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Somics

Somiki are a very large group of aquarium fish. They are quite popular with aquarists and can be easily purchased at any pet store and markets. Somics have a special structure. Their bodies are bare, without scales or covered with bony plates. Several pairs of whiskers are the hallmark of this group of fish. Many species have a fatty fin.

Despite such features, catfish are very diverse. They are huge and tiny, peaceful and predatory, able to live in different conditions, parasitize, shock and even crawl over land.

Often catfish in the aquarium play the role of "orderlies" who pick up various residues from the bottom. However, do not expect that they will do all the dirty work for the aquarist. Picking up the remains of food from the bottom of the aquarium catfish raise a terrible slime. Therefore, a powerful filter is required in the aquarium.

Buying catfish should be aware that you will not constantly admire his cute attractive face. Many of them are nocturnal and during the day hiding behind snags and in other shelters. The only exception is speckled catfish.

Also catfish mostly have a protective coloration and completely merge with the surrounding ground.

Many fish of this group grow to very large sizes and are predators. Therefore, aquarists sometimes miss the small inhabitants of the aquarium: guppies or neons.

Somiks are molar and multiply quite simply.

Conditions of detention

In nature, these fish mostly live in fast flowing rivers. Therefore, catfish in an aquarium need a flow of water through aeration and filtration. They are also demanding for water quality, but do not tolerate the replacement of its large volume.

They require a large number of shelters, otherwise they will fight.

It is easy to feed catfish, they eat any food, including ice cream, flakes and pills. As food can perceive fry and small fish.

Choosing catfish, you need to pay attention to their appearance. If the color of the fish is juicy, and the skin and fins are not damaged, then this is a young and healthy specimen. Young fish should be no more than 5 cm in length. And at the aquarium you need to buy at least six catfish.

Before launching to all the fish, catfish should be quarantined for five days.

The acidity of water for them does not play a special role, if only it was not salty. Reinforced aeration is not necessary for them either. Enough general conditions of the fish.

Somiki love algae, but they should not be too much, enough 5-6 branches per 50 liters of water.

Som antsistrus

catfish antsistrus

One of the most popular aquarium species is catfish antsistrus, which is 15 cm long. They are most active in the evening or with a sharp decrease in atmospheric pressure. The rest of the time they sit in caves or between stones.

On the body, ancytrus wears rows of wide bony plates. Coloring has from light gray with a yellowish shade to dark gray and black with a light specks. Over time, may "turn pale." The mouth of the catfish Ancistrus has the appearance of a sucker with elongated lips. With this mouth he constantly "vacuums" the walls of the aquarium and the stones in search of small green algae. For this he is often called catfish stuck.

These are unpretentious fish and easily adapt to any water with a temperature of 17 to 30 degrees.

They feed on any dry and live food, like tender green algae growing on the glass of an aquarium. Also eat up leftover food. You can feed scalded nettle leaves, lettuce or cabbage - they are immersed for one minute in boiling water.

These catfish, reproduction of which occurs independently, lay eggs in the general aquarium, somewhere in the gap or behind the filter. The offspring is mainly taken care of by males. The female lays a bunch of large bright orange eggs, and immediately after that, the male begins to incubate them, fan them with fins, regularly cleans it with its mouth and protects it from enemies and even from the female.

If the goal is breeding, then it is better for manufacturers to resettle into a separate aquarium without plants and soil, but with ceramic or bamboo tubes or suitable driftwood for laying eggs. Readiness for reproduction is determined by the degree of thickness of the female.

Catfish stuck usually spawns at night. It is better to sow the female immediately, leaving the male to nurse the offspring. The male is deposited after the larvae hatch. They are fed dry food for fry. They grow up to 11 months.

Ancistrus can be kept with almost any fish.

Som Tarakatum

catfish tarakatum

This is another popular type of aquarium catfish, growing to 16 cm. Two rows of bone plates go along the sides of the catfish tarakatum. On the wide head there are three pairs of whiskers, the male's pectoral fins are pointed and extended, the first ray of a reddish color. This cat has extra intestinal respiration and needs to float to the surface for air.

Tarakatuma are kept in the lower layers of water near the bottom, in the shade. They like to rummage in soft soil without damaging the plants. They are most active with the advent of twilight.

The aquarium containing the catfish tarakatum must be covered with a lid so that the fish do not jump out. For a pair of tarakatum need an aquarium of 100 liters. It should be a lot of shelters and thickets of aquarium plants.

They feed on dry and live food, finely chopped meat. Basically, they collect food from the bottom, raising deposits.

Somik tarakatum reaches its sexual maturity by 9 months. You can breed it in the general aquarium and in the spawning. To stimulate spawning, they raise the temperature by a couple of degrees in the aquarium and regularly replace water. For spawning, the Tarakatum needs an imitation of a leaf floating on the surface. To do this, you can use a piece of foam no thicker than 2 cm and a size of 15 by 7 cm. It is fixed with a sucker on the surface of the water in the shaded corner of the aquarium. Under the “leaf” these catfish make a nest: the male builds it from foam, and the female glues the eggs. The male takes care of clutch and does not eat fry.

Speckled catfish

speckled catfish

This representative of the aquarium world, perhaps the most common of somobraznyh. It has a high fin on its back, a pinkish-golden abdomen and a pale brown head, a back and fins with dark spots. Although there are albinos. This is a shellfish aquarium catfish with plates on the body.

Somik speckled (or corridor) in length grows no more than 7 cm. It is a peaceful fish, active even during the day and preferring to live in a flock. Therefore it is better to start at least six individuals.

They can be safely kept together with non-aggressive fish - discus, barbs, molly, tetras, danios, guppies, swordtails, dwarf cichlids, scalars, plecostomus, rasborami.

The conditions of keeping catfish speckled are not demanding. They can live in water from 2 to 35 degrees, but a comfortable temperature is 20-25 degrees. But they are sensitive to the salinity of the water, because they can not be treated with salt.

This is a real survivor among aquarium fish and with proper care it can live up to 15 years.

These fish are capable of intestinal respiration and they need to periodically float to the surface for atmospheric air.

As a soil, speckled prefers coarse sand or fine run-in pebbles. Along the side and rear walls need to plant broadleaf plants. Not interfere with floating vegetation, snags and various shelters. At the same time there should be enough space for swimming.

This catfish feeds on plants, alive (bloodworm, corelet, tubule) and combined food. Can eat up the remnants of food after other fish. Motley catfish love to dig in the ground in search of food, making the water in the aquarium muddy.

For spawning of corridor producers, they are deposited in a separate aquarium up to 50 liters. Can be without soil, but with a plant that is pressed a pebble. The water temperature should be about 18-22 degrees - it is its lowering that stimulates reproduction in this species of catfish. They will also like the addition of 50% of the volume of fresh water and the first morning rays of the sun.

