Fishes

Catfish

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Aquarium fish: catfish

Representatives of the family of somobods inhabit fresh water all over the planet, and are quite rare in the seas. A distinctive feature of the catfish is the lack of scales, although nature has taken care of some species, having presented them with armor or bony plates. In total, there are about 30 families of catfish and about 2,000 species, 800 of them are lovers of domestic fish who successfully maintain and breed in an aquarium. In most catfish in aquariums, they prefer the lower and bottom layers of water, and also lead an active lifestyle in the twilight and dark time of the day.

Adult dwarf catfish reach 2 cm, and catfish giants - 5 m. Among the somobods there are aggressive and peaceful species, herbivores, predators and omnivores, poisonous, crawling over land, with electric organs, as well as possessing various other features of the whole bony group. .

Who lives in an aquarium?

Ring Catfish

Over the past 20 years, mail soms have acquired the greatest popularity in aquarism, and it is supported by new imported species of previously unexplored species. To eliminate confusion and convenience, the differences in their species began to be numbered in the order of appearance with the index L (from lat. Loricariidae - chain mail catfish).

Previously, the universal favorites were small, armored (from the Latin. Callichthyidae) soma, distinguished by their peaceful nature and diverse colors. This squad of soobraznyh must be kept in groups.

Many types of shellfish (catfish, catfish, shellfish), are amenable to simple in comparison with the chain mail breeding in the aquarium. Crabfish often lay their eggs on plants and other structures, after which they stop caring for them. The female mail catfish lays eggs in the grottoes, snags, pipes, burrows, hollows, where the clutch protects the male. In some species of mail catfish, until the appearance of fry, males wear spawn behind an enlarged lower lip.

Life expectancy in aquarium catfish of some species reaches 15 years. Depending on the conditions of maintenance and care, catfish in an aquarium live on average from 5 to 10 years.

Bastard catfish

For novice aquarists, the main thing to remember is that catfish are not eaters of garbage and waste, they are not scavengers. They, like other aquarium dwellers, need care. Special food, soft soil in the aquarium, places where you can hide from the bright light, the necessary water parameters will provide aquarium catfish comfortable living and breeding conditions.

Somics: care and maintenance

Before releasing acquired catfish into the aquarium, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors affecting their livelihoods:

  • soil at the bottom of the aquarium;
  • water parameters;
  • the presence of vegetation;
  • shelters and scenery;
  • compatibility with other types of fish.

What should be an aquarium?

Aquarium soil is part of the decor of any aquarium. It is worth knowing that many members of this family love to dig in the ground for food residues, young shoots of plants. Therefore, if the soil fraction is 3-5 mm, then a large amount of bottom mud will be formed, which can be removed using a powerful filter.

Constant digging in the ground of 8-10 m, leads to an audible rustling. Small soma 5-6 cm in size move stones and pebbles of medium size, as well as light purchased structures. It is better not to lay coarse gravel on the bottom of the aquarium, since some types of catfish can damage the soft and delicate tissues of the belly and antennae, which leads to infection. And damage to the antennae threatens the loss of taste buds.

For keeping catfish in an aquarium, ordinary fresh water with a temperature of 18 to 26 ° C and hardness of 6-12 ° will do. Acidity should be neutral, with possible small deviations.

Registration of a reservoir for somik

Plants are mainly artificial. A good root system will ensure survival of living plants in a catfish aquarium. Suitable vegetation such as cryptocaryn or ehindorus.

Somiki prefer a secluded lifestyle, with a muffled light. In order for them to feel comfortable, they need shelters, roots of grapes, stones, where they could lead a solitary life, have a rest or sleep, and also snags, which are a source of edible cellulose.

If there is a bright light, catfish can not be seen at all, they will constantly hide in the thickets of plants or snags.

If you make an aquarium without shelters, then the catfish will be uncomfortable and their life expectancy will decrease dramatically.

Livable with other fish

Somoobraznye mostly peaceful, with neighbors do not conflict, but can sort out the relationship between themselves. In this case, it is extremely rare for a stronger and more powerful catfish to kill his relative. Choosing catfish for an aquarium, you must take into account the mores of other inhabitants. If the rest of the fish are not large, then herbivorous catfish species are best suited. If the neighbors are aggressive and large, the new inhabitants of the aquarium should be powerful so that they can stand up for themselves.

Somiks can be kept in the same aquarium with shrimps, except for obvious aggressive and predatory species, and the neighborhood of crayfish and crabs is best avoided.

How to feed?

Somiks are omnivores, and their main diet consists of bloodworms, corets, tubers, black bread, lean meat, cyclops, daphnia, and they also use dry food. To ensure good nutrition, you need to feed catfish Spirulina tablets for herbivorous fish.

Many representatives are happy to eat feed of plant origin. Only pronounced predators require special feeding. Somics eat rotten places on the snags, polishing them to shine. When choosing a hollow shell, you need to consider the growth of fish. It is necessary to provide them with space for a turn or the impossibility of being stuck in the hollow.

The presence of two or four pairs of whiskers, located near the mouth of the mouth, are a distinctive feature of all species of the catfish. Antennae are sensitive organs of taste that are used when searching for food. The presence of large whiskers and a wide mouth apparatus suggests the possibility of hunting the catfish for smaller fish.


Breeding catfish

For breeding catfish suitable aquarium from 30 to 70 liters - spawning. If a specific aquarium, then catfish can be bred right in it. Spawning equipped snags and plants. Lighting should be muted, twilight. Enhanced aquarium aeration is also provided.

Spawning can be generally without soil and plants, with natural light.

It is necessary to maintain the water temperature from 17 to 25 ° C, and it should be not acidic and clean. Two to three males are recommended per female, with several females in the tank for spawning, males should be 1.3–1.8 times larger.

To stimulate spawning produce:

  • changing the temperature regime in the aquarium, increasing or decreasing the temperature by 2-3 ° С per day, in the range from 17 to 25 ° С;
  • water change up to 50% of the total spawning volume within 2-3 days (once a day);
  • increase the aeration and perform air purging with air.

The composition of water in spawning is not much different from the main composition for permanent residence. The main thing is that the acidity is neutral. The most favorable for reproduction is water with a temperature of 18 to 20 ° C. For new spawning, the female becomes suitable in 7-10 days.

How is the pairing?

The courtship period lasts 7-10 days, while the male shows itself in all its glory from all sides. He tries to arouse the interest and curiosity of the female, circling around her and following her intently. When the female shows favor, she allows her mustaches to touch her, showing her readiness for reproduction of the species.

