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Gourami - aquarium fish: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review

SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION

Domain: Eukaryotes;

Kingdom: Animals;

Type of: Chord;

Class: Ray fish;

Squad: Perciformes;

Family: Macropod;

Rod: Trichogaster;

International scientific name: Trichogaster Blochet Schneider, 1801;

Other names: Gourami, Trichogaster, Colisa, Sphaerichthys, Sferichtis, Colise, Khelostomy, Trichogaster, Nitenos.

Gourami (Trichogaster) - one of the most popular types of aquarium fish today. They are unpretentious in content and are quite easy to breed, these fish can be safely recommended to all novice aquarists.

History gourami

The French scientist Pierre Carbonier dreamed of acclimatizing in France very interesting fish discovered in the tropics. Among them were wide-browed fish, constantly rising to the surface of the water and protruding the tip of the muzzle - gourami. However, they did not manage to get to Europe immediately. They were caught both in Thailand, in Vietnam, and on the islands of Malaysia, but the fish did not even survive the day and died. In those days, the transportation of exotic fish was carried out in wooden barrels, filled to the top with water. During the voyage, the steamer often experienced rolling, and so that the water from the barrel, and with it the fish, did not fly overboard, the wooden circle was lowered onto the surface of the water in the barrel, so that it completely covered the surface. Few people knew about the features of the biology of labyrinth fish, although at this time in Paris, Carbonier studied and successfully spread out the macropod. Having no access to atmospheric air, the poor fish survived only until the end of loading the barrels onto the ship. After many unsuccessful attempts, they were categorized as problematic, and their distribution stopped for twenty years.

Eyewitnesses were perplexed: in nature, the capture of gourays was carried out in rain barrels, gutters, abandoned quarries with unthinkably dirty and muddy water - what did the fish lack during transportation ?! Only at the very end of the 19th century, a certain discerning European, watching the capricious creatures in a natural reservoir, noticed that fish periodically rise to the surface of the water behind an air bubble. On the advice of the Indonesian conductor, he filled the carrying capacity with water only two-thirds and did not seal them. As a result, several thousand immigrants were delivered to their destination without a single loss.

In foreign amateur aquariums, gurus appeared only from January 1896, but it came to us only in the summer of 1897 and, moreover, from two sources at once: from Matte from Berlin and from V.M. Desnitsky, who brought her straight from Singapore.

Homeland Guram fish - habitat

In nature, gourami live in Southeast Asia (Indochina and Malay Peninsulas, Kalimantan Islands, Sumatra and Java).

The pearly gourami Trichogasterleeri inhabit the Malay Archipelago, Sumatra and Borneo. Lunar gourami Trichogaster microlepis is found in Thailand and Cambodia, Serpentine gourami Trichogaster pectoralis in southern Vietnam, Cambodia and eastern Thailand. The spotted gourami Trichogaster trichopterus has a wide range - from India to the Malay Archipelago. In different parts of this area there are many local forms that differ in coloring. In Sumatra, along with these forms, the blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus sumatranus dwells. The serpentine gourami, whose range approaches the oceanic shore opposite the island of Sri Lanka, has not moved to this island, however today it has mastered the Antilles reservoirs in Central America. Gourami are found both in stagnant and flowing waters, as well as in shallow streams, and in large rivers, and the spotted and brown gourami have mastered the tide zone and brackish estuarine waters.

Description gourami

Gourami (Gourami-nitrophores) are representatives of the genus of tropical freshwater labyrinth fish of the macropode family (Osphronemidae), whose length ranges from 5 to 12 cm (there is also a larger representative, the serpentine goura reaching 20 -25 cm), and in aquariums rarely exceed 10 see. These wonderful creatures got their name for having elongated threadlike fins on the abdomen, which nature has bestowed on these fish for orientation in muddy natural bodies of water.

Like all labyrinth fish, gourami have a labyrinth (nadzhaberny body), resulting from the adaptation to life in water with low oxygen content. A funny feature of gourami is their ability to be without water for 6-8 hours (it is not worth checking and torturing !!!). The labyrinth organ is located in the nadzhabernoy cavity, in the extended part of the first branchial arch. In this cavity there are the thinnest bone plates covered with rich vessels and mucous membranes. If gourami can live without water, they cannot live without atmospheric air, they will die rather quickly in a closed vessel. The labyrinth organ develops only 2–3 weeks after the larvae hatch from the roe, therefore the fry need water saturated with oxygen. It is believed that the labyrinth organ serves to ensure that the fish can move from the reservoir to the reservoir: the fish gathers water into it, and when it moves from the reservoir to the reservoir, the gills are moistened, which prevents them from drying out.

It is worth remembering that when transporting fish over long distances, you need to take into account their need for air, otherwise the fish may die from suffocation. IMPORTANT: When transporting any labyrinths, it is impossible to pump oxygen into the package, capturing it with the mouth of the fish, "burn" the respiratory organs and die !!!

The shape of the body of the fish is elongated, flat, flattened laterally. The dorsal and anal fins of the elongated male are slightly sharpened, while in the female the dorsal fin is much shorter and rounded, the ventral fins are equal in size to the length of the fish and resemble thin mustaches. If for any reason your mustache has broken off with your gourami, don't worry, as soon they will grow back. The color of males is much brighter than females. Bright color is an indicator of the health of the fish.

With a cold snap gourami can easily catch a cold, so you need to very carefully observe the temperature.

Types of gourami

Today in home aquariums you can find a large number of varieties of gourami: pearl, blue, marble, golden, kissing, moon, honey, spotted, grumbling and others.

But in fact, there are only four kinds of nominal gourami - the kind of trichogaster:

- Pearl gourami (Trichogaster leeri).

- Lunar gourami (Trichogaster microlepis).

- Brown gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) - the largest of the genus Trichogater. In an aquarium it can reach up to 15 centimeters in length, in nature it grows even larger. Nevertheless, in spite of its size, it is a peaceful fish.

- Spotted gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus). Here the last species has many different color variations - morphs: blue, yellow and white. These morphs and bring a certain confusion in the gradation of gourami - trichogasters.

In addition, it is worth noting separately that kissing gouras is not a Trichogaster genus at all, it is the Helostoma genus of Helost. Actually, honey gourami is the genus Colisa - Colisa, grumbling gourami is the genus Trichopsis - Trichopsis, chocolate gourami - the genus Sferichtis - Sphaerichthys. But they are all in our post-Soviet space among the people GURAMI =) Below are the most popular species, morphs and false gurus.

Gourami pearl

Trichogaster leeri

The body of the pearl gourami is tall, elongated, flattened laterally. The color of the body is silver-violet with numerous pearl spots (resembling pearls), scattered not only throughout the body, but also along the fins. An uneven dark stripe runs along the entire body. The length of the pearl gourami is 11 centimeters.

The male is much larger than the female, has a brighter color, elongated dorsal and anal fins. However, there is another, very characteristic feature - the coloring of the neck of pearl gouras: red in the male and orange in the female. These differences appear already at a young age, but are more pronounced in more adult individuals. And during the spawning period in the male, its color differences prevail: the neck and abdomen light up in a red tint, the pearl placer shimmers and sparkles. Therefore, the identification of the sex of fish does not cause difficulties at any age.

Pearl gourami badly tolerate transplants and "moving" to a new place - for a long time they remain timid and pale in color.

In nature, pearly gourami lives in the waters of India and Indochina, in the south of Malaysia and Thailand. In reservoirs carrying well-warmed clean water with rich dense vegetation.

In more detail in the article GURAMI PEARL: CONTENT, COMPATIBILITY, BREEDING, PHOTO-VIDEO REVIEW.

Gourami moon

Trichogaster microlepis

Currently, vegetation is rich in vegetation in Cambodia and Thailand. They were brought to Europe in 1951, and in 1981 they began to appear with aquarists of Russia.

The fish has a tall, slightly elongated body and compressed on the sides. The body is painted in a monochromatic bluish-silver color. In aquariums usually do not exceed 12 cm, and in the wild can reach 15 cm. Life expectancy from 5 to 7 years.

Fish - peaceful and fearful. They can contain almost all the peaceful inhabitants of the aquarium. But it is advisable to pick them in the neighbors fish of similar size.

For a comfortable living aquarium should be at least 50 cm in length, sometimes planted with plants, have shelters and free space for swimming. In addition, the aquarium should be floating plants that the fish used for spawning. To emphasize all the beauty of this fish, it is better to use dark colored soils.

