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Angelfish is the birthplace of the fish

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The birthplace of scalar fish: angelfish in nature

Such usual today in the aquarium, the scalar were brought from distant lands, where they lived in the lap of nature. It is hard to believe that these wonderful creatures are found somewhere in the wild.

The story of the introduction of the scalar

Angelfish belong to the cichlid family. The first time after their discovery, the scalars were very poorly bred in aquariums, and therefore were expensive. The large angelfish Pterophyllum scalare could not be taught to live in captivity even by the most experienced aquarists, but the smaller species, Pterophyllum eimekei, perfectly caught on, just like the hybrid fish from two species.

Homeland Angelfish

The birthplace of scalar fish is South America. The animals live in the Amazon, in the Rieh Negru and some major rivers, as well as streams. Some species prefer wastewater and wetlands. Scalar vulgaris is found in the slow current of the rivers belonging to the Amazon basin.

Juveniles live in dense vegetation, and adult fish swim in open places. Due to the special shape of the body, when danger arises, they can quickly hide in the thickets. During spawning, scalaries prefer places where there are plants with wide leaves, where you can lay eggs. Angelfish live in nature in very warm fresh waters with moderate acidity and hardness.

Breeding scalar in captivity

The first time fry of an angel in captivity was bred in Europe in the early 20s of the 20th century, and in Russia in 1928. Mass breeding of angelfish began only in the middle of the century. To date, the scalars have spread to all cities and countries, but still remain popular, as selection only increased their attractiveness and aesthetic appearance.

Angelfish, once a part of nature, became popular among aquarists. They amaze people not only with their beauty and unusualness, but also with the possibility of breeding new species.

Scalar fish - content in an aquarium

Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior. High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.

Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body. Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options. But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views. Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.

Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and can be as long as 15 cm. Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems. The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters. How many live scalaries? They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.

Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.

Habitat in nature

The scalar fish was first described by Schulz in 1823. It was first introduced to Europe in 1920, and was bred in the USA in 1930. Although they sell fish now and call it ordinary, they already differ very significantly from fish that live in nature. It lives in slow-moving reservoirs in South America: the birthplace of the fish in the central Amazon and its tributaries in Peru, Brazil and eastern Ecuador.

In nature, they live in places with a small number of plants, where they feed on fry, insects, invertebrates and vegetation.

Currently, there are three species in the genus: common Pterophyllum scalare, scalp altum Pterophyllum altum and scalar leopold Pterophyllum leopoldi. At the moment, it is quite difficult to understand which types of them are now most common in aquaristics, since crossing has played a role.

Species differences

Consider each of their wild forms of scalar:

Scalyaria vulgaris (Pterophyllum scalare)

Probably most of the currently sold ordinary angelfish belong to this species. Traditionally considered the most unpretentious and easy to breed.

Wild Angelfish caught in nature

Scalpel leopold pterophyllum leopoldi

It is rarely found, very similar to an ordinary scalar, but its dark spots are somewhat lighter, and there are a couple of black stripes on the body, and one on the dorsal fin, but not moving onto the body.

Angelfish leopoldi

Scallah altum Pterophyllum altum

Or the Orinoco scalar, it is the largest fish of all three species, it can be one and a half times larger than the usual scalar and grow up to 40 cm in size. There is also a sharp transition between the forehead and the mouth, forming a depression. There are red dots on the fins. For many years, this species could not be diluted in captivity, but in recent years it has been possible to get fry from the scalar altum, and it went on sale along with individuals caught in nature.

Scalaria Altum or Orinoco

Altum in nature and in the aquarium, though the video is in English, but it's worth a look:

Description

The scalar living in nature has a silvery body with dark stripes. Body compressed laterally, with large fins and a pointed head. On the tail fin in mature fish long thin rays can develop. This form helps them to mask among the roots and plants. That is why the wild form colors in the form of vertical dark stripes. Angelfish are omnivores, in nature they lie in wait in the ambush of fry, small fish and invertebrates. The average life expectancy of 12-15 years.

Difficulty in content

Of medium complexity, they are not recommended for beginner aquarists, as they require decent volumes, stable water parameters and can be aggressive to small fish. Also, they themselves may suffer from fish tearing fins, such as Sumatran barbs and terntions.

