Mollies - one of the most popular fish
Molliesia (lat. Mollienesia): black, snowflake, veifera, sphenops, latypin - which of these types you name, they are all popular and common in an aquarium and belong to the same species, although they sometimes look very different. And all due to the fact that they have a lot of advantages - they are peaceful, very hardy and unpretentious, inexpensive, and simply multiply. These are purely American fish, as they live in North and South America. Wild species can be divided into two groups - with short fins, such as black molly and with long fins, for example, Velifer molyneziya or marble.
Most species appeared in aquariums in 1899, and various hybrids since 1920. Now you can find black aquarium mollies, snowflakes (completely white or yellow), silver, stained. And the number of diverse species continues to grow and gain popularity.
For novice aquarists, the best choice is the usual black aquarium mollies, as it is less demanding, easier to breed and requires smaller aquariums. For the maintenance of all types you need a well-overgrown aquarium, quite spacious. It is important that in their diet was a lot of plant substances and algae.
Habitat in nature
Molliesia mainly inhabits the coastal areas of North and South America, but are also found at the confluence of rivers into the ocean, in brackish water. Homeland can be called the whole continent, so widespread.
- Types of mollies:
- Black mollies or Sphenops (Poecilia sphenops) lives from Mexico to the northern states of the United States.
- Latipina mollienesia (Poecilia latipinna) lives along the southeastern coast of the United States and in Mexico.
- Velifera (Poecilia velifera) or mollies of high-grade (sailing) hails come from the coastal regions of Yucatan and Mexico.
They all have a wide range, unpretentiousness and omnivorous, which makes them very common in these areas.
Black mollies is one of the species artificially bred in 1930, it reaches the size of 6-10 cm in an aquarium, and up to 20 cm in nature. Life expectancy of about 3 years, but maybe more. The black molly has a completely black body, a deep velvety shade. Often there are forms with a tail fin in the form of a lyre, a black lira.
Latipina grows up to 10 cm in an aquarium, and up to 20 cm in nature. Body color is silver brown, with dark and blue dots. A distinctive feature is the high dorsal fin.
Velifera in general is very similar to the Latipina, but now she has received a new and popular look - they brought out a completely white look - a snowflake.
Simple and unpretentious fish that are well suited for keeping novice aquarists. This is especially true of the popular and popular black molly. Carefully you need to be only with the disk forms or as they are called - the balloon, because of their curved shape, their life expectancy is less than that of normal fish. The fact is that the shape of the balloon is scoliosis, with all the ensuing consequences.
How to feed mollies? Omnivorous fish that eat all kinds of live, frozen or artificial food. But, they need a very large amount of feed with fiber, such as algae or vegetables. The fact is that in nature, mollies fish have a lot of algae and various fouling in the diet, their lips and behavior speak about it. You can often see how they scrape off fouling from glass and decor in an aquarium.
From vegetable feed, the easiest way is to give molly flakes with spriulina, or pieces of slightly boiled cucumbers, zucchini, lettuce leaves. Of the animals - bloodworm, pipe worker, Artemia. In general, there are no problems with feeding mollies, the main thing to remember is that vegetable food is very important for them.
Aquarium maintenance and care
For a few fish, you need about 60 liters, preferably from 100, since you’ll not only keep them. They themselves can grow up to 10 cm, and in very small aquariums they will be cramped.
Water parameters can be very different, as the molls adapt perfectly to local conditions. But it is recommended: water temperature 23-28C, ph: 7.0-8.0, hardness 20 - 30 dGH.
Note that mollies very well tolerate salted water, and many resources even advise to salt it on purpose. Yes, they will not be worse off, but do not forget that they rarely live in an aquarium by themselves, but neighbors can tolerate increased salinity very, very badly. I would recommend resorting to salt only if they live alone or in quarantine purposes in an aquarium.
As for the design of the aquarium, it is completely your choice. It is recommended that there be a lot of plants in it, because mollies love to scrape away plaque and algae from them. It is also desirable that there would be a filter, quite completely internal. Be sure to replace weekly up to 20% of water, as they quickly pollute it. Care for them, as for all other fish: feeding and regular water changes, otherwise they are very unpretentious.
Compatible with other fish
Aquarium fish mollies completely harmless and peaceful fish. Perfect for general aquariums, compatible with any peaceful and small fish. However, you can not keep them with predatory and aggressive species. Other viviparous fishes will be ideal neighbors: guppies, chilias, swordtails.
It is quite simple to distinguish a female from a male. Mollies females are usually larger, with a large and rounded belly. The most accurate difference is the shape of the anal fin, in males it is rolled into a tube (gonopodia), and in females of a triangular shape.
Male, fin tubule and pointed
Breed, as well as guppies, viviparous. That is, the fry is born already fully formed and capable of life, bypassing the stage of the egg. Pregnant mollies nurture the fry for 30-40 days, the easiest way to notice the time from the last birth, and to report the new term. So how to understand whether the female is pregnant only by the degree of rounding of her abdomen. With high probability she will give birth to fry again.
Male (below) and female
For breeding do not need any special conditions, it is enough to keep the females and males together in the general aquarium. Understand when the female became pregnant is quite difficult, especially in black mollies. The simplest thing is to follow her belly, she is significantly getting stout when her fry appear. The female gives birth approximately every 40-45 days, so you can just mark the day of the last birth and wait. To fry did not eat, it is better to transplant the female into a separate aquarium, always with plants.
Fry of mollies that appeared to the world are usually large, and immediately begin to feed. It is very easy to feed him, often quite pounded feed for adult fish. If you want it to grow even faster, then you can feed it with nautils of Artemia and a cut shredder.
