Aquarium water temperature
Breeding ornamental fish - a very exciting business. However, if you decide to devote yourself to this interesting hobby, you should know a lot of details and subtleties (first of all, such as the necessary temperature in the aquarium). Beginners often make a number of mistakes in the establishment of fish. To avoid them, we advise you to carefully read this article.
The temperature of the water in the aquarium is the most important factor when breeding fish
To make your pets comfortable in the water, you need to know exactly what the temperature should be in the aquarium. First of all, it should be remembered that each type of fish has its own water temperature. Someone likes cool water, and someone is more thermophilic. This should certainly be considered when you begin to equip the aquarium. Especially if you want to put there different fish. First make sure that all of them are able to exist at the same temperature.
Optimum temperature for different types of fish
So, you decided to buy a few fish. In this case, it will not hurt you to know what kind of temperature in the aquarium prefers. It's pretty simple. Most of the existing ornamental fish today are quite suitable temperature from 22 to 26 degrees.
There are some types of fish (there are few of them) for which the optimum temperature will be slightly higher - from 28 to 31 degrees. These include, above all, discus and labyrinth fish.
But goldfish, on the contrary, prefer a cooler water temperature in the aquarium - only from 18 to 23 degrees. Although they, of course, can live quite a long time (more than a year) in water, say, about twenty-five degrees. But after that, goldfish invariably develop various diseases and ailments. Therefore, it is better to maintain an optimal cool temperature.
The remaining types of fish, perhaps, are not so demanding and can quite comfortably exist at a standard water temperature in the aquarium of 22-26 degrees.
How to change the temperature of the water in the aquarium
Quite often, aquarists have to change the temperature of the water in an aquarium in order to ensure a safe life for their fish. For this there are special devices. Many aquariums were originally equipped with special heaters, thermometers and thermostats, which allow both to lower the temperature in the aquarium and vice versa, to heat the water.
If your aquarium is equipped with a full arsenal of such devices, it will be easy to maintain the desired temperature. How to lower or raise the temperature in the aquarium? Simply follow the thermometer and, if necessary, adjust the temperature.
The main thing - do not allow sudden drops. Sudden fluctuations in temperature (more than 2-3 degrees) can adversely affect the health of your fish. Stress, cold and other troubles will bring nothing but harm. Therefore, when buying an aquarium, choose a model with a thermometer so that you can constantly maintain the desired temperature.
Water temperature in a fish tank - Frequently asked questions by aquarists
Have you ever thought about why different fish need different temperatures? And how does the discrepancy affect them? And how sensitive are they to drops? Rapid changes in temperature aquarium fish suffer poorly, this is one of the reasons from which newly acquired fish die. In order for fish to get used, they need to be acclimatized.
Simply put, the higher the temperature of the water, the faster the fish grow, but they also age faster. We collected a few frequent questions about the temperature for aquarium fish and tried to answer them in an accessible form.
Fish cold blooded?
Yes, their body temperature is directly dependent on the ambient temperature. Only a few fish, for example, some catfish, can change body temperature, and even sharks maintain body temperature a few degrees higher than water temperature.
Does this mean that the temperature of the water directly affects the fish?
Water temperature affects the speed of physiological processes in the body of fish. For example, in winter, the fish of our water bodies is inactive, since the level of metabolism drops significantly in cold water.
At high temperatures, water retains less dissolved oxygen, and for fish it is very important. That is why in the summer we often see fish rise to the surface and breathe heavily.
Rapid changes in temperature aquarium fish suffer poorly, this is one of the reasons from which newly acquired fish die. In order for fish to get used, they need to be acclimatized.
Simply put, the higher the temperature of the water, the faster the fish grow, but they also age faster.
How sensitive are fish to temperature extremes?
Fish feel the slightest change in water temperature, some even such as 0.03C. Aquarium fish are usually all tropical species, and, therefore, are accustomed to live in warm water with a constant temperature. With a dramatic change, if they do not die, they will survive significant stress and become infected with an infectious disease, due to a weakened immunity.
Fish that live in a climate like ours are much more stable. All carp, for example, tolerate different temperatures well. What can I say, even the well-known goldfish, can live both at a temperature of 5C and at more than 30C, although such temperatures are critical for them.
Are there fish that carry extreme water?
Yes, several species can temporarily live in hot water. For example, some Killifish species that live in Death Valley can carry up to 45 C, and some tilapias swim in hot keys with a temperature of around 70 C. But they all can not live long in such water, the protein in their blood just begins to collapse.
But the fish are able to live in ice water, more. At both poles there are fish that produce a kind of antifreeze in their blood, allowing them to live in water with a temperature below zero.
What if summer is very hot?
As already mentioned, warm water retains less oxygen, and the fish begin to experience oxygen starvation. They begin to choke, and the first thing to do is turn on a powerful aeration or filtration to increase the movement of water and metabolic processes in it. Next, you need to put in the aquarium a bottle of cold water (or ice, if you were preparing for this situation), or replace some of the water with fresh water with a lower temperature.