Blue Angelfish:

Feeding

What to feed? Angelfish are omnivores, in the aquarium they eat all kinds of food: live, frozen and artificial. The basis of feeding can be high-quality flakes, and additionally provide live and frozen food: a pipe maker, bloodworm, artemia, and a coretica. It is important to know two things, they are gluttons and cannot be overfeed, no matter how much they ask. And very carefully give the bloodworm, but it is better to refuse it altogether. A little overfeed with bloodworms, and the scalar begins intestinal distention, and such bubbles come out of the anal bladder. It is much safer to feed branded feed, the benefit they are now of high quality.

Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, though not often. In my case, they regularly tear off the tops of Eleocharis and tear off the moss from the snag. In this case, you can add in the diet with spriulina.

Discus and Angelfish in the huge aquarium, the Amazon biotope:

Maintenance and care

Angelfish are quite unpretentious fish and can live more than 10 years, if you provide them with suitable conditions. Because of their shape, high aquariums of at least 120 liters are preferred for maintenance. However, if you are going to contain several of these beautiful fish, it is better to get an aquarium of 200-250 liters or more. Another benefit of buying a spacious aquarium is that parents feel calmer and eat caviar less often.

The scalar aquarium fish should be kept in warm water, when the temperature of the water in the aquarium is 25-27С. In nature, they live in subacid, fairly soft water, but now they are well adapted to a variety of conditions and parameters. The decor in the aquarium can be any, but preferably without sharp edges, which the fish may be injured.

Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, but not very much. At me they persistently eat Eleocharis, although they are never hungry and regularly eat food with vegetable ingredients. And the attempt to add moss to the bark, they won is very simple. Regularly cutting off Javanese moss on a twig. It is difficult to say why they behave this way, but apparently from boredom and greedy appetite. In the aquarium, it is advisable to plant plants with wide leaves, such as nymphs or amazon, they like to lay eggs on such leaves.

The body structure of the aquarium scalar is not adapted to swimming in a strong current, and filtration in the aquarium should be moderate. A large flow of water causes stress, and slows the growth of fish, as they expend energy to fight it. It is reasonable to use an external filter, and supply water through a flute or an internal one and spray current. Required weekly water changes, about 20% of the volume.

Compatible with other fish

Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but you need to remember that it is still a cichlid, and it can be somewhat aggressive to small fish. The same goes for fry and shrimp, they are gorgeous and insatiable hunters, in my aquarium there are countless hordes of neocardin shrimps, they knocked out clean. They keep together while young, but adult fish are divided into pairs and become territorial. They are a little shy, they can be afraid of sudden movements, sounds and turning on the light.

Who can you keep a cichlid with? With a large and medium-sized fish, it is desirable to avoid very small, such as cardinals and micro-selection of the galaxy, although they wonderfully live with neons with me. Definitely need to avoid barbs and preferably any, except cherry. In my practice, a flock of Sumaran barbs didn’t touch the angel at all, and a flock of fire barbs almost destroyed their fins in 24 hours. Although you think that should be the opposite. Also fins can gnaw on ternation, tetragonopterus, black barb, schubert barb and denison.

You can keep with viviparous: swordtails, petilia, mollies, even with guppies, but note that in this case you should not count on the fry. Also marble gourami, pearl gourami, moonlight, congo, erythrosalonus and many other fish.

Gender differences

How to determine the sex of scalar? It is impossible to distinguish a male or female with an angelfish before the onset of puberty. And even that, it is guaranteed to be understood only during spawning, when the female has a thick, cone-shaped ovipositor. Indirect signs are deceptive, the male is lobasty and larger, especially since females can pair, if there are no males. And this pair will behave in the same way, up to imitation of spawning. So you can determine the sex only in adult fish, and even then with some relativity.

Fight of three males:

Reproduction in the aquarium

Angelfish form a stable, monogamous couple, and they actively spawn in the general aquarium, but it is rather difficult to save caviar. As a rule, caviar is deposited on vertical surfaces: a piece of snag, a flat sheet, even on the glass in an aquarium. For reproduction often put special tools or cones, or a piece of plastic pipe, or a ceramic pipe.
Like all cichlids, the scalar developed progeny care. Breeding is not easy to spawn, the parents take care of the roe, and when the fry hatch, they continue to care for them until they swim.

Since the angelfish themselves choose a pair, the best way to get such a pair is to buy six or more fish and grow them until they are determined. Very often the aquarist learns about the beginning of spawning only when he sees caviar in one corner, in the other all the inhabitants of the aquarium. But, if you are careful, you can see a pair that is preparing for breeding. They stick together, drive away other fishes, and protect a secluded corner in an aquarium.