The male with its pectoral fins and body holds the female's antennae. At the same time, it produces eggs in its pelvic fins (folding them, forming a container for eggs) for 1-5 pcs. and at the same time picks up the male milt in the mouth, after which it chooses a place for spawning grounds (plant leaves, flat bottom stones, aquarium glass). A female catfish cleans a place for laying and cleans it, after which, smearing with milt, carefully spreads caviar. Large caviar, from 1 to 2 mm, single laying consists of 50 or more eggs (up to 200, depending on the size and type of fish).

Fry care

After spawning, somiki parents are deposited in a common aquarium, and the water temperature in the breeding ground is maintained at 19-21 ° C, while leaving natural light or slightly shading the spawning ground. 8-12 days after laying, the larvae emerge from the eggs and then eat the residual yolk sac of their former place of residence.

It is recommended to feed fry with infusoria or dry food for fry (specialized or regular, ground into dust). After 7-10 days, the diet can be expanded with artemia, nematode, or crushed other live food (bloodworms, pipemaker).

The adult coloring of the fry is formed after eight weeks and finishes its formation on the tenth, then it changes slightly in the process of life.

Catfish reach sexual maturity at the age of 8-12 months.

Due to the large number of species of catfish, many lovers assume that the conditions of detention for all catfish are the same, and the fish becomes the victim of improper care. Before acquiring somics it is extremely important to study the reference literature on the acquired species. Each of them needs individual care and maintenance, although in comparison with other representatives of the aquarium, they are unpretentious and undemanding.

Video: catfish share territory.

Ancistrus: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review of catfish suckers, adhesives



ANCISTRUS
catfish sucker stuck cleaner

Antsistrusy - this is the most popular catfish of the aquarium world! They are known and contain everything, both beginners and pros. Ancistrusy deserve such attention due to their qualities: they are referred to as "aquarium attendants", they are unpretentious in content, are uncommon in behavior, and, of course, the structure of the mouth-sucker markedly distinguishes them among many other som-like fish.

At the same time, these fish can hardly be called handsome! A strange mouth, some warty growths on the face, dark coloring, and, as a rule, they often hide in snags and grottoes ... like twilight! What is so attracted to aquariums around the world to these fish? I think the answer will give a full story about them! So, the Latin name: Ancistrus dolichopterus (Ancistrus ordinary); Russian name: Ancistrus, catfish stuck, catfish sucker, catfish cleaner, antsitrus;
Order, suborder, family: capes, cat-shaped, chain-mail or Loricariid catfish (Cypriniformes, Siluroidei, Loricariidae). Given the fact that many are confused in the classification of fish, and on the Internet you can often find unreliable information, it should be said that Loricaria and Mail - It is the same. The family of Mail Som in Latin will be Loricariidae - these are antsistrusy, pterigoplichty, loricaria, sturisomes, farlovellas, hypoptomes, ototsinklyusy and others. It is often written that the ancistrus is an armored soma, but this is not true. Crabfish Callichthyidae are corridors, dinemas, brochises, thoracatums, etc.
Comfortable water temperature: 20-28 ° С (for manufacturers 20-26 ° С);
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5 (for manufacturers up to 10 °, KN up to 2 °);
Stiffness dH: up to 20 ° (for manufacturers 6-7,3);
Aggressiveness: relatively non-aggressive (20%);
The complexity of the content of antsistrusov: easy;

Antsistrus compatibility: These catfish can be maintained with virtually all types of aquarium fish, in fact they are peaceful inhabitants of the aquarium bottom. However, to say that antsistrus absolutely harmless fish can not be! Yes, everywhere - in the articles of the Runet they write that these somas behave like "God's dandelions", but on aqua. The forums can often find information that antsistrusy chase fish, stick to them and even spoil the skin ... And it's true! Therefore, it is undesirable to keep them with slow and cumbersome fish, for example, with the family of Goldfish. Also, from personal experience, I can say that it is impossible to keep them with scaleless fish, for example, with bag-tailed catfish, such fish, antsistrusy can inflict serious wounds with their "passionate kisses." Not compatible with: large, aggressive and territorial cichlids, especially during the spawning period. Read more about fish compatibility. HERE!
How many live: with proper maintenance can live more than 7 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum volume of aquarium for antsistrusov: 80l is considered a normal aquarium for a pair of antsistrus, but many keep them in 50, and 30, and even 20l. aquariums. It is not correct, alas, in such conditions the fish will not live for a long time, it will “drain” and die. About how much you can keep fish in the X aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes). Requirements for care and maintenance: Antsistrusy unpretentious fish. Elementary adherence to the recommended parameters of water - the key to success in their content and even dilution. These catfish suckers do not need personal and excessive attention, the only desirable element in the aquarium should be shelters: grottoes, caves, and especially snags or hemp. Aeration, filtration, weekly water change for fresh - are required. In addition, in the aquarium it is desirable to set up correctly and sufficiently active flow of water, which will mimic the natural habitat of catfish.
Feeding and diet: Antsistrtsov, however, as well as other representatives of Loricaria are referred to phytophages, that is, to fish that feed on plant food. It is this feature of the catfish sucker that makes it an indispensable aquarium actor in the fight against algal fouling of the walls of the aquarium and decor. Due to its unique structure of the mouth, ancistrus scrape / scrape off any small plant formations. Thus, we can say that antsistrusy are unpretentious in the diet and can get food on their own. However, this does not mean that an aquarist should not feed them. The diet of antsistrus should be 70-80% vegetable feed and 20-30% protein foods. For complete feeding of catfish cleaners, you can buy special branded feed for loricarine catfish, as a rule, these are green tablets falling to the bottom. Also, many weekly feed their suckers with scalded fresh cucumber, lettuce, spinach, green peas, pumpkin and cabbage leaves. Some aquarists, especially for Ancistrus, abundantly decorate the aquarium with snags and stumps, the Ancistrus gladly “gnaw” the slick and constantly hang on them. And in the stumps, with good conditions of detention, they can even spontaneously and independently multiply.
Photo feeding antsistrusov

Feeding any aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, live: Ancistrus habitat is the central and northern part of South America. Their biotope - rivers and streams with a fast current, lakes of tropical forests, swamps and ditches, some species inhabit mountain streams.
Description of Ancistrus:
Body of catfish elongated, head and front of the body flattened. From the dorsal fin the body is covered with bone plates, except the abdomen.
Ancistrus mouth - These are suckers with horn-like scrapers, with which they scrape food from the surface.
Dorsal large, flag-shaped, often pressed fish to the body. Thoracic, ventral and dorsal fin wide.