Mollies: content, types, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review
Habitat mollies is very wide. In addition, the natural habitats of various types of mollies consist of fresh water, brackish water bays, and even sea coasts. Velifer molliesia populates only lakes and rivers of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Latipina mollies inhabit the brackish waters of Virginia, Florida, Carolina and Texas. Sphinops mollies live in a variety of reservoirs in the territory from Mexico to Colombia.
Latin name: Poecilia.
Comfortable water temperature: it is below 25 degrees, better than 27. Mollies are thermophilic, the temperature drop is poorly tolerated.
PH Acidity: 7-8, which is typical of many viviparous fish - they love a weakly alkaline environment.
Aggressiveness: Peaceful, but nimble - shebby fishes.
How many live: up to 4 years.
The complexity of the content: lekaya
Compatible mollies: viviparous fish - platies, swordtails; labyrinth - gourami, lyalius; non-aggressive and small dwarf cichlids", angelfisheven cockerels (It is worth noting that scalar and cockerel are soft water fish, which is not very similar to the parameters of water for mollies).
The volume of aquarium for mollies
In our opinion, the minimum size of an aquarium for keeping a small group of mollies is 50 liters. These fish are very mobile, so the ideal size for the content of mollies will be 100 liters. Do not keep fish in small and narrow aquariums.
Maintenance and care of mollies
In the aquarium, it is desirable to create a stable biological balance environment. All types of mollies are quite thermophilic and prefer water with a temperature of 25–27 ° C, they do not tolerate temperature fluctuations.
Like all fish, mollies love fresh water, so systematic is desirable - once a week, replacement of aquarium water in a volume of 1/4. This manipulation will ensure the absence of high concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in the aquarium - ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. When making water changes, you need to strictly monitor the temperature regime. Filtration and aeration of water is required.
Most of the time the fish are in the upper and middle layers of the aquarium. Optimally light day for these fish should last at least 12 hours, so you need to equip the aquarium open, well-lit areas. No less important is the presence of stones, koryag, thickets of plants, etc. for shelter.
Mollies is an active fish, moderately friendly. Keep it better in a group with a predominance of females. It can live both in the general aquarium and in a separate one. It gets along well with diverse neighbors. In general, the fish "neighbors" should be about the same size. Between themselves, mollies get along well - intraspecific aggression is poorly pronounced, but at the same time in the close aquarium males can chase each other. Therefore, it is better to provide a spacious aquarium so that at least 10 liters of water are needed per individual.
Mollies are omnivores, their diet should include a sufficient amount of plant food. Feeding any fish should be correct and varied, it is a guarantee of good health. These fish are great to eat any dry and live food. Mollies are very voracious, so it is important not to overfeed them, so as not to have problems with digestion.
Feeding any aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
Types of mollies
Mollies are very diverse in appearance and color. But there are three main types:
Mollies sphenopsor black. Beautiful fish, black as pitch.
Velifers mollies, she sailing or high-grade. This is the largest species - it reaches 10 cm and more, it has a large, kassivny dorsal fin.
Latipina Mollies - "a reduced copy" of the mightiest of the Velifer.
The remaining mollies are variations of these three species, differing in the shape of the caudal and dorsal fins, in coloration, and sometimes in size.
Reproduction and sex differences of male and female mollies
Male from female can be easily distinguished, sexual dimophism is well expressed. In males, anal fins form gonopodia. In the presence of comfortable conditions mollies bring offspring monthly. During reproduction, the male uses gonopodia, in which there is a chute for transferring seminal fluid to the female, and a hook, which allows it to keep better during fertilization, increasing the chances of pregnancy. Sexual maturity is achieved by fish about a year of life for males, for females by half a year.
Pregnancy lasts about one and a half months (35 - 45 days). The signs of a female's pregnancy are a dark spot in the lower abdomen and a raised belly; such a female begins to seek refuge in the nooks of the aquarium. It is advisable that such a female be deposited in a small, spawning aquarium with water whose parameters are identical to the water from the common aquarium.
Spawning occurs usually in the early morning. In large females, up to a hundred fry can be born at the same time, their number depends on the age and size of the female. Fry of mollies are born quite large, they do not rise from the bottom immediately, at first they lie on the bottom and leaves of the plants. Fry mollies are very sensitive to water pollution, so in the aquarium, where they are located, they recommend more frequent water changes than usual. In order to improve the immunity of fry, water can be slightly salted.
For the rapid growth of the fry need a varied diet, they feed "living dust", pounded with high-quality artificial food or special food for fry.
Beautiful photo selection of mollies fish
Interesting video about mollies fish
Mollies content feeding compatibility spawning care description
Content, care and feeding
Mollies, like other viviparous fishes, are very hardy, not complicated in maintenance, unpretentious to the stern. Mollinesia has a dense short body with a strong fin and a bright belly. Females are much larger than males: the body size of males is ten centimeters, females - sixteen centimeters. Yellow-gray color - is the main body tone of individuals, with scattered on it spots of green, blue, black and yellow colors. The sex of individuals is established in the form of a fin - in females it is rounded, in males it is rolled up into a tube, forming genopodia, which is their common organ. Life expectancy of Mollies is five years.
Black Molly requires a volume of water from 60 for normal development and vital activity, and ideally from 100 liters.
Popular types of MOLLINESIA
Here are the most popular types of mollies: black mollies (lira-molly), Velifer mollies, sailing mollies, sailing mollies. Silver mollies (also called snowflake mollies) is a selection form of sailing mollies.
Keep them better in groups or in pairs.
This fish lives mainly in the upper and middle layer of water, loves the water space and light.