In more detail in the article GURAMI LUNNY: CONTENT, COMPATIBILITY, BREEDING, PHOTO-VIDEO REVIEW.

Gourami blue

Trichogaster trichopterus sumatranus

In the nature lives in Southeast Asia, reservoirs of island Sumatra. In Europe, first appeared in 1958.

The blue gourami has a high, oblong and flattened body from the sides. Upper fin high, pointed. The lower fin begins from the pectoral fin and gradually expanding, ends at the base of the tail. Pectoral fins have the form of filiform antennae. They are organs of touch gourami and are constantly in motion. With the help of the pectoral fins of the fish get acquainted with the surrounding objects. The main color of the body is aqua color. On the sides there are transverse stripes of blue color and two black spots on each side: one in the center of the body, the second on the caudal stem. Unpaired fins adorn the silver dots scattered on them. In nature, blue gourami in length reaches 12-14 cm, in an aquarium they grow up to 8-10 cm.

The blue gourami is very peaceful and gets on well with various types of fish of large and small sizes, but sometimes there are individuals that show aggression towards their relatives. Leads daytime life. Keeps in the middle and upper layers of water. It is very interesting to watch these fish: they are funny and do not miss the moment to frolic, they are curious about everything new, whether it is an element of decor or another fish.

In more detail in the article GURAMI BLUE: CONTENT, COMPATIBILITY, BREEDING, PHOTO-VIDEO REVIEW.

Gourami marble

Trichogaster trichopterus sumatranus

Gourami marble is a mutation of blue gourami. Big Fish. Individuals of the species gourami marble in length can reach 13 cm. The body is oval, high, compressed laterally. Abdominal fins long, filiform. Anal fin wide. Marble body color: dark gray spots of irregular shape are located on a light gray background. Anal, dorsal and caudal fin dark gray, with numerous yellow specks. Pectoral fins clear, colorless. The male differs from the female by a narrower body, a bright color with elongated, more pointed dorsal and anal fins.

It is better to keep in an aquarium with a volume of 50 liters.

In more detail in the article GURAMY MARBLE: CONTENT, COMPATIBILITY, BREEDING, PHOTO-VIDEO REVIEW.

Gourami golden

Trichogaster trichopterus sumatranus var. Gold

In nature, it lives in ponds rich in vegetation on the island of Sumatra.

The golden gourami has a tall, slightly elongated and compressed body. The goura's body is colored golden yellow with an orange tinge. On the side there are two dark spots, one in the middle of the body, the other on the tail stem. Blue spots are scattered on the body and fins. The male is larger and brighter than the female. In length it grows up to 13 cm. Life expectancy of a fish in an aquarium with the right content is up to 7 years.

Golden gourami is a peaceful, shy little fish that, in case of danger, prefers to hide in dense thickets. It gets along well with various types of fish of large and small sizes, but sometimes, the males show aggression towards each other. Lead daytime life. Keeps golden goura in the upper and middle layers of water.

It is necessary to keep golden gouras in a well-lit aquarium with a volume of 100 liters (4 fish) with thickets of living plants (including floating plants) and free swimming space. It is desirable to have snags (fish constantly keep near them), the ground is dark.

In more detail in the article GURAMI GOLD: CONTENT, COMPATIBILITY, BREEDING, PHOTO-VIDEO REVIEW.

Kisses kissing

Helostoma temminckii

Gorami kissing inhabit Thailand and the island of Kalimantan, Sumatra and Java. In nature, gourami inhabit the waters of India and Indochina.

The popular name of the fish "kissing" is associated with the characteristic "kissing" lip movements that fish produce during feeding, manifestation of aggression, as well as during mating.

Dorsal and anal fin long, low. Fins are greenish and sometimes yellowish. The color of the kissing gourami is varied: gray-green, golden-pink, and also yellow. There are albinos.

Differs calm and peaceful nature, a little shy. Easy to get along with non-aggressive neighbors. However, with a lack of space, fish can fight for territory, opening their mouths wide.

You can keep kissing goura in an aquarium with a capacity of at least 50 liters with densely planted vegetation, you also need the presence of snags as a cover and a free-swimming zone. The ground should be dark.

In more detail in the article GURAMI KISSING: CONTENT, COMPATIBILITY, BREEDING, PHOTO-VIDEO REVIEW.

Gourami chocolate

Sphaerichthys osphromenoides

Chocolate gourami are found in Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo) and Malaysia.

The body of the Chocolate Gourami has a red-brown or chocolate color, with a slight greenish tint. The whole body is crossed by several light yellow to white color transverse stripes of various widths and lengths. Anal fin with narrow yellow border. The size of the fish does not exceed 40-50 mm.

The male has a straight lower jaw profile and has a sharper head than that of the female. In the female, the lower jaw is rounded due to tensile skin, due to the need to incubate the eggs. But so familiar to all the differences in the form of bright colors and pointed elongated unpaired fins should not be relied upon to determine the sex.

More details in the article Gurami chocolate: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review.

Ghouls nagging

Trichopsis vittatus

Currently, most of Indochina, the peninsula of Malaysia and Singapore are settled.

The fishes are peaceful and slightly fearful. They can easily be kept in a common aquarium with other peace-loving fishes. It is advisable to keep a small flock of 6-8 fish, in a ratio where there will be one or two females per male.

In captivity, the ghouls grumbling eagerly eat dried food, but do not forget to include in the diet a sufficient amount of small live or frozen food, such as Daphnia, Artemia or chironomid larvae (the well-known bloodworm), which will allow to achieve optimal color.

An aquarium with ghouls nagging densely planted with various plants, leaving room for free swimming. Since the fish do not like bright light, floating plants are placed on the surface, which serve not only as a source of dispersion of rays, but also serve as material for building a nest. Grateful fish will be for the presence of kryagi and a variety of shelters. It is preferable to use dark soil.

In more detail in the article by GURAMI'S MANAGER: CONTENT, COMPATIBILITY, BREEDING.

Photo table

most beautiful labyrinth fish

(species and morphs)

the most beautiful labyrinth fish

Compatibility gourami

Gourami are very peace-loving and calm fish that easily make friends with all other peaceful types of fish (fighting, lyalius, ternii, etc.). However, it is worth remembering that too fast types of fish (such as swordtails and barbs, shark balls) like to chase the mustache. When choosing neighbors, it should also be remembered that gourami are soft water and acidic fish, that is, they prefer pH and dH below 7. It is desirable to maintain these comfortable water parameters for the goura themselves and select such soft water neighbors.

Registration of an aquarium for gourami

It is necessary to design an aquarium for a large number of plants, which corresponds to their natural habitat conditions, the availability of places for free swimming and, of course, shelters in which they can stay for a long time.

What to feed gourami?

In feeding Gourami absolutely not picky and ready to eat any food found. Как и другие рыбки, Гурами будут премного вам благодарны за разнообразное питание состоящее, как из сухих, так и из живых кормов (мотыль, трубочник, дафния и др.). В естественных условиях обитания рыбки лакомятся различными насекомыми, личинками (малярийного комара), растительностью.

Стоит отметить и тот факт, что здоровая взрослая особь может обойтись без корма до двух недель.

Feeding any aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arawan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

Terms of maintenance gourami

Comfortable conditions for gourami is an aquarium of 40 liters, and it is desirable that the water level be at least 30 cm and not more than 50 cm. Since the fish loves acidified water, the presence of a strong flow from the filter is not desirable. Acceptable water temperature is from 23 to 26 degrees, although it will easily endure a decrease to 20 degrees and an increase to 30 degrees. Stiffness should not exceed 16. Acidity from 6 to 7. Weekly changes of 1/3 of water are necessary. Aeration of water for gourami is not necessary, but for the aquarium itself, the oxidation process plays an important role, they are difficult without aeration, and therefore aeration is desirable. Fishes prefer the presence in the aquarium dense vegetation with the obligatory presence of floating plants, but do not forget about the availability of swimming places. The combination of dark soil and bright lighting will allow you to get from your pets the most saturated color. Humic substances released by snags not only enhance the health of the fish, but also make the water look like water in habitats. Swim gouram prefer in the middle and upper layers of water. An aquarium with gourami should be fitted with a lid or covered with a cover glass to prevent the fish from jumping out of the aquarium. Life expectancy is 5 - 7 years.