Well, the simplest and most expensive solution - air conditioning in the room. And in more detail about all this read in the material - hot summer, lower the temperature.
And the simplest and most inexpensive is to install 1-2 coolers so that they direct the air flow to the surface of the water. This is a proven cheap way to cool the temperature in an aquarium by 2-5 degrees.
And what tropical fish can you keep in cold water?
Although some tropical fish, such as corridors or cardinals, even prefer cool water, for most it is too stressful.
The analogy is simple, we can also live quite long on the street and sleep outdoors, but in the end everything will end sadly for us, we at least get sick.
Do I need to change the water in the aquarium with water of the same temperature?
Yes, it is desirable that she was as close as possible. But at the same time, in many species of tropical fish, the addition of fresh water with a lower temperature is associated with the rainy season and the beginning of spawning. If you breed fish in your tasks is not included, it is better not to risk and equalize the parameters.
For sea fish, it is definitely necessary to equalize the temperature of the water, since sea water does not have sharp changes.
How long do you need to acclimatize new fish?
You can read more about acclimatization by clicking on the link. But, in short, the fish actually needs a lot of time to get used to the new conditions. Only water temperature is critical when landing in a new aquarium, and it is desirable to equalize it as much as possible.
The temperature of the fish tank
Often, novice aquarists do not rush to delve into how the temperature of the aquatic environment affects the fish and plants. Failure to observe the proper regime ends with the death of all creatures or various diseases. Sharp temperature fluctuations lead to the same consequences, when the inhabitants of the vessel experience shock and do not have time to acclimatize to new conditions. Let's consider what the normal temperature of the water should be in the home aquarium. Cold-blooded creatures are very dependent on this parameter, so this knowledge will help you avoid annoying blunders.
The direct influence of water temperature on the life of fish
In cold weather, fish minimize their activity, and their metabolism decreases. In the heat, many underwater dwellers experience a lack of oxygen, difficulty in breathing and tend to increasingly float to the surface. High temperatures lead to the aging of their body and accelerate growth. Especially important is the optimum water temperature in the aquarium for tropical species of fish. At home, their aquatic environment is almost always in one state and almost no differences are observed. Sudden changes in temperature invariably lead to a weakening of the immune system and the appearance of various infections. Creatures that hit the aquarium from our zone are more resistant. For example, a goldfish or carp are able to tolerate short-term changes in temperature.
What is the temperature of the water should be in the aquarium for fish?
Fish from different regions rarely get along in one vessel, because they are accustomed at home to a certain temperature of the liquid. For example, for creatures originally from temperate latitudes (barbus, danios, cardinal) is about 21 °, and for handsome discas from South America you need to maintain 28 ° -30 °. For beginners, it is better to select the most resistant species from the same climatic zones, so that you can easily adjust the temperature to a comfortable range of 24 ° -26 °.
How to make a water change?
Directly mixing cold fresh water with warm liquid from an aquarium is undesirable. For many fish, a similar phenomenon in nature is associated with the beginning of spawning or the arrival of the rainy season. In order not to cause a shock in their wards, it is better to refrain from such experiments and equalize the temperature of the new water before the substitution process.
Temperature conditions during transportation of fish
Many lovers lose the newly acquired fish only for the reason that they did not ensure the normal temperature in the container during their transportation from the store. Especially it concerns those cases when it is cold outside or the way home is not close. It is best to transport the fish in a thermos, which will protect them from possible stress. If you have only a package or a bank in your hands, then try to speed up the journey as much as possible so that the temperature change does not exceed two degrees.
How to maintain the optimal temperature of the water in the aquarium for fish?
The most often undesirable fluctuations occur in vessels installed near the windows, directly on the window sills, near the included radiators. Try to find a more comfortable place for aquariums, where the sun or other factors will least affect the life of aquatic creatures.
It is advisable to use high-quality heaters and thermometers, constantly monitoring water mode. If the temperature in your room changes by more than 5 degrees during the day, use instruments with automatic adjustment. It is desirable that the heater was washed with water, so mount the compressor near him. Moving bubbles contribute to better mixing of the liquid, all layers in this case will have a more uniform temperature of the medium.
How to prepare the water for the aquarium - a full description.
Why do you need to defend the water?
The main reason for this is harmful impurities that can harm the inhabitants of our aquarium. After settling, solids sometimes appear in the sediment. Initially clear water after a while can grow turbid.
Many aquarists leave the water for substitution to breathe for a few days, and so that all harmful suspensions evaporate for a week. This assumption is partly true, but it cannot guarantee the quality of the prepared water.
Before we do something, we always know why we need to do it. By keeping tap water outside the pipeline, we are trying to improve its performance so that it does not harm our fish. In other words, when defending water, we get rid of most of the malicious components.
Conditionally harmful substances in the water can be divided into:
- solid (precipitates to the bottom);
- gaseous (volatilized from water to the environment);
- liquid (initially dissolved and remaining in water).