Cultivation and reproduction of acystrus

Antsitrus, male and female in the photo and their laying in coconut shell It is not any difficulty. Often it, under optimal conditions, can occur independently in the general aquarium.
For purposeful breeding of steam, the producers will be deposited in a shallow spawning aquarium - 40 l., Or if the spawning is a large 100-150 l. You can plant one male and two females. The spawning incentive is frequent water changes, abundant feeding, an increase in the amount of protein, live food, and an increase in water temperature.
To distinguish a male from a female is easy! Males on the head and along the edges have branched, developed leathery processes - tentacles, in the people they are called "antennae". In females, the antennae are located only at the edges of the head, poorly developed or not at all.

Producers must be the same size or the female must be larger than the male. Cases of murder by the male of smaller females are noted !!!
The aquarium is equipped with pipes or long stumps, only in them the female will lay eggs !!! However, there have been cases when caviar is deposited in pots and just on a snag. Nevertheless, plastic pipes are considered to be the best spawning substrate.
Spawning aquarium is filtered and aerated.
After the female has laid a laying of 30-100 eggs in the tube, the male takes all the care of the offspring. He expels the female and during the entire incubation period of ripening caviar fanning her with fins, creating a stream of water and oxygen access to the clutch, besides the male removes dead eggs. It is not worth worrying the male during this period, otherwise he may eat caviar in a "panic". photo laying antsistrusov caviar

After about five days, little larvae emerge, which the caring male protects for a couple of days.


The hatched larvae hang and the actual does not move. They feed independently during this period - with the reserves of the yolk bladder, due to the exhaustion of which the larvae become fry and from this period they must be fed. The aquarists feed the fry differently, who gives spirulina, who pushes the branded loricarium pills, who immediately starts giving crushed cucumbers !!! The main thing in this matter is the small fraction of feed (dust) and the access of fry to it. see also Antsistrus breeding - Forum aquarists.
Interesting about antsistrusah:
- it is completely unknown why male suckers need “whiskers” on the face. Ichthyologists suggested that the mustache is an imitation of larvae and juveniles. Thus, the male shows the female, they say, see what kind of "I'm a good dad." It is noticed that females prefer males with large whiskers)))
- when launching antsistrus into a good herbalist, you should always remember that when there is a lack of vegetable food, catfish can begin to feed on the leaves of plants and damage them. For prof.travnika better to use otsinklyusov and Siamese algae.
- there are an insane number of species of Ancistrus, their classification is rather confused and complicated by the presence of breeding breeding forms. The most popular types of antsistrus are considered to be: gold, voilean (voilean leopard and other subspecies), red, dark, brown, pink, star-shaped, albino. But what only cost numbered L-catfish, their number is simply amazing.

There are a lot of varieties of antsistrusov! Below is a description of the most popular species of this loricaric catfish.


ANTSISTRUS VOAL


Catfish Ancistrus is one of the most common fish in tropical aquariums. You can watch for hours how this unusual sucker-fish moves along the walls of the aquarium in jumps, without missing stones, equipment, snags and plants on its way. The mouth of Ancistrus is equipped with horn-shaped scrapers, which allow to clean off plant formations on the previously mentioned objects. There are many varieties of this fish, differing in both the shape and color of the fish.
In this article we will focus on Antsistrus ordinary veil. Its name, this unrivaled view of the Acistrus, was due to the specific shape of the oblong fins and tail, which, when opened, resemble a transparent veil.
Latin name:
Ancistrus dolichopterus; Order, family: Loricariidae (Loricariidae), mail catfish;
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C;
"Acidity" Ph: about 7;
DGH stiffness: up to 20 °.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatibility of acustrus veil: gets on with a large number of tropical small fishes.
The minimum volume of aquarium for ancistrus veil: makes 50 liters.
Requirements for care and maintenance: necessary aeration and weekly water change.
Feeding and ration of voiletic acytrus: The main food of catfish is vegetable, but they will not disdain both dry food and ice cream. The diet can be varied with lettuce and cabbage (should be pre-cooked).
In nature, live: Manoas, Brazil. A more accurate habitat is the mountain rivers of South America, the Andes, Peru, and in the upper reaches of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. From these wonderful places, catfish were brought first to Europe, and then to Russia, the CIS countries.
Description of acustrus veil
Somiki of this variety Ancistrus are one of the smallest representatives of catfish in general, as a result, their sizes often do not exceed ten centimeters. The distinctive features of the males from females in common veral ancistrus are similar to those of the common Ancistrus, namely, the male is thinner and slimmer, and the females are thicker, especially during the spawning period, the round shape is well marked. On the head of males, numerous leathery processes can be observed, but females usually do not have them or they exist, but only at the edges of the head in small quantities. The content, reproduction and breeding of this type of antsistrus coincides with Ancistrus ordinary. FanFishka.ru thanks the author Supplements about voile ancistrus Argenty (Alexander) for providing material and cooperation!


The content of speckled catfish in the aquarium

The speckled catfish, or straw crustacean (Corydoras paleatus), is a fish of the class Lucheperye, belongs to the family Carapace Catfish. Quickly gained popularity among aquarists, for which he received another nickname - "catfish ordinary." Its habitat is the South American estuary of La Plata with its freshwater bodies of water. The corridor, or speckled catfish, is a calm and harmless fish that breeds easily and adapts quickly to home conditions. It first appeared in aquariums at the beginning of the twentieth century, although it was discovered in the middle of the 19th century. The first fry were bred in Parisian private aquariums in the 1870s.

A bit of history - during the expedition of Charles Darwin in 1830, the corridor was discovered in Argentine and Brazilian rivers. From Latin, the name of the fish literally translates as "ash helmet-leather".


Description

Corridor speckled is the most common catfish of the genus Corydoras. Its main competitors are catfish and a bronze corridor. These fish are small: males reach 6 cm, females - 7-2.5 cm in length. The body is light olive, it seems squat, as if blue-green or ash plates sparkle on it. Intersperses that are unique to each catfish are scattered along the length of the body. At the back and fins color pale brown shade with spots, the abdomen has a golden color. Males are distinguished by a sharp, triangular dorsal fin, females - a rounded fin. On the upper jaw there are two antennae, with the help of which the speckled catfish finds food at the bottom of the reservoir. There are pointed spikes on the fins that prevent potential predators from swallowing it. When transplanting, use a special net made of thick fabric so that it does not get tangled in the threads.

Look at catfish looking for food in the ground.

Fishes living in the wild environment have a brighter color and a different variation of spots than aquarian species. Active at night, although they appear during the day. They live in flocks, from 6 to 15 years old, in an aquarium - from 3 to 5 years, depending on the acidity and water temperature. High to shortens the life of the corridor.

More speckled catfish make an unusual sound when their pectoral fins move. Most often, the "noise" fish during spawning, or at the time of fright.

Speckled catfish are adapted to swallowing atmospheric air. Rising to the surface of the water, they capture a portion of air, which later dissolves in the intestine. If this happens often, it is better to check the aeration of the aquarium, it is likely that the fish do not have enough dissolved oxygen.