Sexual dimorphism - the difference between male and female gourami

Sexual dimorphism in gourami, regardless of the species, can be traced quite clearly - males are larger and slimmer, their color is brighter, fins are longer. The dorsal fin in males is larger and elongated; in the female it is rounded; this is the most reliable sign for determining the sex of gourami.

Breeding and breeding gourami

Breeding gourami does not require large skills and investments. To begin with, it is possible to breed these fish both in the general aquarium, and in a separate small spawning aquarium into 20 liters with a height of water column from 10 to 15 centimeters.

If spawning is carried out in a general aquarium, then the main condition will be the presence of floating plants on the surface (Ricci, rogolistnik, duckweed, etc.) and the absence of a strong current so as not to destroy the foamy nest created by the male.

If spawning is carried out in a spawning aquarium, then you need the water to have the necessary parameters: water temperature 24 - 26 ° C, hardness 4 - 10, acidity 5.8 - 6.8, plants floated on the surface, and at the bottom there was a shelter for the female. Next, in the spawning aquarium we have selected, we first subdivide the male. Richly feed a couple, preferably a live feed, for a couple 1 to 2 weeks. Just before spawning, we replant the female in the spawning aquarium. And watch the very exciting games of the couple. Gourami change their color to a brighter one, they float with straightened fins. The male, as a caring father, constantly maintains the foam nest in the whole condition.

And he builds his nest of air bubbles released from the mouth along with saliva. The male needs about 3 days to build a foam nest. Do not worry if during this period the male is not active in food and only huddles around his building. And when the nest is fully built, the spawning of gourami begins. The male in every possible way tries to drive the female under his nest, and having driven them, begins to fertilize the game, which easily floats to the surface of the aquarium water. The spawning period usually lasts 3–4 hours, with several visits. To speed up the spawning process, you can add 1/3 of the volume of the spawning aquarium of distilled water with a temperature rise of up to 30 ° C. Ignoring rhinestones in the nest caviar, caring father collects and transfers to the nest. Usually the female sweeps out about 200 eggs, maybe more. At the end of spawning, the fish rush in different directions: the female goes to the shelter, and the male rushes to the nest, where he will take care of the eggs until the hatching of the fry. But the female must be immediately deposited so that she is attacked by the male, or does not damage the nest with eating eggs from an inexperienced dad. Incubation period caviar goura from 24 to 48 hours. The development of caviar depends on the temperature of the water in the aquarium.

Time passes, the larvae hatch out of the calf and hang motionless in the foam of the nest, and after falling out, they immediately return to the place by the caring father. After 2 - 3 days the larvae pass into the fry stage and begin to swim. The male is here on the alert, he collects fry by mouth and carries them to the nest. As soon as all the fry hatch and start swimming in the spawning aquarium, we catch the male so that he does not eat his offspring. The male is not fed during the entire period of caring for the offspring. When larvae appear, it is necessary to lower the water level to 6-10 cm and maintain it until the fry have formed a labyrinth apparatus, which takes at least a month. If there are a lot of larvae, then it is necessary to provide weak aeration in the spawning aquarium.

Fry are abundantly fed with infusoria, small “dust”, yogurt, and special food.

TetraMin Baby

The main feed enriched with protein for fry up to 1 cm. With a new formula that helps preserve the purity of water. Feed very finely milled. Contains a full range of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements necessary for schooling fry. TetraMin Baby promotes balanced and healthy growth and prevents malnutrition symptoms at a critical time in the fry, reducing the likelihood of illness due to malnutrition.

The main thing is to ensure that the food is fully eaten by the fry, and remove the excess in time. Fry gourami do not grow evenly, larger and more developed begin to compete with small ones, and can eat them. Here you decide, either to constantly sort the fry into groups, or to rely on the natural instinct and you will have the most developed and strong individuals.

We also mention the peculiarities of breeding gourami: first, the formation of a pair for spawning should occur in a natural way, based on the observation of the grown up fish living in the pack; second, young fish between the ages of 8 months and 1 year spawn well, if you miss this period, you can not wait for the offspring at all; the third - gourami like clean water, therefore the water in the spawning aquarium should be transparent; fourth, during spawning, it is better to provide the fish with complete peace and to cover the front side of the spawning aquarium (with a towel, cardboard, paper, etc.); fifth - sometimes gourami are able to spawn in an aquarium without having a nest. In this case, the caviar spreads over the surface of the water and fry are also successfully derived from it.

Author Alexander Isakov

Foster editor

Beautiful photos of gourami fish

A selection of interesting videos about grooves

CARE CONTENT

SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION

Domain: Eukaryotes;

Kingdom: Animals;

Type of: Chord;

Class: Ray fish;

Squad: Perciformes;

Family: Macropod;

Rod: Trichogaster;

International scientific name: Trichogaster Blochet Schneider, 1801;

Other names: Gourami, Trichogaster, Colisa, Sphaerichthys, Sferichtis, Colise, Khelostomy, Trichogaster, Nitenos.

Gurash are one of the popular inhabitants of our aquariums, despite their size, admires the gurash with its plasticity, it is especially interesting to look at them when they rise up, from the bottom of the aquarium and down, from the top of the luminous lamp also the race for the female is another sight can be infinite.

Gurashi have labyrinth breathing, that is, they can breathe atmospheric air through the gill labyrinth, so they do not have to supply oxygen. The body reaches 10 to 12 cm in length and looks pretty impressive, these fish are not picky in feeding, they include almost all food, live, dry and vegetable, eaten both from the top of the aquarium and from the bottom, soma is shocked.

Two weeks without food, it’s not a problem at all for them, they endure a hunger strike with a bang in my opinion. They need at least 100 liters to complete the joy of life, but the individual is still quite large, as for compatibility, then gurashs are generally peaceful but during spawning they become aggressive, driving other inhabitants of the aquarium into a corner, but it does not come to the slaughter.

Well, that's the most interesting reproduction of gurash , in general, an aquarium from 30 to 40 liters is recommended for these purposes, well, I have 12 liters spawning perfectly in the spawning ... In general, they often say one thing, but you see something else, I even tried it in a bucket, but the female refused to give a cut so that the male chased her.

Distinguish female from male gourami can be on the upper fin, the male, he is longer and longer. The male and female do not differ in size, closer to spawning in females is a more rounded belly, and so the breeding process. We set up an aquarium, we place a male in it, then we feed the female a little bit with a very bloodworm, after a day the male will build a nest of small bubbles, the temperature in the aquarium is 28 degrees, then a spawn will happen next day and the spawn will be seen, the female In any case, it is necessary to remove it as soon as the first fry appear, all this time it will carefully watch the caviar.

Compatible with other aquarium fish

Gourami are well compatible with scalars, barbs, danios, battles and mollies, Pelicia, catfish, iridescent races, labo, swordtails, tetras.
Limited compatible with discus and eel, guppy and shrimp.
Incompatible with cockerels, cichlids, goldfish, Koi carps, astronotus.

The most irreconcilable opponents for gourami are:

  • Goldfish,
  • Carps Koi,
  • Cichlids
  • Petus,
  • Astronotus,
  • Parrots
  • Labidochromis,
  • Pseudotropheus.

It is difficult to get along our heroes with:

  • Guppy,
  • Shrimp
  • Discussions.
  • Fish gourami - calm, peaceful, unpretentious. They themselves do not enter into conflicts, preferring to hide wherever they may be in plants. But very small fish or fry may well be perceived as food. Their movements are slow, smooth. Some species of aquarium fish, such as barbs, swordtails, can terrorize them by pulling filamentous fins. Such neighbors are best avoided.
  • An aquarium for keeping gourami is needed not very large, from 40 liters. The soil is desirable dark, the lighting is bright. In this case, your pets will get the most vivid color. Live plants should be planted in groups, leaving room for swimming. The presence of floating plants is obligatory, since even in the general aquarium among them, a male with gurus can start to cost a nest. Most of these fish species are not demanding for the amount of oxygen. If the aquarium has aeration of water, then it should not create strong currents. In their natural environment, these inhabitants of the aquarium are accustomed to stagnant water. Gourami fish prefer to swim in the middle or upper layer of water.
  • The temperature in the aquarium with their content should be in the range of 24-28 degrees. The composition of water in most cases is not critical. Gourami can eat almost any kind of food - live, frozen, dry, and additionally eat vegetable food. The only thing to consider is the small size of the mouth; they can choke on too large food.
  • If you need to go on vacation or a business trip, then adult fish may well endure a hunger strike for 1-2 weeks. Life expectancy in an aquarium with good care can reach 5-7 years.