The process of settling can affect only solid and gaseous mixtures, and it does not affect liquid substances in any way.
What should be the temperature of the water in the aquarium?
Water temperature for the aquarium plays a crucial role. It depends on the health and ability of fish to breed. For each species of fish, a completely different water temperature is suitable. Conventionally, all the inhabitants of the aquarium can be divided into heat-loving and cold-loving.
By heat-loving include fish living in the water, the temperature of which is not below 18 degrees. Cold fishes are individuals that easily adapt to low temperatures. They can safely live in the aquarium, the temperature in which, will not exceed 14 degrees. The maintenance of cold-loving fish is possible only in large and spacious aquariums.
It is noteworthy that if the heat-loving fish are planted in cold water, then they practically stop swimming. This suggests that significant damage has been done to their health. Preparing water for the aquarium, you should use the tips for beginners, which can be found in the special literature. So, it is possible to choose the optimum temperature for water only after it becomes known exactly which species of fish will live in it.
The thing is that in the literature for each type of fish is given the permissible threshold of the highest and lowest temperatures at which the fish will feel comfortable. In accordance with these parameters, you can choose the future inhabitants of the aquarium so that they all feel comfortable in the same temperature conditions. This will avoid a huge number of problems associated with the maintenance and care of the fish.
How much to defend the water for the aquarium?
To finally get rid of all the harmful substances contained in the water, it must be defended for 1-2 weeks. For the backlog of water is better to use a large bucket or basin. Also, when buying a new aquarium, leave water in it and drain it at least once. At the same time, this way you can check if the aquarium is leaking. Some pet stores sell special products that neutralize chemical compounds in water. But experts recommend not to neglect the settling of water, even using these drugs.
Is there a need for water settling?
In order for the tap water to be normalized for replacement in an aquarium, it is necessary to remove from it all the harmful components - solid, gaseous and liquid.
Today, upholding is very rarely relevant. Solid components in the water supply system have isolated cases, chlorine water derivatives must be removed by air conditioning (chlorine gas is also removed), and liquid ones - only by special air conditioning. Polluted water settles for several hours, and with strong aeration much faster.
From all of the above, it is clear that it is best to use special additives for water. Settling water does not completely remove harmful substances, and in some cases it may even be harmful (a dusty film appears, stuffiness, etc.).
From personal experience:
- I collect the necessary amount of water for the substitution;
- add air conditioning according to the instructions;
- perform aeration for 15 minutes;
- I bring the temperature of fresh water (with air conditioning) into accord with the aquarium one;
- I fill, and that's it.
The advantages of this method of water preparation: all harmful substances are removed, no need to wait until the water settles, the pots do not harm the interior of the room.
How to prepare the water?
Freshly tap water is not suitable for animal settlement. Reptiles, fish, amphibians and snails can adapt to it, but on condition that it infuses for several days.
Fresh, domestic water from the tap will destroy animals, because chlorine compounds are toxic to the sensitive organism of small creatures. On certain days, tap water contains different amounts of volatile substances, experts recommend turning on a shower and checking the steam and the presence of chlorine to check. If the smell is harsh, water should not be collected on this day.
Regardless of the season, weather and air temperature, domestic water will be different. Be observant if you want to settle the animals in clean water from impurities. Infused tap water is recommended for many pets and plants, it has an acceptable level of acidity: pH 7.0.
It forms an active reaction, creating an alkaline and acidic aqueous medium. The reaction is determined using litmus paper, which is sold in pet stores.Infusing water should not be in plastic containers; it is better to use glass jars with the lid open. The main thing is that in the prepared water, while it insists, do not get dust and insects.
You can use baking soda to raise the pH to the required level. Peat is recommended to lower the pH. Sometimes before the launch of a new aquarium in the water put samples of trees, reducing the acidity of water. The aquarium can be filled not only with tap water, but also distilled water, which is sold in pharmacies or in auto shops.
It is filled with small aquariums, but with an experienced razvodchiki warned that such water is poor in the mineral components necessary for animals. Rarely use a liquid from another aquarium, in which there is a stable biological equilibrium for normal life.
How to prepare water with permissible hardness?
Reduce stiffness by filtering and infusing. Sometimes, infused water (time - 2 days) from the tap add distilled, thawed or rain water. Plants such as roach and elodiea, reduce stiffness. There is another way - freezing. The collected water is frozen, and then thawed, defended and poured into the tank.
Increases the rigidity of the aquarium water by adding brine, pieces of chalk or limestone, coral chips to it. Coral crumb is recommended to boil (2 hours) to soften and prevent parasites. Only after all the procedures it is lowered into the tank.
It is better to run the fish in a day or two, until the water has acquired the necessary parameters. The temperature of the water in which the purchased fish, animals and plants lived should be identical to the aquarium. Again, use a thermometer, litmus paper to test. Do not neglect the recommendations that the life of pets was healthy and safe, because when kept in poor-quality aquatic environment, they may suffer.
