Requirements for care and maintenance: necessary aeration and weekly water change.
Feeding and ration of voiletic acytrus: The main food of catfish is vegetable, but they will not disdain both dry food and ice cream. The diet can be varied with lettuce and cabbage (should be pre-cooked).
In nature, live: Manoas, Brazil. A more accurate habitat is the mountain rivers of South America, the Andes, Peru, and in the upper reaches of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. From these wonderful places, catfish were brought first to Europe, and then to Russia, the CIS countries.
Description of acustrus veil Somiki of this variety Ancistrus are one of the smallest representatives of catfish in general, as a result, their sizes often do not exceed ten centimeters. The distinctive features of the males from females in common veral ancistrus are similar to those of the common Ancistrus, namely, the male is thinner and slimmer, and the females are thicker, especially during the spawning period, the round shape is well marked. On the head of males, numerous leathery processes can be observed, but females usually do not have them or they exist, but only at the edges of the head in small quantities. The content, reproduction and breeding of this type of antsistrus coincides with Ancistrus ordinary. FanFishka.ru thanks the author Supplements for voile ancistrus Argenty (Alexander) for providing material and collaboration!
What do aquarium catfish eat?
Every aquarium owner knows how complicated and lengthy the process is cleaning in the aquarium. It is necessary to carefully collect the remains of food and rotten plants, as well as fish waste from the bottom, clean the glass and decorations from single-celled algae. So, all this has to spend a lot of time. And what to do, because you want the aquarium to enjoy the beauty, and the fish - excellent health and brightness.
Experienced aquarists have long found a good helper who can really simplify any cleaning. Of course, this is - aquarium catfish sticky, most often - antsistrusy.
The special structure of the mouth allows them to firmly stick to any smooth surfaces, whether it be wide algae leaves, decorations or glass. Well, then, catfish just crawling on this surface, carefully scraping off any leftover food from the fish, as well as the greens of unicellular algae. And then you can kill two birds with one stone - catfish gets food, and you - a clean aquarium. It is also important that the catfish is very carefully studying the soil in the aquarium and, when it detects leftover food, immediately eats them. Due to this, the water in the aquarium does not spoil for a long time, and cleaning can be done once every two or three weeks, and not weekly.
A serious advantage is the ease of reproduction of antsistrusov. They do not even need to create special conditions for this - caviar can be swept away right in the general aquarium.
But if you start antsistrusov, then you need to find out what catfish eat. The fact is that usually the remnants of food of other fish and algae collected from the glasses, it is not enough for them. That is why catfish need additional feeding.
The easiest way to feed them in the evening, when the lighting is turned off, and the fish fall asleep. However, catfish still crawl along the bottom for quite a long time, so that they can easily find a portion of bloodworms or pipemakers thrown to him. You can also use special pellets for catfish - they quickly go to the bottom and get catfish, and not other fish.
Somiki are a very large group of aquarium fish. They are quite popular with aquarists and can be easily purchased at any pet store and markets. Somics have a special structure. Their bodies are bare, without scales or covered with bony plates. Several pairs of whiskers are the hallmark of this group of fish. Many species have a fatty fin.
Despite such features, catfish are very diverse. They are huge and tiny, peaceful and predatory, able to live in different conditions, parasitize, shock and even crawl over land.
Often catfish in the aquarium play the role of "orderlies" who pick up various residues from the bottom. However, do not expect that they will do all the dirty work for the aquarist. Picking up the remains of food from the bottom of the aquarium catfish raise a terrible slime. Therefore, a powerful filter is required in the aquarium.
Buying catfish should be aware that you will not constantly admire his cute attractive face. Many of them are nocturnal and during the day hiding behind snags and in other shelters. The only exception is speckled catfish.
Also catfish mostly have a protective coloration and completely merge with the surrounding ground.
Many fish of this group grow to very large sizes and are predators. Therefore, aquarists sometimes miss the small inhabitants of the aquarium: guppies or neons.
Somiks are molar and multiply quite simply.
Conditions of detention
In nature, these fish mostly live in fast flowing rivers. Therefore, catfish in an aquarium need a flow of water through aeration and filtration. They are also demanding for water quality, but do not tolerate the replacement of its large volume.
They require a large number of shelters, otherwise they will fight.
It is easy to feed catfish, they eat any food, including ice cream, flakes and pills. As food can perceive fry and small fish.
Choosing catfish, you need to pay attention to their appearance. If the color of the fish is juicy, and the skin and fins are not damaged, then this is a young and healthy specimen. Young fish should be no more than 5 cm in length. And at the aquarium you need to buy at least six catfish.
Before launching to all the fish, catfish should be quarantined for five days.
The acidity of water for them does not play a special role, if only it was not salty. Reinforced aeration is not necessary for them either. Enough general conditions of the fish.
Somiki love algae, but they should not be too much, enough 5-6 branches per 50 liters of water.
One of the most popular aquarium species is catfish antsistrus, which is 15 cm long. They are most active in the evening or with a sharp decrease in atmospheric pressure. The rest of the time they sit in caves or between stones.