The light day of mollies should be at least 12-13 hours. It is useful for fish, if at least a couple of hours a day lighting is natural, but if there is no possibility, then you can do without it.
Of course, she also needs natural shelters: thickets of plants, snags, decorative ornaments that can serve as a refuge.
Mollies feed on all types of dry and live food.
The only condition that helps to maintain the activity and health of these fish is that they definitely need plant fiber.
Therefore, along with others, use vegetarian feed, plant in the aquarium plants with soft leaves, which the fish can eat. You can also feed them in small portions of chopped boiled vegetables.
Another important point in the content of mollies: at home, they live where the river water mixes with the sea water, and therefore they like hard water. If you only have mollies and placilia in your indoor pond, you can even add some salt to the water on purpose. If other fish also live with them, then of course you should not do this. But in the case of illness or quarantine, the fish can be deposited in an aquarium with salted water - so it will come back to normal faster.
Mollies are viviparous fish that become sexually mature between the ages of five and twelve months. When the female collects her calf in her belly, the male inserts her gonopodia into her anus and releases the sperm. The process of fertilization of eggs takes place inside the female. The frequency of sweeping is from twenty-eight to fifty days, and the gestation period is from ten to sixty days. The number of fry born depends on the age of the female specimen. Mollies fry develop very quickly, as they are born in fairly large individuals that need to be provided with good nutrition.
At one time, the female gives offspring to 50-60 rather large fry.You should know that molly fry are very vulnerable to water pollution, therefore in the aquarium with fry it is recommended to replace part of the water more often than usual. To enhance the immune properties of fry, you can add some salt water. Primary feed: Artemia and Cyclops nauplius, live dust, crushed, high-quality artificial feed.
The male is smaller than the female, more colorful and possesses gonopody. For mollies characteristic feature in the form of a sex change. Depending on the conditions of detention, they can change their gender. Moreover, it can happen at any age.
The name "molliesia" originated from the genus name - Mollienesia. The natural range of these fish is fresh and slightly saline waters of Central America. Wide mop mollies live mainly in reservoirs with standing waters or small currents in southeastern North America. The natural color of these fish is very colorful, mostly dominated by yellow-gray and spotted species.
For the first time these fish appeared in Europe more than 150 years ago, it was the spotted mollies that became the favorites of aquarists. Then, the popularity of the hybrid form, which acquired the name black mollies, gained popularity. Black mollies were obtained as a result of breeding in the United States, and in the early forties of the last century they were bred in the territory of the Soviet Union.
In the sixties, it became fashionable to keep other mollies - the lira mollies. Which, in turn, were also bred by selection, as well as fish with a short disk-like body.
At first glance, domesticated mollies resemble swordtails. But mollies have wider tail fins and more dorsal fins. The females of these fish are slightly larger than the males. With good care and favorable conditions, females grow up to 8 cm, and males up to 6 cm. Wild representatives of this species are one and a half times larger. In addition, the fish living in the wild have a somewhat oblong and more rounded body, they are somewhat reminiscent of the placium.
Even an inexperienced eye can distinguish females and males; the males have a long process at the anal fin - gonopodiums.
Mollies are viviparous fishes, they are loved for a magnificent and bright color. For example, in sailing fish of this species of extraordinary beauty, a gray body with an olive sheen, on which, like a brush, transverse stripes and nacre specks form dark points.
Characteristics of Mollinesia
Aquarium species of mollies are the result of the cultivation of North American species, or their selection. Despite a number of differences, all the fish have common qualities.
- Females of all types of mollies are an order of magnitude larger than males: for example, Velifer's mollies reach 18 cm in length, female Latipeny - 12 cm, Sphenops - 8 cm. Sexual dimorphism is expressed: except for the difference in body size, the anal fin of a male cone-shaped (genopod), in females it is fan-like. All the mollies females are viviparous fishes that bear fry, bringing them to the light ready for full-fledged life activity.
- Pet shops sell different sphenops and latexes, how many of them are actually bred - only experienced ichthyologists know. Black mollies are common. Sometimes among their brood there are other forms — spotty, with light scales, or blue-green skin. New species - fork mollies, which has a “carved” tail fin, elongated in the upper and lower parts; scarf molly, in which the dorsal fin is long and elongated.
Mollies are considered one of the most beautiful fish, so they are welcome pets for many aquarists. They get along well with the swordtails. Although the swords differ in their rather restless temper, they drive very rarely.
Only now, if there are no females of the Swordtail in the flock, the “guys” will try to molest Molly, but, as you understand, to no avail. Also note that in the cramped "battle for territory" may begin, so the fish should have a lot of space.
Compatibilitys Mollies with guppies are almost perfect. Both species belong to viviparous, live in warm brackish water, like sunlight and dense vegetation. If breeding is also included in your plans, then before giving birth to the fish, you should be separated from each other, and after the appearance of the offspring, you should also remove females, as they sometimes are not averse to eat their own fry.
In general, mollies can be contained along with:
- All kinds of petsilium and catfish,
How to reproduce mollies at home
Mollies - viviparous fish, a representative of the family Pecilia. Homeland of mollies - fresh and brackish ponds of Latin America. In the home aquarium, you can find different types of mollies, which were cultivated or bred by humans as hybrid breeds.
Despite the many species that differ morphologically, all share one trait - females independently give birth to fry, and do not lay eggs. Molliesia, reproduction and breeding of which is possible at home, can bring offspring both in the general aquarium and in the prepared reservoir. Spawning mollies is possible one month after settling in the nursery of adult fish.
Conditions of keeping and breeding fry
Males and females of different types of mollies may be neighbors and not in conflict, therefore, living in an aquarium with a company of other fish is only a joy for them. They prefer to swim in the upper middle layer of the tank. During the day, they move alone or in small schools (flocks), and at night they form one joint, swimming in the upper ball of the reservoir.