What does water temperature affect?
Aquarium water that has a certain temperature can stimulate spawning. This applies to elevated water temperatures. However, this is not always useful for fish. So, the fish that spawn, you should not constantly keep in such conditions. Otherwise, to get offspring from them in the future will be simply impossible. Thus, when harvesting water for an aquarium, it is better to ensure that it is one degree below the norm.
Gaseous constituents of water
This type of substance evaporates through the surface of the water. Here one can consider the quantitative and qualitative compositions of dissolved gases in water. Gaseous substances in natural water enter into chemical reactions with other dissolved elements, due to diffusion they constantly circulate through the water mirror and are harmless and harmless to fish.
The method of water disinfection for your area can be found in the local water utility, this information will not be superfluous. At new water treatment plants, ozone and ultraviolet cleaning is applied, and such water can be added without fear (it is pointless to defend against oxygen and photons).
The outdated chlorine cleaning method is gradually becoming a thing of the past, but is still in use. Chlorine and its derivatives are poisons. They allow the destruction of both harmful bacteria and beneficial ones, as well as depending on the concentration of large animals and even humans.
Method of elimination of gaseous chlorine from water
Unpleasant smell of chlorine coming from freshly poured water, everyone knows. Water, being in a cup, ceases to smell after a while, and this means that chlorine molecules have evaporated.If the fish are placed in newly recruited chlorinated water, they will die from body burns and gill petals.
Having made some observations on settling, it can be seen that chlorine evaporates quite quickly. It is not necessary to stand for water from the tap for more than a day, since the residual chlorine cannot affect the health of the fish.
The important point is the choice of dishes. The greater the area of contact of water with the environment, the faster the gas exchange occurs, and chlorine disappears. From this it follows that when settling water in a large-diameter basin, it will become suitable for an aquarium much faster than using a plastic bottle.It is impossible to cover the used dishes with a lid and even more so to twist the bottle, since there will be no place for volatilization of gas impurities, and the water which was chlorinated will remain so.
Ozone and its effect on fish
With ozone, things are somewhat different. It does not have a pronounced smell, although it carries freshness. Under natural conditions, we feel it during a thunderstorm, during the operation of air conditioners (ozonizing) and laser printers. Before water is supplied to the drinking pipeline, the process of its ozonization takes place, the ozone molecules are unstable and quickly pass into a stable compound - oxygen. Well, oxygen is not dangerous to fish.
What is pH and hardness?
pH is a pH indicator of the acidic environment. A pH of 7 is considered neutral because it is more favorable for most aquarium dwellers. In the case when it is less than 7, the water is alkaline. In order to easily determine the pH of water, it is necessary to purchase litmus papers with a color table, or specialized aquarium tests.
The second parameter of water is hardness. It is divided into temporary and permanent. Water hardness may also affect aquarium inhabitants.
In order to avoid unpleasant consequences, aquarium water should also be checked for permanent and temporary rigidity. It is measured in degrees and is calculated by adding the temporal and constant rigidity.
In the case when spawning of a certain type of fish is necessary, for example, such as neons, in which caviar can survive only in very soft water, water with low hardness content is used. However, for most avkarium fish species, water with a hardness content of less than 5 is not suitable for life and breeding. At the same time, too high water hardness, such as 25 degrees and above, is also destructive for most aquarium species. Of course, there are exceptions.
The norm, it is considered to be hardness from 5 to 25 degrees, which is favorable for the vast majority of different types of aquarium fish.
Aquarists who do not want to bother themselves with various dimensions can simply pick up certain types of fish that feel great in ordinary tap water.
INVENTORY REQUIRED FOR THE AQUARIUM.
AERATION IN THE AQUARIUM AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
AQUAIUM SPRAYER AND EVERYTHING THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
POMP FOR AQUARIUM AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
Rules for keeping guppies
Guppies (lat. Poecilia reticulata) - these fish are among the most popular aquarium pets. Today, there are various breeds of guppies with beautiful fins and bright patterns on the body. They are great for beginners, because the content of guppies in an aquarium will not be difficult. These are viviparous fishes, the females of which produce full fry. They are hardy and unpretentious, but they should be provided with high-quality care and maintenance so that the fish live as long as possible (up to 5 years).
Guppies are omnivorous fish, and should receive both protein and plant foods. At home, they can be fed with processed foods, such as: branded flakes and pellets, live and frozen food (daphnia, bloodworm, artemia, mosquito larvae, strawberry). You can give them fresh chopped vegetables, such as tomatoes, zucchini, spinach, lettuce.
It is advisable to feed twice a day in small portions, rather than once a day in large portions. Fish fry feed even more often because they need to grow and develop. In fry, the stomach is still very small, metabolic processes occur faster - fractional nutrition is safe for them.
In order to avoid nutritional deficiencies, the fish must necessarily receive live foods (artemia). Artemia contains a lot of protein. Eggs from Artemia, which will later hatch, are available at some pet stores, so they can be bred at home.