    Types of gourami

    Currently, there are a lot of species of gourami.

    Here it is simply difficult to list them all, therefore only the most famous species are listed:

    • pearl;
    • chocolate;
    • marble;
    • lunar;
    • dwarf;
    • nagging
    • honey;
    • spotted;
    • brown;
    • ordinary;
    • Sumatran;
    • gold;
    • blue;
    • kissing
    • kissing pink.

    Gourami marble

    Gourami marble - aquarium fish obtained by crossing the spotted and blue gourami. Its color resembles polished marble. The fish is large, calm and peaceful. Her majestic slow movements calm and pacify the observer, no matter how stormy his past day may be.

  • The view is unpretentious. Does not need constant aeration of water, which makes it suitable for keeping in an aquarium located in the bedroom, as there is no noise from the compressor. A peaceful disposition makes it possible to contain it with many other species. And the endurance and unpretentiousness of the marble pets allow recommending it to budding lovers. A couple of gourai fishes can be kept in a container for 15-20 liters about 40 centimeters long. But it is better to keep in an oblong aquarium with a capacity of 50 liters or more. In this capacity you can keep 6 - 7 fish. The aquarium must be covered with a lid, or at least glass. The distance from the surface of the water to the glass is about 5 to 8 centimeters. This is necessary because the fish breathe atmospheric air. And if the air in the room has a temperature much lower than water, then picking up this cold air, they can catch a cold.

    As the soil, you can use small pebbles, granite chips, coarse river sand and even quarry seeding. It is desirable that the soil was a dark shade on which the color of the fish will greatly benefit. At the bottom it is advisable to arrange a small shelter of large stones or shards of pottery flower pots.

    Plants should form fairly dense thickets along the rear and side windows. You can use cryptocoryne, peristolistviknik, rogolniknik, elodeyu, vallisneriya. On the surface should float plants such as reach, duckweed, pistia.

    You can feed gourami with almost any kind of live, dry and frozen feed. Bloodworm, shaker, scrape meat, scalded chopped lettuce and dandelion leaves. A hungry pet, like many other types of labyrinth fish, is very quickly able to deal with parasites that have entered the aquarium with food, such as hydras, planarians. Just as quickly they will reduce the population of snails. He will cope with this no worse than the macropod, but he will not have to plant fish.

    When breeding gurashi, one should keep in mind that interspecific crossing occurs relatively easily. However, the color of hybrids, as a rule, is worse than that of pure lines. Therefore, it is advisable not to allow crossing, for example, marble with goosesticks with pearl.

  • Approximately a week before the intended spawning, males are deposited from the females and are fed abundantly by the producers with live food. Spawning is usually done in pairs, but since not every male is able to fertilize the spawn, they sometimes practice group spawning. But in this case the aquarium should be of sufficient size so that the males do not fight among themselves for the territory.

Reproduction gourami: what should I look for?

Males gourami monogamous, so each of them in the aquarium should have about 2-3 females. The ideal is a flock of 12-15 individuals, which from time to time need to be transplanted into a separate aquarium. This is done so that the female can calmly spawn, and the male - to fertilize her. Of course, gourami are quite unpretentious and can breed in the general aquarium, but there are cases when females refuse to spawn and die in the end.

Therefore, it is best to transplant a couple in a separate aquarium, long and shallow. It is important that its bottom is densely planted with low algae. However, they should not grow chaotically, but with "beds", between which it will be most convenient for females to spawn. Pottery shards and various decorative items should also be placed in an artificial breeding ground. They can be an excellent refuge for the female, which, during the period of spawning, can be attacked by a male, often showing aggression.

In gourami, the head of the family is rightfully considered to be a male, therefore after that. As the eggs are swept away, the female must be returned to the general aquarium. The male remains to look after the future offspring and does so with special care. From the moment of spawning until the appearance of fry, no more than 48 hours pass, and during this period the male should be provided with the most comfortable conditions. The aquarium should be well lit, water - at the level of + 24-25 degrees.

These requirements must be met, as the fastidious papa-gourami can easily destroy the fertilized eggs, if he feels that the created conditions are not particularly favorable for the little ones. After the appearance of fry, the male gourami should also be returned to the general aquarium, since it can show aggression towards the offspring.

Fry are fattened by infusoria, which can be purchased at any specialty store. After about 2 months, the fry will grow up enough to join the “adult” family of gourami.

History gourami

The French scientist Pierre Carbonier dreamed of acclimatizing in France very interesting fish discovered in the tropics. Among them were wide-browed fish, constantly rising to the surface of the water and protruding the tip of the muzzle - gourami. However, they did not manage to get to Europe immediately. They were caught both in Thailand, in Vietnam, and on the islands of Malaysia, but the fish did not even survive the day and died.

In those days, the transportation of exotic fish was carried out in wooden barrels, filled to the top with water. During the voyage, the steamer often experienced rolling, and so that the water from the barrel, and with it the fish, did not fly overboard, the wooden circle was lowered onto the surface of the water in the barrel, so that it completely covered the surface. Few people knew about the features of the biology of labyrinth fish, although at this time in Paris, Carbonier studied and successfully spread out the macropod. Having no access to atmospheric air, the poor fish survived only until the end of loading the barrels onto the ship. After many unsuccessful attempts, they were categorized as problematic, and their distribution stopped for twenty years.

Eyewitnesses were perplexed: in nature, the capture of gourays was carried out in rain barrels, gutters, abandoned quarries with unthinkably dirty and muddy water - what did the fish lack during transportation ?! Only at the very end of the 19th century, a certain discerning European, watching the capricious creatures in a natural reservoir, noticed that fish periodically rise to the surface of the water behind an air bubble. On the advice of the Indonesian conductor, he filled the carrying capacity with water only two-thirds and did not seal them. As a result, several thousand immigrants were delivered to their destination without a single loss.

In foreign amateur aquariums, gurus appeared only from January 1896, but it came to us only in the summer of 1897 and, moreover, from two sources at once: from Matte from Berlin and from V.M. Desnitsky, who brought her straight from Singapore.

habitat

In nature, gourami live in Southeast Asia (Indochina and Malay Peninsulas, Kalimantan Islands, Sumatra and Java).

The pearly gourami Trichogasterleeri inhabit the Malay Archipelago, Sumatra and Borneo. Lunar gourami Trichogaster microlepis is found in Thailand and Cambodia, Serpentine gourami Trichogaster pectoralis in southern Vietnam, Cambodia and eastern Thailand. The spotted gourami Trichogaster trichopterus has a wide range - from India to the Malay Archipelago.

In different parts of this area there are many local forms that differ in coloring. In Sumatra, along with these forms, the blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus sumatranus dwells. The serpentine gourami, whose range approaches the oceanic shore opposite the island of Sri Lanka, has not moved to this island, however today it has mastered the Antilles reservoirs in Central America. Gourami are found both in stagnant and flowing waters, as well as in shallow streams, and in large rivers, and the spotted and brown gourami have mastered the tide zone and brackish estuarine waters.

VIDEO GURAMI

DESCRIPTION AND PHOTOS OF ALL SPECIES GURAMI.

BROWN HURAMS CONTENTS REPLACEMENT DESCRIPTION COMPATIBILITY FEEDING PHOTOS.

GROOMING GURAMI CONTENTS COMPATIBILITY BREEDING DESCRIPTION FEEDING PHOTOS.

CHOCOLATE HURAMES DESCRIPTION REPLENISHMENT FEEDING COMPATIBILITY PHOTO CONTENT.

MOON GURAMS DESCRIPTION CONTENTS REPLENISHMENT COMPATIBILITY PHOTO FEEDING.

Dwarf gurami CONTENTS DESCRIPTION REPLENISHMENT COMPATIBILITY PHOTO.

KISSING GOURS CARE SPREADS PHOTO VIDEO DESCRIPTION.

Varieties of aquarium gourami

Gourami (Latin Trichogaster) is a genus of freshwater tropical fish of the suborder Labyrinth, Macropod family. It charges six species. The scientific name Trichogaster (with filaments on the belly) was gourami thanks to the thread-like rays of the abdominal fins, which are additional organs of touch in the aquatic environment. In addition to the gills, all kinds of gourams can breathe with a special labyrinth organ, it dissolves oxygen in the body.


