Scalar fish - content in an aquarium
Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior. High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.
Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body. Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options. But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views. Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.
Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and can be as long as 15 cm. Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems. The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters. How many live scalaries? They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.
Habitat in nature
The scalar fish was first described by Schulz in 1823. It was first introduced to Europe in 1920, and was bred in the USA in 1930. Although they sell fish now and call it ordinary, they already differ very significantly from fish that live in nature. It lives in slow-moving reservoirs in South America: the birthplace of the fish in the central Amazon and its tributaries in Peru, Brazil and eastern Ecuador.
In nature, they live in places with a small number of plants, where they feed on fry, insects, invertebrates and vegetation.
Currently, there are three species in the genus: common Pterophyllum scalare, scalp altum Pterophyllum altum and scalar leopold Pterophyllum leopoldi. At the moment, it is quite difficult to understand which types of them are now most common in aquaristics, since crossing has played a role.
Species differencesConsider each of their wild forms of scalar:
Scalyaria vulgaris (Pterophyllum scalare)
Probably most of the currently sold ordinary angelfish belong to this species. Traditionally considered the most unpretentious and easy to breed.
Wild Angelfish caught in nature
Scalpel leopold pterophyllum leopoldi
It is rarely found, very similar to an ordinary scalar, but its dark spots are somewhat lighter, and there are a couple of black stripes on the body, and one on the dorsal fin, but not moving onto the body.
Scallah altum Pterophyllum altum
Or the Orinoco scalar, it is the largest fish of all three species, it can be one and a half times larger than the usual scalar and grow up to 40 cm in size. There is also a sharp transition between the forehead and the mouth, forming a depression. There are red dots on the fins. For many years, this species could not be diluted in captivity, but in recent years it has been possible to get fry from the scalar altum, and it went on sale along with individuals caught in nature.
Scalaria Altum or OrinocoAltum in nature and in the aquarium, though the video is in English, but it's worth a look:
The scalar living in nature has a silvery body with dark stripes. Body compressed laterally, with large fins and a pointed head. On the tail fin in mature fish long thin rays can develop. This form helps them to mask among the roots and plants. That is why the wild form colors in the form of vertical dark stripes. Angelfish are omnivores, in nature they lie in wait in the ambush of fry, small fish and invertebrates. The average life expectancy of 12-15 years.
Of medium complexity, they are not recommended for beginner aquarists, as they require decent volumes, stable water parameters and can be aggressive to small fish. Also, they themselves may suffer from fish tearing fins, such as Sumatran barbs and terntions.Blue Angelfish:
What to feed? Angelfish are omnivores, in the aquarium they eat all kinds of food: live, frozen and artificial. The basis of feeding can be high-quality flakes, and additionally provide live and frozen food: a pipe maker, bloodworm, artemia, and a coretica. It is important to know two things, they are gluttons and cannot be overfeed, no matter how much they ask. And very carefully give the bloodworm, but it is better to give it up altogether. A little overfeed with bloodworms, and the scalar begins intestinal distention, and such bubbles come out of the anal bladder. It is much safer to feed branded feed, the benefit they are now of high quality.
Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, though not often. In my case, they regularly tear off the tops of Eleocharis and tear off the moss from the snag. In this case, you can add in the diet with spriulina.Discus and Angelfish in the huge aquarium, the Amazon biotope:
Maintenance and care
Angelfish are quite unpretentious fish and can live more than 10 years, if you provide them with suitable conditions. Because of their shape, high aquariums of at least 120 liters are preferred for maintenance. However, if you are going to contain several of these beautiful fish, it is better to get an aquarium of 200-250 liters or more. Another benefit of buying a spacious aquarium is that parents feel calmer and eat caviar less often.
The scalar aquarium fish should be kept in warm water, when the temperature of the water in the aquarium is 25-27С. In nature, they live in subacid, fairly soft water, but now they are well adapted to a variety of conditions and parameters. The decor in the aquarium can be any, but preferably without sharp edges, which the fish may be injured.
Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, but not very much. At me they persistently eat Eleocharis, although they are never hungry and regularly eat food with vegetable ingredients. And the attempt to add moss to the bark, they won is very simple. Regularly cutting off Javanese moss on a twig. It is difficult to say why they behave this way, but apparently from boredom and greedy appetite. In the aquarium, it is advisable to plant plants with wide leaves, such as nymphs or amazon, they like to lay eggs on such leaves.
The body structure of the aquarium scalar is not adapted to swimming in a strong current, and filtration in the aquarium should be moderate. A large flow of water causes stress, and slows the growth of fish, as they expend energy to fight it. It is reasonable to use an external filter, and supply water through a flute or an internal one and spray current. Required weekly water changes, about 20% of the volume.
Compatible with other fish
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but you need to remember that it is still a cichlid, and it can be somewhat aggressive to small fish. The same goes for fry and shrimp, they are gorgeous and insatiable hunters, in my aquarium there are countless hordes of neocardin shrimps, they knocked out clean. They keep together while young, but adult fish are divided into pairs and become territorial. They are a little shy, they can be afraid of sudden movements, sounds and turning on the light.
Who can you keep a cichlid with? With a large and medium-sized fish, it is desirable to avoid very small, such as cardinals and micro-selection of the galaxy, although they wonderfully live with neons with me. Definitely need to avoid barbs and preferably any, except cherry. In my practice, a flock of Sumaran barbs didn’t touch the angel at all, and a flock of fire barbs almost destroyed their fins in 24 hours. Although you think that should be the opposite. Also fins can gnaw on ternation, tetragonopterus, black barb, schubert barb and denison.
You can keep with viviparous: swordtails, petilia, mollies, even with guppies, but note that in this case you should not count on the fry. Also marble gourami, pearl gourami, moonlight, congo, erythrosalonus and many other fish.