In the spawning fish placed in the evening. On one female there should be 2-3 males. They are often fed live food.

The males first actively chase the female, then from one of the males, she picks up milt in a well-lit place on the milt glue the eggs. This process is repeated several times. So that breeding is more successful, spawning is repeated in 7-10 days.

Manufacturers are deposited immediately after spawning. After 5-6 days, fry appear, which are fed live dust, rotifers, small zooplankton. By the age of one month, the fry already reach 1 cm or more.

Aquarium fish somiki: antsitrusy, brohisy, armor

Somiki are interesting, beautiful and useful inhabitants of a home aquarium. Kallichtovye species impose order: dig the ground, move buildings, helping the owner to create a unique design. Kolchuzhnye - remove young algae from the walls of the aquarium, plants, snags and buildings. The variety of color and dissimilarity with other inhabitants made them the favorites of aquarists.

Aquarium cleaners: catfish suckers

Description of the type and recommendations on the content

The most popular are catfish with suckers of two types - antsitrus ordinary and antsitrus blue. These species belong to the chain catfish, widespread in the Rio Negru river system and creeks of Brazil. The main difference is the absence of the swim bladder, the presence of the oral apparatus in the form of a sucker, and the greater number of rays of the dorsal fin (8-10 instead of 7-8 in most other species). Antsitrus ordinary reaches a length of up to 25 cm, and blue up to 15 cm. It is better to contain both species in pairs, that is, one male and one female. The recommended volume of a specific aquarium (for one pair of fish) for:

  • antsitrus ordinary - 80 l;
  • blue citrus - 60 l.

If an aquarium is common for antsitrus and fish of other species, then the volume should be increased by 20 liters for each species of catfish.

Temperature range of content for:

  • common ancytrus - from 24 to 29 ° C;
  • blue anticyrus - from 22 to 27 ° C.

Catering for antsitrusov

The basis of feeding of catfish-suckers are small-cell algae, which form on the walls of the aquarium and make up the design of an artificial reservoir. Thanks to their oral suction apparatus, fish effectively remove green shoots from various elements in the aquarium and plants, so they are acquired as cleaners. With a lack of feeding, they begin to eat the soft leaves of the plants, leaving gnawed holes in them.

The diet for the antitrus catfish should be selected as for herbivores. Tableted spirulina (most often used) is well suited, and can also be fed dry, live and frozen food. In the form of a delicacy, cucumber, cabbage, lettuce, an apple, a banana and many other vegetables and fruits are served with boiled water. When feeding with natural vegetables and fruits, the fish that are not fully eaten away from fish should be removed from the aquarium in 2-6 hours to prevent water damage.

Sex differences and reproduction of ancytrus

The main difference between a male and a female is:

  • the difference in size (the male is much larger, the common antsitrus can reach 10 cm);
  • males on snout have bristle-like growths, in females only the beginnings of such growths.

For successful and long-term maintenance, as well as dilution of ancytrus, soft water with a pH of 4.5-6 is required. In special shelters made of wood, clay or slate, coconut shells, the female lays up to 200 eggs. The male protects the clutch and the larvae that appear later until they begin to swim independently. You can feed the fry with nutritional pills or vegetable derivatives.

Somiki Brochies

By origin, the Brochises come from South America and represent the family of the Kalich. There are six species of Brochis. The most popular among aquarists have gained the following:

  • the britzki (the body is cast pink, the fins are red or light brown, the back is blue-green with a metallic sheen);
  • nosy (catfish with a sharp nose, the main color is greenish-gray, head is yellowish, the belly is pink);
  • emerald (brilliant, emerald green) has a golden-green metallic luster, the abdomen is light, beige-yellow, dorsal, adipose and caudal fins are brown.

Description of catfish

These catfish are peaceful, unpretentious and keep mostly in the bottom layers of water, looking for food at the bottom in the ground or in the bushes of plants. The most activity and playfulness is shown in twilight lighting.

The brochies have a volumetric head with three pairs of whiskers, an elongated mouth opening directed downward, which makes it possible to conveniently pick food from the bottom, a tall body, squeezed on the sides by two rows of bony plates. The adipose fin has a sharp spike. The main difference of this genus of catfish from other species of the family is a greater number of rays on the dorsal fin - in the emerald brochis 10-12, in the noses and Britzks - from 15 to 18 rays.

Conditions of detention

Somiki brochies are quite large, about 8 cm in size, and require a spacious aquarium. Specific aquarium should be at least 112 liters, and the total - from 240 liters. On the aquarium you need to put a cover to avoid jumping catfish. Brochies are schooling fish, and it is better to keep from 5 to 10 pieces, if there are less than five fish, then they will feel insecure and hide constantly in shelters.

Brochises spend all their time in search of food, digging at the bottom, which necessitates the presence of good filtration and selection of fine-grained, rounded soil in the aquarium.

Plants need to be chosen with a good root system and floating (create some shading in the aquarium).

The water temperature should be maintained at a level of from 24 to 26 ° C, with low softness, and also weekly replace up to 30% of the volume of the aquarium.

Good aeration and a small flow will be useful when setting up an aquarium.

Snags, large stones, grottoes or other shelters will be excellent shelters, without which brochises in an aquarium are uncomfortable.

For feeding, it is better to use live and frozen food: a pipe maker, bloodworm, etc. Brochises are very voracious and require abundant nutrition, but not choosy in food.

Sex differences and reproduction

Brochise females are much larger and rounder than males. Depending on the state of health and age, the female can lay between 300 and 600 eggs 1 mm in diameter. Caviar is deposited throughout the aquarium. The gestation period is five days, after which the larvae appear. Four days later, they begin to eat small live food.

The fry go through three distinct phases of development before they acquire their permanent emerald color. Initially, they are speckled with a reddish dorsal fin, then other color changes occur before the full formation of the color.

They become sexually mature between the ages of 1.5 and 2 years. In breeding is not the most simple, and in amateur aquariums spawn extremely rarely.

Features of the form

Of the features can be identified:

  • very close view of the corridors;
  • do not tolerate salting water;
  • when using intestinal respiration, the brochies rise to the surface and take in air, sometimes emerging with the whole body;
  • shy and irritable.

Armored Aquarium Catfish

Bronzer (dorade), armor or sidewalk catfish are a separate family of catfish, characterized by the presence of large bone plates that cover the entire body of the catfish, except for the abdominal area. A line of bone spikes stretches along the entire body, along the sides. Some fins also have hard bone rays. Also, this family is interesting for its ability to make different sounds, so that some species are called singing.