In order for different types of mollies to live comfortably in an aquarium, 10-20 liters of water are required for 1 individual. For fish of one species, an aquarium of 80 liters, for different species - 110-120 liters. At least 3 females should be settled on one male. Fish can breed in the general aquarium (on the condition of a small population) or in a prepared breeding ground. To breed the fry, producers need to be fed for 2 weeks with vegetable food.
Look at the spawning of mollies.
Comfortable conditions of maintenance guarantee spawning in a month or two after settling in a new "house". The cone-shaped organ of the male genopodia is used for fertilization of the female: seminal fluid is transmitted through it, it also allows you to hold onto the female during breeding, and the ability to become pregnant increases. In fact, pregnancy does not come so easily. Only 1 in 10 copulations ends successfully. Males become sexually mature at 8-12 months, females at 5-6 months.
Breeding of all types of mollies is not difficult for the responsible aquarist. However, the fry of this fish are sensitive to water parameters, in particular, to its pollution, so you will have to change the water frequently.
With successful copulation, the male fertilizes at once many eggs, in which the fry begin to develop. Some mature and are born, others remain inside the female until the next generation. In the absence of a male in the aquarium, the female can give birth to another 35-50 days at intervals.
How to care for fry
A pregnant female has a square belly, from the side it may seem that it reaches the head. On the abdomen, from the anal fin, you can see a spot. Pregnancy lasts one month, after which the female gives birth from 50 to 100 fry. Before giving birth, the female tries to find a secluded place - if in the general aquarium, then in the shade and thickets. It is necessary to replant it in a separate spawning 2-3 days before the birth, but not on the day of birth! Otherwise, she will get a lot of stress. Mature mollies give birth more, for the second birth the female brings more than 200 fry.
Molly is not aggressive to his offspring, although there have been cases of eating fry, sometimes random. Often the female is transferred to a separate container with water, where she produces fry. After birth, it is deposited, and the fry continue to grow and develop. After childbearing, the mollies female still has a large abdomen, which means that she did not give birth to all - some already swim, and others mature and appear later. Newborn fry rather large.
Starter feed for calves - vegetable, liquid and live feed for fry, sometimes they are given pounded to dust feed for adult fish. Feeding in small portions, but frequent (2-3 times a day).
See how the fry of mollies appear.
It is important to know
Molly breeding in general or in a separate aquarium is at least not difficult, but you should know some features of the behavior and content of both producers and fry.
- Females larger and more mature give birth to more fry than young ones.
- Fry mollies are large, but with a weak body, unlike fry guppies and swordsmen. They swim to the surface of the water in a few days, and in the first days of life they lie in the aquarium at the very bottom, sometimes on the leaves of the plants.
- Molly fry require frequent replacement of aquarium water, so as not to die.
- Salted water (1 tsp per 20 liters) increases their immunity.
- If the conditions of the aquarium do not meet the norm, the producers do not give birth to healthy offspring, or do not breed at all. In the worst case, the female gives birth to dead fish or premature eggs.
- The reason for the unsuccessful spawning may be a tight reservoir, a very high water temperature (over 28 degrees Celsius).
- The main fry feed is ground vegetable food, Artemia naupilii, Cyclops, live dust (ground).
- After maturing the fry, they are seated in "opposite-sex" aquariums. Molly females are larger than males; males have a con fin-shaped anal fin - genopodia. In females, anal fin is rounded.
- Black mollies sometimes give birth to fry with spots on the body of green, blue. There is nothing terrible in this: mollies from wild nature have a solid and brighter body color, therefore such “tags” are a sign that all hybrid molly are descendants of Latin American natural species.
Mollies: reproduction, maintenance and care
Molliesia is a viviparous fish, which does not bring much trouble and pleases both novice aquarists and experienced ones. This fish is from the coastal waters of small fresh and brackish waters of Central America.
Aquarium mollies are represented by many species that have different colors and appearance, although they all belong to the same order. Males and females of various species can be kept and bred in the same aquarium. Prefer upper and middle layers of water. During daylight, they float throughout the area independently and in flocks, in the dark - they group together into one flock and keep the upper layer of the water column.
Maintenance and care
The fish is omnivorous, but vegetable feed should prevail. Mollies eat up small-cell and filamentous algae (which they participate in cleaning the aquarium), with a lack of food supply they begin to nibble the plants. Very fond of Ritchia and its young shoots.
The aquarium should have constant aeration, filtration and weekly water changes. Feed adults need once a day. This species is peaceful, quietly transfers the community of other fish, while it is well crossed with representatives of related species.Among aquarists, the following types of mollies are very popular:
- black lira
- Velifera sailing with various color otlasy scales (brown, green, blue).
They love clean, clear water, bright lighting and algae thickets.
The main differences between males and females are the presence of gonopodium, in males the shape of the body is slimmer, with large fins, brighter coloring. The body length of an adult individual is 8 cm; the male is shorter than the female.
To care for mollies suitable aquarium from 60 liters, with the ability of fish to swim freely, with the presence of dense vegetation.
Summary of aquarium mollies
Number in the aquarium - 4/4 pcs. (male / female): no more than three females per male
Aquarium volume for:
- fish of one species - 80 l;
- 112 species of various kinds.
One cm of water is necessary for one cm of fish length.
- pH 7-8;
- dH - 5;
- comfortable temperature is 25-26 ° С, but can vary from plus 22 to plus 31 ° С. Up to 22 degrees, the fish will not die, above 26 - therapeutic temperature;
- hardness 20-30 dGH.
