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Ternesia: content, compatibility, breeding, photo-video review


Thorns is a small, popular dark silver fish. It can be found in any pet store and in many home aquarium. Its unpretentious content, ease of breeding, peaceful nature - deserves the attention of aquarists beginners.

Latin name: Gymnocorymbus ternetzi

Synonyms: Black, mourning

In English: Black skirt tetra, Black Widow tetra, Black tetra.

Order, family: Characteristic.

Comfortable water temperature: 21 - 24 p.

"Acidity" Ph: 5,7 - 7,0.

Rigidity: up to 6-16 °.

Aggressiveness: not aggressive 20%.

The complexity of the content: easy

Compatibility: The terntions calmly get along with all non-large and non-aggressive fish, such as: gourami, scalars, large tetras, sword-bearers, danios, corrido-dogs, sac-haired catfish and others.

Not compatible: It is not recommended to take them to the "veil" fish, slow and frankly small fish. It is not recommended to contain them with neons, guppies and other bipod. At the same time, the terntions are not compatible with large and territorial cichlids: tsikhlazomy, astronotus, with other predatory fish. It is noticed that when keeping a terence in a flock, they can bite each other. See article compatibility of aquarium fish.

How many live: Life by aquarium standards is short-lasting, with good conditions of detention can live up to 6 years. On average, live 3-4 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum volume of the aquarium: Thorns can be maintained even in an aquarium from 10 liters, in such an aquarium you can put 1 well, a maximum of two fish. However, they are schooling fish and therefore it is better to keep them in a group of 35 liters in a tank. About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).

Care requirements and ternation conditions

Fish do not need supernatural conditions of detention. Observance of optimal parameters of aquarium water is the key to their well-being. However, it is worth remembering that:

- necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly substitution of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water. If you change the water to them less often than once a week, nothing terrible will happen, the fish are hardy and adapt to any conditions. And if you have a large aquarium, then the water for terntion can be changed once a month.

- the fish need free space for swimming, if you have a small aquarium, it is better not to densely populate it with plants and select swimming areas.

- Aquarium decoration, can be anything: snags, stones, grottoes and other decorations. But since the fishes have a dark color, it is better to decorate the back wall of the aquarium with a lighter background, the ground is also not black. Shelters (grottoes, caves) are absolutely unnecessary for ternations, sometimes they hide only in the thickets of plants.

Feeding and diet ternii

Omnivorous - not whimsical in food, not prone to overeating. With pleasure they eat live, dry food, substitutes. Live and frozen food (bloodworm, artemia, daphnia, etc.) - adore. Food is taken by fish mainly in the middle layer of water. Fallen to the bottom of the food will also be eaten.

Feeding aquarium fish should be correct: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, live:

Area - Brazil, Bolivia: the river Mato Grosso, Rio Paraguay, Rio Negro. They live in ponds with dense vegetation, which is why, if the home aquarium allows, it is better to decorate it with live aquarium plants, and in the center to provide an area for free swimming.

Description:

The body of the termination is flat, the color is silver-striped - 3 black stripes are located across the body. One of the bands passes through the eye. Fins, except anal - transparent. Anal fin - black fan-shaped. The length of the terns is 4–5 cm. The females are larger and wider than the males, with a fuller abdomen.

Fish energetic, mobile, schooling. Shy of fear, they can turn pale and hide in a secluded place.

Varieties of terntions

In addition to the terns with a natural color - silver-black, in my lifetime I met a selection veil shape and color variants of gold (white) and pink (caramel) ternets. Here they are in the photo.



Veil Throne Gold Thistle

Pink thorns
"Caramel"

And of course, the well-known trend of Glo-fish has not bypassed these fish for many.

Glofish - These are genetically modified fluorescent fish.

The first fish that have been mutated is Danio rerio. As a result of experiments received fish with red, green and orange fluorescent color, which becomes brighter and more intense with ultraviolet light.

In 2011 genome-modified ternation was derived

A bit of history:

Europe, thorns appeared in 1933, and were introduced to Russia in 1946.