Description of scabby catfish

Broniaki live in the marshland of South America in the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. This family has about 100 species, and is represented by aquarium and fishing catfish with sizes from 5 to 120 cm. Large species grow very quickly, and aquariums become unsuitable for their maintenance. The most common are the following types of aquarium armor:

  • agamixis white-spotted;
  • Acantodoras stellate;
  • chocolate aktatadoras;
  • Ambleidoras Hankoka;
  • Doras Eigenmann;
  • platydoras striped.

Content of armored catfish

The armors are nocturnal and, accordingly, do not like bright light. All day time they are trying to spend in shelters. To do this, the aquarium should be equipped with a grotto, snags or piles of large stones with abundant vegetation. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that catfish are growing, and there should be no impassable tubes or hollow stumps as shelters.

The soil should be selected from the rounded stones of different fractions, preferably dark in color, and also coarse river sand can be used.

Due to the fact that soma secrete a large amount of waste products, it is necessary to ensure good water filtration and weekly replace up to 25% of water (with tap water or specially filtered water).

В кормлении они всеядны и охотно поедают живой, замороженный и сухой корм (черви, мотыль, трубочник, гранулированный и таблетизированный корм с различными добавками), а также успешно охотятся на улиток. Чтобы избежать различных казусов с другими обитателями аквариума, нужно помнить, что сомики поедают тех рыбок, которых могут заглотить своим ротовым аппаратом.

Популярные виды броняков

Платидорас полосатый: содержание и уход

Platidoras (Platidor, prickly, grumbling or singing catfish) - a peaceful fish that inhabits the upper reaches of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, is found in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Grumbling or singing they are called for the fact that they can make sounds in the water that allow them to find their own kind. Sounds are reproduced by the pectoral fins and the swim bladder.

Grumbling catfish can be in the aquarium either alone or in a group. The size of Platydoras reaches 27 cm and can live in an aquarium up to 20 years. Mostly they are nocturnal, but also interesting during the day, because they spend a lot of time in surveying the bottom. At night, they pose a danger to other species of fish, especially those smaller than 5 cm.

They eagerly eat dry, live and frozen food, but prefer protein foods, i.e. live food. In the first year of life, they turn the belly upside down and eat food from the surface or from the underside of the leaves of plants.

For the maintenance of platydoras prickly soft water with a temperature range from 23 to 29 ° C, with mandatory aeration and filtration, as well as a small flow, is suitable. The volume of the species aquarium should be at least 160 liters, and the total - 200 liters.

Gender differences and reproduction of Platydoras

Differences between male and female appear in body shape. The male is more graceful and slimmer, and his coloring is more pronounced. In danger, the female has a bright brown color that appears brightly, only a bright strip of bone spines remains in its color. Sexual maturity is reached at the age of one year.

In captivity, Platydoras breed very hard, usually due to the artificial introduction of hormones. Spawning should be a volume of about 100 liters with a temperature of from 25 to 29 ° C. The male builds a nest of plant leaves with a diameter of up to 10 cm. The female lays up to 1000 colorless eggs.

At a temperature of 25 ° C fry leave after 40-45 hours and the next two days eat the remains of the yolk sac. After 4-6 days, the youngsters successfully swim and move around in the aquarium, feeding on Artemia and rotifers. Growth of fry is fast, and at the age of 2 months they reach 4 cm.

Platidoras Features

  • prone to overeating (floats to the top by the belly);
  • when catching it is necessary to use a container made of glass or plastic (due to sharp thorns may be injured).

Agamixis white-washed: description and content

White-spotted agamix, speckled or star-shaped, singing and grumbling is a representative of the type of Agamixes, a family of armored ones. Lives in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru in slow-moving waters. Grumbling or singing soma - agamixes - make loud sounds with their pectoral fins and swim bladder, which makes it easier for them to find females during the mating season and congeners.

Secrecy in behavior and nightlife are the main characteristic features of this squad. It has a dark color and white specks on the body (for catfish under the age of 1 year, these specks glitter). In aquariums it grows up to 18 cm and is a long-liver (lives up to 20 years). For species content, a capacity of 120 liters is suitable, and for a general one, of 160 liters.

Water should be soft, temperature - from 24 to 29 ° C. When the content of singing catfish requires filtration and powerful aeration, and also a small flow will not be superfluous. Agamix can be kept alone or in a group.

Feeding is picky and can eat dry, frozen or live food with a high content of proteins.

Artificial shelters, snags and dense vegetation with twilight illumination will provide this catfish the necessary comfort for living. The content of the fish is simple and picky.

Gender differences and reproduction of agamix

Sexual maturity of this genus is reached at the age of 2-3 years. Females and males are very similar, but males are smaller and sleeker, while females have a shapeless large abdomen. Successful breeding of agamixes occurs in a 100 liter spawn, and hormonal stimulation should also be used. The female lays up to 1000 eggs of light green color with a diameter of from 1.2 to 1.5 mm. After 40 hours, the larvae exit. After two days, the fry begin to move independently around the aquarium. Starter feed is Artemia, rotifers and other feed corresponding to the oral apparatus.

Video story about the contents of ancistrus:

Ancistrus: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review of catfish suckers, adhesives



ANCISTRUS
catfish sucker stuck cleaner

Antsistrusy - this is the most popular catfish of the aquarium world! They are known and contain everything, both beginners and pros. Ancistrusy deserve such attention due to their qualities: they are referred to as "aquarium attendants", they are unpretentious in content, are uncommon in behavior, and, of course, the structure of the mouth-sucker markedly distinguishes them among many other som-like fish.

At the same time, these fish can hardly be called handsome! A strange mouth, some warty growths on the face, dark coloring, and, as a rule, they often hide in snags and grottoes ... like twilight! What is so attracted to aquariums around the world to these fish? I think the answer will give a full story about them! So, the Latin name: Ancistrus dolichopterus (Ancistrus ordinary); Russian name: Ancistrus, catfish stuck, catfish sucker, catfish cleaner, antsitrus;
Order, suborder, family: capes, cat-shaped, chain-mail or Loricariid catfish (Cypriniformes, Siluroidei, Loricariidae). Given the fact that many are confused in the classification of fish, and on the Internet you can often find unreliable information, it should be said that Loricaria and Mail - It is the same. The family of Mail Som in Latin will be Loricariidae - these are antsistrusy, pterigoplichty, loricaria, sturisomes, farlovellas, hypoptomes, ototsinklyusy and others. It is often written that the ancistrus is an armored soma, but this is not true. Crabfish Callichthyidae are corridors, dinemas, brochises, thoracatums, etc.
Comfortable water temperature: 20-28 ° С (for manufacturers 20-26 ° С);
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5 (for manufacturers up to 10 °, KN up to 2 °);
Stiffness dH: up to 20 ° (for manufacturers 6-7,3);
Aggressiveness: relatively non-aggressive (20%);
The complexity of the content of antsistrusov: easy;