How to determine the sex of scalar? It is impossible to distinguish a male or female with an angelfish before the onset of puberty. And even that, it is guaranteed to be understood only during spawning, when the female has a thick, cone-shaped ovipositor. Indirect signs are deceptive, the male is lobasty and larger, especially since females can pair, if there are no males. And this pair will behave in the same way, up to imitation of spawning. So you can determine the sex only in adult fish, and even then with some relativity.Fight of three males:
Reproduction in the aquarium
Angelfish form a stable, monogamous couple, and they actively spawn in the general aquarium, but it is rather difficult to save caviar. As a rule, caviar is deposited on vertical surfaces: a piece of snag, a flat sheet, even on the glass in an aquarium. For reproduction often put special tools or cones, or a piece of plastic pipe, or a ceramic pipe.
Like all cichlids, the scalar developed progeny care. Breeding is not easy to spawn, the parents take care of the roe, and when the fry hatch, they continue to care for them until they swim.
Since the angelfish themselves choose a pair, the best way to get such a pair is to buy six or more fish and grow them until they are determined. Very often the aquarist learns about the beginning of spawning only when he sees caviar in one corner, in the other all the inhabitants of the aquarium. But, if you are careful, you can see a pair that is preparing for breeding. They stick together, drive away other fishes, and protect a secluded corner in an aquarium.
Angelfish usually reach the adult age of 8-12 months, and can spawn every 7-10 days if taken from them. Spawning begins with the fact that the couple chooses a place and begins to methodically clean it. Then the female lays a chain of eggs, and the male immediately fertilizes them. This continues until the whole caviar (sometimes a few hundred), will not be postponed, the scalar caviar is rather large, of a light color.
Parents care for caviar, fan it with fins, eat dead or unfertilized eggs (they turn white). A few days later, the eggs peck up, but the larvae remain attached to the surface. At this time, the larva does not eat yet, it consumes the contents of the yolk sac. After about a week, she becomes a fry and begins to swim freely. You can feed the scalar fry with the nautilia of Artemia or other fry feeds. Millions of scalar fry were raised precisely on the nautilia of Artemia, so this is the best choice. You need to feed them three or four times a day, in portions which they can eat in two or three minutes.
In an aquarium with fry, it is better to use an internal filter with a washcloth and without a lid, as it provides sufficient filtration, but does not suck the fry inside. Clean water is just as important as regular feeding, because of the accumulated harmful substances the fry often die.
Often aquarists ask why the angelfish eat their eggs? This may be due to stress, when they spawn in a common aquarium and are distracted by other fish, or in young couples who are still inexperienced.
Angelfish Aquarium Fish - Maintenance and Care
In the overgrown reservoirs of South America with dense plants, a small fish was born and gradually acquired a rather fanciful shape. The unusual inhabitant gradually became a real decoration of the reservoirs, and therefore received a beautiful name: "Angelfish", which translates as a winged leaf.
Aquarium decoration - angel fish
In Europe, the little angelfish was named "angel", while also becoming quite popular as an inhabitant of aquariums among Europeans. Such fame of these fish is explained not only by the exotic shape and color. It is known that most aquarium fish do not live long: no more than two years, however, an angelfish is considered to be a long-lived, living in aquariums up to 10 years (with special care this period can last up to 20 years). The life span of an angelfish directly depends on the aquarist and his professionalism. Despite the fact that this fish belongs to non-hazardous species, it also requires proper care and a qualified approach to creating habitat conditions. Aquarists should not forget that this exotic baby comes from the southern continent and is used to living in an environment with dense vegetation. Therefore, the first condition contributing to an increase in the life span of the angelfish in an aquarium is their content in a properly organized habitat.
It is easy to care for these fish, the main thing is to observe a number of conditions for their comfortable stay in the aquarium:
- saturation of the underwater environment with the necessary flora to create conditions close to natural ones;
- organization of proper nutrition in compliance with the basic principles and dosage regimen;
- the optimal neighborhood of a small scalar with other inhabitants of the aquarium world.
How many other representatives in the aquarium will depend on the volume of the water basin.
Conditions of detention
The scalar feels perfectly in the dense thickets of underwater flora, as its flat body allows it to easily move between plants. However, we should not forget that the empty space of this motley baby is vital, especially if the owner wants to grow a scalar of a larger size. Under normal conditions, this aquarium fish grows in length up to 15 centimeters, while maintaining the potential to achieve a 26-centimeter length. Those who are interested in large scalars should take care that the aquarium is large enough - up to 100 liters. At the same time, the height of this water house should be about 50 centimeters.
An important role in creating comfort for the angelfish has a water temperature in the aquarium. In principle, it is considered acceptable within a considerable range, however, for a comfortable state, the scalars need a water temperature of 22 to 26 degrees. At the same time, experienced aquarists are confident that these fish feel good when the temperature in the aquarium drops to 18 degrees, and even for some time they live without problems in an aquatic environment with such a temperature index.
The maintenance of such fish provides not only the creation of habitat, timely care and cleaning of the aquarium itself, but also the organization of proper nutrition of fish.
Angelfish has the glory of undemanding and unpretentious fish. Besides the fact that it does not impose excessive demands on the creation of habitat on its owner, it is also completely picky in nutrition. The solution to the problem, than to feed the scalar, as a rule, does not cause difficulties: this fish willingly eats both dry food and live food. In order to correctly determine the appropriate feed for scalar, it is worth remembering the specifics of the body of the fish. Since her body has a flat shape, it is difficult for her to get food from the bottom, therefore, the most suitable for scalar is such a food that stays on the surface of the water for a long time. Approaches to the choice of live food are standard - this fish eats without damage to the health and bloodworms, and the pipe worker, and any other live food. Some experts prefer to feed these fish crushed seafood: shrimp, mussel meat.