Natural habitat - regions of Southeast Asia. All varieties of these fish are distinguished by a calm and peaceful nature, some display individual traits of behavior. For example, the males of pearl gouras enter fights for the attention of the female. They make loud noises, letting air out of the labyrinth organ, which can last for hours. Endemics of Asian reservoirs grow in length of 30-35 cm.

Many species - aquarium pets. The most popular gourami: dwarf, pearl, kissing, serpentine, honey, marble, blue. They are united by common external features - the body is oval in shape, flattened at the sides, small in size. In some natural and hybrid species, spots or streaks are visible on the body. Gourami have transparent or translucent fins on the body, the abdominal ones end with filamentous processes. On the anal fin can be found red edging. The eyes are small, with a reddish tinge.

Look at the gourami in the aquarium.

Conditions of detention

After buying the fish it may seem that their scales have become faded. This is not a disease, but stress - when they get used to a new home, the body color will return. For two weeks it is better to quarantine a new pet, this procedure is important in order to investigate the state of health before launching into a common reservoir.

This aquarium fish can grow up to 15 cm in size, so the tank for it should be at least medium in size. For a couple of fish, you can use an aquarium with a capacity of 100 liters or more. On top of it you need to cover with a lid, but not glass. Fish prefer warm water. It is important that the air and water temperatures are the same. From time to time your pets will trap air from the surface of the water, so there should be a gap between the lid and the surface of the water.

The permissible temperature of the aquatic environment should be 22-26 degrees Celsius, a significant drop in temperature is harmful to health. Water hardness up to 16 dGH, acidity 6.0-7.0 pH. Every week you need to replace 25% of the water for fresh. Aeration is needed because it prevents the oxidation of organic matter.


Aquarium gourami like a lot of vegetation, where you can hide. Natural biotope will remind floating plants, Javanese moss. It is necessary to set the scenery so that the fish were where to swim. The upper and middle layers of water - their constant space. Dark substrate will be suitable as a substrate; illumination is desirable bright - 10 cm distance from the LB lamp to the surface of the aquarium. You can put in the tank wooden snags, emit humic substances, which are also beneficial to the health of pets. Under favorable conditions and regular care, the fish will live 5-10 years.

Settled in a common tank should be with peaceful and small fish that can swim in the lower layers of water. Predators, even small sizes can pluck them fins or physically destroy them. Suitable aquarium neighbors:

  • Angelfish;
  • Barbusses (partially);
  • Danio;
  • Mollies;
  • Botsia;
  • Corridors;
  • Iris;
  • Rasbory;
  • Labeo;
  • Swordtails;
  • Tetras.

Wild gourami are omnivorous fish, in freshwater bodies of water they eat zooplankton, insects, and sometimes plants and algae. They have a small mouth, so food should be chopped. Aquarium species of fish can eat live and frozen, artificial food, plant food. It is recommended to give bloodworm, tubule, daphnia, ciliates, crushed snails, finely chopped earthworms. Sometimes you can add lettuce, food containing spirulina. Giving food better 1-2 times a day in very small portions, it is important not to overfeed, otherwise the fish will appear constipated.

Watch a video about breeding pearl gouras.

Breeding

Breeding gourami - a simple process, it is enough to know when they are ready to breed, and where to settle them during the spawning period. Of course, the best way to acquire fry is to establish a separate spawning ground. Increasing the temperature in it to 28-29 degrees, bringing the hardness to 10 °, the acidity of water to a pH of 6.5-7.0. A few weeks before spawning, you need to feed a couple of fish a live feed with protein content. A few weeks after preparation, the female will round up, and caviar will develop in her. Next, manufacturers run into the aquarium with clean water, but not strong over. In the tank should be floating plants, shelters. In the labyrinth nest, the male usually nests, and he also cares for the eggs. Some species have peculiar premarital behavior, but often the rules of breeding are common. The male builds a nest of bubbles and plants, bonding the "structure" with saliva.


During spawning, fish can make sounds that resemble rumbling or croaking of frogs. This is a consequence of the work of the labyrinth organ located under the gills. The male invites the female to his nest, and begins a dance with her, helping to free herself from her calf. Then he fertilizes her and transfers her to the nest, the fallen eggs return to their place. Some gourami produce 200-300 eggs, the serpentine female produces up to 1000 eggs and more. The incubation period is from 24 to 72 hours depending on the water temperature.

After spawning, the female can be immediately deposited, and the male should be left until the fry are billed. First, they eat up the contents of the yolk sac, later they will begin to swim independently in search of small food. Starter feed - ciliates, liquid feed for fry. Later, the larvae of Artemia can be given, but make sure that they are small. Children also need access to atmospheric oxygen for the proper development of the labyrinth organ. Fish become sexually mature at the age of 6-12 months.

Fish gourami

Aquarium fish goura belong to the family of the labyrinth. These amazing fish are also called nitropods for the ventral fins, similar to long strings. Like other fishes of this family, they can breathe atmospheric air with the help of a special organ - the gill labyrinth. If you leave them in a closed aquarium without air access, the fish will quickly die.

Description gourami

Gourami - very mobile, nimble, curious fish, they are easy to breed, unpretentious in food, so often found in home aquariums. They came to aquariums from Southeast Asia, which is their historic homeland.

Fish gourami looks quite modest. The body of pearl gourams has an inconspicuous silver-violet tint with pearl specks, the moons are pale yellow in color, and bright enough gold, marble and lemon gourams. The brighter the coloring tone, the stronger the health of the fish. The size of most species of gouras is no more than 15 cm, serpentine gouries reach 25 cm, but in aquariums both those rarely grow longer than 10 cm.

There are several types of gourami. The most common:

  • brown gourami;
  • lunar gourami;
  • pearl gourami;
  • honey gourami;
  • kissing gourami;
  • dwarf gourami;
  • chocolate gourami;
  • nagging gourami;
  • spotted gourami and others.

How many live gourami?

Naturally, at home, gourami live longer than in nature - the situation has. Life expectancy of gourami is 5-7 years, with very good care and favorable conditions of their maintenance can live up to 10 years. The life span of marble gourami, which is more capricious in breeding, can reach 8 years - this is a strong fish, rarely gets sick and can withstand a drop in temperature, unlike its fellows. The behavior of gourami during illness or before death is expressed in the fact that the fish folds their fins and floats sluggishly along the bottom of the aquarium.

To live your fish for a long time, you need to follow a few rules:

  • the presence of a small aquarium with a water level of not more than 35 cm;
  • clean water, which must be often and gradually changed;
  • compliance with the temperature regime - not all species can withstand temperature fluctuations;
  • bright but not hot lighting;
  • feeding regime - you can not overfeed fish, you need to feed them in a variety of ways, but gradually, 2-3 times a day;
  • dark soil, snags, the presence of plants in the aquarium;
  • Neighbors with a similar character and similar in size.
Reproduction and nutrition gourami

For reproduction in gourami male is responsible. He builds a nest of foam and plants, cares for the female and squeezes the eggs from her, fertilizes her, makes sure that the eggs fall into the nest and stay in it until the fry leave. The female is capable of sweeping several thousand eggs. Caviar gourami looks the same as in other aquarium fish - the fry look like a thread with eyes and a tail.

Gourami and others

Gourami are animal-eating fish, that is, they can be called predators. In nature, they feed on invertebrates and mosquito larvae. At home, they adapted more to veggie food, but with pleasure they eat daphnia, bloodworms, and pipe-makers. Gourami can eat a neighbor who wants to seize their territory or, if they are angry, they can destroy their fry, but this is typical of many fish. Gourami are calm fish, only males can be pugnacious.

Predators with a big stretch, gourami get along well with other fish, including those who can quietly get along with sklyariy and barbs. Do not make friends with gourami with goldfish and viviparous fish, but not because of their nature, but because of the difference in the desired water temperature.

Gourami Pearl: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review


Gourami Pearl Trichogaster leeri

Scientific classification:

Domain:

Kingdom:

Type of:

Class:

Squad:

Family:

Rod:

View:

International scientific name:

Eukaryotes

Animals

Chord.

Ray fish

Perciformes.

Macropod.

Gourami-stanchions.

Pearl gourami.

Trichogasterleerii

(Bleeker, 1852).