Antsistrus compatibility: These catfish can be maintained with virtually all types of aquarium fish, in fact they are peaceful inhabitants of the aquarium bottom. However, to say that antsistrus absolutely harmless fish can not be! Yes, everywhere - in the articles of the Runet they write that these somas behave like "God's dandelions", but on aqua. The forums can often find information that antsistrusy chase fish, stick to them and even spoil the skin ... And it's true! Therefore, it is undesirable to keep them with slow and cumbersome fish, for example, with the family of Goldfish. Also, from personal experience, I can say that it is impossible to keep them with scaleless fish, for example, with bag-tailed catfish, such fish, antsistrusy can inflict serious wounds with their "passionate kisses." Not compatible with: large, aggressive and territorial cichlids, especially during the spawning period. Read more about fish compatibility. HERE!
How many live: with proper maintenance can live more than 7 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum volume of aquarium for antsistrusov: 80l is considered a normal aquarium for a pair of antsistrus, but many keep them in 50, and 30, and even 20l. aquariums. It is not correct, alas, in such conditions the fish will not live for a long time, it will “drain” and die. About how much you can keep fish in the X aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes). Requirements for care and maintenance: Antsistrusy unpretentious fish. Elementary adherence to the recommended parameters of water - the key to success in their content and even dilution. These catfish suckers do not need personal and excessive attention, the only desirable element in the aquarium should be shelters: grottoes, caves, and especially snags or hemp. Aeration, filtration, weekly water change for fresh - are required. In addition, in the aquarium it is desirable to set up correctly and sufficiently active flow of water, which will mimic the natural habitat of catfish.
Feeding and diet: Antsistrtsov, however, as well as other representatives of Loricaria are referred to phytophages, that is, to fish that feed on plant food. It is this feature of the catfish sucker that makes it an indispensable aquarium actor in the fight against algal fouling of the walls of the aquarium and decor. Due to its unique structure of the mouth, ancistrus scrape / scrape off any small plant formations. Thus, we can say that antsistrusy are unpretentious in the diet and can get food on their own. However, this does not mean that an aquarist should not feed them. The diet of antsistrus should be 70-80% vegetable feed and 20-30% protein foods. For complete feeding of catfish cleaners, you can buy special branded feed for loricarine catfish, as a rule, these are green tablets falling to the bottom. Also, many weekly feed their suckers with scalded fresh cucumber, lettuce, spinach, green peas, pumpkin and cabbage leaves. Some aquarists, especially for Ancistrus, abundantly decorate the aquarium with snags and stumps, the Ancistrus gladly “gnaw” the slick and constantly hang on them. And in the stumps, with good conditions of detention, they can even spontaneously and independently multiply.
Photo feeding antsistrusov

Feeding any aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, live: Ancistrus habitat is the central and northern part of South America. Their biotope - rivers and streams with a fast current, lakes of tropical forests, swamps and ditches, some species inhabit mountain streams.
Description of Ancistrus:
Body of catfish elongated, head and front of the body flattened. From the dorsal fin the body is covered with bone plates, except the abdomen.
Ancistrus mouth - These are suckers with horn-like scrapers, with which they scrape food from the surface.
Dorsal large, flag-shaped, often pressed fish to the body. Thoracic, ventral and dorsal fin wide.

Cultivation and reproduction of acystrus

Antsitrus, male and female in the photo and their laying in coconut shell It is not any difficulty. Often it, under optimal conditions, can occur independently in the general aquarium.
For purposeful breeding of steam, the producers will be deposited in a shallow spawning aquarium - 40 l., Or if the spawning is a large 100-150 l. You can plant one male and two females. The spawning incentive is frequent water changes, abundant feeding, an increase in the amount of protein, live food, and an increase in water temperature.
To distinguish a male from a female is easy! Males on the head and along the edges have branched, developed leathery processes - tentacles, in the people they are called "antennae". In females, the antennae are located only at the edges of the head, poorly developed or not at all.

Producers must be the same size or the female must be larger than the male. Cases of murder by the male of smaller females are noted !!!
The aquarium is equipped with pipes or long stumps, only in them the female will lay eggs !!! However, there have been cases when caviar is deposited in pots and just on a snag. Nevertheless, plastic pipes are considered to be the best spawning substrate.
Spawning aquarium is filtered and aerated.
After the female has laid a laying of 30-100 eggs in the tube, the male takes all the care of the offspring. He expels the female and during the entire incubation period of ripening caviar fanning her with fins, creating a stream of water and oxygen access to the clutch, besides the male removes dead eggs. It is not worth worrying the male during this period, otherwise he may eat caviar in a "panic". photo laying antsistrusov caviar

After about five days, little larvae emerge, which the caring male protects for a couple of days.


The hatched larvae hang and the actual does not move. They feed independently during this period - with the reserves of the yolk bladder, due to the exhaustion of which the larvae become fry and from this period they must be fed. The aquarists feed the fry differently, who gives spirulina, who pushes the branded loricarium pills, who immediately starts giving crushed cucumbers !!! The main thing in this matter is the small fraction of feed (dust) and the access of fry to it. see also Antsistrus breeding - Forum aquarists.
Interesting about antsistrusah:
- it is completely unknown why male suckers need “whiskers” on the face. Ichthyologists suggested that the mustache is an imitation of larvae and juveniles. Thus, the male shows the female, they say, see what kind of "I'm a good dad." It is noticed that females prefer males with large whiskers)))
- when launching antsistrus into a good herbalist, you should always remember that when there is a lack of vegetable food, catfish can begin to feed on the leaves of plants and damage them. For prof.travnika better to use otsinklyusov and Siamese algae.
- there are an insane number of species of Ancistrus, their classification is rather confused and complicated by the presence of breeding breeding forms. The most popular types of antsistrus are considered to be: gold, voilean (voilean leopard and other subspecies), red, dark, brown, pink, star-shaped, albino. But what only cost numbered L-catfish, their number is simply amazing.

There are a lot of varieties of antsistrusov! Below is a description of the most popular species of this loricaric catfish.