It is recommended to observe the feeding regime of the angelfish the same as for most other aquarium fish: 2-3 times a day. At the same time, proper care of the fish in the aquarium provides one unloading day per week: on this day, the fish are not fed. It is not recommended to give feed to scalars more than three times a day, as this will inevitably lead to obesity. Feed should be given as much as the fish eat, without increasing the dosage, as not eaten feed will pollute the water in the aquarium.
It is believed that the scalar reach readiness for reproduction by 10 years. Keeping these fish in the same tank in preparation for spawning can create a number of problems. Both male and female will do everything possible to protect the territory with deferred caviar, which will lead to conflicts between the inhabitants of the aquarium.
It is worthwhile to watch the scalars, as they spend a fairly visual and difficult period of preparation for spawning. Vigilant care of the aquarium will allow you not to miss this important period and in time to send the fish to another temporary dwelling of up to 80 liters. The water in it should be warm, the aquarium can be equipped with large-leaved plants to create optimal conditions for spawning. A few days later the fry appear in the water, after which the parents should be sent out from the babies. Little angelfish live in a separate aquatic environment until they grow up and get stronger, feed on ciliates or "living dust". It is recommended to feed babies as much as adults feed: up to 3 times a day.
Creating an optimal habitat
Among experienced aquarists there is a perception that the angelfish is quite a peaceable inhabitant of the aquarium. Однако, её миролюбие имеет границы: уживаемость с другими обитателями заключается в том, что скалярия занимает в аквариуме определённую территорию и старается прогонять оттуда остальных водных жителей. Для этой пёстрой рыбки целесообразно организовать в аквариуме несколько специальных зон:
- В разных углах аквариума стоит высадить несколько растений с широкими листьями. Such a technique will significantly reduce the level of conflict in the water monastery.
- The interior of the aquarium is complemented by mini-caves, large stones, and snags. This will allow the scalars to find shelter without harming the other inhabitants.
- The central part of the aquarium should be left as free as possible to create conditions for the free movement of fish.
- Colorful fish are quite shy: they are frightened by bright light, sharp flashes, therefore it is advisable to distribute the plants floating on the surface through the aquarium. This will create an additional blackout effect, making the fish content more comfortable.
Most often, the angelfish takes a place near the trough, and therefore drives away from her all the fish that are smaller in size, and can even eat very small ones. The angelfish and big fish live together quite peacefully, as the motley baby cannot drive them away from the feeder, and therefore does not conflict with them. It is advisable to breed many angelfish in one aquarium, which very quickly break up into pairs and begin to "redistribute" the area near the feeder. While they are "dividing the territory", the rest of the inhabitants of the aquarium have unhindered access to the feeder.
Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review
SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect. In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.
Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Detachment, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5.
Stiffness dH: to 10 .
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors - discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium. See the article - compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live: Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!
The minimum volume of aquarium for scalar
angelfish in the aquarium black and white photo beautifulFrom 100 l., In such an aquarium, you can put one, maximum two scalar. Under good conditions, they grow into fish of impressive size, and given their wide fins, it is better to buy an aquarium from 250 liters for them. About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).
Requirements for the care and conditions of the scalar
- scalar necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water.
- it is not necessary to cover the aquarium, the fish are not very mobile and do not jump out of the pond.
- lighting should be moderate. The aquarium is equipped with shaded areas, which is achieved with the help of aquarium vegetation. Fish do not like bright light and shy to turn it on. Vallisneria and other long stem plants are recommended as aquarium plants for scalars. The creation of thickets from such plants imitates the natural habitat of the angelfish.
- Aquarium decoration, at your discretion: stones, grottoes, snags and other decorations. In the aquarium must be provided an open space for swimming. Shelters do not need scalars.
Feeding and diet of scalar
The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia. The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.
The scalar has a peculiarity - they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat - there is nothing wrong with that.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
In nature, scalars live in northern South Americain reservoirs with dense reed beds and with standing or slowly flowing water. Actually these natural conditions explain their flattened - disc-shaped body shape, which they need to maneuver among underwater reeds. Kept in nature in groups of 10 individuals.
Description of aquarium angelfish
The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural - the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others. In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived - with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of the angelfish
The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as "pteron" - a feather and "phyllon" sheet, and together with a "winged sheet".
Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier. He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name "Blattfische", translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B. Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called "Angelfishes" or simply "Angel", in Germany "Segelflosser", which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they "dovozilis", but alas, the dead. Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the "aquarium-scalar boom" begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg - I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L. Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy - the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear. Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov - in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater. The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always - at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred. In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.
Types and breeds of AngelfishSo in order to understand the scale of selection work, I’ll give only an incomplete list of other derived forms of an angelfish: half-hearted, smoky, albino, red-smoky, red, chocolate, phantom, two-spotted phantom, blue, white, zebra, lace zebra, cobra, leopard, marble red-gold, red-pearl, pearl, gold-pearl, red-pearl and others.
The latest achievements are scaleless and brilliant scalaries. Therefore, if we talk about the types of angelfish - they are just countless.