Conditions of detention

The maintenance of the corridor and their care is not difficult. It can adapt to large and small aquariums, where there is a company of the same catfish. His neighbors in the home can be such fish as barbs, kilfish, danios, dwarf cichlids and tetras, live-bearers, guppies, neons, swordtails (floating in the middle and upper water layers). The speckled catfish feels comfortable in cool water, so the warm-water inhabitants of the underwater world will not take root with it. Do not tolerate the neighborhood with a large and aggressive fish, which is not averse to hunt him.


The speckled catfish lives in the lower layers of water, at the bottom. The content assumes the presence of fine soil, sand or dark-colored gravel. In the aquarium, you can put live or artificial vegetation, floating plants and snags, which would scatter the light and provide good shelter.

Care of the corridor implies a constant temperature regime. Corydoras paleatus are cold-loving fish, the optimum temperature for which is 22-25 ° C, so the water should be cooled in summer. They can tolerate water hardness above pH 7.0, although soft water is preferable, with low acidity up to 10Gh. Requires moderate aeration of the aquarium. These fish do not like frequent replacement of water, once a week is enough. For 3-4 individuals the capacity of the aquarium is 25 liters and more.

Due to an excess of salts and nitrates in the water, food rotting at the bottom of the aquarium, temperature changes, speckled catfish can get sick. The main condition - a regular change of fluid for fresh, cleaning the bottom of the aquarium. If you notice a sick catfish, immediately remove it from the general aquarium, temporarily moving it to another, isolating it from healthy fish.

Look at spawning speckled catfish.

Feeding

Catfish mottled is picky in feeding. They eat both live food and special pills, dry food, pellets, bloodworm and tubule. Eat at the bottom of the aquarium, so you need to carefully monitor that there were enough pieces of food. Sinking pieces - perfect. Floating on the surface of the water leftover food will pick up other species of fish, so when choosing food you need to focus on its weight.

Breeding tips

Catfish breeding can produce more than 200 large, white-transparent eggs with a diameter of 1-3 mm. The incubation period is from 4 to 12 days, which depends on the water temperature. Breeding requires a spawning aquarium of at least 10 liters. 2-3 males should be settled on one female. In order for reproduction to begin, it is necessary to replace 30% of the water by 2-3 ° cooler than the previous one (imitating the natural rainy season), increase aeration, put the aquarium in a sunny place. Producers to feed live protein feed: pipemaker, bloodworm, artemia, daphnia. When the female becomes thicker, and her belly becomes red, this is a clear indicator of readiness for spawning, in this case breeding is possible.

Breeding occurs in several stages: the male plays with the female, stimulating it on the sides with the help of the antennae. When the male releases milt, the female swallows them, and after passing through the intestines, they are released on the calf in the pelvic fin area. Spawning lasts more than an hour, in order to avoid eating eggs, parents are immediately transferred from spawning to another aquarium. Caviar ripens almost a week; the warmer the water, the faster this happens. Fry that have appeared to the world should be fed with Artemia larvae, Cyclops, microworms, ground to feed dust. Water should also be replaced and maintain a clean aquarium.


The speckled catfish is an amazing ornamental fish. Breeding, breeding and care for him - a fairly simple matter, which does not require specialized knowledge in aquarium. Such cute and attractive creatures will decorate the aquarium with a new life, bringing with them a drop of exotic South American rivers.

Aquarium fish somiki: antsitrusy, brohisy, armor

Somiki are interesting, beautiful and useful inhabitants of a home aquarium. Kallichtovye species impose order: dig the ground, move buildings, helping the owner to create a unique design. Kolchuzhnye - remove young algae from the walls of the aquarium, plants, snags and buildings. The variety of color and dissimilarity with other inhabitants made them the favorites of aquarists.

Aquarium cleaners: catfish suckers

Description of the type and recommendations on the content

The most popular are catfish with suckers of two types - antsitrus ordinary and antsitrus blue. These species belong to the chain catfish, widespread in the Rio Negru river system and creeks of Brazil. The main difference is the absence of the swim bladder, the presence of the oral apparatus in the form of a sucker, and the greater number of rays of the dorsal fin (8-10 instead of 7-8 in most other species). Antsitrus ordinary reaches a length of up to 25 cm, and blue up to 15 cm. It is better to contain both species in pairs, that is, one male and one female. The recommended volume of a specific aquarium (for one pair of fish) for:

  • antsitrus ordinary - 80 l;
  • blue citrus - 60 l.

If an aquarium is common for antsitrus and fish of other species, then the volume should be increased by 20 liters for each species of catfish.

Temperature range of content for:

  • common ancytrus - from 24 to 29 ° C;
  • blue anticyrus - from 22 to 27 ° C.

Catering for antsitrusov

The basis of feeding of catfish-suckers are small-cell algae, which form on the walls of the aquarium and make up the design of an artificial reservoir. Thanks to their oral suction apparatus, fish effectively remove green shoots from various elements in the aquarium and plants, so they are acquired as cleaners. With a lack of feeding, they begin to eat the soft leaves of the plants, leaving gnawed holes in them.

The diet for the antitrus catfish should be selected as for herbivores. Tableted spirulina (most often used) is well suited, and can also be fed dry, live and frozen food. In the form of a delicacy, cucumber, cabbage, lettuce, an apple, a banana and many other vegetables and fruits are served with boiled water. When feeding with natural vegetables and fruits, the fish that are not fully eaten away from fish should be removed from the aquarium in 2-6 hours to prevent water damage.

Sex differences and reproduction of ancytrus

The main difference between a male and a female is:

  • the difference in size (the male is much larger, the common antsitrus can reach 10 cm);
  • males on snout have bristle-like growths, in females only the beginnings of such growths.

For successful and long-term maintenance, as well as dilution of ancytrus, soft water with a pH of 4.5-6 is required. In special shelters made of wood, clay or slate, coconut shells, the female lays up to 200 eggs. The male protects the clutch and the larvae that appear later until they begin to swim independently. You can feed the fry with nutritional pills or vegetable derivatives.

Somiki Brochies

By origin, the Brochises come from South America and represent the family of the Kalich. There are six species of Brochis. The most popular among aquarists have gained the following:

  • the britzki (the body is cast pink, the fins are red or light brown, the back is blue-green with a metallic sheen);
  • nosy (catfish with a sharp nose, the main color is greenish-gray, head is yellowish, the belly is pink);
  • emerald (brilliant, emerald green) has a golden-green metallic luster, the abdomen is light, beige-yellow, dorsal, adipose and caudal fins are brown.

Description of catfish

These catfish are peaceful, unpretentious and keep mostly in the bottom layers of water, looking for food at the bottom in the ground or in the bushes of plants. The most activity and playfulness is shown in twilight lighting.