On the body, ancytrus wears rows of wide bony plates. Coloring has from light gray with a yellowish shade to dark gray and black with a light specks. Over time, may "turn pale." The mouth of the catfish Ancistrus has the appearance of a sucker with elongated lips. With this mouth he constantly "vacuums" the walls of the aquarium and the stones in search of small green algae. For this he is often called catfish stuck.
These are unpretentious fish and easily adapt to any water with a temperature of 17 to 30 degrees.
They feed on any dry and live food, like tender green algae growing on the glass of an aquarium. Also eat up leftover food. You can feed scalded nettle leaves, lettuce or cabbage - they are immersed for one minute in boiling water.
These catfish, reproduction of which occurs independently, lay eggs in the general aquarium, somewhere in the gap or behind the filter. Mainly males take care of the offspring. The female lays a bunch of large bright orange eggs, and immediately after that, the male begins to incubate them, fan them with fins, regularly cleans the mouth and protects it from enemies and even from the female.
If the goal is breeding, then it is better for manufacturers to resettle into a separate aquarium without plants and soil, but with ceramic or bamboo tubes or suitable driftwood for laying eggs. Readiness for reproduction is determined by the degree of thickness of the female.
Catfish stuck usually spawns at night. It is better to sow the female immediately, leaving the male to nurse the offspring. The male is deposited after the larvae hatch. They are fed dry food for fry. They grow up to 11 months.
Ancistrus can be kept with almost any fish.
This is another popular type of aquarium catfish, growing to 16 cm. Two rows of bone plates go along the sides of the catfish tarakatum. On the wide head there are three pairs of whiskers, the male's pectoral fins are pointed and extended, the first ray of a reddish color. This cat has extra intestinal respiration and needs to float to the surface for air.
Tarakatuma are kept in the lower layers of water near the bottom, in the shade. They like to rummage in soft soil without damaging the plants. They are most active with the advent of twilight.
The aquarium containing the catfish tarakatum must be covered with a lid so that the fish do not jump out. For a pair of tarakatum need an aquarium of 100 liters.It should be a lot of shelters and thickets of aquarium plants.
They feed on dry and live food, finely chopped meat. Basically, they collect food from the bottom, raising deposits.
Somik tarakatum reaches its sexual maturity by 9 months. You can breed it in the general aquarium and in the spawning. To stimulate spawning, they raise the temperature by a couple of degrees in the aquarium and regularly replace water. For spawning, Tarakatum needs an imitation of a leaf floating on the surface. To do this, you can use a piece of foam not thicker than 2 cm and 15 by 7 cm in size. It is fixed to the surface of the water in the shaded corner of the aquarium with the help of a sucker. Under the “leaf” these catfish make a nest: the male builds it from foam, and the female glues the eggs. The male takes care of clutch and does not eat fry.
This representative of the aquarium world, perhaps the most common of somobraznyh. It has a high fin on its back, a pinkish-golden abdomen and a pale brown head, a back and fins with dark spots. Although there are albinos. This is a shellfish aquarium catfish with plates on the body.
Somik speckled (or corridor) in length grows no more than 7 cm. It is a peaceful fish, active even during the day and preferring to live in a flock. Therefore it is better to start at least six individuals.
They can be safely kept together with non-aggressive fish - discus, barbs, molly, tetras, danios, guppies, swordtails, dwarf cichlids, scalars, plecostomus, rasborami.
The conditions of keeping catfish speckled are not demanding. They can live in water from 2 to 35 degrees, but a comfortable temperature is 20-25 degrees. But they are sensitive to the salinity of the water, because they can not be treated with salt.
This is a real survivor among aquarium fish and with proper care it can live up to 15 years.
These fish are capable of intestinal respiration and they need to periodically float to the surface for atmospheric air.
As a soil, speckled prefers coarse sand or fine run-in pebbles. Along the side and rear walls need to plant broadleaf plants. Not interfere with floating vegetation, snags and various shelters. At the same time there should be enough space for swimming.
This catfish feeds on plants, alive (bloodworm, corelet, tubule) and combined food. Can eat up the remnants of food after other fish. Motley catfish love to dig in the ground in search of food, making the water in the aquarium muddy.
For spawning of corridor producers, they are deposited in a separate aquarium up to 50 liters. Can be without soil, but with a plant that is pressed a pebble. The water temperature should be about 18-22 degrees - it is its lowering that stimulates reproduction in this species of catfish. They will also like the addition of 50% of the volume of fresh water and the first morning rays of the sun.
In the spawning fish placed in the evening. On one female there should be 2-3 males. They are often fed live food.
The males first actively chase the female, then from one of the males, she picks up milt in a well-lit place on the milt glue the eggs. This process is repeated several times. So that breeding is more successful, spawning is repeated in 7-10 days.
Manufacturers are deposited immediately after spawning. After 5-6 days, fry appear, which are fed live dust, rotifers, small zooplankton. By the age of one month, the fry already reach 1 cm or more.
The fish stuck
Fish-stuck: underwater passenger
Among lovers of a ride on a freebie, fish-sticky has become widely known. These not very large fish, from 30 to 90 centimeters in length, are equipped with a suction cup. They have it on the crown, occasionally grabbing the front part of the back. The sucker is formed by the first dorsal fin. His rays turned into plates. They are from 10 to 30, and they are located across the head. Outside the suction cup is surrounded by soft tissues.