Angelfish usually reach the adult age of 8-12 months, and can spawn every 7-10 days if taken from them. Spawning begins with the fact that the couple chooses a place and begins to methodically clean it. Then the female lays a chain of eggs, and the male immediately fertilizes them. This continues until the whole caviar (sometimes a few hundred), will not be postponed, the scalar caviar is rather large, of a light color.

Parents care for caviar, fan it with fins, eat dead or unfertilized eggs (they turn white). A few days later, the eggs peck up, but the larvae remain attached to the surface. At this time, the larva does not eat yet, it consumes the contents of the yolk sac. After about a week, she becomes a fry and begins to swim freely. You can feed the scalar fry with the nautilia of Artemia or other fry feeds. Millions of scalar fry were raised precisely on the nautilia of Artemia, so this is the best choice. You need to feed them three or four times a day, in portions which they can eat in two or three minutes.

In an aquarium with fry, it is better to use an internal filter with a washcloth and without a lid, as it provides sufficient filtration, but does not suck the fry inside. Clean water is just as important as regular feeding, because of the accumulated harmful substances the fry often die.

Often aquarists ask why the angelfish eat their eggs? This may be due to stress, when they spawn in a common aquarium and are distracted by other fish, or in young couples who are still inexperienced.

Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review



SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect. In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.

Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5.
Stiffness dH: to 10 .
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors - discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium. See the article - compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live:
Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum amount of aquarium for scalar

angelfish in the aquarium black and white photo beautiful

From 100 l., In such an aquarium, you can put one, maximum two scalar. Under good conditions, they grow into fish of impressive size, and given their wide fins, it is better to buy an aquarium from 250 liters for them. About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).

Requirements for the care and conditions of the scalar


- scalar necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water.
- it is not necessary to cover the aquarium, the fish are not very mobile and do not jump out of the pond.
- lighting should be moderate. The aquarium is equipped with shaded areas, which is achieved with the help of aquarium vegetation. Fish do not like bright light and shy to turn it on. Vallisneria and other long stem plants are recommended as aquarium plants for scalars. The creation of thickets from such plants imitates the natural habitat of the angelfish.
- Aquarium decoration, at your discretion: stones, grottoes, snags and other decorations. In the aquarium must be provided an open space for swimming. Shelters do not need scalars.

Feeding and diet of scalar

The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia. The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.

The scalar has a peculiarity - they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat - there is nothing wrong with that.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet.In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, scalars live in northern South America

in reservoirs with dense reed beds and with standing or slowly flowing water. Actually these natural conditions explain their flattened - disc-shaped body shape, which they need to maneuver among underwater reeds. Kept in nature in groups of 10 individuals.

Description of aquarium angelfish

The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural - the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others. In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived - with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of angelfish

The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as "pteron" - a feather and "phyllon" sheet, and together with a "winged sheet".

Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier. He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name "Blattfische", translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B. Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.

Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called "Angelfishes" or simply "Angel", in Germany "Segelflosser", which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they "dovozilis", but alas, the dead. Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the "aquarium-scalar boom" begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg - I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L. Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy - the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear. Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov - in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater. The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always - at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred. In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.

Types and breeds of Angelfish

So in order to understand the scale of selection work, I’ll give only an incomplete list of other derived forms of an angelfish: half-hearted, smoky, albino, red-smoky, red, chocolate, phantom, two-spotted phantom, blue, white, zebra, lace zebra, cobra, leopard, marble red-gold, red-pearl, pearl, gold-pearl, red-pearl and others.
The latest achievements are scaleless and brilliant scalaries. Therefore, if we talk about the types of angelfish - they are just countless.

Here is a photo of some angelfish - Pterophyllum scalare











But, it is necessary to distinguish species from scalar breeds

The above scalar is a breed of the same species Pterophyllum scalare. But there are other types of scalar - the main ones are:
Pterophyllum altum (pterophyllum altum), Pterophyllum leopoldi (formerly Pterophyllum dumerilli - Pterophyllum Dymerilli), Pterophyllum eimekei
Here is
Photo of Pterophyllum leopoldi (as a separate type of angelfish)

and here is a photo Pterophyllum altum (as a separate type of scalar)

a photo Pterophyllum eimekei (as a separate scalar)