The brochies have a volumetric head with three pairs of whiskers, an elongated mouth opening directed downward, which makes it possible to conveniently pick food from the bottom, a tall body, squeezed on the sides by two rows of bony plates. The adipose fin has a sharp spike. The main difference of this genus of catfish from other species of the family is a greater number of rays on the dorsal fin - in the emerald brochis 10-12, in the noses and Britzks - from 15 to 18 rays.

Conditions of detention

Somiki brochies are quite large, about 8 cm in size, and require a spacious aquarium. Specific aquarium should be at least 112 liters, and the total - from 240 liters. On the aquarium you need to put a cover to avoid jumping catfish. Brochies are schooling fish, and it is better to keep from 5 to 10 pieces, if there are less than five fish, then they will feel insecure and hide constantly in shelters.

Brochises spend all their time in search of food, digging at the bottom, which necessitates the presence of good filtration and selection of fine-grained, rounded soil in the aquarium.

Plants need to be chosen with a good root system and floating (create some shading in the aquarium).

The water temperature should be maintained at a level of from 24 to 26 ° C, with low softness, and also weekly replace up to 30% of the volume of the aquarium.

Good aeration and a small flow will be useful when setting up an aquarium.

Snags, large stones, grottoes or other shelters will be excellent shelters, without which brochises in an aquarium are uncomfortable.

Для кормления лучше использовать живые и замороженные корма: трубочник, мотыль и др. Brochises are very voracious and require abundant nutrition, but are not picky about food.

Sex differences and reproduction

Brochise females are much larger and rounder than males. Depending on the state of health and age, the female can lay between 300 and 600 eggs 1 mm in diameter. Caviar is deposited throughout the aquarium. The gestation period is five days, after which the larvae appear. Four days later, they begin to eat small live food.

The fry go through three distinct phases of development before they acquire their permanent emerald color. Initially, they are speckled with a reddish dorsal fin, then other color changes occur before the full formation of the color.

They become sexually mature between the ages of 1.5 and 2 years. In breeding is not the most simple, and in amateur aquariums spawn extremely rarely.

Features of the form

Of the features can be identified:

  • very close view of the corridors;
  • do not tolerate salting water;
  • when using intestinal respiration, the brochies rise to the surface and take in air, sometimes emerging with the whole body;
  • shy and irritable.

Armored Aquarium Catfish

Bronzer (dorade), armor or sidewalk catfish are a separate family of catfish, characterized by the presence of large bone plates that cover the entire body of the catfish, except for the abdominal area. A line of bone spikes stretches along the entire body, along the sides. Some fins also have hard bone rays. Also, this family is interesting for its ability to make different sounds, so that some species are called singing.

Description of scabby catfish

Broniaki live in the marshland of South America in the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. This family has about 100 species, and is represented by aquarium and fishing catfish with sizes from 5 to 120 cm. Large species grow very quickly, and aquariums become unsuitable for their maintenance. The most common are the following types of aquarium armor:

  • agamixis white-spotted;
  • Acantodoras stellate;
  • chocolate aktatadoras;
  • Ambleidoras Hankok;
  • Doras Eigenmann;
  • platydoras striped.

Content of armored catfish

The armors are nocturnal and, accordingly, do not like bright light. All day time they are trying to spend in shelters. To do this, the aquarium should be equipped with a grotto, snags or piles of large stones with abundant vegetation. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that catfish are growing, and there should be no impassable tubes or hollow stumps as shelters.

The soil should be selected from the rounded stones of different fractions, preferably dark in color, and also coarse river sand can be used.

Due to the fact that soma secrete a large amount of waste products, it is necessary to ensure good water filtration and weekly replace up to 25% of water (with tap water or specially filtered water).

In feeding, they are omnivores and readily eat live, frozen and dry food (worms, bloodworm, pipe strawberry, granulated and tableted food with various additives), and also successfully hunt snails. To avoid various incidents with other inhabitants of the aquarium, you need to remember that catfish eat those fish that can be swallowed with their mouthparts.

Popular types of armor

Platidoras striped: maintenance and care

Platidoras (Platidor, prickly, grumbling or singing catfish) - a peaceful fish that inhabits the upper reaches of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, is found in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Grumbling or singing they are called for the fact that they can make sounds in the water that allow them to find their own kind. Sounds are reproduced by the pectoral fins and the swim bladder.

Grumbling catfish can be in the aquarium either alone or in a group. The size of Platydoras reaches 27 cm and can live in an aquarium up to 20 years. Mostly they are nocturnal, but also interesting during the day, because they spend a lot of time in surveying the bottom. At night, they pose a danger to other species of fish, especially those smaller than 5 cm.

They eagerly eat dry, live and frozen food, but prefer protein foods, i.e. live food. In the first year of life, they turn the belly upside down and eat food from the surface or from the underside of the leaves of plants.

For the maintenance of platydoras prickly soft water with a temperature range from 23 to 29 ° C, with mandatory aeration and filtration, as well as a small flow, is suitable. The volume of the species aquarium should be at least 160 liters, and the total - 200 liters.

Gender differences and reproduction of Platydoras

Differences between male and female appear in body shape. The male is more graceful and slimmer, and his coloring is more pronounced. In danger, the female has a bright brown color that appears brightly, only a bright strip of bone spines remains in its color. Sexual maturity is reached at the age of one year.

In captivity, Platydoras breed very hard, usually due to the artificial introduction of hormones. Spawning should be a volume of about 100 liters with a temperature of from 25 to 29 ° C. The male builds a nest of plant leaves with a diameter of up to 10 cm. The female lays up to 1000 colorless eggs.

At a temperature of 25 ° C fry leave after 40-45 hours and the next two days eat the remains of the yolk sac. After 4-6 days, the youngsters successfully swim and move around in the aquarium, feeding on Artemia and rotifers. Growth of fry is fast, and at the age of 2 months they reach 4 cm.

Platidoras Features

  • prone to overeating (floats to the top by the belly);
  • when catching it is necessary to use a container made of glass or plastic (due to sharp thorns may be injured).

Agamixis white-washed: description and content

White-spotted agamix, speckled or star-shaped, singing and grumbling is a representative of the type of Agamixes, a family of armored ones. Lives in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru in slow-moving waters. Grumbling or singing soma - agamixes - make loud sounds with their pectoral fins and swim bladder, which makes it easier for them to find females during the mating season and congeners.

Secrecy in behavior and nightlife are the main characteristic features of this squad. It has a dark color and white specks on the body (for catfish under the age of 1 year, these specks glitter). In aquariums it grows up to 18 cm and is a long-liver (lives up to 20 years). For species content, a capacity of 120 liters is suitable, and for a general one, of 160 liters.