In order to cling to the vehicle, the "hare" snuggles tightly against it and then slightly rotates the suction plates, which increases the size of the cavity between the vehicle and the adhering one, a vacuum appears in it and reliably holds the "hare" on the deck of the underwater ship.
They live in the tropics, and each species prefers to use a certain transport. Some like sharks, others whales, some prefer large skates, but live with them in the gill cavities. These stickings cannot exist without vehicles. Large ordinary sticky lead a more independent life and do not show attachments to any kind of vehicles. They often travel on large fish, sea turtles, stick to boats or ships. They are used as fishermen of the domesticated "hare" firmly tied by the tail to a strong tench - a thin rope and are sent with him to the sea in search of sharks, coryphenes and other large prey.
Finding something suitable, the "hare" is released, and he immediately clings to the intended victim. If it is small, no more than 30 kilograms, the sticky is pulled into the boat by the tail along with the loot. For a big game a swimmer has to go down to tie it up with a rope. With the help of the sticking they catch even dugongs and large sea turtles. Approximately one hundred more species of fish, united in an independent family of suckers, use suckers. These are mostly small fish. They are so tiny that a 30 cm long sucker is called gigantic. And the smallest sucker does not exceed 16 millimeters in length. The suction disc is on their chest. Fish swim badly, but suckers are used only so that they are not carried away by the current.
There are sticking fish at the bottom at shallow depths, but they never get into the net: first, they are small, and second, they spend most of their lives clinging to stones, mollusk shells or to underwater plants. In the Black Sea there are three types of suckers: spotty, monochrome and thick, having a length of 5, 8 and 10 centimeters, respectively.
What kind of little fish are constantly swimming with sharks?
The pilot fish is a companion of sharks.
The pilot (lat. Naucrates ductor) is a sea fish from the prickly-furred bony, from the family Carangidae (the family of horse mackerel).
Body length up to 60 cm. On the caudal stem there are keels of thickened scales; The first dorsal fin consists of three low spines.
Body color is bluish-white with 5-7 dark blue wide transverse stripes. Almost always occurs with sharks, which is explained in two ways: either the pilot eats sharks' feces, or the remnants of their food. It lives in all tropical and subtropical seas; in summer it sometimes reaches moderate waters. Makes distant migrations. It feeds on small fish, crustaceans, etc. Spawns in the open sea.
The two bony fishes — the sticking fish and the pilot — are closely associated with many types of Selachians (Selachia (Selachii)), a group of fish characterized by the presence of several rows of valves in the arterial cone, a spiral fold in the gut, and the presence of cloaca. chimeras
A large shark often swims surrounded by a whole suite of fishes picking up its leftovers. The sharks, apparently, do not touch these lovers to live on someone else's account - they also stuck to the pilot fish, although they do not do anything to achieve such "personal immunity." The coexistence of a shark and its companions is called commensalism, and they are called commensals (literally - companions).
Pilot fish, striped, like a zebra, a small shark comradescent, has no kinship with either the sticky one or the shark itself. They were called pilots of pilots because when the shark approaches the prey, they rush forward, as if pointing the way. This habit of theirs served as a source of stories about how a tiny pilot fish leads a huge shark, like the dog of its blind master.
The shark does not need a guide, but the pilot fish, of course, does not need a shark, then, in any case, uses it. Like a stick, it feeds on scraps from a shark table. But. she has no devices with which she could attach to a shark. Instead, the pilot fish - usually there are several of them with each shark - swims ahead of the shark, often a few centimeters from its mouth, apparently carried along by the flow of water produced by the movement of this large fish, or takes place at its pectoral fins.
When the shark falls on a hook or into a net, the pilot fish immediately rush away, and begin to look for a new "mistress" for themselves. True, not always. It was noted that although the pilot fish left their “shark” for a short time in order to grab a piece of food, they immediately, according to one scientist, “rush back like children who are afraid of losing their babysitter!” When a shark caught on a hook begins to pull out waters, pilots fish swim excitedly around her body, as if in alarm that they are losing their big and generous protector.
A fish sucker appears after the fish sticks out of the egg, from the first dorsal fin (its rays, when uncoupled, turn into transverse plates, which we have just mentioned).
When the length of the fingerling fish fry exceeds a centimeter, a narrow groove is already visible behind the fish’s head. Under the microscope, transverse stripes — the rudiments of plates — are visible in it.
Fry grows fish sticky, gradually moves forward and its transformed dorsal fin. In the two-centimeter fish sticking it is above the eyes, and in the four-centimeter fish the adder suction cup is already functioning well.
After that, the sticking fish appear unusual habits: the fish stuck lazy now to move under its own power, and prefers to swim free passenger, clinging to the belly of a shark, tarpon, barracuda and other large and small, when there are no large fish. Crawling around the fish stuck even on such "children's avtomobilchikah", as body-fish and puffer fish. Sea turtles, whales, boats and ships often serve as transport for fish.