Thirsty - fidget in a black skirt
Ternesia (Latin Gymnocorymbus ternetzi) is an unusual aquarium fish, which is well suited for beginners, as it is hardy, undemanding, and very easy to get divorced. Especially good ternation looks in the general aquarium, as it is active and mobile. However, it can pull the fins of other fish, so you should not keep it with veil forms or with fish that have long fins.
The common termination is a schooling fish and it feels good in the group. It is better to keep in a flock of 7 individuals, and the more there will be them, the better. Aquariums with dense vegetation, but also free places for swimming, are well suited for maintenance.
In addition to the classic version, now also ternation with veil fins, albinos and caramel are popular. The difference between the caramel termination and the classic one is that this fish is artificially painted in bright colors. However, all these morphs do not differ in content from the classical form. Only with caramels you need to be careful, after all, interference with nature significantly weakens the fish.
Habitat in nature
Ternesia was first described in 1895. Fish common and not listed in the Red Book. It lives in South America, home to the Paraguay and Guaporé rivers, where it inhabits the upper layers of the water, feeding on insects that have fallen on the water, aquatic insects and their larvae. These tetras prefer the slow waters of small rivers, streams, and tributaries, which are well shaded by the crowns of trees. At the moment, they are almost not exported, since most of the terntions are bred on farms.
The ternation has a high and flat body. They grow up to 5.5 cm, and they start spawning already at a size of 4 cm. Life expectancy under good conditions is about 3-5 years.
The ternation is distinguished by two vertical black stripes running along its body and large dorsal and anal fins. Her anal card is a business card, as it resembles a skirt and very much highlights the termination among other fish. Adults become somewhat paler and turn grayish instead of black.
Other fashionable options are:
- The veil of thorns, which was first bred in Europe. It is very often found on sale, it is no different in content from the classical form, but it is somewhat more difficult to breed because of intragenital crossing.
- Albino, is less common, but again, no different except for coloring.
- Caramel ternets are artificially colored colored fish, a fashionable trend in modern aquarism. They need to be kept with caution, as the chemistry in the blood has not made anyone healthier. Plus, they are massively imported from farms in Vietnam, and this is a long road and the risk of catching a particularly strong type of fish disease.
Difficulty in content
Ternetia is very unpretentious and well suited for novice aquarists. It adapts well, feeds on any feed. Suitable for general aquariums, provided that it will not be contained with fish having veil fins.
Extremely unpretentious in feeding, thorns will eat all kinds of live, frozen or artificial feed. High-quality flakes can form the basis of nutrition, and in addition can be fed with any live or frozen feed, for example, bloodworms or artemia.
Content in an aquarium
Since the termination is a very active fish, you need to keep them in spacious aquariums, from 60 liters. They love soft and sour water, but during the breeding period they adapted to different conditions. Also prefer to have floating plants on the surface, and the light was dim. Do not forget to cover the aquarium, they jump well and can die.
They look perfect in an aquarium with a natural biotope. The sandy bottom, an abundance of koryag and fallen leaves at the bottom, which make the water brownish and acidic.
Aquarium care is standard for all fish. Weekly water changes, up to 25% and filter availability. Water parameters may be different, but preferred: water temperature 22-36C, ph: 5.8-8.5, 5 ° to 20 ° dH.
Thorns are very active and can be semi-aggressive, cutting off fins to fish. This behavior can be reduced by keeping them in a flock, then they focus more on their fellow tribesmen. But everything, with fish like cockerel or angelfish, is better not to hold them. Good neighbors will be viviparous, danios, cardinals, black neons and other medium-sized and active fish.
You can distinguish a male from a female by fins. In males, the dorsal fin is longer and pointed. And the females are fuller and their anal fin skirt is much wider.
Male of thorns
Breeding and breeding
Breeding begins with the selection of a couple aged and active. Younger couples may also spawn, but efficacy is higher in mature individuals. Selected couple seated and richly fed with live food.
Spawning from 30 liters, with very soft and sour water (4 dGH and less), dark soil and small-leaved plants. Light is necessarily dim, very diffused or twilight. If the aquarium is heavily lit, cover the front glass with a sheet of paper.