Water should be soft, temperature - from 24 to 29 ° C. When the content of singing catfish requires filtration and powerful aeration, and also a small flow will not be superfluous. Agamix can be kept alone or in a group.

Feeding is picky and can eat dry, frozen or live food with a high content of proteins.

Artificial shelters, snags and dense vegetation with twilight illumination will provide this catfish the necessary comfort for living. The content of the fish is simple and picky.

Gender differences and reproduction of agamix

Sexual maturity of this genus is reached at the age of 2-3 years. Females and males are very similar, but males are smaller and sleeker, while females have a shapeless large abdomen. Successful breeding of agamixes occurs in a 100 liter spawn, and hormonal stimulation should also be used. The female lays up to 1000 eggs of light green color with a diameter of from 1.2 to 1.5 mm. After 40 hours, the larvae exit. After two days, the fry begin to move independently around the aquarium. Starter feed is Artemia, rotifers and other feed corresponding to the oral apparatus.

Video story about the contents of ancistrus:

Aquarium sticky or catfish cleaners

Soma - suckers due to its exotic appearance and simplicity of the content are quite popular among aquarists. These catfish belong to the kolchuzhnyh family (Loricarii) capable of reaching a very impressive value even if they are kept in captivity. But at the same time these bright and unusual fish for other inhabitants of the aquarium do not represent any serious danger.

It's all about the special structure of their mouth, which nature has ideally adapted to scrape algae from leaves of aquatic plants or stones, and in aquariums - glasses and a variety of decorative elements. To say that catfish are vegetarians is hardly possible. Sticking with the content in the aquarium will not give up on animal food.

Features som - suckers

These fish, despite the large number of common features in the structure of the body, can vary considerably in size. The maximum length of some species is only a few centimeters, and the size of the others can exceed half a meter.

The mouth of the stick has a special structure. In essence, the mouth of the fish of this family is a sucker, equipped with a kind of "grater" that allows you to scrape algae from various surfaces. In this case, the head is quite large, and the muscles of the jaws are very well developed. Each catfish of this family has very dense scales on its body, which makes up the so-called “chainmail”. Not without reason, the second name of the family is mail somiki. As an additional defense against aggression, quite large spines developed on many kolchuzhnyh gills.

Somiks of this group are distinguished by a flattened body, a streamlined shape with a back. Fish have a flat belly and very well developed pectoral fins. It is they who allow loricarids to move quickly in rivers, even with a very fast current. At the same time, aquarium catfish of most species do not need to imitate a strong flow, which greatly simplifies the task of creating a comfortable habitat for them. It can be said that catfish using powerful pectoral fins are able to plan in powerful streams of water. The tail and dorsal fins are mainly used when moving directly along the bottom of the reservoir. It is worth noting that aquarium fish, in the absence of a strong current, use their sufficiently powerful tail to move in the water column.

Aquarium mail catfish, as well as representatives of other families of catfish, lead a bottom life. The presence of a sufficient number of aquatic plants, suitable soil type, snags and other varied shelters are necessary for these fish for a comfortable life and good health. These catfish tend to lead a night or twilight lifestyle. Almost all of them prefer clean water with sufficient filtration and aeration. It is difficult to talk more specifically about the conditions of keeping these soms in captivity, because each species has its own characteristics and preferences. The most common in captivity are catfish of this family: antsistrus, ototsinklyus, glyptopericht, sturisome.

Ancistrus

Ancistrus homeland - the central and northern parts of the South American continent. Its content is not difficult even for beginning aquarists. At the same time, the catfish has a very unusual appearance. In addition to simple antsistrus, aquarists are interested in star and black (dark) antsistrus. There are albino and voile forms. Catfish grown in the wild, can reach 15 cm in length. Aquarium specimens are noticeably smaller. To keep it you need an aquarium from 80 liters.

Acquiring antsistrusov, it is worth remembering that these fish love clean and quite oxygen-rich water. Flow in the aquarium, too, they like it. However, its absence does not cause discomfort in fish. The optimum water temperature is 22 - 26 ° C. But they painlessly endure a short-term decrease or increase in temperature.

Ancistrus feeds on fouling from almost all surfaces of the aquarium. And so many aquarists contain them as a kind of cleaner. But of course, their diet should also include complete feed for suckling fish. It is possible to diversify their diet and some vegetables and herbs. Lettuce, pumpkin, cabbage, cucumber are fine. It is important not to forget to remove the remnants of such food from the water in a timely manner. Otherwise, for ecological balance in an aquarium, this may become too serious an ordeal.

Ototsinklyus

Homeland of otsinklyusov South-Eastern Brazil. It is a rather small fish, not more than 5 cm long. Ototsinklyus live in flocks and fairly undemanding to the conditions of detention. There are about 20 species of these fish. Especially popular with aquarists enjoy: Arnoldi, Affinis, macrospilus, negros, which. Somiki have an elongated body, the color of the back is dark, the abdomen is light. The color of the fins is transparent. Like any other catfish, ozincluses have a mustache.
Look at the ozozinclus at work.

These creatures are very peaceful. So it’s easy to get along with any non-aggressive neighbors. For ottsinklyus fish clean water is very important. Strongly overgrown aquarium - their element. Eating a variety of fouling, they greatly contribute to cleaning the aquarium. For many fans, aquarium ototsinklyus is the best and most safe way for other fish to fight unwanted algae.

Despite the fact that the main feed of otzinclus is water fouling, it is sometimes necessary to feed and pamper the most common vegetables. For example, zucchini and cucumber is quite suitable for this purpose delicacy.

Glyptopericht

Brocade Glyptopericht in the wild is found only in the South American Amazon. This is a rather large fish that can grow up to 60 cm. Catfish glyptopericht can live for more than 10 years in suitable conditions.

The oral sucker glyptopericht is developed so much that it is extremely difficult for fish to be torn off from a smooth surface and not damaged. Antennae small, slightly thickened at the base, located at the mouth. Males are brighter and more slender. Their pectoral fins are equipped with spikes.

For maintenance of glyptopericht an aquarium of at least 200 liters is required. Such a decoration as a snag is necessary - a little bit of worn wood, the glyptopericht receives the cellulose that it needs so much in certain quantities. It is important not to forget that this catfish requires a weekly replacement of up to 50% of the water in the aquarium, since it lives only in clean water.

Look at a couple of glyptoperichts.

The diet of glyptopericht consists of 60% of vegetable feed. The remaining 40% - feed of animal origin. Leads nocturnal, so the feed is better to make the evening. The most balanced feed - special tablets for large bottom fish.