ANTSISTRUS VOAL


Catfish Ancistrus is one of the most common fish in tropical aquariums. You can watch for hours how this unusual sucker-fish moves along the walls of the aquarium in jumps, without missing stones, equipment, snags and plants on its way. The mouth of Ancistrus is equipped with horn-shaped scrapers, which allow to clean off plant formations on the previously mentioned objects. There are many varieties of this fish, differing in both the shape and color of the fish.
In this article we will focus on Antsistrus ordinary veil. Its name, this unrivaled view of the Acistrus, was due to the specific shape of the oblong fins and tail, which, when opened, resemble a transparent veil.
Latin name:
Ancistrus dolichopterus; Order, family: Loricariidae (Loricariidae), mail catfish;
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C;
"Acidity" Ph: about 7;
DGH stiffness: up to 20 °.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 10%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatibility of acustrus veil: gets on with a large number of tropical small fishes.
The minimum volume of aquarium for ancistrus veil: makes 50 liters.
Requirements for care and maintenance: necessary aeration and weekly water change.
Feeding and ration of voiletic acytrus: The main food of catfish is vegetable, but they will not disdain both dry food and ice cream. The diet can be varied with lettuce and cabbage (should be pre-cooked).
In nature, live: Manoas, Brazil. A more accurate habitat is the mountain rivers of South America, the Andes, Peru, and in the upper reaches of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. From these wonderful places, catfish were brought first to Europe, and then to Russia, the CIS countries.
Description of acustrus veil
Somiki of this variety Ancistrus are one of the smallest representatives of catfish in general, as a result, their sizes often do not exceed ten centimeters. The distinctive features of the males from females in common veral ancistrus are similar to those of the common Ancistrus, namely, the male is thinner and slimmer, and the females are thicker, especially during the spawning period, the round shape is well marked. On the head of males, numerous leathery processes can be observed, but females usually do not have them or they exist, but only at the edges of the head in small quantities. The content, reproduction and breeding of this type of antsistrus coincides with Ancistrus ordinary. FanFishka.ru thanks the author Supplements about voile ancistrus Argenty (Alexander) for providing material and cooperation!


How many years will the catfish live in an aquarium?

Somiki are one of the most popular fish for keeping in an aquarium. The most common types of these fish can be easily purchased at almost any pet store. In total, science knows more than 2,000 species of cat-like animals, but hardly anyone can say exactly how many of them. They are among the most ancient fish on our planet. These fish are estimated to be around 70 million years old.

Among catfish, you can find really huge fish - more than 300 kg and several meters in length. And there are soma whose body size does not exceed 3 cm. It is the relatively small species of catfish, whose homeland is warm tropical water bodies and the cold waters of mountain streams, able to live in captivity as aquarium fish. Basically, catfish are inhabitants of freshwater bodies of water. But there are those that prefer brackish or salty water.

Appearance of som

For almost all types, the specific feature is the specific shape of the head - slightly flattened from above, with a rather wide mouth. Food som is very diverse. Some species specialize in hunting from shelters, others - on eating the remains of meals of large fish and searching for benthic animals, there are also those who eat only algae.

Catfish do not have scales per se. Their body is either completely devoid of it, or the scales in the course of evolution took on the form of rigid plates that protect against predators. This is the scale of aquarium corridor fish. Most types of catfish have whiskers. This is an important tool for finding food and orientation. Many species are able to breathe atmospheric air and have the ability to skin breathing.

Conditions of detention

Somics are usually representatives of relatively small species. Most of them are quite unpretentious in content and easily reproduce in captivity. These fish from those that any experienced breeder will advise a novice aquarist. But when acquiring such a pet, it is worth remembering that catfish are fish that prefer twilight or dark time of the day.

Suitable conditions for keeping these fish in an aquarium are not difficult to create. They are quite suitable temperature from 22 to 27 degrees. But the short-term temperature jumps most species endure quite well. Acidity is neutral, and water hardness is 2 - 12 °.

Look at how a pair of white-spotted agamixis looks for remnants of food at the bottom of the aquarium.

Life expectancy of various catfish

Many novice aquarists are interested in how much their pets will live. Depending on the type of fish and the conditions of keeping the optimum, these aquarium fish can live up to 8 years. However, it should be noted that large catfish in the wild often live up to 100 years or more. Aquarium catfish are very diverse. If you do not take into account the hybrid forms bred by amateurs, then in captivity today there can be about 800 species of these fish.

Kolomuzhny catfish, known under the name loricarium - one of the most unusual representatives of the catfish. Their second name comes from the ancient Roman name for the armor of the legionnaires "Lori ka". The bodies of fish of this family are covered with bony plates, fused together. Their favorite food is algae. Lower mouth, often - sucker. The most popular aquarium fish loricarium: antsistrusy, ottsinklyusy, loricaria, sturisome. Representatives of this family live long enough. For example, Antsistrus may well live in suitable conditions for up to 8 years.

Representatives of armor-clad or calligate are very popular with aquarists. Their body is covered with two rows of bone plates. Hence the name, because this "shell" is a good protection against predators. Catfish of this family are able to breathe atmospheric air. Males are usually slightly smaller than females. How long can these fish live? For example, corridors that are popular among aquarists live an average of 6-7 years. For aquarium fish it is quite a lot. Common representatives of the family are dyanema and tarakatum.

Representatives of the armored family are also frequent inhabitants of aquariums. Bone plates cover their body and head, creating the impression of a cut. These fish have three pairs of rather long antennae. Popular fish: agamixis white-spotted, platydoras striped. A rather large fish Plateidoras, for example, lives in captivity up to 15 years. In nature, it can live for more than 20 years.


Of great interest to aquarists are representatives of the family of fringed - catfish synodontis. How much can they live in an aquarium? From 5 to 15 years. According to some data, individuals in nature live more than 23 years.

See how star synodontists play.

Prized for bright color and catfish flathead or pymelody. The appearance of these fish to a certain extent resembles the African killer whales. These are fairly large fish. Often, only young individuals that have not yet reached their full size are contained in aquariums, for example, the weight-bearing sorubium. The question of how much these fish can live in an aquarium is not easy to answer. From 5 years and more. In nature, their life expectancy is quite high.

These are representatives of not all families of catfish that can be contained in an aquarium. To determine how long a fish will live, it is important to know the length of life in the wild and what conditions it prefers. By creating them you can be sure that the pet will be as comfortable as possible, and his life will be healthy and long.

Breeding

Somiki easily breed even in aquarium conditions. They are all short-term. For successful spawning, it is worthwhile to choose a spawner suitable for the volume and equip it according to the preferences of a particular species of fish. The only common rule for all somobraznyh - increased atmospheric pressure can adversely affect this process. Care of fry, as a rule, is not difficult, and specially created feed for young stock is quite suitable for the first months of fish life.

Catfish golden: content

Among the wide variety of ornamental fish there are many species, whose representatives are not distinguished by a high level of fish intelligence, but are sweet, funny, unpretentious. They are easy to maintain, they do not cause any particular trouble. All these definitions can be fully attributed to a calm and peaceful aquarium fish called "catfish golden."