Here is a photo of some angelfish - Pterophyllum scalare
But, it is necessary to distinguish the species from the breeds of angelfish
The above scalar is a breed of the same species Pterophyllum scalare. But there are other types of scalar - the main ones are:
Pterophyllum altum (pterophyllum altum), Pterophyllum leopoldi (formerly Pterophyllum dumerilli - Pterophyllum Dymerilli), Pterophyllum eimekei
Here is Photo of Pterophyllum leopoldi (as a separate type of angelfish)
and here is a photo Pterophyllum altum (as a separate type of scalar)
a photo Pterophyllum eimekei (as a separate scalar)
Taking into account the above mentioned breeding experiments for one hundred years, the scalar adapted so much to the aquarium conditions that their content does not pose any problems. Perhaps the main and prerequisite for their maintenance is a large and high aquarium. As previously mentioned, the minimum volume of an aquarium for a scalar should be 100 liters, but its height should be at least 45 centimeters. In this case, the fish is absolutely not important thickness of the aquarium, on the turn, they are accustomed to pour narrow ducts, thickets and crevices. From my personal experience I will say that the angelfish feel great, are angry with densely planted long-stem vegetation, in which they feel at home in South America.
The optimal temperature of water for scalars ranges from 22-27 ° C. However, these fish are distinguished by enviable frost resistance up to 16 ° C and endurance in the heat up to 35 ° C.
They are unpretentious and to other parameters of water can normally exist both in very soft and rather hard water. Optimum dH: up to 10 °, Ph: 6-7,5.
Angelfish love clean water, so the presence of aeration and filtration in the aquarium is necessary. Weekly need to replace the aquarium water to fresh before? parts.
Angelfish are very hierarchical fish. It is best to keep them with a flock, in which their own ranking will be established - large and strong pairs will dominate, and weaker ones will receive cuffs. However, such intraspecific aggression is not very scary, especially if you zoned the aquarium. For example, I have aquarium plants and decor planted and set so that the aquarium can be divided into four "adjacent rooms". Such a method helps to avoid excessive aggression and stalking of the weak.
Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar
Sex differences between male and female scalar are weakly expressed. They can be seen only when the fish cut their mature age at 9-12 months of age. Up to this point, when you buy young animals in the pet store, no one will tell you who you take. When buying juveniles, the angelfish can be recommended to take two large individuals, most likely they are males and two small scalars, most likely they will be girls.
To determine the sex of the scalar need experience and practice. A full-time aquarist will distinguish a male from a female in two accounts, but for a beginner, it will be a bit hard for a beginner. For this you need to watch your scalar.
Below is a list of typical sexual differences between the male and the female scalar. Well, of course the photo!
The second sign is the structure of the body. The male angelfish has a 100% distinctive feature - this is a fatty knob on the forehead - a hump. Females do not have it. The forehead of the male is convex, on the contrary vice versa in the female. In addition, the body of the male scalar is more powerful, their back has a fin longer and there are stripes on it (on the back).
The third sign is manifested during the spawning period. The male has a narrow and sharp seed tube, while the female scalar forms a wide and short ovipositor.
Here is a good photo of a male and female scalar(male on the left and female on the right). Having received a review of this article from a fish breeding expert. Vitaly ChernyavskyI consider it necessary to supplement this part of the article with his answer, here it is:
"The article on the scalars looked. As for signs of differences between males and females - not quite right.
1) Behavior is not a criterion. Every now and then 2 females without a male completely even (and in turn) imitate the male's sexual behavior. Only if you look closely, you can see that the "male" and the female will then change places - and the roe (naturally unfertilized) will be put off by BOTH fish.
2) There are males without a forehead and females with a forehead.
3) The only clear criterion for sex differences in adult fish is line of the back and abdomen. In the male: the line of the back and dorsal fin form an ANGLE, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost the DIRECT line. And in the female, on the contrary: the line of the back and the dorsal fin form an almost DIRECT line, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost a direct ANGLE. "
Taking into account the expert's opinion, I add this drawing that will help determine the sex of the scalar, based on the angle of its fins.
The fact that on the Internet this figure of an angelfish is everywhere spread with false information - the male and the female are confused. This drawing is taken from Ilyin's book Aquarium Fish Breeding. So there the fish were entangled by the artist.
Well, on the Internet, those who sculpt this picture on their websites ... they do not chop themselves, where the female is, where the male is, thereby misleading everyone.
!!! This picture is all right !!! With good and comfortable content angelfish spawning happens right in the general aquarium. The impetus for spawning is the replacement of aquarium water with fresh water and an increase in temperature of 2-4 degrees. A very important role in this process is played by the substrate for laying. Angelfish often prefer to lay eggs on a broadleaf plant, but they may like other places: filter tube, glass, grotto wall, etc.
The place chosen by the producers is thoroughly cleaned of any dirt, and then spawning itself follows. Over time, the female can sweep about 500 eggs, large and even more up to 1000.
Photos of scalar roe
The incubation period for caviar is 2 days; during this period, parents intensively fan the caviar with fins and clean it from litters, remove the whitened - dead caviar. After the larvae hatch from the calf, the parents transfer them to another leaf in their mouth. This is done for greater purity and the elimination of the possibility of catching the infection from the rotting shell of the calf.
Photos of scalar larvae
Over the next 7 days, the larvae, under the watchful supervision of parents, hang on a piece of paper. When the larvae run out of nutrients from the yolk sac, they turn into fry. From now on, they should start feeding.
Starter feed for young scalar should be of high quality, alive and well washed. Can advise - nauplii, nematodes. It is not desirable, but it is possible to feed the fry with any frayed dry food (the number of dead fry will increase with such feeding). It is also recommended to clean the spawning tank from food residue and other dirt twice a day.
Photo fry, young scalar
The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too. Of course, this does not lead to anything good. There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring. This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders. Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and the angelfish,
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar
Recommended literature and books about scalars
A. N. Gurzhiy "Skalyarii" 2009 Kochetov Sergey "Skalyarii" 2005
Beautiful video with scalars
A selection of beautiful photos with scalars
Angelfish: compatibility with other fish
Angelfish (Latin "angel fish") attracts with its grace and unusual shape. These pets are loved by many aquarists for their unique graceful appearance, original coloring, meek, peaceful temper. They are considered the most popular aquarium fish in the cichle family. What kinds of these inhabitants of domestic water bodies are best known, what are the conditions of their maintenance, with whom these representatives of cichlids feel comfortable in the neighborhood, let us consider further.