Synonyms of the species name:

Trichopodustrichopterus Cantor, 1850;

Trichopus leerii (Bleeker, 1852);

Osphromenus trichopterus var. leerii Gunther, 1861;

Trichopodus leeri Regan, 1909;

Water parameters for keeping pearl goura in an aquarium:

Temperature: 23 - 27 ° C;

Acidity: pH: 6.0 - 7.0;

Rigidity: up to 16 °;

Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%;

Pearl Compatibility

They have a calm and peaceful nature, a little shy. It is easy to get on with all non-aggressive fish, even with small and medium-sized cichlids. It is not recommended to settle them with the tail tails and similar fish.

Description:

The body of the pearl gourami is tall, elongated, flattened laterally. The color of the body is silver-violet with numerous pearl spots (resembling pearls), scattered not only throughout the body, but also along the fins. An uneven dark stripe runs along the entire body. The length of the pearl gourami reaches 11 centimeters.


Sexual dimorphism: male and female pearl gourami

In the photo male and female gourami pearl

The male is much larger than the female, has a brighter color, elongated dorsal and anal fins. However, there is another, very characteristic feature - the coloring of the neck of the Pearl Gourami: red in the male and orange in the female. These differences appear already at a young age, but are more pronounced in more adult individuals. And during the spawning period in the male, its color differences prevail: the neck and abdomen light up in a red tint, the pearl placer shimmers and sparkles. Therefore, the identification of fish does not express difficulties at any age.


Habitat pearl gourami

In nature, pearly gourami lives in the waters of India and Indochina, in the south of Malaysia and Thailand. In reservoirs carrying well-warmed clean water with rich dense vegetation. In aquariums contained since 1933.

The content of pearl gourami

This type of fish is recommended to keep in aquariums, the capacity of which is not less than 40 liters for 2 - 3 individuals, with rich vegetation, the presence of snags and grottoes as shelter and places for overnight stay and rest, and a free swimming area. The soil is preferably dark colored. The water temperature for the maintenance of the Pearl Gourami ranges from 23 to 27 ° C. Water parameters - hardness up to 16 °, pH 6.0-7.0. Easy aeration will be very useful, despite the fact that, like all labyrinth fishes, Pearl Gourami can breathe atmospheric air through the gill labyrinth. The latter can be the cause of the disease as a result of swallowing cold air, therefore, when Gourami is in, another necessary condition is a cap. And because of their commitment to clean water, filtration and weekly replacement of up to 30% of water are not just necessary, but beneficial for the healthy development of the fish.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food.For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.


Cultivation and reproduction of pearl gourami

Breeding pearl gouram does not require large skills and investments. To begin with, it is possible to breed these fish both in the general aquarium, and in a separate small spawning aquarium into 20 liters with a height of water column from 10 to 15 centimeters.

If spawning is carried out in a general aquarium, then the main condition will be the presence of floating plants on the surface (Ricci, rogolistnik, duckweed, etc.) and the absence of a strong current so as not to destroy the foamy nest created by the male.

If spawning is carried out in a spawning aquarium, then you need the water to have the necessary parameters: water temperature 24 - 26 ° C, hardness 4 - 10, acidity 5.8 - 6.8, plants floated on the surface, and at the bottom there was a shelter for the female. Next, in the spawning aquarium we have selected, we first subdivide the male. Richly feed a couple, preferably a live feed, for a couple 1 to 2 weeks. Just before spawning, we replant the female in the spawning aquarium. And watch the very exciting games of the couple. Gourami change their color to a brighter one, they float with straightened fins. The male, as a caring father, constantly maintains the foam nest in the whole condition.

And he builds his nest of air bubbles released from the mouth along with saliva. The male needs about 3 days to build a foam nest. Do not worry if during this period the male is not active in food and only huddles around his building. And when the nest is completely built, the spawn of the Pearl Gourami begins. The male in every possible way tries to drive the female under his nest, and having driven them, begins to fertilize the game, which easily floats to the surface of the aquarium water. The spawning period usually lasts 3–4 hours, with several visits. To speed up the spawning process, you can add 1/3 of the volume of the spawning aquarium of distilled water with a temperature rise of up to 30 ° C. Ignoring rhinestones in the nest caviar, caring father collects and transfers to the nest. Usually the female sweeps out about 200 eggs, maybe more. At the end of spawning, the fish rush in different directions: the female goes to the shelter, and the male rushes to the nest, where he will take care of the eggs until the hatching of the fry. But the female must be immediately deposited so that she is attacked by the male, or does not damage the nest with eating eggs from an inexperienced dad. Incubation period of caviar of pearl goura is from 24 to 48 hours. The development of caviar depends on the temperature of the water in the aquarium.

Time passes, the larvae hatch out of the calf and hang motionless in the foam of the nest, and after falling out, they immediately return to the place by the caring father. After 2 - 3 days the larvae pass into the fry stage and begin to swim. The male is here on the alert, he collects fry by mouth and carries them to the nest. As soon as all the fry hatch and start swimming in the spawning aquarium, we catch the male so that he does not eat his offspring. The male is not fed during the entire period of caring for the offspring. When larvae appear, it is necessary to lower the water level to 6-10 cm and maintain it until the fry have formed a labyrinth apparatus, which takes at least a month. If there are a lot of larvae, then it is necessary to provide weak aeration in the spawning aquarium.

Fry are abundantly fed with infusoria, small “dust”, yogurt, and special food. But you need to make sure that the food is fully eaten by the fry, and remove the excess in time. Fry of pearl goura do not grow evenly, larger and more developed begin to compete with small ones, and can eat them. Here you decide, either to constantly sort the fry into groups, or to rely on the natural instinct and you will have the most developed and strong individuals.

We mention about the characteristics of breeding pearl gourami:

the first - pairing for spawning should occur in a natural way, based on the observation of the grown fish living in the pack;

the second - young fish at the age of 8 months to 1 year spawn well, if you miss this period, you can not wait for the offspring at all;

the third - Gourami like clean water, therefore the water in the spawning aquarium should be clear;

fourth - during spawning, it is better to provide the fish with complete peace and to cover the front side of the spawning aquarium (with a towel, cardboard, paper, etc.).

What are sick gourami?

All species of fish have a characteristic list of the most common diseases encountered, not exceptions and Pearl Gourami. Remember that the disease of one fish in an aquarium can cause the death of all aquarium animals, so it is better to prevent disease rather than cure. Fish are most often prone to diseases due to poor conditions, injuries during transportation, sudden changes in temperature and water parameters, quality of feed introduced, especially live, which can be infected by various parasites. Do not forget about the quarantine for new fish, because it is very sad to blame yourself for the death of so beloved fish after settling to them, apparently healthy, and in fact a sick fish.

The most common diseases of pearl goura, as well as other types of gourami include: lymphocytosis, pseudomonosis, aeromonosis.

Lymphocytosis (Lymphocystis) - A viral disease that contributes to the skin of the fish and alters mucous membrane cells. Blisters that appear on the skin can be seen even with the naked eye. The affected cell grows, breeds new viruses, and then breaks and all viruses fall into the water. Most often, the disease manifests itself on the outer edges of the fins, and only then affects the cells throughout the body.

Pseudomonosis - peptic ulcer, characteristic of many species of aquarium fish, the causative agent of which are aquatic microorganisms from the group of pseudomonads. These organisms can get into the aquarium with the soil, plants, infected fish. With the disease on the body of the fish dark spots are formed with their further transformation into bloody ulcers. And already through these ulcers in the body of the fish the doors for other viral infections are open. It is best to treat the fish in a separate quarantine tank without plants. For treatment use a solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 0.5 grams per 10 liters of water. In such a composition, the infected fish is kept for 15 minutes. if you do not have a quarantine aquarium, then the infected fish can be treated in the general aquarium with bicillin-5, contributing 500,000 U of the preparation per 100 liters of water, repeated every other day at least six times.

Aeromonosis - an infectious disease, usually caused by the bacterium Aeromonos punctata, develops in very polluted and cold aquariums.

Sick fish become inactive, fall on the ground and do not eat. They have a swelling of the abdomen and a "flapping" of the scales. There are blood leaks all over the body and fin. This disease is very contagious and difficult to cure. In this connection, it is often recommended to completely disinfect the aquarium and destroy the fish.

A beautiful photo of a collection of pearl gourami

Interesting video about gourami pearl

fanfishka.ru

Marble gourami - the favorite of aquarists

Those who love nature and wildlife, it is very good to have an aquarium in the house. Having joined a huge community of aquarists is not always easy to navigate in the world of fish. There are a great many species of them on earth, however, they all need to create individual conditions for them, including marble ones.