Scalar content
Taking into account the above mentioned breeding experiments for one hundred years, the scalar adapted so much to the aquarium conditions that their content does not pose any problems. Perhaps the main and prerequisite for their maintenance is a large and high aquarium. As previously mentioned, the minimum volume of an aquarium for a scalar should be 100 liters, but its height should be at least 45 centimeters. In this case, the fish is absolutely not important thickness of the aquarium, on the turn, they are accustomed to pour narrow ducts, thickets and crevices. From my personal experience I will say that the angelfish feel great, are angry with densely planted long-stem vegetation, in which they feel at home in South America.
The optimal temperature of water for scalars ranges from 22-27 ° C. However, these fish are distinguished by enviable frost resistance up to 16 ° C and endurance in the heat up to 35 ° C.
They are unpretentious and to other parameters of water can normally exist both in very soft and rather hard water. Optimum dH: up to 10 °, Ph: 6-7,5.
Angelfish love clean water, so the presence of aeration and filtration in the aquarium is necessary. Weekly need to replace the aquarium water to fresh before? parts.
Angelfish are very hierarchical fish. It is best to keep them with a flock, in which their own ranking will be established - large and strong pairs will dominate, and weaker ones will receive cuffs. However, such intraspecific aggression is not very scary, especially if you zoned the aquarium. For example, I have aquarium plants and decor planted and set so that the aquarium can be divided into four "adjacent rooms". Such a method helps to avoid excessive aggression and stalking of the weak.

Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar

Sex differences between male and female scalar are weakly expressed. They can be seen only when the fish cut their mature age at 9-12 months of age. Up to this point, when you buy young animals in the pet store, no one will tell you who you take. When buying juveniles, the angelfish can be recommended to take two large individuals, most likely they are males and two small scalars, most likely they will be girls.
To determine the sex of the scalar need experience and practice. A full-time aquarist will distinguish a male from a female in two accounts, but for a beginner, it will be a bit hard for a beginner. For this you need to watch your scalar.
Below is a list of typical sexual differences between the male and the female scalar. Well, of course the photo!

The first sign is behavior. Boys behave like boys, girls like girls. This is especially noticeable when the angelfish are broken into pairs. The pair immediately see who the male and who is the female.
The second sign is the structure of the body. The male angelfish has a 100% distinctive feature - this is a fatty knob on the forehead - a hump. Females do not have it. The forehead of the male is convex, on the contrary vice versa in the female. In addition, the body of the male scalar is more powerful, their back has a fin longer and there are stripes on it (on the back).
The third sign is manifested during the spawning period. The male has a narrow and sharp seed tube, while the female scalar forms a wide and short ovipositor.

Here is a good photo of a male and female angelfish

(male on the left and female on the right). Having received a review of this article from a fish breeding expert. Vitaly ChernyavskyI consider it necessary to supplement this part of the article with his answer, here it is:
"The article on the scalars looked. As for signs of differences between males and females - not quite right.
1) Behavior is not a criterion. Every now and then 2 females without a male completely even (and in turn) imitate the male's sexual behavior. Only if you look closely, you can see that the "male" and the female will then change places - and the roe (naturally unfertilized) will be put off by BOTH fish.
2) There are males without a forehead and females with a forehead.
3) The only clear criterion for sex differences in adult fish is line of the back and abdomen. In the male: the line of the back and dorsal fin form an ANGLE, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost the DIRECT line. And in the female, on the contrary: the line of the back and the dorsal fin form an almost DIRECT line, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost a direct ANGLE. "
Taking into account the expert's opinion, I add this drawing that will help determine the sex of the scalar, based on the angle of its fins.
!!!PAYING ATTENTION!!!
The fact that on the Internet this figure of an angelfish is everywhere spread with false information - the male and the female are confused. This drawing is taken from Ilyin's book Aquarium Fish Breeding. So there the fish were entangled by the artist.
Well, on the Internet, those who sculpt this picture on their websites ... they do not chop themselves, where the female is, where the male is, thereby misleading everyone.
!!! This picture is all right !!! With good and comfortable content angelfish spawning happens right in the general aquarium. The impetus for spawning is the replacement of aquarium water with fresh water and an increase in temperature of 2-4 degrees. A very important role in this process is played by the substrate for laying. Angelfish often prefer to lay eggs on a broadleaf plant, but they may like other places: filter tube, glass, grotto wall, etc.
The place chosen by the producers is thoroughly cleaned of any dirt, and then spawning itself follows. Over time, the female can sweep about 500 eggs, large and even more up to 1000.

Photos of scalar roe



The incubation period for caviar is 2 days; during this period, parents intensively fan the caviar with fins and clean it from litters, remove the whitened - dead caviar. After the larvae hatch from the calf, the parents transfer them to another leaf in their mouth. This is done for greater purity and the elimination of the possibility of catching the infection from the rotting shell of the calf.