Sturisom

The Panamanian Sturisom is one of the most prominent members of the Loricarije family. This unusual catfish lives in nature in the waters of Colombia and Panama. The body of the fish is low. It is noticeably compressed from top to bottom and stretched in length. The head is equipped with a small process.

This sucker has rather large fins. The fins, like the sturismas' body, have a reddish-yellow hue. A darker brownish strip goes along the whole body. In this case, the belly has a silvery-white color. The male is distinguished by a more intense color, and his eyes are located much lower in comparison with the female.


These catfish are well adapted to life in captivity, even if individuals from the wild enter the aquarium. But this in recent decades happens infrequently. This catfish successfully spawns in the conditions of the aquarium.

Keeping a Panamanian Sturys is easy enough. The fish is able to adapt to water of any hardness. Only oxygen saturation is important. Therefore, aeration is a must. Water should be warm enough. From 24 to 30 ° C. Illumination these sticky prefer rather diffused.

Keep sturisome only in a fairly spacious aquarium. It is better if its volume is more than 250 liters, because it adheres can grow up to 20 cm. Catfish actively eats various algal fouling from any surfaces. But since a sturisome needs a lot of food, it’s not worth keeping fish in the same volume with it, with which it will compete for food resources. Not only special tableted foods can be included in the sturisome’s diet, but also cucumber, zucchini, fresh salad. She does not disdain and animal feed. Artemia, bloodworm, minced seafood or beef will be enjoyed by fish. This catfish in captivity may well live for 8 years or more.

Aquarium fish somiki: glass, shifters, Tarakatum

Glass catfish, catfish, and Tarakatum have become widespread. These representatives of the family somobraznyh are picky about the content and feeding, beautiful and elegant and very original in their habits. By this they attract the attention of both beginners and avid aquarists.

Ghosts aquarium

The genus of glass catfishes comes from Indochina, Sumatra, Fr. Sri Lanka and has 13 known species. The habitat of this species is fast-flowing water bodies, which during the rainy season spill over into fields where catfish lay eggs. Only one of the species reaches 80 cm, the rest - from 8 to 15 cm. Glass catfish is noted by lovers of aquarium catfish (lat siluridae).

Description and care of glass catfish

The view of glass soms is peaceful and active during the day, which has led to their high popularity among aquarium lovers. The fish is transparent, and the breeder can observe its skeleton and internal organs. Sides flattened, body elongated. На верхней части ротового аппарата расположена пара длинных усов. Спинной плавник очень маленький. При падении света под разными углами стеклянный сомик меняет свой отлив от голубоватого до золотистого.

Возраст стеклянного сома достигает 10 лет, а размер - до 8 см. Предпочитает мягкую воду с температурой от 23 до 27°С. Для создания оптимальных условий необходима мощная фильтрация и аэрация. Так как рыбка русловая, то предпочитает держаться в токе воды, в средних слоях, на течении. Glass catfish constantly float back and forth and often choose running water near the filter.

Specific aquarium should be at least 60 liters, for a total volume of 80 liters. You should also not forget about the weekly water change - up to 25%. Ghost catfish are schooling fish and they must be kept in an amount of not less than 6 pieces.

The diet includes frozen, live food, and if they get used to it, catfish eat dry supplements. Crustaceans, insect larvae and small worms will do.

Reproduction of glass

No explicit sexual signs. The female has a large size during spawning. In natural aquariums, glass catfish have not yet been able to propagate naturally. Sexual maturity of fish reaches the age of 1.5-2 years.

Before spawning, they increase the softness of the water, lower the temperature to 20 ° C and the water level, and also make a daily substitution up to 10%. Female hormonally stimulated, and she produces laying on plants in quantities of up to 200 eggs. Caviar development takes place from 5 to 7 days, after which the larvae appear, which after 2 days begin to move independently and feed on plankton.

In their natural environment, glass catfish breed in the rainy season. To stimulate masonry in the spawning add water from the watering can, simulating rain.

Soma shifters

Soma shifters, or synodontis - come from Africa and are representatives of the rivers Niger, Volta, White Nile, as well as lakes of Chad and Tanganyika. A characteristic feature of this squad is to turn the abdomen up to the top in a number of situations: when eating food, resting, or moving away from individuals pursuing them. The most widespread are two types of shifters - synodontis veil and synodontis mnogopyatnisty.

Appearance and features in the content

The flip-flops belong to the family of the fringed family of catfish. The bare catfish (missing shell, scales, bone plates, etc.) has strong dorsal and pectoral fins with prickly spikes. Three pairs of whiskers are used to search for food in the bottom layer. The color of the upper torso is gray-green in spots, the belly has a darker color. The peaceful and calm nature of the fish allows you to side with other aquarium species. Life expectancy is about 10 years. The size of a voile catfish shifter is up to 20 cm, and a multi-spotted one is up to 25 cm.

When keeping catfish floundering catfish, an aquarium should be equipped with shelters made of stones, snags, grottoes and plants with a good root system. In order for shifters to get air from the surface, it is necessary to leave on it a part of the space free from floating plants.

As for other somobrazny soil it is necessary to choose a medium-sized with well-rounded edges.

Water should be soft, in the temperature range from 22 to 27 ° C.

The volume of the species aquarium for Cidontes Voiley is 80 liters, and that of the multi-spotted one is 100 liters. For the general aquarium, the volume should be not less than 100 liters for the voile and 120 liters for the multi-spotted Sidontes. Due to the large size of the shifters, large groups of catfish can be kept only in bulk tanks.

Soma is eaten alive, frozen and dry food, as well as various additives in the form of tablets or granules.

According to the content, these types are undemanding.

Reproduction and sex differences of shifters

Females differ from males in a larger body. Males are distinguished by a highly isolated genital papilla, while in the female it is barely noticeable. Sexual maturity in changeover catfish occurs at the age of two years.

Synodontis voile in the aquarium has not yet been naturally diluted. In Eastern Europe, propagated by the use of hormonal stimulation. Fry are born with a complex pattern on the body, consisting of a thick interweaving of lines, which with age turn into solid spots. The female lays up to 1000 eggs, and after 5-7 days the larvae come out. After the appearance of the fry, the aquarium should be shaded, as young animals react extremely negatively to light. Eat and move begin after 4-8 days. Malkov need to feed a live, finely chopped pipemaker, bloodworms or plankton.

The many-spotted shifter is also called the cuckoo-catfish, because they carry eggs in the mouth, and then scare the cichlids away from their clutches, eat part of the eggs, and leave their own instead. And after 6-7 days of cichlids, instead of their own offspring, it finds small catfish.


Som Tarakatum

Tarakatum, or Hoplosternum thorakatum, or Hoplosternum ordinary - representative of freshwater fish of the family of crustacean catfish. Most often found in central and northern South America in the Amazon and Orinoco river basins, as well as other water bodies. Tarakatum is a popular and widespread catfish in Europe.