What does a fish look like

This interesting species of fish hails from Southeast Asia. His relatives in the wild, identical in shape, but not in color. This unique, amazing, beautiful, sophisticated color and design of the fish was derived by the method of selection, i.e. artificially. Nevertheless, they breed well in captivity, unpretentious in content, subject to good aeration and lush vegetation in the aquarium. This species of fish lives for a relatively long time - more than 4 years. Beginner aquarists can afford, content, breeding a decorative look. Since all the necessary qualities for this are preserved in the genes of this species. They are hardy, like their wild relatives, who in nature in their southern latitudes live in the most inappropriate places for ordinary fish. The selection view has not changed in shape, the gourami marble has a body extended in length and flattened-compressed laterally. Remembering the geometry, this body looks like an oval. All fins are round, only the abdominal ones look like thin and long mustaches with which the fish gropes for objects. Pectoral fins are colorless. The dorsal, anal fins and tail are dark gray. The base of the body is dark blue or silver-blue with a pattern, resembling marble stains. Its size is from 10 cm to 15 cm. There is one more feature of this fish: if there is not enough oxygen in the aquarium, it will survive with gourami, because it can breathe atmospheric air. Males differ from females in greater grace, large fin on the back, and they are somewhat larger in size.

View content

Keeping fish is not difficult. For a start, you can get 5-6 young individuals and settle them in an aquarium up to 50 l. If the aquarium is with a lid, then its tight fit is unacceptable, because gurammramorny needs atmospheric air. It is necessary to maintain the optimal distance between the lid and the surface of the water - from 5-9 cm. It is necessary to maintain approximately the same temperature of the water in the aquarium and the room, because, breathing "cold" air, the gourami can get sick. After some time, the fish should be placed in a larger reservoir.

These are heat-loving fish, accustomed to the Asian climate, and the water temperature in the aquarium should not fall below 24 ° C *. Also, it is necessary to withstand other parameters - the acidity and hardness of water. The filter is obligatory, but in the "moderate" mode, and aeration is necessary, if there are other types of fish in the aquarium, but if gourami live on their own, then aeration is not necessary. In this case, replace each week about 5th part of the volume of water in the tank.

It is necessary to equip the reservoir with light in the upper part, and install a domestic pond so as to allow the morning sun to the fish. Dark ground is recommended for advantageous shading of fish colors:

  • from pebbles;
  • granite chips;
  • coarse sand.

Plant thick vegetation in it, having previously grouped it on the sides of the aquarium. This is in order to have a swim. If you plan to breed fish, then floating plants are also necessary, because duckweed, salvinia. Their gourami uses to build a nest, without this reproduction is impossible. In this periodwithIt will take care of decorative structures - snags, clay structures. There gourami love to hide, they serve as shelter.

Eats gourami marble all available food:

  • alive;
  • frozen;
  • vegetable;
  • dry.

They must be all thoroughly shredded. After all, the mouth of the fish is small and large food they do not swallow. They love variety, and without food they can live a whole week without pain.

Breeding species

Reproduction of the species is possible at the age of about a year. Marble freshwater gourae can breed, but for this fish create special conditions. Reproduction is not an easy process, but under certain conditions, it is quite possible. Spawning should be at least 30 liters. It should be a lot of plants. The water temperature is higher, 3-4 degrees higher than in the aquarium. The height of the water in such an aquarium is up to 15 cm. It is not necessary to place the soil, but it is necessary to withstand the acidity and hardness of the water, 10 and 7 units, respectively. Do not overdo it with the light and do not let it spontaneously spawn in the general aquarium.

It is important to do breeding in a timely manner. A female and a male (to determine the floor in advance) for 1-2 weeks are deposited in a breeding ground. At this time, the male begins to build a nest (1-2 days) in the corner of an aquarium of plants, fastening them in a special way. During this period, it is necessary to provide the fish with abundant feeding, preferably with tasty live food. Breeding is impossible to carry out without observing the rules of feeding.

After that, he starts the mating games: dissolve the fins, drive the female, present himself until the female arrives at the nest, settles beneath it. Then the male begins to help her lay eggs spraying-squeezing movements, immediately seeding her. Usually eggs are deposited up to 800 pcs. The male carefully collects them with his mouth, and arranges eggs in the center of the nest. A large number of eggs does not mean that they all turn into fry. Most of the eggs die almost immediately, and many more fish die by fry.

The female is not involved in the care of offspring, its role is reproduction and laying of eggs. It should be immediately after its laying, to separate the female, so that the male does not destroy it. He remains himself and at this time does not eat anything. It is important to keep the water temperature around 27 С *, its lowering will lead to a negative consequence, since the male can destroy the fry and destroy the nest. He is cleaned on the 3-1 day after hatching the fry, otherwise he may eat them. Juveniles are fed live, but carefully crushed to dust feed.

Gourami - the best fish in the aquarium

After the fish grow up well and they will not be threatened by anything, including parents, who sometimes travel their offspring, they are resettled in a common aquarium. On this reproduction, as the procedure is completed. But the fry, too, must be sorted by size. Quite small ones should not be moved to a common reservoir. Yet the danger for them is high there, they can be taken for food.

In general, the marble gourami peaceful. But males rivalry is inevitable. Therefore, it is recommended to have 3 females per 1 male. Many species of fish get along with gourami, except frank and large predators. Since they grow to the optimal size of aquarium fish, they have virtually no enemies. Recommended for cohabitation are those types of fish that have the same temperament and character, as well as size. If you follow all the tips and recommendations, gourami will feel comfortable with all their relatives.

This type of ornamental fish will decorate any aquarium, because such a color in a transparent and illuminated aquarium is very noticeable. It is interesting to watch this species of fish. They create the impression of curious, looking at them, it seems that they are interested in everything that happens, observe, examine and study their world. The owners get used to them, because their gentle and good-natured temper captivates anyone. Rarely fish behave like the owners of the aquarium, on the contrary, they are hospitable and peaceful.

Unpretentious gourami - great neighbors

Gourami are small fish of the Macropod family, a suborder Labyrinth fish. Many species are endemics of Southeast Asia, prefer calm waters with a slow current. Gourami in these regions are of industrial importance, but in many aquariums in the world they are ornamental fish. They have a peaceful and calm character, small body size, to keep them simple even for a beginner aquarist. Gourami practically do not show aggression towards their neighbors in the "house", most often they are in conflict with each other. To settle them in a common nursery, you must understand the peculiarities of their character.


Character

These fish will not deliberately disturb their neighbors, chase and eat their fry, as they eat only small food. Females often hide in shelters or dense vegetation, sometimes they swim up to the upper layers of water in order to get air from the surface. In males, the character is unpredictable, sometimes flimsy and aggressive, but they are poorly protected from predatory species, if there are such in the aquarium. They are easy to grab for thin thread-like fins of the abdominal part.

It is important that they live well with other fish, their character unpretentious and peaceful. If you want to save them a prosperous life, take care of good-neighborly settlement.

Are compatible with each other?

Interspecific differences arise between them, during which they clarify the hierarchical roles or protect the territory. Aquarium gourami are practically incompatible with other members of their family. Naturally, when representatives of one species get along, but this does not apply to this species. Here everything is much more complicated. They constantly vie for the attention of the females, if there are few females in the aquarium for the male, he will not create a pair.

See how they fight gourami.

The fight between males can be extremely dangerous and lead to strong aggression, even worse than the attack of fish of another species. Compatibility is possible if one male and 2-3 females are placed in the tank for him. Then all the inhabitants will remain unharmed and happy. The labyrinth fins are usually thin and long, so they are easy to capture during rivalry.


Compatibility with other species

Aquarium gouras can live with other fish even better than with their closest congeners.Compatibility is possible with peaceful small fish that will swim in the middle and lower layers of water. There are also a number of representatives of the underwater world, with whom the gurus easily get along. Compatibility is possible with neons, iris, danios, battles, swordtails, tetras, catfish, minors. Representatives of the families of cichlids and scalar also get along with gourami.

It is not recommended to settle with large predators, with fast and active fish, playful. This applies to species that can pluck fins and constantly interfere, among them: barbs, cichlids, roosters, parrots fish, astronotus, goldfish.

Compatibility is not possible with discus, shrimp, guppy, since there will be a confrontation between them, or some will be eaten by others.