Appearance and features

This fish is quite small, considering that it belongs to the family of catfish. Its usual length does not exceed 7 cm, and the females are slightly larger than the males.

Body the entire length is covered with bone shell, which consists of separate plates arranged in 2 rows.

Coloring shell light brown or pale yellow, which was the reason for the name of the species. However, there are catfish albino.

Housing animal short and tall; the abdomen is flat and light, the back is arched with a darker color. Both females and males can see a narrow green shiny strip on either side of the gills to the tail.

Fins medium sized, yellowish in color. In the male specimen, the dorsal fin is pointed, while in females it has a semicircular shape. The tail fin is relatively large, regular V-shaped.

A special feature is the presence of bone spines in the region of the dorsal fin, which the fish raises in moments of danger.

Similar spikes (only significantly shorter) are found on the thoracic region. Their appointment will be discussed below.

Head structure typical of som; the mouth is located in its lower part, on the edges of the mouth there are 2 pairs of whiskers, which are the organs of touch. Thanks to them, the fish confidently feels in complete darkness. The eyes are small with a yellow retina and a bright black pupil.

An important feature of the catfish is the ability to breathe air. The fish periodically jump to the surface and swallow air, which immediately enters the large intestine, and from there an additional supply of oxygen to the cells of the body takes place.

Habitat in nature and classification

Golden catfish lead pack life. Groups of these fish can be found in the river system of Venezuela (South America) and on the island of Trinidad. Thus, the range of their distribution is rather limited.

Fishes lead near the bottom in slow water; show activity in the dark, and during the day prefer to hide in shaded places.

These catfish feed on any available food: caviar of other fish, insect larvae, worm, snails. If there is not enough food in the water, they crawl out onto the mud flats with the help of their thoracic spines in search of affordable food. The Indians of South America have known this behavior of golden-colored armored fish for a long time.

At the end of the 19th century, the American ichthyologist Theodore Gill classified these fish, which classified them as a ray-finned fish, somobriform, family of armored soma (Callichthyidae), a genus of corridor (Corydoras aeneus). In the literature, you can find other names, for example: "volatile catfish", "bronze armor" or simply "corridor".


Content in an aquarium

Corydoras aeneus are so popular that some aquarists consider them to be a purely decorative look. There is no secret of such popularity: just these fish are quite livable with other aquarium inhabitants and do not require for themselves some exceptional conditions.

It is not recommended to start only one fish. No, nothing terrible, of course, will happen, but one individual will constantly be afraid of any change in the situation and hide in the underbrush or under the bog.

Water parameters are the most common:

  • pH balance is neutral (6.5-7.5);
  • medium hardness (not higher than 25 degrees);
  • temperature range from + 18 ° to + 24 ° Celsius.

Strong aeration in the aquarium is not necessary, since corridors are not experiencing a shortage of oxygen. The only thing to watch out for is the salt content. Her surplus catfish can not tolerate.

The soil can be used sandy or from small pebbles.

Soil plants should be selected such that they have a fairly strong root system (echinodorus or unpretentious hygrophil, for example). The fact is that catfish will necessarily dig the ground in search of food, and not all vegetation will survive in such conditions.

By the way, during the "excavation" of the soil, the turbidity and microscopic debris inevitably rise, therefore, it is not worth saving on the filtration system.

Water should always be clean. Bright lighting is not required. On the contrary, the bronze armor feels better in the twilight. However, the light is needed for the normal development of aquarium vegetation, so you need to pick up a certain light balance so that the fish do not irritate and at the same time prevent the degradation of plants.

In the aquarium, be sure to install the bottom elements of the decor: snags, grottoes, stone slides. Behind these shelters somiki will have a rest in the afternoon.

Compatibility

Golden catfish are schooling fish, and only in group keeping conditions can one be happy to observe their easy and understandable behavior. For 6-7 individuals it is recommended to equip an aquarium with a capacity of at least 70 liters.

If there is no other living creature, then it is better to use a low “jar” with an obligatory lid for keeping these cathobes. Do not forget that small golden catfish occasionally float to the surface.

As already noted, the golden catfish easily get along with many types of ornamental fish. It can be contained with guppies, tetras, danios, barbs, gourami, rasborami. That is, with living creatures that inhabit the middle and upper layers of water. It is not recommended to combine with cichlids, as their aggression will adversely affect the health of small catfish.

Nutrition

Corydoras aeneus is almost omnivorous. They eat all the food that sinks to the bottom of the aquarium, so you should not worry too much about the cleanliness of the soil. A normal diet may include live, frozen, dry food. Vegetable food is also given as an additive.

Among the branded feeds are recommended bottom (sinking) granules or flakes, such as Tetra Pleco (Germany), Ketfish (Russia), Pleko-Chips (Russia) and some others.

How is breeding

The mating period with subsequent spawning can be organized in the general aquarium, but it is better to do this in a separate spawning volume of up to 100 liters, if the group spawns, and up to 25 liters for pair reproduction. Before breeding, females are recommended to feed live protein feed.

Since spawning under natural conditions occurs during the rainy period, in order to stimulate it in the aquarium, it is necessary to change the water, lowering the temperature in the spawning pool by 3-5 degrees from the normal value.

During the mating game, the male becomes extremely active, he aggressively pursues the female. When individuals are ready to breed, they assume a position resembling the letter "T". The female, resting her head on the partner's belly, spawns, while the male releases milk at this time.

The female fertilizes the fertilized eggs with the help of fins to a prepared flat place. This happens several times until all the litter comes out (200-250 solid eggs).

Immediately after this, the parents are deposited, and after 4-5 days the larvae emerge from the eggs, which first feed on the contents of their own yolk sac. After another 2-3 days, you can switch to the usual starter feed for fry.

As the young grow, it is necessary to gradually transfer to normal food for catfish. In the first month, experts recommend daily water changes (10% of the total). It is believed that this measure contributes to the best development of young catfish.

Corydoras aeneus are unpretentious ornamental fish, so novice aquarists are quite able to cope with their content. In addition, the small golden corridors, with a calm disposition, are very funny and really beautiful.

PLATIDORAS CONTENTS DESCRIPTION BREEDING PHOTO COMPATIBILITY

PLATIDORAS DESCRIPTION

Habitat Striped catfish Platydoras (Platydoras armatulus) was first described by Valenciennes in 1840. The genus name "Platydoras" comes from two Greek words: platys = smooth, doras = skin. This species is widely distributed in South America. Individuals are found in the Amazon Basin in Peru, Bolivia and Brazil, as well as in some other Brazilian river basins, in the Rio Orinoco River Basin in Colombia and Venezuela, Rio Essequibo in Guyana, and in the coastal drains of Suriname and French Guiana. The species is not listed in the International Red Book.