What are they - scalar?
These representatives of the underwater fauna come from South America, where their favorite habitats are leisurely flowing or even standing waters of local water bodies, densely overgrown with reeds.
The flat, as if flattened laterally, scalar body shape allows it to easily move between vertically growing stems of aquatic flora. Here they are comfortable: you can easily hide from predatory brethren, spawn caviar in silence. Usually they live in small flocks of 20 or more individuals.
The unusual shape of a scalar for fish, resembling a crescent, was formed by stretching the dorsal and anal fins, while the fins on the abdomen were transformed into threads that felt and recognized surrounding objects.
The natural habitat has formed the color of an angelfish: the light-silvery background of the body of the fish is crossed by vertical stripes of a dark color, constantly changing saturation depending on the degree of illumination. These transverse strips are nothing more than the protective coloring of the fish, making them invisible in the reed. Only the eyes are sharply accented with bright red spots.
This aquarium pets peculiar to:
- graceful manner of movement;
- ability to coexist with non-aggressive species of fish;
- tremulous care of their offspring.
Species of exotic fish
Pterophyllum altum, Pterophyllum scalare, Pterophyllum leopoldi are positioned as the main types of scalar. They are in many ways similar at first glance, have a number of differences between them.
Angelfish altum (Pterophyllum altum) has a body as if elongated in height, prefers muddy water with decomposed plants. The size of the largest individuals is 18 cm in length and up to 25 cm in height. The traditional silver color of the body is complemented by three vertical stripes of brownish color.
Scalaria Ordinary (Pterophyllum scalare) is the most famous and common angelfish in the aquarium hobby, freshwater inhabitant.
Its main characteristics are not so different from the standard ones, but strongly depend on the environmental conditions where it is contained. Therefore, this species is of particular interest to aquarists, breeders, creating on its basis a unique color specimens.
So many variations of this species were created:
- smoky-lace and other.
Angelfish leopoldi (Pterophyllum leopoldi) - the least common species among aquarists. Externally, it is different from other species with a slightly elongated body shape, differently located dark stripes on it and a slightly noticeable head hump.
Create the right conditions
The content and care for the scalar requires the same as the other tsikhlovym:
- the size of the home water;
- water quality;
- breeding conditions must be acceptable and comfortable for scalar.
To make your pets feel good, have the opportunity to show off graceful swimming, giving you pleasure while watching them, they need to settle in a fairly spacious aquarium.
It should be volumetric (at least 50 liters), and sufficiently high (at least 50 cm), with a large number of plants planted rationally, so as not to interfere with the fish during swimming and at the same time serve them as an accessible shelter. It is not necessary to cover the domestic pond as these pets do not jump.
The parameters of the aquarium water should be close to the following indicators:
- the water is clean but not filtered;
- temperature - about 26 ° C (with spawning above);
- stiffness - 10-12.
For scalar live food is preferred:
Comfortable conditions contribute to the regular spawning of the scalar right in the aquarium. The latter is stimulated by a simple water change, as well as a slight increase in its temperature.
The development of eggs lasts up to two days, after which parents put their larvae in their mouths. In order to preserve the offspring, it is better to plant it for this period in another reservoir. There in five days the fry will be able to swim and eat on their own. And parents will not worry about their safety.
Who can be a neighbor of a scalar?
It is impossible to say that the angelfish fully corresponds to its translated name of the angelfish: it, like many cichlids, is run by the predator's instincts.
Attempting to share this fish with some other aquarium dwellers does not always end successfully. Simply put, for example, every detail scalar easily eaten, and for adult members of other breeds there are some limitations.
Large breeds of aggressor fish themselves will attack the scalar. You can try to hook up to them fish that can quickly hide, for which our representatives of the Tsikhlovyhs will be dangerous only at night.
Based on the foregoing, these angel pets are compatible with:
- danios who need to be able to dodge and quickly hide;
- specialty partners;
- Labo and tetra, if you grow them together.
In short, everything in relation to the compatibility of different breeds of fish is relative. Scalaria of the cichl breed. A priori, this means that it is a predator for which every small fish is food. And any larger fish with the same predatory inclinations will not miss the opportunity to pat the delicate antennae of scalar. Probably, it makes sense, buying this cichlid, to negotiate with the seller about the possibility of its return to the pet store in case of such incompatibility.
Aquarium Fish Angelfish
Of all the types of aquarium fish, scalar are probably the most popular and common. And it is not surprising, because such fish as scalar will become not only silent pets, but also a real decoration of your apartment, thanks to its not very bright, but beautiful color and unique crescent shape.
Homeland of aquarium fish angelfish
The birthplace of scalar fish is the basins of the Amazon and Orinoco. Angelfish prefer calm quiet parts of water bodies (lagoons, bays, overgrown and stagnant waters). The first fish were brought to Europe in the early twentieth century, in Russia, their successful mass breeding began around the 50s of the twentieth century.
In fish, the angelfish has a disc-shaped body shape with elongated dorsal and anal fins and filiform processes of the ventral fins. This body structure allows the scalars in nature to quickly hide from the enemy, hiding in the undergrowth, as the fish are very shy and cautious.
Care for aquarium fish scalar
When the content of an angelfish at home, it is necessary to take into account the size of the aquarium that is necessary for them: its height must be at least 45-50 cm, and the volume must be more than 60 liters. This is due to the fact that the fish reach a height of usually about 25 cm and approximately 15 cm in length, and since the scalar fish are schooling, it is desirable to keep at least 2-4 individuals together.