Guppies should eat up everything you give them. Feeding time - no more than 5 minutes. Remove food residues from the aquarium in a timely manner, otherwise they will pollute the water, oxidize, bringing with them harmful substances.
Feed your pets 6 days a week. Let your fish be one day on an unloading diet. One-day fasting will clean their stomachs and digestive system. As a result, pets will live longer and be healthy.
Watch a video about guppy content and care.
Installation of an aquarium for guppies
Proper fish care can only be ensured if the aquarium is properly installed. Proper setup of the tank does not take much time. Guppies can transfer a wide range of parameters of the aquatic environment: pH 5.8–8.5, although ideally the pH should be 7.0–7.2. The recommended water hardness is 15 dH. Fish are not recommended to settle in banks or round mini-aquariums. It will be uncomfortable for the fish to live there, and caring for them will be difficult - it is difficult to clean the walls of a round can with a scraper. To install the heater, filter, compressor, lighting, decor and plants, you need a spacious rectangular tank. The breeding of fish should also occur in a rectangular aquarium or spawning.
To prevent the temperature of the water from fluctuating within wide limits, install a heater in the aquarium that will regulate it. Guppies prefer water at a temperature of 23-26 ° C. If you need to quickly grow fry fish or stimulate reproduction, you can raise the temperature to 27-28 degrees.
Quality care is not possible without lighting, which can indicate many problems in the aquarium. Bright lighting will be a source of vitamin D, and the lack of light can cause spinal curvature. Abundant, constant coverage will also harm pets. For fry, the optimal amount of daylight hours is 4 hours a day, and 8 hours of darkness. At night, the light must be turned off (after 8-10 hours of light for adult fish). You can purchase a timer for luminaires, which are automatically turned on and off every day.
Filtration system - to keep the aquarium water clean. When the filter filler begins to darken, it is a signal that it is time to replace it. It is impossible to replace all the filtration systems at once, otherwise the beneficial bacteria will disappear. They decompose ammonia in water, which is formed from fish waste. It is better to cut the sponge, and replace the second half with a new one. If you use activated carbon as a filler, change it more often and according to the instructions. Also replace once a week with 25% water for fresh.
Air pump - supplies oxygen to the aquarium water. It will pump out air bubbles and create a current, saturating water with oxygen. Plant in aquarium live plants that also emit oxygen. These can be stile-leaved species: anubias, cryptocoryne, elodea, arrowhead, aponogeton and others.
The scenery - not only decorate the aquarium, but can also serve as a shelter for fish. At the bottom of the aquarium, lay out sand or gravel, in which it is easier to place live plants and structures. Do not forget to install shelters in the form of caves, grottoes, pipes, clay pots.
See how the guppy fry are born.
Guppy Breeding Rules
Breeding guppies and caring for their fry is quite simple. Fish that have reached the reproductive cycle, enter reproduction by themselves, being in the general aquarium. Before giving birth, the female's abdomen swells severely, becoming almost square in shape. As a rule, they give birth within a month, so the pregnancy of the fish is easy to notice.
Already a few days before giving birth, a separate tank for fry should be ready, since breeding guppies is fraught with parents eating the fry. To increase the chances of survival of fry, you can put dense bushes of living plants in the general aquarium, which will create shelters. You can prepare a separate pit for the female, which has holes for fry. After the female has given birth to fry (sometimes it can happen within 24 hours or more), she can be transplanted into the general aquarium almost immediately. But it is better to place the female guppy in a tank with a separator a week before giving birth. With a sharp change in the situation, the female may have a miscarriage.
In fry, immunity is not as strong as in adults. Fry need to be fed frequently - 3-4 times a day. Guppy fry should be 2.5 cm in length per day when they are placed in a common aquarium with adult fish. Starter feed - Artemia larvae, branded food for guppy fry.
How to treat aquarium fish with salt
When diseases are found in aquarium fish, they should be treated immediately. Often used drugs containing antibiotics. Sometimes the treatment of fish is limited to increasing the temperature of the water, cleaning the reservoir and using a tool such as table salt.
For which diseases salt solution is used
If you notice the first signs of illness in an aquarium pet, immediately check the parameters of the water in the tank: pH and hardness, aeration, temperature, concentration of ammonia, nitrates and nitrites. If the solution of the problem in the ways listed does not help, use table salt - this is the first available medicine, which is always at hand. Treatment with this remedy is possible when the following diseases are found in aquarium fish:
- Saprolegnios - a fungus that is accompanied by the formation of "white moss" in the area of the lips and fins.
- Kostioz, or ichthyobodosis, is an invasive disease, when white spots appear on the body of the fish, turning into a gray-blue plaque.
- Trihodinosis is an invasive disease caused by parasitic infusoria. White spots and scurf appear on the body of the fish, sometimes the skin can separate from the body and fall to the bottom in the form of flakes.
- Fin rot - an infectious disease of bacterial etiology. The fins of the fish exfoliate and fall off, the body may become covered with spots of white or red color.