Photos of angelfish larvae



Over the next 7 days, the larvae, under the watchful supervision of parents, hang on a piece of paper. When the larvae run out of nutrients from the yolk sac, they turn into fry. From now on, they should start feeding.
Starter feed for young scalar should be of high quality, alive and well washed. Can advise - nauplii, nematodes. It is not desirable, but it is possible to feed the fry with any frayed dry food (the number of dead fry will increase with such feeding). It is also recommended to clean the spawning tank from food residue and other dirt twice a day.

Photo fry, young scalar


The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too. Of course, this does not lead to anything good. There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring. This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders. Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and the angelfish,
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar



Recommended literature and books about scalars

A. N. Gurzhiy "Skalyarii" 2009 Kochetov Sergey "Skalyarii" 2005

Beautiful video with scalars









A selection of beautiful photos with scalars
















Angelfish

Pearl Angelfish

Among the few most popular aquarium fish, the angelfish occupies a worthy place. This is largely determined by the richness of her body color, her peace-loving character, which allows her to live in the same aquarium with most species of fish, natural grace, grace and slowness. Sometimes it seems that aquarium fish angelfish with their leisurely as if specifically allow you to admire their beauty. And believe me, there really is something to admire.

angelfish leopoldi

The discoid flat body of an angelfish with crescents of the dorsal and anal fins and long filiform ventral fins is remembered at a glance. At home, the angelfish, in South America, its name sounds like "winged leaf." The length of the body in the aquarium can be up to 20 centimeters, and the distance between the tips of the fins is up to 30 centimeters. However, the size of the fish has a great influence on the size of the fish.

Most attracts a variety of body color of this aquarium fish. Over the long years of change of generations and efforts of breeders, its natural silver color, embellished with black vertical stripes, has changed quite a lot. Today you can see the scalar of many with a single coloring, from velvet black to golden with a pinkish tinge. There is a scalar chocolate, blue and smoky, golden pearl and marble-gold.

Marble angel

There are also angelfish with natural body color. For example, the scalar zebra has dark vertical stripes on its sides, with black strokes and spots on the body of a marble fish. In short, a variety of body color can satisfy the needs of any aquarist. Currently, there are three main varieties of the scalar aquarium fish. Among them: common (Pterophyllum scalare), high-body (or high) (Pterophyllum altum) and Leopoldi (Pterophyllum leopoldi). Previously, this fish was known as the humped scalar or Dumeryl (Pterophyllum dumerilli).

Conditions of detention

To ensure optimal living conditions, an angelfish must first of all take care of the proper size of the aquarium. The recommended volume of the aquarium is not less than 100 liters, the height of the walls should be at least 50 centimeters. The soil should be dark, suitable as coarse sand and fine gravel. In the wild, in the Amazon, scalars prefer to stay near dense vegetation. This allows the fry to hide from predators, and older fish to lay eggs on plants with wide leaves. In fact, the scalars in the aquarium did not get rid of these habits. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a sufficient number of plants for shelters and with wide leaves for spawning in order to provide conditions for breeding of scalarias, while not forgetting about the free space for walking. In the aquarium, you can also place snags, stone gorges and ornamental rocks. Fish it does not hurt. Angelfish are very demanding on the quality of food, and although they feed on both dry and live food, they prefer live food.

Although the aquarium with scalars can have both soft and hard water, cleanliness should be perfect. It is necessary to provide aeration, filtration and weekly water change up to 20 percent of the total. Fish will enjoy living in water with a pH value from 6.0 to 8.0. Experienced aquarists recommend for ideal living conditions to be within the pH range 6.5 - 7.4. The hardness of the water should be in the range of 5.0-13.0 dGH, and the temperature in the aquarium for the scalar should be in the range from 24 to 30 degrees.

It is also recommended to provide the aquarium with bright lighting. At the same time, a sharp change in lighting should be avoided. Angelfish, in principle, are quite peace-loving fish, and can easily get along with other fish of non-aggressive breeds. Although it happens that the angelfish show aggression towards their smaller relatives when the owner is late with feeding. It is also not recommended to launch certain species of fish into the aquarium with angelfish, including African and South American cichlids, cockerels, guppies, discus, Koi carps and astronotus.