Angelfish love clean water, so the aquarium should have a filter and aeration. Once a week it is necessary to replace one-fifth of the water. The optimum water temperature ranges from 23-26 degrees Celsius.
At the bottom of the aquarium, you can put either coarse sand or small pebbles. In the corners of the aquarium it is necessary to place the algae in sufficient quantity, otherwise skirmishes between fish are inevitable. It is advisable to put the aquarium itself in such a way that bright sunlight falls on it, which the scalar needs.
Eating scalar eat both dry and live food. The latter, of course, is preferable. In addition, the fish need to give granulated feed and flakes. It is better to use the feeder for feeding, since with such an unusual body shape it is extremely difficult for the scalar to pick up pieces of food from the bottom of the aquarium.
Scalar should be fed moderately, not overfeeding - overeating is dangerous for their health.
Breeding aquarium fish angelfish
If you properly care for your pets, by the age of 8-10 months they form pairs and regularly spawn. Usually, for laying caviar, a couple chooses one of the objects in the aquarium, most often these are plant leaves.
If you want to breed a scalar, then you need to place the selected pair in a separate (spawning) aquarium with a capacity of at least 80 liters. The temperature in the aquarium should not be below 26 degrees. After the fish lay their eggs, the parents should be better off, otherwise they can eat the newly born offsprings themselves.
What fish get along with scalar?
Angelfish are quite peaceful, therefore, compatible with almost all calm fish. It is necessary to take into account the size of the neighbors: they should not be much smaller than the angelfish, otherwise they will serve not as neighbors, but as food. Best of all, all the inhabitants of the aquarium were about the same size. It is also not necessary to move the predators, as in this case Angelfish can be bitten with fins.
It is better not to place scalar and goldfish in one aquarium, as they have different maintenance conditions, characters, and everyone needs a lot of space. Especially grown up scalar can spoil fins to goldfish.
Diseases of aquarium fish angelfish easier to prevent than to treat. Observe the temperature regime, do not overfeed the fish and closely monitor the quality of the feed, change the water in time and always maintain cleanliness in the aquarium - and you most likely will not encounter scalar disease.
Angelfish: content in an aquarium
The floating crescent, winged leaf, or angelfish rightly takes the place of one of the favorite fish of many breeders, perhaps due to its unusual body shape and soft, but diverse and beautiful colors, and possibly due to its active behavior and livable character. This fish is quite capricious and demanding to the conditions of detention, especially with regard to the purity of the water and the quality of food. Therefore, if you decide to settle it in your pond, then you need to thoroughly prepare for it.
Scalar in nature
In their natural habitat, small rivers in South America were chosen for life with a weak current and abundant plants, quiet reed-covered bays, coastal waters, tributaries of the Amazon and Orinoco.
What does a scalar look like?
These cichlids have a high (up to 26 cm) and short (up to 15 cm) disk-like body. The dorsal and anal fins are very elongated, so that the body of the fish resembles a crescent. Pectoral fins filiform. They, like the tail ones, are sharpened to the ends. Males are less fat than females and have a large forehead.
The traditional coloring scalar silver with black vertical stripes. As a rule, there are four of them: the first passes through the eye, the last through the caudal stem, and two intermediate ones through the body. The spine is darker than the belly. Due to intensive breeding work, the color of the fish can not only vary from greenish-gray to silvery-olive, but also be black, marble, golden, smoky, green, two- and even three-colored. The voile forms of these perciformes are popular.
Modern crescents have three main varieties:
- Pterophyllum scalare.
- Pterophyllum altum is a large (up to 20 cm) and high (up to 40 cm) fish.
- Pterophyllum leopoldi, or humpbacked scalar. Its length in captivity does not exceed 10 cm.
Angelfish are gregarious fish, they cannot stand loneliness at all and are distinguished by their loyalty to their partner. Therefore, it is better to keep them in small groups of 4-6 pieces. In the group there is a strict hierarchy: the best angle goes to the largest pair, a smaller pair - the conditions are worse, single fish are exiles and access to the feed is received last. And if such a renegade is to be resettled, then another individual or even the weakest pair will instantly take his place. To solve the problem, you need to increase either the aquarium or the number of the pack.
Another feature of the angelfish is fearfulness. If you unexpectedly knock or suddenly turn on the light, the fish may experience a strong fright or even a loss of color.
How to create perfect conditions?
Aquarium. Since some individuals can grow quite large, then the aquarium will need a lot. For example, for two pairs of medium-sized fish, it is better to take a 60-liter container, no less. Moreover, the width of the vessel does not play a big role, but the height of the aquarium should not be less than 45 cm.
Temperature. Some sources indicate that scalar can live successfully in the temperature range from 16 to 35 degrees. However, we would not advise you to experiment like this, it is a big risk to undermine the health of your pets. The optimum temperature is 23-26 ° C. Acidity should be maintained at 6.5-7.4, and the rigidity - 18.
Water. Prerequisite - clean water. To ensure it, you need to install a good (bottom or canister) filter, replace a fifth of the water weekly and wash the aquarium itself at least once every 2 months. We add that the filter should be without a violent ejection of water, as the angelfish do not like a strong flow.
Lighting should be bright, but without a sharp change of day and night.
Vegetation. It is recommended to plant aquarium densely with plants, providing space for swimming. Superficial plants can also be used. They will dim excessive lighting and create a sense of security in fish.
Priming. As the soil is good to use coarse sand, fine gravel. Angelfish do not have the habit of digging it up.
Registration. Housing can be decorated with snags, decorative rocks and stone gorges. Caves and shaded areas will serve as shelters. The main principle of selection is safety. There should be no sharp corners.