Described by the Belgian-British zoologist and ichthyologist George Albert Boulinger (Boulenger) in 1895.

Cultivation, reproduction of a ternation

An important point in the propagation of termination is the selection of producers. They can only be individuals maturity - 8 months and the size of 3-5 cm. All other small or too large in the producers are not suitable.

A spawning 40 liter aquarium is settled as follows: moss-like plants are laid out on the bottom: key moss, Javanese, stump, etc. Fill the aquarium with fresh water at 5 cm. The temperature of the water is maintained at 24-26 ° C. Good aeration is desirable.

On the third day, when the water is infused and becomes absolutely transparent. Manufacturers are planted in the spawning aquarium and begin to feed them abundantly with live food. At the same time there should be no residues.

At 3-6 days spawning occurs. The male begins to chase the female throughout the spawning game and at the moments of a short-term stop the female sweeps up to 30 eggs one-time, which are immediately poured with milt. Spawning lasts about 3 hours. The number of eggs for one spawning is about 1000 pieces.

After spawning, the producers are immediately removed from the spawning aquarium, otherwise the roe will be eaten.

The incubation period for caviar is about one day. During this period it is necessary to raise the temperature of the aquarium water to 28 ° C.

The larva of thorns is small, barely noticeable. At first it hangs on the plants and the walls of the aquarium, and the 3rd day begins to swim.

Juveniles are fed standardly grated live food, live dust.

In the process of growth, the fish are sorted, small and defective are destroyed.

See more details The breeding forum: what caviar, larvae, care feeding fry and so on.

Diseases of termination.

It is very stable fish and can tolerate harsh conditions of detention. But you should not experiment. The guarantee of absolute health is proper maintenance.

Terrestitia is susceptible to all typical diseases of aquarium fish and there are no nuances in their treatment. They are treated standardly: by raising the temperature to 30 degrees, by methylene blue, tripaflavin, baths with salt, etc.

For correct and correct treatment, it is necessary to diagnose the disease, and then apply the necessary procedures. This section will help you: Aqua medicine, fish diseases.

Interesting video with terrence



Beautiful photos of ternation




Ternesia content dilution compatibility description feeding.

TERNACE DESCRIPTION

The ternation has a high and flat body. They grow up to 5.5 cm, and they start spawning already at a size of 4 cm. Life expectancy under good conditions is about 3-5 years.
The ternation is distinguished by two vertical black stripes running along its body and large dorsal and anal fins. Her anal card is a business card, as it resembles a skirt and very much highlights the termination among other fish. Adults become somewhat paler and turn grayish instead of black.

Other fashionable options are:

  • Veil thorns, which was first bred in Europe. It is very often found on sale, it is no different in content from the classical form, but it is somewhat more difficult to breed because of intragenital crossing.
  • Albino, is less common, but again, no different except for coloring.

    thorny

  • Ternetsii Caramels are artificially colored colored fish, a fashionable trend in modern aquarism. They need to be kept with caution, as the chemistry in the blood has not made anyone healthier. Plus, they are massively imported from farms in Vietnam, and this is a long road and the risk of catching a particularly strong type of fish disease.

    Care requirements and ternation conditions

    Fish do not need supernatural conditions of detention. Observance of optimal parameters of aquarium water is the key to their well-being. However, it is worth remembering that:

    - necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly substitution of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water. If you change the water to them less often than once a week, nothing terrible will happen, the fish are hardy and adapt to any conditions. And if you have a large aquarium, then the water for terntion can be changed once a month.

    - the fish need free space for swimming, if you have a small aquarium, it is better not to densely populate it with plants and select swimming areas.

    - Aquarium decoration, can be anything: snags, stones, grottoes and other decorations. But since the fishes have a dark color, it is better to decorate the back wall of the aquarium with a lighter background, the ground is also not black. Shelters (grottoes, caves) are absolutely unnecessary for ternations, sometimes they hide only in the thickets of plants.