The following factors may cause conflicts between gouras and unrelated fish species:

  • Bright color or long, fluffy fins that attract caring neighbors. They can tear off the fins, or destroy the "handsome";
  • Disproportionate fish need space for swimming and life, if some fish swim at the upper layers, others at the bottom, this does not lead to collisions;
  • Insufficient aquarium volume and lack of personal swimming space, insufficient number of plants and shelters;
  • The main cause of conflict is the appearance of superiority in size, large aquarium fish immediately notice small fish, perceiving them for food.

Look at the aquarium with gourami, scalar and speckled catfish.

Compatibility criteria

To understand whether compatibility between species is possible, it is necessary to become familiar with the criteria of full, partial compatibility and incompatibility. With full compatibility, you can safely observe the life of fish, with partial threats of rivalry, in the absence of compatibility as such, fish do not need to be placed in one aquarium at all.

Couples gourami and fish compatibility:

  • Scalar and gourami: fully compatible
  • Barbus: partially compatible
  • Petushki: incompatible
  • African cichlids: incompatible
  • South American cichlids: incompatible
  • Corridors: fully compatible
  • Danio: fully compatible
  • Discusses: partially compatible
  • Lost: Partially compatible
  • Goldfish: incompatible
  • Gourami: partially
  • Guppy: Partially
  • Koi carps: incompatible
  • Botsii: fully
  • Mollies: fully
  • Astronotus: incompatible
  • Percylia: fully
  • Plekostomusy: fully
  • The iris: fully
  • Rasbory: fully
  • Labeo: completely
  • Swordtails: fully
  • Tetras: fully
  • Acne: Partial
  • Piranhas: incompatible
  • Shrimp: incompatible
  • Floating aquarium plants: fully

See also: How to care for chocolate gouras?

Pearl gourami care spawn photo video reproduction description

Pearl gourami care and maintenance

Aquarium. To maintain this species, you must have an aquarium that can accommodate more than 50 liters. This volume is enough for 6-7 pieces (2-3 males need 1 males). If there is a cap in the aquarium, it should not fit snugly, as air must be constantly circulated. For a layer of soil (5-6 cm) take a large river sand, suitable for the structure of algae growing in the aquarium.

Vegetation. These small fish love to hide and build their nests in the undergrowth, so lush, bushy vegetation is suitable for their maintenance: hendeer, valisneria, peristolistnik.

Do not use too many plantations, leave them a place to swim.

On the surface, you can expand the duckweed, collecting it in the islands. Just watch out for its growth: it should not cover the entire surface of the water so that the fish have access to the air.

Water parameters. Gourami love heat, so be attentive to the temperature of their habitat. It must be 24-27 ° C, otherwise the fish may get sick. Best of all, if the aquarium will be equipped with a heater with a thermostat. Try to regularly replace the water (25% of the volume of the aquarium per week).

Compatibility. Keeping them with other species is problematic. But it's not about the character of the gourays, and you can't call them fighting men. The case in the neighbors, which may attract their fins, like worms. If you still want to add other fish to them, find out if they are not aggressive or predatory, otherwise the gourami will not get along with them. Such undesirable neighbors include swordtails, barbs, some types of cichlids and haracin.

GURAMI-LEAVING CONTENTS DESCRIPTION NON-SPARE COMPATIBILITY.

Reproduction of aquarium fish pearl gourami

If gourami males begin to build a nest of foam, then they are ready for reproduction. Usually, this happens at the age of a year. The male can and should be helped. Firstly, the water level in the aquarium during this period should not exceed 15 cm. Secondly, it needs building materials - it is therefore advisable to put small floating plants in the spawning grounds. They will also help the female to hide from the annoying grooming of the male after spawning.

Breeding gourami can and in the general aquarium. But if this does not happen, then reproduction must begin with the "moving" of the male from the main aquarium to the spawning ground. In a spawn of 15–20 l, there should be standing water so that the constructed nest does not collapse, the water temperature is heated to 28–29 ° C.

The male spends all his time around the nest, whose diameter reaches 7 cm. This is the future place for posterity. When the male has already acquired such a place, the female is transplanted to it.

Pregnant gourami looks like other pregnant fish - it has a rounded belly. And the male sees it. If the female is ready to spawn, then he immediately begins to care for her in every possible way, changes color and becomes especially beautiful. If the female is not ready, she can drive to the loss of her tail and fins or even to death. Before spawning, growers feed hard.

The process of mating pearl gourami

Mating gourami looks very funny: the male as if invites the female to the nest, and when she finally agrees, they settle down together under this shelter. The male turns his girlfriend upside down to the nest and squeezes her eggs from her, at the same time fertilizing. After that, he releases the female, and he picks up the eggs that have fallen to the bottom of the aquarium and returns them to the nest. It squeezes the male from the female several times, and each time it is harder for him to push the female under the nest. The male is angry and becomes aggressive, the female hides in the grass thickets. Spawning process can take up to 4 hours.

PEARLY GURAMI PHOTO

Growing fry gourami

After spawning, it is better to immediately remove the female, otherwise an angry father, protecting his nest and offspring, can throw out his aggression on her. The male gourami is actually engaged in the cultivation of fry. Eggs not bad keep in a foam nest, but if suddenly they sink, the male immediately reacts and returns them back. A day or two fry hatch. The incubation time depends on the temperature of the water, for which you need to constantly monitor: if the male feels wrong, he can stop taking care of the fry and destroy them. Also during this period he is not given any food. The father is left in the aquarium until the offspring learn to calmly blurred around the aquarium. A hungry dad "moves" back to the general aquarium, the nest without it begins to collapse, but it is no longer needed by the small gurus. Feed the fry gourami should be infusoria and zooplankton.

Breeding pearl gourami, one of the most beautiful species, is a little more difficult. It is recommended during the spawning period to be very sensitive to what is happening in spawning, in any case not to disturb the fish.

The reproduction of other varieties - gourami marble, blue, honey, etc. passes under the same scenario.

DESCRIPTION

PEARLY GURAMI Characteristic of external features

This fish has a rather high body, shape gourami pearl is flatter in the lateral area and drawn out in length. The body of the fish has a magnificent color of silver-purple color, a variety of nacre spots are located throughout the body and the fin zone, and a dark stripe stretches along the body. The name of this fish is due to the presence of spots, because they are very similar to pearls. The length of the fish is eleven centimeters. Pearl goura females are smaller than males in size and have a light color. Compared with female individuals, males are more elongated dorsal and anal fin. The chest and abdomen of males during the spawning process have a bright red-red color.

PEARLY GURAMI Habitat features

Have unique beauty pearl gourami, they are distinguished by their peaceful and quiet temperament, but the fish are rather shy. They live comfortably in an aquarium with various species of fish and calm in nature. Providing comfortable living conditions for these fish is quite simple, because they are unpretentious. Convenient aquarium for pearl gourami will be a pond of 40 liters in volume, filled with many plants and all kinds of shelters that are so necessary for fish. For them, dark ground will also be the most pleasant. Do not forget to leave the fish free space in the aquarium, where they can swim, and it is also important to maintain clean water and natural lighting. The following water parameters are comfortable for these fish: temperature in the range of 23 to 27 degrees, hardness not more than 16 °, and pH 6.0-7.0. Once a week you should filter and aerate the water, and also replace at least 30%. Moth, tubule, daphnia, i.e. live food, are suitable as food for gourami pearls; nevertheless, dry food is also suitable for feeding fish.

PEARLY GURAMI PHOTO

PEARL GURAMI Appearance

Despite the name, fish of this species are not only pearl colors. There are also gold, blue, marble and honey shades. The most popular among our aquarium fish lovers are marble and pearl due to the unusual color.

Marble specimens have a blue tint and a pattern similar to marble stains.

Pearlfish are distinguished by a silver-purple color, and the spotted pattern resembles a placer of pearls.

Usually a pearl gourami along the body is a narrow strip of dark color, and the fins have a rich blue-blue color. The front part of the body is bright orange, and during spawning it is painted in males with a fiery red color.

The body is oblong, compressed from the sides. The adult individual reaches 10-11 cm in length. The female and the male are distinguished by the dorsal fins (in males it is longer and pointed at the end, in females it has a rounded shape and is much shorter), as well as in size (males are larger). The mouth is rather small, so they should be given only small food.

VIDEO PEARL BY HURAMS

PEARL GURAMI BREEDING

MOLLINESIA CONTENTS FEEDING COMPATIBILITY SPREADS CARE DESCRIPTION

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