What to feed the scalar?
There are no special requirements here, as long as the food is of high quality. These cichlids willingly eat a live bloodworm, cortex, daphnia. You can give dry, granulated feed and flakes. They love to eat algae and pieces of leaves of underwater plants. The menu can be diversified due to minced seafood, ground mussels and shrimp.
It is advisable to equip the feeding place with a special feeder, since, due to the shape of the body, the scalar cannot take food from the bottom.These fish are prone to overeating, so you need to control portion sizes. Here is the rule: it is better to underfeed than to feed. Sometimes you can observe a gratuitous refusal of food, but you should not worry. After a maximum of a week, everything will return to normal.
In general, the angelfish are amazing fish in both appearance and behavior. And the one who decides to start this beautiful crescent should know: the main thing is to prepare for this event, and then the content of the fish will not disappoint you!
Who do the scalar get on with? What fish do the angelfish live with?
The mysterious world of the aquarium attracts many people. How wonderful after work to sit and watch the unhurried flow of life of its inhabitants. To avoid dramas in the blue waters, you need to carefully consider the choice of fish, today we will talk about who the scalar gets on with.
The scalar is not too fastidious and quite livable with many underwater inhabitants. Does not dig and does not spoil the plants, like other cichlids, in particular beauty chromis. The soil is not her element, the scalar will not dig it up and raise dregs. But these fish are demanding on the chemical composition, the degree of pollution and the level of oxygen in the water.
This is a schooling fish, so if you decide to start them, take several individuals at once. One she often dies in the first days after the purchase, as if not worrying about her loneliness.
If you want to keep the angelfish and still diversify the underwater world with other inhabitants, then take care of a large aquarium. A volume of 100 liters (or even better at 200) is the minimum that is required. A sufficient amount of free space will ensure peaceful coexistence with its neighbors, while a lack of space will provoke conflicts.
The second thing to take care of is the equipment. Good filtration and aeration are necessary for the scalar to feel normal. A heater with a temperature control system will not allow sharp fluctuations, which is undesirable for these heat-loving fish. In addition, you will need tests to determine the various parameters of water. So, too hard water can lead to their death. Optimum acidity Ph 6.0. Favorable temperature conditions of 25-27 degrees.
Areas with abundant vegetation in the aquarium are desirable, they contribute to the normal functioning of the ecosystem and provide shelter for fry or smaller inhabitants. So, with the basic requirements of these cichlids to the environment figured out, now you need to choose the neighbors, which they also fit, and find out what fish the scalarians get on with.
Good neighborly relations
When choosing a composition for your aquarium, first of all pay attention to the size of the fish. Scalaria grows large enough and, like any cichlid, can taste something smaller on a tooth. Therefore, it is better to take at once all the inhabitants of the fry than to run the young to the already adult individuals. Another point: these fish are very slow, and therefore bright neons are well co-located with them.
The first of those with whom the scalar gets along is soms, on the other hand, no one quarrels with them at all. Each of them has its own area. Whatever fish you have brought, they will completely ignore the presence of bottom catfish.
Angelfish and barbs are often recommended as ideal neighbors. They have almost the same requirements for temperature, hardness and acidity. But the temperament is different, and nimble barbs are quite capable of leaving leisurely fish without lunch. Again, it depends on the nature of the specific fish caught by you. Some live very amicably, but somewhere barbs are taken to drive cichlids.
Another win-win is scalar and gourami. This composition looks very bright, all the fish are quite large (which imposes the appropriate requirements for the size of the water area). If you take the fish fry, then problems, most likely, will not arise. Adults gourami can sometimes shake only the imperfections of the scalar by the tails and fins.
Often among fans there are disputes about whether the scalar and guppy will get along.
In fact, this is really lucky. Peace-loving individuals have been caught by someone, and small fish continue to swim peacefully, while for others the cichlids quickly figured out how to corner them and have a snack. If all fish are bought at an early age, the aquarium is big and there are shelters, then, most likely, life will pass peacefully and calmly.
Seasoned aquarists emphasize the tranquil neighborhood of the angelfish and danios, and, in addition, placium is considered to be one of the most accommodating. Labo, tetra, discus, swordtails, roosters and iris are also well suited.
With whom to settle the scalar should not
Despite the fact that they themselves belong to this family, they get along badly with other cichlids. Often the angelfish are slower and calmer, and therefore may themselves suffer from distant relatives. They are incompatible with goldfish. Large predators, like piranha, are intended only for individual content.
Telescopes can not be settled together with flat beauties, quickly losing sight, they will die. By the way, not only cichlids love to beat out their eyes. If you add any new species to the aquarium, even if you are sure that it is precisely those with whom the angelfish gets along, be sure to closely observe the behavior of the fish. If you notice aggressive behavior, dangling fins and tails, then it is better to evacuate the affected fish and give in good hands.
About the fact that the angelfish is undesirable to keep with goldfish, we have already said. Let us explain: cichlids are thermophilic, the same, on the contrary, like cool water. In addition, goldfish are big gluttons, they clog up the aquarium badly and like to dig the ground, and the scalars do not tolerate dirty water.
Do not keep together herbivorous fishes (tilaria, hemigramus, viviparous) and predators, which include scalar. Mixing different foods can badly affect the state of water and the health of its inhabitants.
Breeding period: how the behavior of the angelfish
These are territorial fish and during the spawning period, as well as care for the offspring, can chase all other inhabitants of the aquarium. Even congeners during the division into pairs can fall hard. There are several ways out: either to plant a couple to spawn in a separate aquarium, or to plan the planting of large bushes and build caves and creeks at the bottom of the cave where fish can hide from each other.