    In nature, live:

    Area - Brazil, Bolivia: the river Mato Grosso, Rio Paraguay, Rio Negro. They live in ponds with dense vegetation, which is why, if the home aquarium allows, it is better to decorate it with live aquarium plants, and in the center to provide an area for free swimming.

    Aquarium Compatibility

    Ternetsii very active and can be semi-aggressive, cutting off fins to fish. This behavior can be reduced by keeping them in a flock, then they focus more on their fellow tribesmen. But everything, with fish like cockerel or angelfish, is better not to hold them. Good neighbors will be viviparous, danios, cardinals, mollies, black neons and other small and active small fish.

    TERNIA

    .

    Breeding and reproduction

    Breeding It starts with the choice of a couple aged and active. Younger couples may also spawn, but efficacy is higher in mature individuals. Selected couple are seated and richly fed with live food. Spawning from 30 liters, with very soft and sour water (4 dGH and less), dark soil and small-leaved plants. Light is necessarily dim, very diffused or twilight. If the aquarium is heavily lit, cover the front glass with a sheet of paper. Spawning begins in the early morning. The female lays several hundred sticky eggs on the plants and decor. As soon as spawning is over, the pair needs to be transplanted, as they can eat caviar and fry. It is easy to feed fry, for this purpose any small feeds for fry will be suitable.

    Behavior

    Temperament terration peaceful, which is not a hindrance to arrange attacks on each other, on smaller fish or with large fins. Hold on ternation at a medium depth free of plants. This is an indicator fish, the color changes depending on the environment or possible stress - from

    thorny

    almost transparent to intensely black. Because of the top location of the mouth, the fish feed on the surface of the water.

    What to feed terniy Food can be given to almost anyone. Live and frozen food, flakes, meat, bread crumbs will suit them. Eat mainly from the surface of the water, sometimes they catch food, slowly going to the bottom.

    TERNACE OF THE DISEASE

    Terrestitii are quite resistant to various diseases. In any aquarium, as a rule, various parasitic organisms are still present, but if good conditions are maintained, they are not capable of causing harm to the mourning tetra.

    In case of any deterioration of the living conditions, the ternation instantly reacts by changing the color and behavior. Good conditions of detention for terntions are a kind of basis for immunity, and constitute a complex of measures.

    The size of the aquarium should correspond to the number of ternine pairs, if there are several pairs, they will be comfortable in the aquarium at least 40 liters, densely planted with plants. Water temperature within 23 ° C - 26 ° C, water hardness from 5 ° to 17 °, pH 6.0 - 7.5.

    If these requirements are met, all that remains is to take measures to ensure that outsiders do not enter the aquarium into the aquarium. In this direction, the most effective way to protect is quarantine for new fish and plants for at least 3 weeks.

    You also need to be careful in purchasing live food, it is better to do it in certified stores. In this case, the termination of the disease can be avoided.

    • A shift in the pH of the water in the aquarium to 10-11 in bright sunlight and dense vegetation can cause the development of alkolosis (alkaline disease), a decrease in pH to 4-5 can provoke acidosis (acid disease).
    • In case of untimely removal of the waste products of fish from an aquarium, the concentration of ammonia in the water may increase, which in turn may cause the development of acetamia (ammonia poisoning).
    • In the case of overpopulation of the aquarium in the water may be reduced oxygen content, which will lead to the development of hypoxia (asphyxiation).
    • Regular overfeeding of terntions, the use of monotonous and low-quality food will lead to obesity and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Use for replacement of poorly separated tap water with chlorine will affect the development of fish chlorosis (chlorine poisoning).

    With the improvement of the conditions of maintenance, terntions can quickly restore their health. But it was during this period, when the defenses of the ternation were exhausted due to a violation of the normal conditions of detention, various parasites could be activated.

    This can cause the development of often incurable diseases: saprolegniosis, ichthyophonus, fin rot, ichthyophthiriosis, pellularis, plistophora, gluea, nodular disease, chylodonellosis, gyrodactylus, dactylogirus.