Cultivation of Pterophyllum Scalare

Scalarians spawn at the age of 8 - 12 months. At this time, a couple is formed, ready to acquire offspring. For the breeding season, the scalar is recommended, firstly, to select a mature couple and move it to a separate aquarium (breeding ground) of at least 80 liters. Secondly, it is necessary to provide the temperature in the aquarium for scalar at this time in the range of 28 - 30 degrees. Broadleaf plants, such as echinodorus or cryptocorynes, should first be planted in the spawning grounds.

Immediately before spawning, the fish thoroughly clean the selected leaves, then the female begins to lay eggs in even rows. Behind her, the male fertilizes each egg. Spawning, as a rule, lasts for several hours. During this time, the female can lay up to 700 eggs. It should be noted that in the breeding process the scalar from the moment of spawning to the first walk of the fry takes part both parents.

Before the appearance of the fry, the couple together ventilates, fanning it with fins, and cleans the clutch by removing dead eggs. Developed in the fry eggs, the female and male free from the egg membrane and spit on the leaves. Somewhat later, the parents transfer the fry to a hole previously dug in the sand, where the fry spend up to 5 days. After a couple of days the whole family goes for the first walk. From this period you can begin to feed the fry with very small live food. And after some time, the fry begin to eat larger feed.

Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review



SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect. In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.

Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5.
Stiffness dH: to 10 .
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors - discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium. See the article - compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live:
Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum amount of aquarium for scalar

angelfish in the aquarium black and white photo beautiful

From 100 l., In such an aquarium, you can put one, maximum two scalar. Under good conditions, they grow into fish of impressive size, and given their wide fins, it is better to buy an aquarium from 250 liters for them. About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).

Requirements for the care and conditions of the scalar


- scalar necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water.
- it is not necessary to cover the aquarium, the fish are not very mobile and do not jump out of the pond.
- lighting should be moderate. The aquarium is equipped with shaded areas, which is achieved with the help of aquarium vegetation. Fish do not like bright light and shy to turn it on. Vallisneria and other long stem plants are recommended as aquarium plants for scalars. The creation of thickets from such plants imitates the natural habitat of the angelfish.
- Aquarium decoration, at your discretion: stones, grottoes, snags and other decorations. In the aquarium must be provided an open space for swimming. Shelters do not need scalars.

Feeding and diet of scalar

The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia. The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.

The scalar has a peculiarity - they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat - there is nothing wrong with that.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, scalars live in northern South America

in reservoirs with dense reed beds and with standing or slowly flowing water. Actually these natural conditions explain their flattened - disc-shaped body shape, which they need to maneuver among underwater reeds. Kept in nature in groups of 10 individuals.

Description of aquarium angelfish

The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural - the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others. In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived - with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of angelfish

The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as "pteron" - a feather and "phyllon" sheet, and together with a "winged sheet".

Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier. He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name "Blattfische", translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B. Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.

Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called "Angelfishes" or simply "Angel", in Germany "Segelflosser", which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they "dovozilis", but alas, the dead. Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the "aquarium-scalar boom" begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg - I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L. Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy - the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear. Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov - in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater. The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always - at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred. In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.

Types and breeds of Angelfish

So in order to understand the scale of selection work, I’ll give only an incomplete list of other derived forms of an angelfish: half-hearted, smoky, albino, red-smoky, red, chocolate, phantom, two-spotted phantom, blue, white, zebra, lace zebra, cobra, leopard, marble red-gold, red-pearl, pearl, gold-pearl, red-pearl and others.
The latest achievements are scaleless and brilliant scalaries. Therefore, if we talk about the types of angelfish - they are just countless.

Here is a photo of some angelfish - Pterophyllum scalare











But, it is necessary to distinguish species from scalar breeds

The above scalar is a breed of the same species Pterophyllum scalare. But there are other types of scalar - the main ones are:
Pterophyllum altum (pterophyllum altum), Pterophyllum leopoldi (formerly Pterophyllum dumerilli - Pterophyllum Dymerilli), Pterophyllum eimekei
Here is
Photo of Pterophyllum leopoldi (as a separate type of angelfish)

and here is a photo Pterophyllum altum (as a separate type of scalar)

a photo Pterophyllum eimekei (as a separate scalar)