For many years, Plateidoras was erroneously called Platydoras costatus, until in 2008 a group of researchers led by Piorsky did not classify. The species Platydoras costatus are individuals with a limited habitat, including a pair of rivers in eastern South America. In turn, the striped catfish Platidoras is distributed throughout South America, inhabits the Amazon and Orinoco river basins, and has been caught for sale for decades. This fish belongs to the catfish "Raphael".

There are also two very similar species with a striped color, but living in different places. This is Platydoras costatus and long-nosed plateidoras (Orinocodoras eigenmanni), which has a more elongated face. Another very common type of Raphael is the spotted catfish Agamyxis pectinifrons, which, judging by the name, has a spotted color. Platydoras armatulus lives in reservoirs with stagnant water or a weak current.

In streams and wetlands, individuals lurk among tree roots or aquatic vegetation. Somiki feed on shellfish, crustaceans and detritus. They are usually found in areas with soft sand, which are buried in case of danger. The rainy season causes them to migrate to flooded forests, where there is a lot of food.

Although these fish are territorial, in nature they gather in flocks for greater security. There is evidence that juveniles eat parasites and dead scales on the body of predatory fish, for example, Wolf and Tiger Fish Hoplias cf. Malabaricus. Platidoras fry are bright, striped and very similar to other species of fish-cleaners. Most likely, the striped color is a kind of signal for other fish that not the food approaches them, but the cleaner. The stripes fade with age, and perhaps that is why the desire to clean predators disappears.

Platidoras PHOTO

CONTENT AND CARE

Aquarium size

Counting the necessary space for the life of armored, you need to remember that they grow quite large. So the baby is half the size of a half finger in such a long time.

If, nevertheless, it is decided that the striped catfish settles in the aquarium, then it is necessary to provide a tank with a volume of 100-150 liters to its possession.

It is important to take into account that almost all catfish lead the bottom life, therefore, too high vessels with a small bottom area are not suitable for keeping these species of fish.

It is best to use a cover-equipped rectangular aquarium with a wall height of 35-60 cm and a similar width.

In addition to a large bottom area, such containers have another advantage - most aquarium plants feel good in them.

Water parameters

We can not say that the striped catfish aquarium fad, but there are quite strict requirements for water indicators.

  • the content of oxides of calcium and magnesium (hardness) - 6-15 ° dH;
  • pH (acidity) - 5-7 pH;
  • water temperature - 22-30 ° C.

The most comfortable habitat for catfish is a mild neutral environment without salts, warmed to 26-30 ° C.This is not surprising, because in their homeland in South America the rivers are filled by rains and melting mountain snow.

However, a huge part of tropical fish sold in Russia was bred and raised by domestic aquarists.

These individuals are better adapted to local realities, feel well in fairly tough and acidic water and are not afraid of short-term hypothermia.

But the presence of aeration, filtration and the creation of a small bottom stream will significantly improve the health of the fish. Do not forget to replace 25-30% of the water in the tank once a week.

Platidoras PHOTO

The composition of the soil and the design of the bottom

In his native element, Platidoras (striped catfish) is used to living on a soft bottom, hiding in the undergrowth, in clutches of muds, or among stones. In the aquarium it is necessary to try to create similar conditions, so the ground should be with a small structure. For this, a layer of small round gravel or sand will suit 5-10 cm.

The presence of abundant vegetation, snags and hidden places is also important. Som prefers to be at the very bottom, but often loves to swim around the aquarium, therefore, it is desirable to have floating dense plants, such as a hornet and an elodea.

Armor are twilight-nocturnal. Too bright lighting makes them unnerving, frightening and forcing them to seek shelter, in the role of which you can use ceramic tubes, pots, artificial caves and grottoes, large stones.

Food and nutrition

The striped catfish is an aquarium glutton that eats both animal feed and plant food.

Due to the tendency to overeating, it is necessary to constantly control the size of his tummy, and having noticed that he has greatly increased, do not feed the fish for a couple of days.

Feeding is done once a day, before turning off the light.

Platidoras eats the following sinking feeds with great pleasure:

  • live and frozen bloodworm, tube maker, enkhitreus, grindal, cortex, earthworms;
  • small pieces of meat and fish, caviar of other fish, various crustaceans;
  • special tableted, granulated feed, flakes;
  • pieces of zucchini and cucumbers, spinach, lettuce and seaweed.

It is important that the protein component of the diet was 3-4 times larger than the volume of vegetable components. In search of food, the striped catfish goes out after dusk and remains active all night. Fish feed picks up from the bottom or searches for it, loosening the soil, which helps to maintain cleanliness in the aquarium and improves substrate aeration.

Platidoras PHOTO

COMPATIBILITY

Compatible Catfish Platydoras

Raphael striped catfish peace-loving bottom dwellers. They are great for multi-species aquariums and are very friendly to their neighbors of medium and large sizes. However, small fish will be perceived as food. Due to the strong armor on the body, representatives of the species Platydoras armatulus are also settled with large aggressive fish.

As neighbors, South American and Central American cichlids, large tetras and other haracin, cyprinid, gourami and other anabontis, gambusian and other soma, which do not have a heightened sense of territoriality, are perfect. Soms can be kept alone or in a group.

With group maintenance, individuals will manifest territorial behavior, therefore clashes between members of the group are inevitable, but they will not cause any damage to each other. In consequence, they will even begin to share their shelters with each other. In the wild, Platydoras armatulus specimens congregate for protection. Males and females If you look at the fish from above, it is noticeable that mature females are thicker than males.

Reproduction

Reproduction of singing catfish In captivity, a striped catfish is bred very rarely. It is a spawning fish, but it is bred for sale by hormonal injections. There are only isolated cases of successful spawning in the aquarium, when the breeders found already swimming fry.

Also, a pair of successful breeding cases recorded in very large aquariums, but it turned out to be very difficult and very little information about the process. Whitebait catfish platydoros (© Joel Rahkonen) In the wild, Platidoras lay eggs for fertilization in rivers and streams. It is also known that smaller representatives of Bronyakovs are also called nest builders.

In the aquarium, they can collect various debris, or find places with leafy litter or pieces of wood and try to hide under them. Then another fish of the same species swallows the "nest", but even this will not be a fact of successful fertilization and subsequent reproduction.

video

Aquarium sticky or catfish cleaners

Soma - suckers due to its exotic appearance and simplicity of the content are quite popular among aquarists. These catfish belong to the kolchuzhnyh family (Loricarii) capable of reaching a very impressive value even if they are kept in captivity. But at the same time these bright and unusual fish for other inhabitants of the aquarium do not represent any serious danger.