Food used: TSZZH (T - for herbivores, C - dry, H - frozen, Zh-live).
Recommended part of the water change: 20-30% weekly.
To improve the well-being of mollies, sea salt is added to the aquarium water at the rate of one teaspoon per 10 liters of water.
Reproduction of mollies
In the presence of comfortable conditions, mollies bring posterity within a month after settling. During reproduction, the male uses gonopodia, in which there is a chute for transferring seminal fluid to the female, and a hook, which allows it to keep better during fertilization, increasing the chances of pregnancy. Only one of 10 copulations ends in success. Sexual maturity is reached at the age of 8-12 months for males and 5-6 months for females.
Successfully fertilized, the female bearing the fry is distinguished by a dark spot in the lower abdomen, near the anal fin, and a large belly. The duration of pregnancy in mollies is about four weeks, after which the female produces up to 100 fry, with age and growth large mollies can give birth to 250 fry.There is no need to create special spawning grounds for black mollies, since they do not pursue their offspring.
After giving birth, the female remains slightly fat, because at one time she does not give birth to all of her fry, but continues to carry fertilized eggs. Due to this, the female can produce offspring for 6 months without male participation.
The most successful breeding takes place in an aquarium with various types of mollies. Fry are born quite large. For their rapid growth you need to use vegetable and live food of the appropriate size, you can feed dry food, pounded or crushed into dust. To get the dust enough to put a certain amount of feed in a mortar and carefully crush. Special fry food available at pet stores. Feed you need often and abundantly.
A couple of words about buying mollies
In the recent past, guppies were considered the most suitable fish for beginners, but now everything has changed. Many species of viviparous fish began to be bred in large quantities in South Asia. Depending on the markets, they are grown according to certain standards, using hormones and antibiotics, because of which the price of fish and its endurance directly depend. Poor survivability is compensated by a low price.
It is best to buy mollies from European breeders or adult producers from personal acquaintances. Wild types of mollies are practically not common in pet stores, they are difficult to obtain, but it is not difficult to care for them.
On the video you can clearly see how the birth of mollies goes:
Black mollies are a favorite fish in the USSR
Black mollies are so called in the common people of aquarium fish of the genus Petsilia. There are several varieties of them. She received the most distribution in the Soviet Union. Aquarists still prefer just a few types of mollies or molly. In addition to these names, you can find other options: sphenops, Latipina, lira-molly, paresna, broadleaf Velifera. The name originates from the generic "Mollienesia". The natural habitat is considered freshwater and slightly brackish waters of Central America.
All types are similar in form. They represent the usual rounded bodies and tail fins of the lyroform. Breeders received a slightly modified form - slightly impacted. Such fish are called disc. These fish have disrupted natural proportions, which make them seem unattractive to many. But lovers of exotic fish happy to replenish their collections with black mollies.
In the photo you can track how changing color ryki. Black mollies can be dirty yellow or spotty. It depends on the habitat and the content of the fish. In the European part of this fish appeared relatively recently, about 150 years ago. In the forties, the black coloring of this fish was considered the most popular, so a real hunt began behind the dark fish. In the USSR, black mollies began to spread only from the 60s.
Black mollies not rarely compared with the usual swordsmen. Indeed, the resemblance of fish is surprising, but mollies have wide tail fins and more voluminous dorsal fins. In the wild, they can be confused with the specials.
Look at the photos of these beautiful viviparous fishes and see why they deserve an honorable place in most aquariums. Special attention is attracted by the wide-fledged body, which has an olive-gray color with small darkening spots. Males have five thin transverse stripes on which pearl specks can be seen. With proper care and maintenance, the male aquarium fish can reach 6-7 centimeters, and the female - 8. In nature, their size varies from 10 to 15 centimeters. The beauty of this fish is easily distinguished sexual characteristics. The male has a special organ - gonopodia. If you look closely at the photo, it is not difficult to notice.
One of the most beautiful mollies is recognized by Velifers. Due to the high large upper fin it is called sailing. Thanks to the efforts of breeders today you can find red, brown-golden, black and even marble colors.
Despite its small size, black mollies are demanding of conditions.With proper care, individuals can live in an artificial reservoir for up to 8 years.
Molliesia is not suitable for newcomers. Only experienced aquarists can afford it, as it is difficult to maintain proper water levels.
- Spacious aquarium;
- Salted water;
- Temperature from 24 to 26 degrees;
- The absence of drafts and a sharp drop in the thermometer;
- Abundance of plant foods;
- Bright cleansing;
- Active filtration and aeration of water;
- Periodic water change.
You need to change the water at least once a week. It is preferable to pour no more than 1/3 of water. These fish are peaceful enough and do not touch the neighbors of similar sizes. It is important to provide shelter for them, various snags, thickets and stones - to cope with this task. If the neighborhood is too close, then the males begin to fight for the territory. It is optimal to have 25 liters of water for one fish. Mollies prefers the middle layer of aqua. If you plan to breed offspring, then one male is enough for several females.
The content of mollies means feeding with plant food. Fish will not refuse from lettuce and oatmeal. Thanks to such feeding, the fish grows faster and looks much more beautiful, it can be seen in the photo. If you only brought home fry, then you need to feed them in large portions as often as possible. When the fry begin to grow, the diet is reduced to 1 time per day.
Young fish are ready for breeding as early as 9-12 months, females about six months. Young males are deposited in another aquarium, so that they do not begin to upset females that have not reached puberty. Will have to isolate until all the fish do not "mature". It is proved that the most beautiful fry are obtained from large and spectacular producers. Bearing offspring last about two months. A large female is capable of bringing 240 tadpoles at a time. In order to increase the chance of survival, only large and beautiful fry are selected. To fins develop larger, the temperature in a salt aquarium is best lowered. This inhibits the development of fishes, but a beneficial effect on aesthetic moments.