Spawning begins in the morning. The female lays several hundred sticky eggs on the plants and decor. As soon as spawning is over, the pair needs to be transplanted, as they can eat caviar and fry. It is easy to feed fry, for this purpose any small feeds for fry will be suitable.
Fish aquarium terniya
The aquarium fish, terne caramel, came to us from the rivers of Paraguay and Argentina just recently in 1993. She got acclimatized in the new environment, reproduces well, and it is not difficult to care for her.
A small guest from the Western Hemisphere, the owner of a small - from four to five centimeters - egg-shaped body, compressed laterally, her eyes are yellow. On the back there is a high short membrane fin, and at the tail - fat and small. From the middle of the belly of the caramel goes anal fin.
The nature has dressed caramel thorn in olive-green outfit. Black stripes with wide corners picked up the main coloring. One dark band goes through the eyes, the other through the gills, and the third rises to the dorsal fin. The pectoral fins of a foreign fish, as well as its tail, are transparent white. The anal and spinal are quite dark.
It should be noted, breeders have tried: today, red and veil varieties of caramels have been bred.
To distinguish between "boys" and "girls", you need to look at the tail - in males it is white at the end. In addition, female caramel fish are larger than males and slightly lighter.
The young aquarium fish, ternetium caramel, is distinguished by a brighter color contrast, and black stripes are clearer. With age, the color fades, but during the breeding season caramel thistle blooms again.
Why is the second name stuck to the Latin American caramel? Ternetia caramel - a color albino aquarium fish, which is injected with a solution of water with fluorescent paints. The solution enters the bloodstream, which spreads the paint to the muscles and completely changes their color. Sometimes even fins get a shade. Then the newly-made caramel is released into clean water, where she begins to get used to life in a new outfit.
Unfortunately, these painted water creatures do not last long. Yes, and with the reproduction of colorful fry does not work.
Care for terns
The aquarium fish ternetia caramel is hardy and brisk and requires large aquarium sizes and a large number of plants. Water temperature suitable for life varies from 22 to 25 degrees Celsius. Acidity should be 6-7 pH, and water hardness - 5-10 dH.
Caring for ternation is also simple because it has a peaceful nature, it gets along perfectly with other representatives of the aquatic fauna, and its neighbors do not affect its ability to reproduce.
Friendly caramel keeps flocks, and alone becomes aggressive. If you decide to add a termination to other species, choose for her cohabitants not too small and not much larger in size, otherwise she will start to bite their fins.
In food, fish caramel unpretentious. She perfectly assimilates dry food. Adult caramels eat vegetable, live, dry and combined food. "Youth" is fed infusoria, artemia. Fry that have just started to explore the water spaces of the aquarium can be fed with powdered milk.
Aquarium fish terntion - reproduction
If the water house of your favorite caramel lush vegetation and good aeration, it multiplies easily. Also, for more active breeding, the male and the female of ternation are fed with bloodworms, and the rest of the food must be removed from the water. After spawning, adult individuals are better off to seed, so that the eggs are not eaten. Fry appear after three days. To feed them you need a special small food. The children of the peace-loving aquarium fish are divided in size and seated so that they do not start to feast on each other.
Fish ternation: description, reproduction, care
Thorns is an unusual fish that is easy to keep in aquariums. It is unpretentious, agile, does not require special care, so it is ideal for those who are just starting to get animals at home. It is interesting to observe terrence because it does not sit still, constantly studying the filling of its house with water.
Description of the species
Ternesia is a well-known fish among aquarists. Thermal, with a peaceful character. Currently, its popularity, unfortunately, has declined slightly. This fish has a flat and high body, something resembling a rhombus, strongly flattened on both sides. Thorns can grow up to 6 cm in height in natural conditions, in aquariums, as a rule, they are smaller in size. They live with good care for about 4 years, in nature - less, because they are attacked by other fish. The tail fin resembles a fork, the ventral is similar in appearance to a fan for women. It is curious that young thorns have a richer body color than individuals of old age.
At home, aquarium fish feeds on virtually any food, which is very good for novice aquarists. It can easily be contained in aquarium of different shapes. It is undesirable to let the ternsii into the reservoir, where aquarium fishes with veil fins are already swimming, in order to avoid collisions between individuals. In the photo, the terns swim in the aquarium alone or with fish similar to them.