- Ichthyophthiriosis, "semolina" is a parasitic disease caused by ciliary infusoria. White spots appear on the body of the fish; the pet's condition may deteriorate due to infection mutation.
See how to diagnose ichthyophthyriosis in aquarium fish.
- Salt baths well treat not only common, but also rare fish diseases - oodinium, chilodonellosis, tetrahmeniosis, dactylogyrosis, gyrodactylosis, and others.
Salt also relieves fish from stress, nitrite poisoning. But the use of salt has its own characteristics - some catfish (corridor, tarakatum, antsistrusy, pterigoplichty), labyrinth fish and barbs poorly tolerate saline. Product may damage live aquatic plants. When treating fish with salt, carry out treatment procedures in a separate tank (settler).
- It is impossible to carry out treatment using iodized salt and salt with additives.
- Increase the temperature of the water in the tank to 28-30 degrees Celsius, gradually, 2-3 days before the start of treatment. Include a constant aeration (consider also the physiological features of the fish).
- Many infectious bacteria die in salt solution 4-5 percent, but the fish can not withstand this concentration of the solution, even a few minutes. Salt procedures should be carried out in liquids with a salt concentration of 1.5-2%, 10-30 minutes.
- The temperature of the water in the treatment bath should coincide with the water in the aquarium.
- Treatment should be carried out in infused water. Do not take cold tap water. If the bath with salt needs to be done urgently, heat 10 liters of water and cool it to aquarium water temperature using a water thermometer for reconciliation. Dissolve 2 teaspoons of salt in 10 liters of water, install an aerator in the container. 20 minutes after these manipulations, the sick fish can be started.
- Do not run all the aquarium fish into the treatment bath at once. Choose a few sick fish and treat them with saline. Pay attention to the behavior, the state of pets in the water. If they go up, lie on their side, cannot swim down, then the salt concentration is too high. Stop the procedure and return the fish to the pit.
- Gradually increase the concentration of the product in the water at the initial stage of treatment, and reduce it as the pet recovers.
- Treat the aquarium fish with salt for 7 days-1 month depending on the disease and its course.
See how to treat aquarium fish with salt.
How to make salt baths
Salt baths for aquarium fish should be carried out according to some rules.
- A salt solution with a concentration of 2.5% in 10 minutes can destroy parasitic infusoria. After this solution, the fish can be bathed in a weaker bath - with the addition of ½ tsp. per liter of water. Repeated procedure will wash away all surviving ciliates from the body of the sick pet.
- The solution with a concentration of 5% well disinfects the water with decorations, but it kills plants, mollusk, single-celled, fish. Поэтому для живых организмов раствор должен быть слабее - 1,5-1,7% ванна с солью на 10-15 минут, с умеренной аэрацией.
- После ванны с солью рыбку нельзя сразу возвращать в общий аквариум, иначе из-за большого содержания соли в её чешуйках, они разорвутся. После проведения ванны, куда была добавлена соль, постепенно добавляйте в неё свежую настоянную воду такой же температуры, что понемногу будет уменьшать концентрацию продукта в воде. Пусть рыба поплавает в такой воде, затем её можно запускать в отсадник.
- Одна чайная ложка продукта содержит вес 7 грамм. Treatment of aquarium fish involves treatment with both short-term (30 seconds-30 minutes) and long baths (10 days or more). Prolonged exposure to the solution adversely affects the functions of the kidneys. The optimal concentration is 1.5-2%. Depending on the capacity of the procedure and the origin of the disease, the concentration may increase or decrease. Do not sprinkle salt directly into the tank - grains can get on the wound, and will dissolve slowly.
How neon fish breed
The reproduction of neons is not so difficult in the conditions of a home aquarium, if you follow a number of requirements. First of all, you should know that in the wild, spawning of neon fish occurs during the rainy season, and lasts 1.5-2 months during the year. When spawning ends, the fish calm down and take a break. Neons brought into our country can breed at any time of the year, which simplifies their breeding. A variety of live food, replacement of aquarium water stimulate their mating season. You should know that all types of neons (blue, blue, red, black and others) are not viviparous, but ringing fish.
How does the reproduction process in neons
Aquarium neons should spawn under careful supervision - due to changes in the natural rhythms of life, laying eggs can be endangered. All males and females must be transferred to different reservoirs, and before being placed in a general spawning ground, a short “acquaintance” between the fish should be carried out 5 times. The neon female can lay eggs every week, and the male can produce milk 2 times less. Sexual dimorphism is expressed during the breeding season - females are rounded in the abdomen, the swimbladder excretes in males, it shifts to the anus, which is not present in females.
Before the spawning device, prepare the water - take the water from the tap, let it infuse for several days in a glass container, then heat it to the required temperature. The optimal parameters of the aquatic environment will ensure the fertilization of the maximum number of eggs, and their ripening. Aquarium for spawning, you can choose the average - 30-50 liters per pair. It is not necessary to line the bottom at its bottom. Allowable water temperature in the tank: 25-26 degrees Celsius, hardness 2-4o, acidity 6.5-7.0 pH.