    Diseases and their causes

    Changes in water may also cause other diseases. Thus, for example, alkalosis occurs in Ternéti when the level of acidity shifts towards an alkaline medium. This can contribute to bright sunlight and excessive use of vegetation. But acidosis occurs when lowering the minimum threshold value in the range of comfort.

    If the content of Ternetium occurs irregularly, then there is a high risk of poisoning the fish with ammonia, the concentration of which becomes significantly higher from the waste products in the water.

    Ternations react very quickly to improved conditions. As soon as they are normalized, the pets' health is immediately restored.

    TERNIA VIDEO

Ternetia - ordinary fish

Often, people who buy an aquarium, do not know who to make a new home. When acquiring a fish for the first time, I want it to live happily ever after, and the owner’s little experience doesn’t hurt her at all. Among the waterfowl, which are ideal for beginners, the place of honor is ternation.

pros

In favor of this pet says his unpretentiousness and endurance. It quickly and well adapts to the new environment, does not require refined feed and special care. Subsequently, almost any relatives are subordinated to it.

It gets along with danios, cardinals, neons, guras, scalars, tetras, swordtails, catfishes and other small-sized and non-aggressive creatures.

And cons

The only drawback is high activity. As a result, playing or manifesting itself, it can pull out the fins of the voile fish, and also annoy slow and small neighbors like neons and guppies. Also does not get along with large cichlids.

In the company of their own can start biting neighbors. Therefore, someone will have to be deposited in another container.At the same time, however, the flock feels best.


Miracle in a skirt

What does this brisk and mobile creature look like? It grows only up to 4-5 cm. The structure of the body is quite original - diamond-shaped, strongly flattened on the sides.

But the main difference is the three vertical black stripes (two go through the body, one is located next to the eye) and large fins. And the bottom looks like an elegant skirt. Thanks to this pet is not confused with anyone else.

The color of the scales is the most diverse (in young people it is richer than in adults). To the main silver one more is added - black, greenish, blue, pink, brick. This was facilitated by artificial staining with special injections. Also, someone may be lucky enough to get albino bred by crossing or a veil with a giant fin.

Get used to everything

The first mention of terntion refers to 1895 (they were brought to Russia after half a century). In nature, it cuts through the rivers of Brazil, Paraguay and other countries of South America, preferring a slow current and shade.

Having settled it at home, you must follow a few simple rules:

  • necessarily need aeration and filtration;
  • It is advisable to change a quarter of the water every 7 days.
If for any reason it is impossible (for example, because of a long departure), do not worry. In large capacity, the fluid is generally updated once a month.

Fish that quickly get used to any conditions still love

  • temperature 21-25 degrees
  • pH 6-8,
  • stiffness not higher than 18.

At the bottom you can scribble withered leaves and coats that will make the water brownish and acidic.

Inside the aquarium

The main thing is to make the most swimming space.

  • A small house is better not to overload with flowers in pots and decorative elements.
  • But if space allows, you can install stones and grottoes.
  • The beauty likes it when plants float on the surface, casting shadows.
  • Prefers dim light.
But what the owner of a three-lane should always remember - the aquarium should be covered with a lid or glass. Brisk fidget loves to jump. Playing out, can fall out and die.

Good appetite

In food is unpretentious, agrees to all types of live, frozen and artificial food. The main delicacy is flakes. In addition, in the diet add koretra, daphnia and cyclops. Motylya give in a special trough.

Due to the peculiarities of the mouth structure, it is inconvenient for South American women to pick up food from the bottom, therefore, the remains of a sunken treat are recommended to be cleaned.

Simple breeding

Aquatic creatures sell and buy very well. Therefore, many are engaged in their breeding.

To do this, prepare a separate spawning 30-40 liters with softer and sour water than usual. Dark soil is laid on the bottom (for example, moss), small-leaved plants are added.

Recommended dim, diffused light or twilight. The front glass can be covered with paper.

The water must infuse and become completely transparent. This happens after two or three days. Only then in the capacity manufacturers start.