This fish has several possible color options:
- Classical. Silver body with two vertical stripes.
- Veil aquarium fish. This species was first bred in European countries. Not often found on sale. The photo is not much different from the classic terntion, the only thing that is difficult to breed.
- Albumin ternetia It is extremely rare, different white, transparent color.
- The most fashionable of this type is termination caramel. It is an artificially bred variety. Why so popular? Thanks to its unusual multicolored artificial color. Difficult to maintain, as derived by chemistry. Mainly imported from Vietnam, where their reproduction is put on stream.
How to maintain and care
Curing can be kept in any tank with water, however, it is desirable to place it in a large volume aquarium. In the photo from the galleries with fish, they are all contained in large water pools. The temperature of the water can be kept around 23 degrees Celsius, and the acidity - 5-7 pH.
Care for aquatic creatures is quite simple. They have a peaceful disposition, neighbors in the aquarium do not affect the ability of this fish to breed. It is not worthwhile to push only very small fish to it, since the terns may grab them by the fins.
You can feed the classic fish food sold in all pet stores. It is inexpensive, enough for a long time. For adults, ternations, besides dry food, can be given live, vegetable and mixed feed. Young individuals - infosoria, and the fry - dry milk, which they willingly eat.
Reproduction of termination
The following conditions must be met at the same time for breeding these inhabitants of aquariums: attaining maturity, which is 8 months old, and a total body length of about 4 cm. Too young or, conversely, too old individuals that are short in size are not suitable for breeding. We describe how the breeding of fish.
- An aquarium with low walls is taken, with a volume of about 35 +/- 5 liters. The bottom must be covered with plants. For example, moss, mackerel, nitella or others. Next you need to fill the spawning area with fresh water, and its level should not exceed 7 cm. The temperature should be about 25 degrees Celsius. Lighting is allowed natural.
- Wait for about 5 days until the water becomes suitable for planting fish into it.
- As a rule, at first individuals will not be ready to breed. Feel hard on them with bloodworms, watch for the feeding of all the larvae. This is done to ensure that ternatsii were ready for reproduction, females recruited eggs, and males - milt.
- In the process, the males will follow the females. The eggs roasted over the plant layer will be fertilized. About 40 eggs are swept at a time. Over the entire period of spawning - more than 1000 units.
- When spawning is over, the fish must be placed in a free space from the plants. It is necessary to isolate the terntions almost immediately after spawning, since hungry producers can start searching for food by destroying the eggs.
- If it is good to feed a couple of heterosexual individuals, then it is capable of reproduction 4-6 times, interrupted for 2 weeks.
- The incubation period for spawn roe is up to 24 hours, an average of 19 hours. In order to avoid losses among the hatched individuals, it is necessary to bring the water temperature to 27 degrees, as the fish are thermophilic. Small thorns are small in size, they can be seen when it hangs on the glass of a tank with water and plants.
Due to the simplicity in breeding, peaceful disposition and low cost, terntiony became popular with aquarists. Take a closer look at them, even if you are a newcomer to such a thing. Colored caramel will delight you with its color and decorate your interior.
Ternesia is a fish from the family of haracins from the South American continent, also known as the black tetra or the mourning tetra. This fish has become popular all over the world due to its subtle beauty and fertility. Compatibility with a large assortment of fish in the aquarium and simple breeding are also the reason for its widespread celebrity.
Scientific experiments conducted on ternenii, served to the removal of genetically modified individuals that can shine under ultraviolet light. Fragments of jellyfish or red coral DNA were inserted into their DNA, as a result of which their color became multi-colored.
These types include termination caramel or multicolor. Coloring injections are given to albino fish forms, giving them bright iridescent shades of gold, pink, green or blue. Multicolor termination is capable of breeding quite healthy offspring, like other transgenic forms of these fish.
Ternesia looks very effective. The body shape is flat and rhomboid, flattened on the sides. On the back there are 2 fins, one of which is fat and does not have hard rays. The anal fin is fork-like, and the ventral stretches to the very tail, resembling a fan or skirt. In size, aquarium fish reaches 4-6 cm.