Scalar content
Taking into account the above mentioned breeding experiments for one hundred years, the scalar adapted so much to the aquarium conditions that their content does not pose any problems. Perhaps the main and prerequisite for their maintenance is a large and high aquarium. As previously mentioned, the minimum volume of an aquarium for a scalar should be 100 liters, but its height should be at least 45 centimeters. In this case, the fish is absolutely not important thickness of the aquarium, on the turn, they are accustomed to pour narrow ducts, thickets and crevices. From my personal experience I will say that the angelfish feel great, are angry with densely planted long-stem vegetation, in which they feel at home in South America.
The optimal temperature of water for scalars ranges from 22-27 ° C. However, these fish are distinguished by enviable frost resistance up to 16 ° C and endurance in the heat up to 35 ° C.
They are unpretentious and to other parameters of water can normally exist both in very soft and rather hard water. Optimum dH: up to 10 °, Ph: 6-7,5.
Angelfish love clean water, so the presence of aeration and filtration in the aquarium is necessary. Weekly need to replace the aquarium water to fresh before? parts.
Angelfish are very hierarchical fish. It is best to keep them with a flock, in which their own ranking will be established - large and strong pairs will dominate, and weaker ones will receive cuffs. However, such intraspecific aggression is not very scary, especially if you zoned the aquarium. For example, I have aquarium plants and decor planted and set so that the aquarium can be divided into four "adjacent rooms". Such a method helps to avoid excessive aggression and stalking of the weak.

Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar

Sex differences between male and female scalar are weakly expressed. They can be seen only when the fish cut their mature age at 9-12 months of age. Up to this point, when you buy young animals in the pet store, no one will tell you who you take. When buying juveniles, the angelfish can be recommended to take two large individuals, most likely they are males and two small scalars, most likely they will be girls.
To determine the sex of the scalar need experience and practice. A full-time aquarist will distinguish a male from a female in two accounts, but for a beginner, it will be a bit hard for a beginner. For this you need to watch your scalar.
Below is a list of typical sexual differences between the male and the female scalar. Well, of course the photo!

The first sign is behavior. Boys behave like boys, girls like girls. This is especially noticeable when the angelfish are broken into pairs. The pair immediately see who the male and who is the female.
The second sign is the structure of the body. The male angelfish has a 100% distinctive feature - this is a fatty knob on the forehead - a hump. Females do not have it. The forehead of the male is convex, on the contrary vice versa in the female. In addition, the body of the male scalar is more powerful, their back has a fin longer and there are stripes on it (on the back).
The third sign is manifested during the spawning period. The male has a narrow and sharp seed tube, while the female scalar forms a wide and short ovipositor.

Here is a good photo of a male and female angelfish

(male on the left and female on the right). Having received a review of this article from a fish breeding expert. Vitaly ChernyavskyI consider it necessary to supplement this part of the article with his answer, here it is:
"The article on the scalars looked. As for signs of differences between males and females - not quite right.
1) Behavior is not a criterion. Every now and then 2 females without a male completely even (and in turn) imitate the male's sexual behavior. Only if you look closely, you can see that the "male" and the female will then change places - and the roe (naturally unfertilized) will be put off by BOTH fish.
2) There are males without a forehead and females with a forehead.
3) The only clear criterion for sex differences in adult fish is line of the back and abdomen. In the male: the line of the back and dorsal fin form an ANGLE, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost the DIRECT line. And in the female, on the contrary: the line of the back and the dorsal fin form an almost DIRECT line, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost a direct ANGLE. "
Taking into account the expert's opinion, I add this drawing that will help determine the sex of the scalar, based on the angle of its fins.
!!!PAYING ATTENTION!!!
The fact that on the Internet this figure of an angelfish is everywhere spread with false information - the male and the female are confused. This drawing is taken from Ilyin's book Aquarium Fish Breeding. So there the fish were entangled by the artist.
Well, on the Internet, those who sculpt this picture on their websites ... they do not chop themselves, where the female is, where the male is, thereby misleading everyone.
!!! This picture is all right !!! With good and comfortable content angelfish spawning happens right in the general aquarium. The impetus for spawning is the replacement of aquarium water with fresh water and an increase in temperature of 2-4 degrees. A very important role in this process is played by the substrate for laying. Angelfish often prefer to lay eggs on a broadleaf plant, but they may like other places: filter tube, glass, grotto wall, etc.
The place chosen by the producers is thoroughly cleaned of any dirt, and then spawning itself follows. Over time, the female can sweep about 500 eggs, large and even more up to 1000.

Photos of scalar roe



The incubation period for caviar is 2 days; during this period, parents intensively fan the caviar with fins and clean it from litters, remove the whitened - dead caviar. After the larvae hatch from the calf, the parents transfer them to another leaf in their mouth. This is done for greater purity and the elimination of the possibility of catching the infection from the rotting shell of the calf.