Parents of large families

Future mom and dad are selected by age (minimum 8 months, maximum 2 years) and size (3 cm). To distinguish them from each other is easy. Females have a less saturated and contrasting color, fins are not so large. But they are larger and thicker than males.

The chosen pair is actively fed, and after reproduction they are deposited so that they do not eat the eggs, which, by the way, can be up to a thousand.

Malkam give food suitable for any of their relatives of the same age (in particular, ciliates and nauplii). In addition, boiled chicken yolk and powdered milk will do. Grown up children sorted by size. So they will not engage in cannibalism.

Good health

South American women rarely get sick, and they are traditionally treated with fever up to 30 degrees, methylene blue and baths with salt. If necessary, contact the experts. On average, this species of fish lives for 3-4 years, and under good conditions, up to 5-6 years.

To be proud of your aquarium, it is not necessary to live there fashionable or large inhabitants. The little terns will be one of his best jewels. Despite its mourning stripes, it is a very cheerful, cheerful and bright fish. It is quite inexpensive - 60 rubles.

Video: how to contain fish terniyu:

Fish aquarium terniya

The aquarium fish, terne caramel, came to us from the rivers of Paraguay and Argentina just recently in 1993. She got acclimatized in the new environment, reproduces well, and it is not difficult to care for her.

A small guest from the Western Hemisphere, the owner of a small - from four to five centimeters - egg-shaped body, compressed laterally, her eyes are yellow. On the back there is a high short membrane fin, and at the tail - fat and small. From the middle of the belly of the caramel goes anal fin.

The nature has dressed caramel thorn in olive-green outfit. Black stripes with wide corners picked up the main coloring. One dark band goes through the eyes, the other through the gills, and the third rises to the dorsal fin. The pectoral fins of a foreign fish, as well as its tail, are transparent white. The anal and spinal are quite dark.

It should be noted, breeders have tried: today, red and veil varieties of caramels have been bred.

To distinguish between "boys" and "girls", you need to look at the tail - in males it is white at the end. In addition, female caramel fish are larger than males and slightly lighter.

The young aquarium fish, ternetium caramel, is distinguished by a brighter color contrast, and black stripes are clearer. With age, the color fades, but during the breeding season caramel thistle blooms again.

Why is the second name stuck to the Latin American caramel? Ternetia caramel - a color albino aquarium fish, which is injected with a solution of water with fluorescent paints. The solution enters the bloodstream, which spreads the paint to the muscles and completely changes their color. Sometimes even fins get a shade. Then the newly-made caramel is released into clean water, where she begins to get used to life in a new outfit.

Unfortunately, these painted water creatures do not last long. Yes, and with the reproduction of colorful fry does not work.

Care for terns

The aquarium fish ternetia caramel is hardy and brisk and requires large aquarium sizes and a large number of plants. Water temperature suitable for life varies from 22 to 25 degrees Celsius. Acidity should be 6-7 pH, and water hardness - 5-10 dH.

Caring for ternation is also simple because it has a peaceful nature, it gets along perfectly with other representatives of the aquatic fauna, and its neighbors do not affect its ability to reproduce.

Friendly caramel keeps flocks, and alone becomes aggressive. If you decide to add a termination to other species, choose for her cohabitants not too small and not much larger in size, otherwise she will start to bite their fins.

In food, fish caramel unpretentious. She perfectly assimilates dry food. Adult caramels eat vegetable, live, dry and combined food. "Youth" is fed infusoria, artemia. Fry that have just started to explore the water spaces of the aquarium can be fed with powdered milk.

Aquarium fish terntion - reproduction

If the water house of your favorite caramel lush vegetation and good aeration, it multiplies easily. Also, for more active breeding, the male and the female of ternation are fed with bloodworms, and the rest of the food must be removed from the water. After spawning, adult individuals are better off to seed, so that the eggs are not eaten. Fry appear after three days. To feed them you need a special small food. The children of the peace-loving aquarium fish are divided in size and seated so that they do not start to feast on each other.

Ternetsii

Thorns is one of the most beautiful species of aquarium fish. Under natural conditions, this fish reaches a length of seven centimeters. In an aquarium, its dimensions do not exceed five centimeters.