Reproduction in the general aquarium is not possible. Juveniles will be prey for more mature individuals. For successful breeding create a spawning aquarium.
Requirements for spawning:
- Volume from 40 liters;
- The presence of a large number of plants with small sheets;
- The temperature is about 25-26 degrees.
For feeding use live dust, Artemia and Nauplii cyclops.
How to care for a black molly?
Molliesia (lat. Mollienesia, Poecilia) - the name of the fish of the genus Pecillia. There is a popular aquarium fish with black scales - mollies black. Other names of this fish: mollies lyre, sphenops mollies, black molly.
The black low-claw molly is a breeding species that has emerged as a result of the rigorous selection of Poecilia sphenops fish from several generations. In 1926, mottled mollies were made by sphenops, and in 1936 - black velvet. However, scientists have long argued, who is the true ancestor of black mollies - sphenops or latipin? Even in the USSR, this fish did not have a common name.
Reproduction occurs in a vivifying manner: fry are born ready to live. Keeping a fish and caring for it does not require special preparation for a responsible aquarist, so it quickly spread to domestic nurseries. It has a peaceful nature, high endurance, undemanding content. In pet stores is cheap, reproduction is easy - fry live independently.
All members of the genus Poecilia are endemics of North and South America. They live in the confluence of rivers in the ocean, that is, in salted water. Many species appeared in nurseries at the end of the 19th century, and in the 20s of the 20th century, the first hybrids were bred. Among them are black aquarium mollies, snowflakes, silver and spotted molly. The number of such forms is growing rapidly due to the emergence of new colors.
This aquarium fish is an excellent choice for an amateur; its maintenance is possible in a small tank with water. They love to swim among dense thickets, and eat plant food.
For novice aquarists, the best choice is the black mollies sphenops, as it is less demanding, easy to breed, and adapts to smaller aquariums. For the maintenance of this species you need a well-overgrown aquarium, spacious. It is important that dietary fiber and algae are present in the diet.
Black mollies were artificially bred in 1930. Body size - from 6 to 10 cm in aquarium conditions. Lives 3-4 years. Sphenops have a coal-black body resembling dark velvet. The tail fin looks like a lyre. Females are larger, with a rounded belly. Males are smaller, anal fin cone-shaped.
The most valuable specimens are molly with velvet black scales, on which there is not a single speck. They have black eyes that are almost invisible. Their peculiarity is that due to the matte deep color the body of the fish does not shine at all.
How to feed black mollies
Black splenops mollies are small fishes that eat almost all the food that the host will give. Prefer dry, frozen and artificial food. They require high-quality, high-fiber plant food. In Mexican waters a lot of vegetation, which they used to nibble their lips. Mollies scrub growths appearing on the glass and tank décor.
Care for molly requires regular feeding. Give the fish vegetable food with spirulina, or sliced cucumbers, zucchini, lettuce. Add to the diet animal feed: brine shredder, pipeker, bloodworm. It is not difficult to feed sphenops, only do not forget about the fiber necessary for them.
How to maintain and care in the aquarium
You can settle several fish in a 60-100 liter nursery with water, perhaps you decide to support other fish there. In a small container, the mollies will be cramped and uncomfortable. The conditions of the aquatic environment are as follows: water temperature is 24-28 degrees, acidity is 7.0-8.0 pH, water hardness is 20-30o.
Watch a video about the maintenance and care of mollies.
Molly dwell in the salt water of the bays, some breeders recommend adding some salt to the water. On the one hand, this is a necessary condition, on the other - the rest of the aquarium will be against such water, it is not suitable for everyone, care should be optimal for everyone. When only mollies live in the aquatic environment, water can be salted.
It is recommended to decorate the reservoir with dense thickets of plants from which the molly will feed on green algae and bloom. Install an internal or external filter. It should be updated 1/5 of the water every week, because the animals create a turbid environment. Caring for fish is not difficult - the mollies sphenops are an unpretentious creature who will thank you for your love for yourself with a beautiful and healthy look.
Black mollies will make the company a harmless and peaceful tailed water world. They are compatible with small fish with a peaceful disposition. Predatory and aggressive fish, even small ones can damage mollies. The viviparous representatives of the underwater world, such as guppies, swordtails, patsilias are the best housemates.
See how the fry of mollies appear.
Reproduction of viviparous fish - mollies sphenops bears and gives rise to fry formed and ready for life in water. Fry do not come out of the eggs, unlike the calves. A pregnant female carries cubs for a month (perhaps 30-40 days). A female's well-rounded abdomen is likely to develop new fry in it.
It is not necessary to prepare spawning. Females are able to give birth every 40-45 days of new offspring. To fry did not die from the "appetite" of the parents, the content of the female may be separate for some time. Newborn molly fry already formed, immediately begin to look for food, they do not require special care. The first feed - pounded food for fish. For rapid growth, you can add artemia naupilia and chopped pipemaker.
Homeland of these beautiful viviparous fish is considered the fresh waters of Central America. The name "mollies" or abbreviated "moths" is popular, which became widespread in Soviet times, produced from the full name of the genus of fish.
Now, various mollies, species of which are not only found in nature, but also bred by breeding, are quite popular with amateur aquarists. In addition to the unusual coloring, fish differ from most of their relatives in that they give birth to fry, which means it is much more interesting to watch them.