Description and conditions of the Tarakatum

The body of the hoplosterum is rounded, equipped with two rows of bone plates located vertically on the sides and converging approximately along the center line of the catfish's body. The head is large; there are four pairs of whiskers near the mouth, two of which are located on the lower part and are directed forward and down, and two are on the upper part of the jaw and are directed up and to the side. It is because of these whiskers that a cockroach is often called a cockroach. Back fin has a rounded shape. Color - dark brown, which brightens with age and is covered with dark small specks. The abdominal part is lighter, and the tail is distinguished by a black edging.

Life expectancy is about 5 years, while the size of the fish is up to 20 cm.

When equipping an aquarium you need to install shelters in the form of snags or a grotto. Tarakatumu like thickets of plants and low light. The soil should be rounded, excluding damage to the abdominal cavity and the lower pair of whiskers.

To the state and chemical composition of water tarakatum is undemanding. The temperature should be in the range of 22 to 26 ° C. The volume of a specific aquarium is at least 80 l, and the total volume is 120 l. It is recommended to replace water weekly to 20%.

Tarakatum eats any food as food: live, frozen, dry, in granules, in tablets. When eating dry food from the surface, catfish produces smacking sounds.

This type of catfish is well settled and accepts the existing feeding regime, in front of which it is noticeably activated.

Hoplosternum multiplication

Spawning at a tarakatum occurs up to three times a year. Males are a little more graceful than females and at this time their hard rays of pectoral fins sharply increase and brighten. The male picks up air on the surface and, releasing bubbles 3-4 mm in diameter under the leaves of plants, builds a nest. After its construction, made in half, the female lays eggs up to 1000, after which the male drives her away and continues construction until the end. Maturation occurs from 4 to 8 days, after which the larvae appear and after three days freely feed on artemia and move. The young growth quickly grows and gets an adult color. Puberty is about 12 months old.

A small video review of the contents of the catfish Tarakatum.

How many years will the catfish live in an aquarium?

Somiki are one of the most popular fish for keeping in an aquarium. The most common types of these fish can be easily purchased at almost any pet store. In total, science knows more than 2,000 species of cat-like animals, but hardly anyone can say exactly how many of them. They are among the most ancient fish on our planet. These fish are estimated to be around 70 million years old.

Among catfish, you can find really huge fish - more than 300 kg and several meters in length. And there are soma whose body size does not exceed 3 cm. It is the relatively small species of catfish, whose homeland is warm tropical water bodies and the cold waters of mountain streams, able to live in captivity as aquarium fish. Basically, catfish are inhabitants of freshwater bodies of water. But there are those that prefer brackish or salty water.

Appearance of som

For almost all types, the specific feature is the specific shape of the head - slightly flattened from above, with a rather wide mouth. Food som is very diverse. Some species specialize in hunting from shelters, others - on eating the remains of meals of large fish and searching for benthic animals, there are also those who eat only algae.

Catfish do not have scales per se. Their body is either completely devoid of it, or the scales in the course of evolution took on the form of rigid plates that protect against predators. This is the scale of aquarium corridor fish. Most types of catfish have whiskers. This is an important tool for finding food and orientation. Many species are able to breathe atmospheric air and have the ability to skin breathing.

Conditions of detention

Somics are usually representatives of relatively small species. Most of them are quite unpretentious in content and easily reproduce in captivity. These fish from those that any experienced breeder will advise a novice aquarist. But when acquiring such a pet, it is worth remembering that catfish are fish that prefer twilight or dark time of the day.

Suitable conditions for keeping these fish in an aquarium are not difficult to create. They are quite suitable temperature from 22 to 27 degrees. But the short-term temperature jumps most species endure quite well. Acidity is neutral, and water hardness is 2 - 12 °.

Look at how a pair of white-spotted agamixis looks for remnants of food at the bottom of the aquarium.

Life expectancy of various catfish

Many novice aquarists are interested in how much their pets will live. Depending on the type of fish and the conditions of keeping the optimum, these aquarium fish can live up to 8 years. However, it should be noted that large catfish in the wild often live up to 100 years or more. Aquarium catfish are very diverse. If you do not take into account the hybrid forms bred by amateurs, then in captivity today there can be about 800 species of these fish.

Kolomuzhny catfish, known under the name loricarium - one of the most unusual representatives of the catfish. Their second name comes from the ancient Roman name for the armor of the legionnaires "Lori ka". The bodies of fish of this family are covered with bony plates, fused together. Their favorite food is algae. Lower mouth, often - sucker. The most popular aquarium fish loricarium: antsistrusy, ottsinklyusy, loricaria, sturisome. Representatives of this family live long enough. For example, Antsistrus may well live in suitable conditions for up to 8 years.

Representatives of armor-clad or calligate are very popular with aquarists. Their body is covered with two rows of bone plates. Hence the name, because this "shell" is a good protection against predators. Catfish of this family are able to breathe atmospheric air. Males are usually slightly smaller than females. How long can these fish live? For example, corridors that are popular among aquarists live an average of 6-7 years. For aquarium fish it is quite a lot. Common representatives of the family are dyanema and tarakatum.

Representatives of the armored family are also frequent inhabitants of aquariums. Bone plates cover their body and head, creating the impression of a cut. These fish have three pairs of rather long antennae. Popular fish: agamixis white-spotted, platydoras striped. A rather large fish Plateidoras, for example, lives in captivity up to 15 years. In nature, it can live for more than 20 years.


Of great interest to aquarists are representatives of the family of fringed - catfish synodontis. How much can they live in an aquarium? From 5 to 15 years. According to some data, individuals in nature live more than 23 years.

See how star synodontists play.

Prized for bright color and catfish flathead or pymelody. The appearance of these fish to a certain extent resembles the African killer whales. These are fairly large fish. Often, only young individuals that have not yet reached their full size are contained in aquariums, for example, the weight-bearing sorubium. The question of how much these fish can live in an aquarium is not easy to answer. From 5 years and more. In nature, their life expectancy is quite high.

These are representatives of not all families of catfish that can be contained in an aquarium. To determine how long a fish will live, it is important to know the length of life in the wild and what conditions it prefers. By creating them you can be sure that the pet will be as comfortable as possible, and his life will be healthy and long.

Breeding

Somiki easily breed even in aquarium conditions. They are all short-term. For successful spawning, it is worthwhile to choose a spawner suitable for the volume and equip it according to the preferences of a particular species of fish. The only common rule for all somobraznyh - increased atmospheric pressure can adversely affect this process. Care of fry, as a rule, is not difficult, and specially created feed for young stock is quite suitable for the first months of fish life.

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