See how to prepare an aquarium for breeding neon.
Successful breeding will provide the substrate in the form of aquatic plants. At the bottom of the tank you can put a few sprigs of Miriofillum or Javanese moss. It is better to launch fish that are ready for spawning to the aquarium in the evening, a few hours before turning off the light - so the pair will get used to each other faster, and in the morning the caviar will be swept up.
Aquarium fish, despite the fact that they are contained in different conditions of the aquatic environment, unlike natural relatives, behave in this process in a similar way. Two males are usually run on one female, and they instantly attack her, and the male who is faster than the opponent, wins, it fertilizes the eggs thanks to the highest degree of readiness. Prior to the spawning process, males and females float above the plants. Then she puts her eggs on plants in a chaotic manner.
The first few hours after spawning, the eggs have an adhesive texture. Once on the plant, they are fixed on them, and then, with a slight fluctuation of water, fall to the bottom. Therefore, it is impossible to line the soil in the tank - the substrate can damage their thin surface. 3-4 hours after the breeding process, the male and female are caught from the spawning net with a net, and if this is not done immediately, then the producers can eat their fruits.
How to care for brood
Unfortunately, not all fertilized eggs can survive, some can get a fungus, and some will die during the ripening period. After 9 hours, surviving, unspoiled fertilized eggs can be selected from the rest with a medical pipette. Transfer them to another container with similar parameters of water so that they do not get infected and die.
Watch a video on how to care for neons and how fish breed.
The most dangerous enemy of neon eggs is harmful bacteria and fungus. With the help of drugs Trypaflavin, methylene blue or General Tonic, you can stop the reproduction of microbes, thereby ensuring the life of future fish. After adding the drug, the water level can be reduced by 7-10 cm. Caviar will ripen until the larvae appear. This will happen in 24 hours if the temperature of the aqueous medium is 24-25 ° C.
After a few days the fish fry can swim in the upper layers of the water, at the same time they can be given food that they themselves will eat. The starting food for the fry is Cyclops larvae (for the first 4 weeks of life, before the first color strips appear on the body). If you know how to produce infusoria, rotifers or other types of plankton at home, you can add this feed.
The fish grow quickly, later they will require another feeding, now they can be given small cyclops, chopped live food. When the brood grows up, the surviving fry can be moved to another aquarium with a temperature of 24-25 degrees, water hardness of 10-12 o. This is necessary so that they are not infected with plistofora. At first they will adapt to the new conditions, in a month they will get used to them completely. If the water is too hard (take measurements with devices with indicators), soften it with special tools that are in stores.
What is the maximum water temperature for aquarium fish?
Lighting and water temperature in the aquarium
How to light the aquarium? When addressing this issue, the following points should be taken into account: the natural light illumination of the aquarium, the power of the lamp, the depth of the aquarium, the need for specific types of fish and plants for a particular light intensity (spectral composition is important for plants), the duration of illumination.
For example, if an aquarium is located near a window, the need for its inhabitants in artificial light is less (especially in summer). Fish, with the exception of the inhabitants of shaded reservoirs and those that are active at dusk, are not so whimsical to the lighting of the aquarium, like plants. The life of the latter strongly depends on the quality and quantity of light. In most cases, the aquarium should be lit 12 - 14 hours a day.
What fluorescent lamps can be used to light the aquarium? Aquarists use the following types of lamps: LB, LD, LTB, LHB, LBU, LDC, and some others. Usually use lamps with a capacity of 20 to 40 watts. It must be remembered that the light output of fluorescent lamps is 2.5 - 3 times higher than incandescent lamps.
Approximate standards of lighting power: 0.4 - 0.5 watts per 1 liter of aquarium volume - for fluorescent lamps, 1.2 - 1.5 watts per 1 liter - for incandescent lamps. For fish and plants that cannot tolerate bright light, these rates are reduced. It should be remembered that the deeper the aquarium, the greater must be the power of the lamps.
What kind of lamp is better to use for lighting aquarium plants? When breeding aquarium plants, the best results are obtained with a combination of lighting: incandescent lamps plus fluorescent lamps such as LD, LDC (during flowering and fruiting, plants need blue rays, which give the lamp with this marking). The power of incandescent lamps for lighting aquarium with plants - 25, 40, 60 watts.
If you are mostly interested in fish, then in the presence of widespread and unpretentious plants, you can use any fluorescent lamps, preferably warm daylight, in the marking of which there is a letter B (LB, LTB, etc.), as well as incandescent lamps, better than krypton ones. The latter differ from ordinary lamps in that their flask is filled with krypton and they burn brighter, giving more orange rays.
In my room, the temperature does not rise above 18 - 20'C. Will fish live at this temperature? The temperature of the water in the non-heated aquarium is equal to or lower than in the room. For warm-water fish, this is not enough. Most aquarium fish and plants live at a temperature of 24 - 26 'and therefore need heating.