Aquarium mollies: types and colors
Initially, in nature, the fish met in various colors, yellow, gray, spotted. The black fish has gained the most popularity precisely because of its somewhat unusual coloring for the inhabitants of aquariums. Black mollies was bred in the US by artificial means. Its correct name is lira-molly or sphenops. There are also wide-flipper mollies, sailing, otherwise called Velifers mollies, and the same species have been artificially obtained, but with lyre-tailed fins. Additionally, species with shortened bodies and called "disc" were bred.
The content of mollies does not require special skills from an aquarist, these fish are completely unpretentious, friendly, easily get along with other inhabitants of the aquarium. For the comfort of Molly, clean water is required, the temperature of which varies between 22-28 ° C, good lighting and overgrown plants that the fish uses as shelter. Filtration and aeration of aquarium water is mandatory, and the tank itself must be at least 30 liters.
For food mollies require live dry food, but you need to add herbal supplements. These fish eat algae on the walls of the aquarium, filamentous green algae, which is unbelievably useful, but if there is not enough plant food, young shoots of plants can suffer.
Water temperature drops and an insufficient amount of oxygen will be destructive for mollies. If the fish swim at the surface, most likely they have oxygen starvation.
Pregnancy and childbirth mollies
Pregnancy of mollies can occur when it reaches six months of age, provided that there are males of its kind in the aquarium. The duration of pregnancy is 8-10 weeks and depends on the water temperature, it is easy to recognize the fish “in position” by the swollen belly and a dark spot on it. About the approaching birth you will be signaled by the behavior of Molly, she will look for a secluded place. To save the offspring, you will need to carefully catch the fish with a net and deposit it in a special aquarium.
Some aquarists deliberately keep the molly in cool water, so the growth of fish slows down, but large and beautiful fins grow. If you set out to breed mollies, then it is better to choose a beautiful pair of fish and deposit them in an aquarium, where there will be enough plants, and its volume will be at least 40 liters. When approaching the birth of the male must be transplanted, and after the female will sweep the fry, she can also be transplanted into the general aquarium.
As mollies gives birth, you can see with your own eyes if the fish does not hide in the thick green of the aquarium. Fry born large, but weak, in their litter can be up to 240 pieces. The food for them should be live food, and the optimal water temperature is 25-26 ° C. Note that even black parents can have white and spotted fry. The color is explained not only by the genetic features of the selected pair, but also by the presence of an albino form. True, growing up, the fry can darken and become spotted or black, like their parents.
Unusual appearance of mollies "balloon"
Mollies balloon - artificially derived aquarium fish, which was obtained due to the long-term selection of latipine mollies from the species. The fish has a peculiar physique, a bit like a balloon filled with air. The shortened body does not allow the organs to work well, so the fish requires close attention from the person. Despite this shortcoming, the molly balloon is a popular aquarium dweller, which amateurs are not afraid to breed.
Mollies (lat. Poecilia) - viviparous fish, which belong to the genus Cartozubie, family Petsilievye. Thanks to the selection, different color forms of these fishes are derived. Natural habitat - fresh and saline waters of Latin America, from Mexico to Colombia. For the first time they came to Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century. Males mollies less than females, in the wild, representatives of this species reach a length of 10-16 cm, in captivity, they are less - 6-8 cm. The content of mollies is possible in home aquariums.
Mollies balloon characterized by a shortened body (short spine). In addition, the ridge has a curvature. The body length of the fish does not exceed 5-6 cm. The large abdomen is the result of the species modification. The internal organs are small, tight.
The color of the body resembles the scales of mollies of latex, however, individuals of other colors are bred: red, orange, gray, black, silver. It is easy to distinguish the female from the male - the males have an anal fin (genopodia) of a cone-shaped shape, in females it is rounded. Viviparous reproduction - fry appear ready to live in water. Live balloon from 3 to 5 years.
Look at the variety of colors mollies balloon.
How to contain mollies balloon
Keeping fish is possible in a small or medium aquarium, depending on the number of fish living in the tank. In a spacious nursery, fish grow more than in a small one. In a 10-liter aquarium, the fish will grow no more than 3 cm in length; in an aquarium over 100 liters it will become 10 centimeters.
Favorable neighborhood mollies with the following fish: scalar, barbusses, males, danios, guppies, battles, other types of mollies, rasborami, iris, swordtails and tetras. Incompatible with cichlids, astronotus and all kinds of goldfish.
Molly balloon prefers terrain with abundant vegetation and ample swimming. Therefore, the back of the nursery is recommended to cover with thick plants, and the front window should be left free space for movement and games. Suitable plants such as: Elodieus, Echinodorus, Javanese moss, Vallisneria, cryptocoryne. Soil for the tank - medium-sized dark gravel. These fish are demanding to the lighting of the aquarium - the light day should last at least 13 hours.
Parameters of the aquatic environment: the water temperature is 23-25 degrees, the extreme temperature threshold makes fish breeding impossible. The acidity of water is 7.0-8.5 pH, hardness - 15-25o. It is better to update the water regularly, 1 time per week 25% of the total. You can also add salt to water in proportions of 2-3 grams per 1 liter. No less important is the presence of snags, stone slides for shelters and dense thickets of aquarium vegetation. In the absence of high-quality water, the molly become slow, pressing their fins to their bodies, sometimes lying in one place and swaying.
Feed the mollies balloon can be small crustaceans, bloodworms. Some razvodchiki not advised to give the pipe worker, because he is able to injure the already delicate internal organs of digestion. Vegetable supplements are mandatory - filamentous algae, scalded cabbage leaves, lettuce leaves and dandelion. With a lack of fiber, mollies begin to eat young shoots of aquatic plants.