It's all about the special structure of their mouth, which nature has ideally adapted to scrape algae from leaves of aquatic plants or stones, and in aquariums - glasses and a variety of decorative elements. To say that catfish are vegetarians is hardly possible. Sticking with the content in the aquarium will not give up on animal food.

Features som - suckers

These fish, despite the large number of common features in the structure of the body, can vary considerably in size. The maximum length of some species is only a few centimeters, and the size of the others can exceed half a meter.

The mouth of the stick has a special structure. In essence, the mouth of the fish of this family is a sucker, equipped with a kind of "grater" that allows you to scrape off the various surfaces of the algae. In this case, the head is quite large, and the muscles of the jaws are very well developed. Each catfish of this family has very dense scales on its body, which makes up the so-called “chainmail”. Not without reason, the second name of the family is mail somiki. As an additional defense against aggression, quite large spines developed on many kolchuzhnyh gills.

Somiks of this group are distinguished by a flattened body, a streamlined shape with a back. Fish have a flat belly and very well developed pectoral fins. It is they who allow loricarids to move quickly in rivers, even with a very fast current. At the same time, aquarium catfish of most species do not need to imitate a strong flow, which greatly simplifies the task of creating a comfortable habitat for them. It can be said that catfish using powerful pectoral fins are able to plan in powerful streams of water. The tail and dorsal fins are mainly used when moving directly along the bottom of the reservoir. It is worth noting that aquarium fish, in the absence of a strong current, use their sufficiently powerful tail to move in the water column.

Aquarium mail catfish, as well as representatives of other families of catfish, lead a bottom life. The presence of a sufficient number of aquatic plants, suitable soil type, snags and other varied shelters are necessary for these fish for a comfortable life and good health. These catfish tend to lead a night or twilight lifestyle. Almost all of them prefer clean water with sufficient filtration and aeration. It is difficult to talk more specifically about the conditions of keeping these soms in captivity, because each species has its own characteristics and preferences. The most common in captivity are catfish of this family: antsistrus, ototsinklyus, glyptopericht, sturisome.

Ancistrus

Ancistrus homeland - the central and northern parts of the South American continent. Its content is not difficult even for beginning aquarists. At the same time, the catfish has a very unusual appearance. In addition to simple antsistrus, aquarists are interested in star and black (dark) antsistrus. There are albino and voile forms. Catfish grown in the wild, can reach 15 cm in length. Aquarium specimens are noticeably smaller. To keep it you need an aquarium from 80 liters.

Acquiring antsistrusov, it is worth remembering that these fish love clean and quite oxygen-rich water. Flow in the aquarium, too, they like it. However, its absence does not cause discomfort in fish. The optimum water temperature is 22 - 26 ° C. But they painlessly endure a short-term decrease or increase in temperature.

Ancistrus feeds on fouling from almost all surfaces of the aquarium. And so many aquarists contain them as a kind of cleaner. But of course, their diet should also include complete feed for suckling fish. It is possible to diversify their diet and some vegetables and herbs. Lettuce, pumpkin, cabbage, cucumber are fine. It is important not to forget to remove the remnants of such food from the water in a timely manner. Otherwise, for ecological balance in an aquarium, this may become too serious an ordeal.

Ototsinklyus

Homeland of otsinklyusov South-Eastern Brazil. It is a rather small fish, not more than 5 cm long. Ototsinklyus live in flocks and fairly undemanding to the conditions of detention. There are about 20 species of these fish. Especially popular with aquarists enjoy: Arnoldi, Affinis, macrospilus, negros, which. Somiki have an elongated body, the color of the back is dark, the abdomen is light. The color of the fins is transparent. Like any other catfish, ozincluses have a mustache.
Look at the ozozinclus at work.

These creatures are very peaceful. So it’s easy to get along with any non-aggressive neighbors. For ottsinklyus fish clean water is very important. Strongly overgrown aquarium - their element. Eating a variety of fouling, they greatly contribute to cleaning the aquarium. For many fans, aquarium ototsinklyus is the best and most safe way for other fish to fight unwanted algae.

Despite the fact that the main feed of otzinclus is water fouling, it is sometimes necessary to feed and pamper the most common vegetables. For example, zucchini and cucumber is quite suitable for this purpose delicacy.

Glyptopericht

Brocade Glyptopericht in the wild is found only in the South American Amazon. This is a rather large fish that can grow up to 60 cm. Catfish glyptopericht can live for more than 10 years in suitable conditions.

The oral sucker glyptopericht is developed so much that it is extremely difficult for fish to be torn off from a smooth surface and not damaged. Antennae small, slightly thickened at the base, located at the mouth. Males are brighter and more slender. Their pectoral fins are equipped with spikes.

For maintenance of glyptopericht an aquarium of at least 200 liters is required. Such a decoration as a snag is necessary - a little bit of worn wood, the glyptopericht receives the cellulose that it needs so much in certain quantities. It is important not to forget that this catfish requires a weekly replacement of up to 50% of the water in the aquarium, since it lives only in clean water.

Look at a couple of glyptoperichts.

The diet of glyptopericht consists of 60% of vegetable feed. The remaining 40% - feed of animal origin. Leads nocturnal, so the feed is better to make the evening. The most balanced feed - special tablets for large bottom fish.

Sturisom

The Panamanian Sturisom is one of the most prominent members of the Loricarije family. This unusual catfish lives in nature in the waters of Colombia and Panama. The body of the fish is low. It is noticeably compressed from top to bottom and stretched in length. The head is equipped with a small process.

This sucker has rather large fins. The fins, like the sturismas' body, have a reddish-yellow hue. A darker brownish strip goes along the whole body. In this case, the belly has a silvery-white color. The male is distinguished by a more intense color, and his eyes are located much lower in comparison with the female.


These catfish are well adapted to life in captivity, even if individuals from the wild enter the aquarium. But this in recent decades happens infrequently. This catfish successfully spawns in the conditions of the aquarium.

Keeping a Panamanian Sturys is easy enough. The fish is able to adapt to water of any hardness. Only oxygen saturation is important. Therefore, aeration is a must. Water should be warm enough. From 24 to 30 ° C. Illumination these sticky prefer rather diffused.

Keep sturisome only in a fairly spacious aquarium. It is better if its volume is more than 250 liters, because it adheres can grow up to 20 cm. Catfish actively eats various algal fouling from any surfaces. But since a sturisome needs a lot of food, it’s not worth keeping fish in the same volume with it, with which it will compete for food resources. Not only special tableted foods can be included in the sturisome’s diet, but also cucumber, zucchini, fresh salad. She does not disdain and animal feed. Artemia, bloodworm, minced seafood or beef will be enjoyed by fish. This catfish in captivity may well live for 8 years or more.

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