The most primitive heater is an incandescent lamp placed outside the side wall of the aquarium below the surface of the water and covered with a metal reflector. The lamp should not be more powerful than 40 watts from the strong and uneven heating of the glass can crack. This heater is not very convenient, since a lot of heat is wasted. In addition, at night it has to be turned off. Plants stretch in the direction of the lamp and bend, and the side glass quickly overgrown with algae.
The most commonly used heaters from nichrome wire, wound on a glass tube, which is placed in a tube with sand (they are produced by our industry). The power of such heaters from 5 to 100 watts. They should be used in full accordance with the instructions. Especially it is necessary to ensure that the upper end of the heater protrudes from the water - getting it into the tube results in damage to the device.
To maintain the temperature of the water in a 25-liter aquarium is not higher than in the room, 0.2 l is required for every liter of water, 0.13 in a 50-liter tank and 0.1-watt in a 100-liter tank. To keep the temperature constant, use a heater with a thermostat. The industry produces a variety of temperature controllers. One of the most common PTA-W.
maximum! maximum when I turned on the heater and cooked the soup of my fish !! Until now, from myself in shock T was about 35-40. The minors are dead ((
therefore, 32 is the maximum but the fish remained alive))
Zhenya, depending on what kind of fish ... In general, in summer, at room, almost all fish live normally ... And in winter, it is better to put a heater ... But I do not recommend to reveal the maximum temperature by experience, it’s a pity to fish)))
When treating most aquarium fish (except gold), some aquarists raise the temperature to 34 degrees. But for the content, of course, need a lower temperature. The discus discusses separately - they need a temperature of about 30 degrees ... and gold ones - they need colder water than others.
I have an aquarium how many degrees usually it should be water?
Most aquarium fish will suit 22-26 ° C. Perhaps only discus and some labyrinth fish prefer water warmer: 28-31 ° C. Goldfish need water more cool. When the aquarium content of the temperature range of 18-23 ° C, they are quite satisfied. For quite a long time (a year or more) they can live at 25-27 ° C, but eventually they get sick - as a rule, they develop dysfunction of the swim bladder.
It is important to avoid significant (more than 2-4 degrees) temperature fluctuations. Its smooth changes are quite permissible, but sharp jumps during a day, or even several hours, are extremely undesirable. Meanwhile, this happens not so rarely, especially with small aquariums with a capacity of less than 60-50 liters. Relatively small volumes of water cool quickly and heat up quickly. For a long time, the open window in the cold season can easily draw a room. If there is no heater in the aquarium, then in a few hours of such aeration, the water in it will noticeably cool down. It turns out the fish, too, can catch a cold. And then "pick up" a bacterial infection or chylodonellosis. If there is no thermometer in the aquarium, such temperature fluctuations may go unnoticed by the owner of the aquarium. It should be noted that a small aquarium is immeasurably smaller than even a small natural reservoir, where water temperature changes proceed much more slowly (large masses of water slower and cool down and heat up more slowly). That is why fish are completely unsuited for sudden temperature jumps and these jumps can cause them great stress.
Sometimes it is necessary to carefully monitor not only the temperature of the water, but also the temperature of the air above the water. This is especially important when keeping maze fish that regularly capture air from the surface. Sufficiently heat-loving Siamese fighting fish (cockerels) and lyalius can get sick or even die “breathing” the air, which is 5 degrees and colder than the water where these fish live. When the content of labyrinth fish some caution when airing the room is especially necessary.
Overheating can also be very dangerous. Worst of all, it is carried by well-fed fish. Warm water contains much less oxygen, and well-fed fish especially need it. Overheating can occur from solar heating (if the aquarium is so located that direct sunlight falls on it), from the heat of the radiators (if the aquarium is located close to them, it is 50 cm or less), from lamps that illuminate the aquarium, especially powerful, and the aquarium is covered with a deaf lid. Not without reason, plant lovers, illuminating their aquariums with powerful lamps, make additional ventilation holes in the aquarium covers and fit computer coolers for them. Using the cooler, you can reduce the temperature of the surface layers of water by 1-3 degrees.
From the foregoing we can draw the following conclusions:
A thermometer is an absolutely necessary measuring instrument for an aquarist. It should be placed in the aquarium so that it is noticeable even with a glance casually thrown at the indoor pond. The aquarist should know about the failure of the temperature regime in the aquarium as soon as possible and take action immediately. Thermometers in the glass case alcohol and especially mercury are quite accurate. But they are immersed directly in the water of the aquarium and either are attached to its wall with the help of a sucker (which does not always look beautiful), or they set sail for free swimming. The latter option leads to significant inconvenience. A thermometer, if it does not float somewhere in an unknown direction, it will certainly turn in such a way that the scale will not be visible. Liquid crystal thermometers are much more convenient. They look like a small strip attached to the glass of the aquarium from the outside. They measure temperature less accurately, but for amateur purposes, they are excellent and their readings are always in sight.