Reproduction of mollies balloon is possible subject to optimal conditions of detention. But if the temperature of the aquatic environment is above the norm, the offspring will not leave. The reproduction of fish begins at the age of 1.5 years. A pregnant female can be distinguished by a large tummy that almost reaches the head. After the first spawning, it is able to give birth for another 30 days without a male. To leave the fry, females deposited in an aquarium with vegetation and water temperatures of 28-30 degrees.
See how the fry of mollies balloon appears.
Fry mollies balloon sensitive to all water parameters, especially to harmful impurities. Frequent water updates are recommended. The female gives birth to 50-60 small fish, which bears 30-45 days.
In order for the offspring to adapt to life, and not be afraid to eat food (the first few days of life, newborns are afraid to take it), put Javanese moss in the aquarium. The first feed - small infusoria, ground feed for fish. Every few days it is desirable to update the water. If you have nowhere to settle fry, use 5-liter jars with running and infused water. Put it in a bright place where direct sunlight does not fall.
Like all fish, molly balloon can get sick. The cause of the disease can be infections, hypothermia and unsuitable conditions of the aquatic environment. The first signs of ailments: the formation of pimples or points on the scales, the appearance of raised spots and ulcers on the skin. All types of mollies, painted in black light, sometimes suffer from a disease called "melanosis", which appears due to increased pigmentation of the skin, which causes tumors.
For prevention it is necessary to observe the temperature regime of the aquarium, to monitor the purity of the food, scenery and soil. Не следует оставлять больных рыб в питомнике со здоровыми, лучше пересаживать их на карантин в другой резервуар и сбалансированно кормить.
Аквариумные рыбки моллинезии: моллинезия желтая
Моллинезию желтую относят к числу тепло- и светолюбивых живородящих рыбок. Не зря они были привезены из Центральной Америки, берегов Мексики и Колумбии. They are the most fashionable representatives from the family of specials.
Well-organized artificial living conditions are the key to ensuring that the fish shows all its best qualities that have been praising it for several decades. Molly's beginner aquarists like not only because of their activity, but also because of the wide variation of colors.
Now it will be about yellow mollies. It has a rich yellow color, which evokes a feeling of warmth and southern sun. Sometimes they can see a greenish tide, or malachite, and some individuals have black spots.
It is interesting that the fry are completely different from themselves in the adult form, and all because babies are born dark in color. Over time, it turns into a golden hue. Yellow mollies has one more peculiarity: they have no cases of albinism. Their eyes, like all mollies, are black with the presence of a barely noticeable silver rim at the pupil.
Yellow Molly is somewhat inferior in size to classic black. It does not grow more than 5 cm. They become sexually mature in six months.
These aquarium fish are endowed with high resistance in adverse conditions. However, this does not mean that it is possible to treat them as devil-may-care or arrange personal experiments. They are less likely to get sick, less aggressively react to changing water parameters, etc. Moreover, it was noted that in unsightly conditions the fish breed, however, the offspring is not so great, not all the fry survive, and some become "freaks".
Aquarium fish mollies need good care and compliance with the rules:
water temperature is 24-27 degrees, not lower than 20 degrees and it should not be allowed to oscillate);
daily water updates will benefit. Firstly, the aquarium will not quickly become polluted, the color of the fish will be more saturated, the fish will be active and cheerful;
An abundance of vegetation will delight Molly. After all, she loves not only to swim, but also to play hide-and-seek, and this is a great place to lie low.
they need light like water and oxygen. It will take 12 hours daily.
the food should be different, but you cannot overfeed them, as Molly is a glutton fish, which sometimes leads to obesity.
Black Molly Aquarium Fish
Description: in nature, mollies are colored non-uniformly, many gray, blue, and black spots are scattered throughout the body. But, thanks to the selection, beautiful, evenly painted velvety black mollies appeared in the aquariums. The body length of males reaches 10 cm, females - 12 cm.
Behavior: black mollies get along with each other and get along well with their neighbors in the aquarium, if they are not much more or less than the mollies themselves. In crowded males can chase each other, because the optimal amount of water is 50 liters per pair. Mollies are kept mainly in the middle layers of water.
Content: quite unpretentious aquarium fish. Recommended temperature content is 24-28 ° C, acidity 7-8.5, hardness 10-30 °. It is not recommended to lower the temperature and water hardness below the minimum. Poor tolerate changes in temperature. Black mollies love thickets of aquatic plants, bright lighting, clean water. Filtration and aeration are necessary, as well as a weekly substitution of 1 / 5-1 / 3 of water. Food live, dry and be sure to supplement the plant. Mollies actively eat algae on the walls of the aquarium, they eat green filamentous algae (which, undoubtedly, are of great benefit), but if they lack plant food, they can also take on young shoots of aquatic plants.
Breeding: viviparous mollies. Signs of pregnancy: the abdomen of the female is rounded, just before the birth, the female begins to hide in the nooks of the aquarium, and if the aquarist wants to leave offspring, she must be planted in the spawning aquarium. Fry of mollies are larger than those of guppies, but much weaker, they do not immediately swim out of the bottom. If the conditions of mollies are not optimal, all offspring can be born dead. Initial feed for fry of black mollies: ciliates, rotifers, other live food.
Note 1: Sometimes, completely black parents may be born snow-white fry. This is connected with genes (one of the ancestors was white), and with the presence of albino form in mollies. White color will not necessarily remain in adulthood. The male mollies, which is depicted in the bottom photo, was born completely white. During the first month, black dots appeared on his body, which increased and multiplied with age. At 6-7 months (approximately at that age, a photograph was taken) his entire body was black, and only in front of the back and chest were white-rainbow specks.
Note 2: Black mollies can be "reborn" - change their gender, both in young and in adulthood.