It should be noted that the male scalar is usually aggressive at this time, especially if there is another competitor in the aquarium. Several females with one male will be much livable. Spawning of these fish occurs quite often, several times a month, which is a reason to think about whether it is necessary to move neighbors to them at all, or to keep a mono-breed aquarium more easily.
Answering the question about who the scalar gets on with, we note the following points. It should be heat-loving fish, as cichlids do not tolerate temperatures below 23 degrees. It is desirable that the neighbors are not too small, that is, predators do not fit in the mouth. Buying too large and aggressive individuals is fraught with unpleasant consequences for the angelfish themselves (an example can be astronotus). Fish should be tolerant of soft water. This condition is not suitable for everyone; Malawian cichlids automatically fall out of the selection list.
How many years will the scalar live?
Scalaria is a popular aquarium fish, a representative of the Cichlidae family (Cichlids). The natural habitat is the freshwater bodies of South America (the Amazon and its tributaries). There, the water is saturated with a large amount of dissolved oxygen, which allows it to adapt to different conditions of life. She has a hardy body, body shape and diet allowed to adapt to captivity, transferring some changes in water parameters. Aquarists containing these fish often have the question: "How many scalar live?".
Like a fish belonging to the Tsikhlid family, its lifespan at home can be more than ten years. Under proper conditions of maintenance: proper feeding, clean water, a spacious aquarium, attentive care, the life span of this beautiful pet can be significantly extended. Instances of long-livers among scalar also met.
How much time can live in captivity?
The Amazon River has a slightly acidic pH and a mild level of hardness. Perhaps the most unusual hydrobionts live there, distinguished by their unique appearance and special structure of the organism. In the warm tropical waters of the scalar can live 20-25 years. However, in an aquarium where space is limited and the diet is not so diverse, their lifespan is halved. The built environment, which is completely dependent on the person, does not always provide the fish with a balanced environment.
With proper care, regular cleaning of the reservoir, aeration, scalar live 10 years or more. If she is provided with constant care, without ignoring all the content requirements, she will live an order of magnitude longer, even 20 years. It seems that 10 years is not a long time for joy, I would like more. But this figure is considered to be solid for not very big aquarium fish.
Watch a video on how best to care for scalars.
What to do to extend the life of the fish
The life expectancy of an angelfish in an aquarium can be 15-25 years, if you follow a number of requirements. First, be sure to launch these fish into a spacious tank of at least 100 liters per pair (female and male). Secondly, install the compressor and the aerator, the fish saturated with oxygen will only be delighted. The compressor must be turned on for 20-30 minutes twice a day.
As for the general cleaning in the aquarium, it does not need to be carried out too often. If you remove the remnants of food and rotted plants in time, the water can be changed less often, some people manage to keep the water in crystal purity for more than six months. Otherwise, water replacement should occur at least 3 times a month. Be sure to clean the soil, wash the walls of the tank and the filter from the accumulated dirt, green algae. Watch the water temperature - the new water should correspond to all the parameters of the “old” one.
Do not forget that the angelfish will live more years if the feed in the aquarium is not worse than they are fed in the wild. In the wild, they are omnivorous: they feed on insect larvae and insects, zooplankton, and plants. Therefore, they can be fed all appropriately feed: artificial for cichlids, dry, frozen and live. You can not give bloodworms and tubers, because they do not live in weakly acidic water. You can see how the fish form brownish blisters at the anus - these are the negative effects of feeding the bloodworm and the strawman.
What decorative angelfish eat: micro-worm, artemia, earthworms, snails, koretra, daphnia, cyclop, lettuce and spinach. It is not recommended to give meat to warm-blooded animals that are saturated with fats. Feed pelleted with spirulina can be additional feeding. You need to feed such portions so that the fish ate the food in 2-5 minutes. Overfeeding is also harmful and shortens the life of fish, food debris can oxidize water, spoiling its quality.
See how to care for scalars to prolong their lives.
Because of the violation of metabolic processes, improper conditions of detention, untimely hygiene, fish can get sick, having lived in an aquarium for few years. With poor aeration, the fish have difficulty breathing, hold on to the surface of the water, gasping for air. The eyes become pale, the gills from the inside become covered with necrotic plaques. In this case, you can gradually increase the aeration by adjusting the temperature of the water and the supply of oxygen.
If it seemed to you that the angelfish in the aquarium is sluggish, swims slowly, the anus is inflamed on the body, this is a disturbing signal. Hexamitosis is a parasitic disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Late intervention with the use of drugs can lead to infection of other fish or death. It is possible to treat with erythrocycline baths with trichopol (50 grams and 10 grams, respectively, in proportions to one liter of water).
A scalar can form a fin rot, which is a consequence of infection with a rod-shaped bacterium. This is the result of heavily polluted water if it is rarely changed. On the body of a scalar appear white turbidity, also the eye corneas turn pale. Later the rays of the fins begin to exfoliate and fall off, ulcers form. The consequences of such a disease can be lethal - a fish will live for few years if it is infected from time to time. Treatment of fin rot: take malachite green, hydrochloride and bacillin-5 (in proportions of 0.1 mg, 100 mg, 4000 units per liter of water, respectively). The solution is added to a water tank. Be sure to process the decorations of the aquarium, plant plants bacillin.
Ringworm - a disease of fungal origin, which reduces the number of years of fish life. Late treatment will be fatal. Symptoms: white bloom on the body. Later, the fungus can spread to the internal organs. For treatment it is necessary to use streptotsid, bacillin-5, copper sulfate, potassium permanganate (in the proportions of 1 gram, 4000 units, 0.5 gram, 0.05 gram, respectively). Timely prevention of diseases, quarantine and quality treatment prolong the life of pets.