What does ternation look like?

The ternets have a flat body. They have a dark silver body color, across which there are three black stripes. The color of young individuals is more intense. Moreover, the intensity of the color often depends on the conditions in which the termination occurs. One of the strips passes through the eyes, the second is located in the zone of the end of the gill covers, and the third - on the upper fin. It is worth noting that the anal fin of the species is very similar to the open fan of black color. The female is larger than the male.

If the conditions in which the ternas live worsen, their coloring also changes markedly. So, in this case, their body gets a dirty silver shade.

Thorns are active fish that prefer to move around the aquarium in small flocks. In this case, the fish very often attack each other.

Content of terration

The aquarium fish the ternation can live both in small, and in big aquariums. If the aquarium is spacious, then the individuals move around the space free from plants. In a confined space, terns, on the contrary, hide in algae, occasionally selecting from them in order to find food. It is worth noting that the ternation is very easy to get on with other fish.

white thorny

For a comfortable ternation, the aquarium should have a capacity of at least twenty liters. In such an aquarium can safely live from 5 to 8 individuals. At the bottom of the aquarium is recommended to lay out a layer of river sand. Also, do not plant plants with capacity. Comfortable temperature for living in an aquarium is 22 degrees.

If the aquarium has a small displacement, then once a week it is necessary to replace a third of its volume with clean water. Saturation of water with oxygen is a prerequisite for a comfortable content of terntions.

Moth (small), Cyclops, Daphnia (dry and live) will be suitable as food for ternations.

How to breed terntions

Reproduction of terntions is possible only in a large and spacious aquarium. It must contain at least four buckets of water. For reproduction of ternetions, the bottom of the aquarium should be densely planted with plants. The tops of the plants should not reach the upper boundary of the water (6 cm). Spawning occurs at a temperature of at least 24 degrees. In this case, the aquarium should be well lit throughout the time. That is, the light at night is not necessary to turn off. Do not forget the oxygen. Manufacturers are released into the water not earlier than in three days. It is necessary that the water is well settled. Spawning occurs on the sixth day. This interval is explained by the fact that the female gathers caviar, and the male - to milk. During this period, ternation feeds on bloodworms. The quantity of feed should be such that the fish have time to eat them immediately.
During spawning, the male actively chases the female. During this period, she begins to spawn. The process of reproduction occurs rapidly.

Compatibility ternii fish

Ternetia has a rather original diamond shape. The features of these fish also include the presence of two fins on the back. One fin, which is closer to the tail, is adipose, as it does not have hard rays. The tail fin of the fork-like tetra.

The most unusual is the ventral fin, which stretches to the base of the tail. On the outside, a black tetra can reach a body length of up to six centimeters. In captivity, thorns very rarely grow to five centimeters. There are several breeding forms in the world that have elongated voile fins. There are also color variations, but there is an opinion that it was not without special gene modifiers.

Ternation usually lives up to 4 years. Black tetra is a fish that prefers to live in packs. For ten individuals need an aquarium, the volume of which must be at least 50 liters. Ternesia does not tolerate solitude. If she is left alone, she becomes overly aggressive. A flock of these beautiful creatures can be kept with other species that are also peaceful.

Black tetras fight only between individuals of their own species, they are usually harmless, but sometimes it happens that they damage each other's fins. Also experienced aquarists do not recommend containing terntions along with some slow-moving fish, because when feeding fast tetras will not allow them to eat, slow-moving fish will simply starve. If the conditions of detention have worsened, the terntions will begin to change color and become completely pale.

For a mixed aquarium, ternets are ideal. They have poor compatibility with fish living with them in the same aquarium, which have a small size or large fins compared to the tetra, as it will constantly bite them. Therefore, perfectly suited for the joint content of guppies, swordtails, petilia.

For peaceful coexistence, it is also necessary to acquire a large aquarium so that the terntions can retire, hiding in the vegetation. If you be attentive and keep black tetras in comfortable conditions, she will live peacefully and please the eye for a long time.

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