Looking at this fish, it seems that it is painted with magic silver colors with a greenish shimmer on the back, and 3 transverse stripes are painted against the background of the body. One band crosses the eye, which has a yellow iris, the second is located behind the gill cover, and the third passes from the edge of the dorsal fin to half of the body.
Young individuals are painted more brightly in silver color, and in adults there are clearly pronounced dark stripes. Males are smaller and slimmer than females, the edge of the tail fin is outlined with white edging. Terrestinia can change color when frightened or the deterioration of their conditions of detention. The life of a black tetra is 3-4 years.
Care in the aquarium
Thorns is a peace-loving and schooling fish, unable to bear the loneliness, from which it becomes aggressive. The content of ternation is not particularly difficult. It is recommended to keep fish in a closed aquarium of 30-40 liters for 5-7 termination. For soil suitable river sand, pebbles and fine gravel. The darker the substrate, the brighter the fish will look on its background.
Plants should not block the space, so it is better to choose small-leaved, planting them bushes. A good combination will be with Javanese moss, Echinodorus, hygrophilic, cryptocoryne. Water temperature is 21-24 ° С, hardness is 7-8 °, acidity is 6.5-7, filtration is important. The lighting should be dim, otherwise the black tetra will look pale. The fish is sensitive to lack of oxygen, therefore, artificial aeration and water replacement 1/5 part weekly is necessary.
Because of the special physical structure of the mouth, it is difficult for small fish to take food from the bottom, so a special feeder is installed for them. These fish are unpretentious in food, they feed on any food, vegetable, combined, dry food will be suitable for adult fish. Cyclops, daphnia, rotifers, pipe creeper, small bloodworm, and corret are suitable as live food.
Ternets float on all water levels and are very mobile. In a spacious container it is kept on the territory without thickets, and in a small aquarium it takes shelter in plants. For decoration snags, stones and caves are appropriate.
Dilution of terntions at home is not difficult. Black tetras are quite prolific creatures, they have a pair spawning, although pack spawning is often practiced. The reproduction of ternations requires a separate spawning area of 30 liters, preferably oblong. The bottom is covered with small-leaved plants and a kapron net to avoid eating the eggs by the parents.
Spawning occurs rapidly, the water parameters change: hardness up to 4 °, temperature 25-26 ° С, acidity 7. A week before spawning, it is recommended that the male and female be kept separate. Spawning occurs as follows: first, the male is planted in the tank, and the female is placed in a few hours later. During this period, you need to feed them with bloodworms.
The spawning itself takes place on days 3-6, when the female will pick up enough eggs, and the male will milk. The male chases the female for 2-3 hours, after which spawning begins. Females lay from 1000 eggs, at the end of the producers it is necessary to plant.
Termination larvae hatch in about a day, and after 3-5 days the fry begin to swim and take food. Infusoria, Nauplii Artemia are well suited. Puberty of terntions occurs by 6-8 months.
Neighborhood in the aquarium
Peaceful behavior black tetra and compatibility with many fish is great for a mixed aquarium. Good compatibility with terns for gourami, swordtails, cardinals, petilias, catfish, discus, scalar.
Unfavorable compatibility with cichlids, barbs and other aggressive species. Smaller species can hurt their voile fins, and the crested itself can bite fish larger than itself.
Ternets are quite resistant to diseases, but parasites must be avoided in the aquarium. To maintain hygiene, it is recommended that new fish and plants be quarantined for at least 3 weeks.
A decrease in the acidity of water can lead to acidosis, and an untimely change of water increases the concentration of ammonia, which leads to disease of acetamia.
In any case, it is possible to understand the health of the fish by changing its external signs, for it is necessary to diagnose it accurately. Self-treatment of the disease is carried out by standard means as for other fish: by raising the temperature to 30 ° C and by salt baths.
Common ternetia, and even more voiley, will look presentable in any aquarium and will decorate it with its presence. Even the most beginner aquarists can cope with the content of the black tetra, especially considering its compatibility with many other aquarium inhabitants. Her smooth movements and modest temper, not to mention the attractive prettiness, will deliver a truly aesthetic pleasure to the owner.