Photos of angelfish larvae



Over the next 7 days, the larvae, under the watchful supervision of parents, hang on a piece of paper. When the larvae run out of nutrients from the yolk sac, they turn into fry. From now on, they should start feeding.
Starter feed for young scalar should be of high quality, alive and well washed. Can advise - nauplii, nematodes. It is not desirable, but it is possible to feed the fry with any frayed dry food (the number of dead fry will increase with such feeding). It is also recommended to clean the spawning tank from food residue and other dirt twice a day.

Photo fry, young scalar


The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too. Of course, this does not lead to anything good. There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring. This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders. Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and the angelfish,
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar



Recommended literature and books about scalars

A. N. Gurzhiy "Skalyarii" 2009 Kochetov Sergey "Skalyarii" 2005

Beautiful video with scalars









A selection of beautiful photos with scalars
















Could you please give the reasons for the death of the angelfish. More than a week they do not live with me

Anna Langenstraße

Scalyaria (Pterophyllum) - the most common aquarium fish of the genus cichlids. The birthplace of the Angelfish is South America, the warm Amazon River, where the Angelfish inhabit slow rivers with strong vegetation. The generic name of the scalar is translated as winged leaf. In the US, angelfish is more commonly referred to as angelfish.
The life of an angelfish in an aquarium is sometimes more than 10 years. Known to science cases and in the greater life of the angelfish. Somewhere at the age of 10 months, the scalar comes to maturity, and the scalars pile up on permanent pairs and are never separated. Monogamous angelfish, it is often the case that after the death of one of the spouses the angelfish ends up suicide - the angelfish either is thrown out of the aquarium or crashes on the glass of the aquarium. But even if the angelfish lives on, the angelfish will never again create a new family.
Angelfish and its varieties:
Scalpel Pterophyllum scalare
Scalpel Pterophyllum altum
Angelfish Pterophyllum leopoldi
Angelfish Pterophyllum leopoldi
Scalar, formerly called Pterophyllum dumerilli, also lives in the warm Amazon. This scalar is very rare in aquariums. Differing from the other two types of angelfish, this angelfish has a more horizontally elongated body and a slightly different position of the bands.
Scalpel Pterophyllum altum
Angelfish live in the same water that is preferred by such fish as neons or cardinals. Scalar lives in the headwaters of the Rio Negru River, as well as in the Orinoco River. The color of this fish is also silver with three dark vertical stripes with a brown tint. This type of scalar is the largest, the fish reach 18 cm in length and 25 cm in height. Scalarium prefers water with a 4.8–6.2 pH, with hardness of 1.0–5.0 dGH and with a water temperature of 27–31 ° C. Unlike Pterophyllum scalare, this fish spawns not on the leaves of broad-leaved plants, but on flooded tree trunks.
Scalpel Pterophyllum scalare
Angelfish is a known species of angelfish. Angelfish, strongly compressed from the sides of the body, characteristic of all species of this fish. Its natural color in nature is silvery with black vertical stripes, the color intensity of which varies depending on the condition of the fish and its maintenance. The dorsal and anal fins are elongated, while the ventral fins are elongated in the filament. The maximum size of the fish is usually 12-15 cm in length and about 20 cm in height. This fish is very popular in aquariums. It easily gets along with other non-aggressive breeds of small fish and is very peaceful by nature, although it can sometimes show aggression towards smaller fish, especially its own breed.
Scalar dwells in slowly flowing rivers of the Amazon. Molodnjak usually hides in dense vegetation, and adult scalar prefer more open places, where plants grow with wide leaves, on which fish throw caviar. For breeding these fish in the aquarium also need to plant plants with wide leaves. Scalarium prefers water with a 6.0-8.0 pH (6.5-7.4 is ideal), with a hardness of 5.0-13.0 dGH, and a temperature range of 24-30 ° C.
Most likely, you bought an angelfish in the same place. Try again, buy teenagers about five, but elsewhere. By the way, the water needs to be replaced weekly in a quarter of the volume, combining the substitution with cleaning the soil. When planting fish, use conditioners that reduce the stress of newcomers and the aggressiveness of old-timers (for example, StressCoat).
It is possible to feed both live and dry food at the same time, but I would only limit myself to dry food — unfortunately, various diseases are often brought in with live food.
Good luck!

Tamara Davydova

many reasons firstly how many liters do you have an aquarium and secondly what fish do you have there in the third what temperature in the fourth what age did you buy the angelfish! I was not such a difficult fish even spawned and there were fry

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