Minor or serpas is a beautiful but snooty fish.
Minor (lat. Hyphessobrycon serpae) or serpas is a beautiful fish that looks like a small and mobile flame in an aquarium. And it’s impossible to take your eyes off the beak minor. The body is large, red, black spot immediately behind the gill cover, giving them a very noticeable appearance.
In addition, the minors are very attractive, they are also unpretentious, like many types of tetras. Keep them in a flock, from 6 individuals, with other fish suitable in size and activity. The disadvantages include a somewhat hooligan nature, they can stalk and cut off fins to slow or veil fish.
Habitat in nature
Minor or Serpas long-flipper (Hyphessobrycon eques, and previously Hyphessobrycon minor) was first described in 1882. It lives in South America, home to Paraguay, Brazil, and Guiana. A fairly common fish found in stagnant water, with a large number of plants: tributaries, ponds, small lakes. Keep near the surface of the water, where they feed on insects, their larvae and particles of plants. Minor live in flocks, but often arrange fights with each other and bite the fins.
The body structure is typical for tetras, narrow and high. Minors grow up to 4 cm in length, and live in an aquarium for 4-5 years. The body color is bright red with bright reflections. The black spot is also characteristic, immediately behind the gill cover. The fins are black, with white edging on the edge. Also there is a form with elongated fins, veil.
Difficulty in content
Serpas is very often on sale, as it is very popular with aquarists. They are unpretentious, live in small volumes and in principle are not difficult fish. Although it is very easy to care for them, however, they themselves can become a problem, chasing and cutting off fins to slow fish. Because of this, you need to be cautious when choosing neighbors.
Minor aquarium fish eat all kinds of live, frozen and artificial food. They can be fed with high-quality flakes, and the bloodworm and the strawberry can be given periodically for a more complete diet. Note that the tetras have a small mouth and you need to choose smaller feeds.
Content in an aquarium
Minors are quite unpretentious fish that need to be kept in a pack of 6 pieces. For such a flock of 50-70 liters is enough. As for the other tetras, for minor, you need clean water, and dim lighting. It is advisable to install a filter that, in addition to water purification, will create a small flow. Mandatory regular water changes, about 25% per week. And dim lighting can be done by floating plants on the surface of the water.
Water for the content of a minor is preferably soft and sour: ph: 5.5-7.5, 5 - 20 dGH, temperature 23-27С. However, it is so widespread that it has already adapted to different conditions and parameters.
Compatible with other fish
Minor aquarium fish are considered good fishes for common aquariums, but this is not the case. Only if they live with large and fast fish. Fishes that are smaller than them will be the object of persecution and terror. The same can be said about slow fish with large fins. For example, cockerels or scalar. They will be constantly tugging at the fins until the fish gets sick or dies.
Good neighbors for them will be: danios, black neons, barbs, akantoftalmusy, antsistrusy.
In a group, the character of a minor is somewhat softened, since the hierarchy is built and attention is shifted to relatives. In this case, the males are satisfied with the view that they are fighting with each other, but do not hurt each other.
Aquarium with a bunch of veil serpasov:
Determine where the male and where the female in a minor is quite difficult. The most pronounced difference in the time before spawning. Males in minor are brighter, more slender and their back fin is completely black. In females it is paler, and they are fuller even when they are not ready for spawning.
Males of voile form
Dilute a minor is quite simple. They can breed in pairs and in groups with approximately equal numbers of males and females. The key to successful breeding is to create the necessary conditions in a separate aquarium and select healthy producers.
For spawning suitable small aquarium, with very low light, and bushes of small-leaved plants, for example, in Javanese moss. Water should be soft, no more than 6-8 dGH, and a pH of about 6.0. Water temperature 27C.
The selected producers are abundantly fed, giving preference to a variety of live feeds. Males become more active and brightly colored, and females are noticeably getting fat. Spawning begins at dawn, the couple lays eggs on plants. After spawning, fish are deposited, and the aquarium is placed in a dark place, as the caviar is very photosensitive.
In two days, the fry will hatch, and will live off of the yolk sac. As soon as he swam, you need to start feeding him with egg yolk and infusoria. As they grow, larger feeds are transferred to naupilii of artemia.