Tetras - bright fish
These fish are just universal! They can be contained in both large and small aquariums. Not only professionals can take care of them, but also beginners who have just embarked on the path of aquarism. Watching them is a pleasure. And even the “exotic” could envy their brightness, decoration and variety of colors. We are talking now about tetras - a large group of fish belonging to the family of haracin - the favorites of many breeders. What are these creatures, how to create optimal conditions for them, what to feed them and much more, read on.
Tetras in nature
Tetras came to European countries in the 60s of the 20th century from South America, where they were found in shallow warm rivers. The bottom of these bodies of water is strewn with fallen leaves. Everywhere are visible snags, branches and protruding roots of plants, which are found in abundance not only at the bottom, but also on the coastal territory.
What are tetras
For all representatives of the species are characteristic:
- Small size. There are “babies” with a body length of 2.5 cm and 15-centimeter “giants”.
- Narrow long body, shaped like a rhombus.
- A rich palette of colors, which is due to a variety. There are elegant and modestly colored fish, monochrome and multicolored. Moreover, the males shine with beauty mostly, but the females got a nondescript appearance. Interestingly, in the event of a deterioration in living conditions, the beauty and brightness of the color of the tetra gradually fades away.
- In good conditions can live up to 5-6 years.
Character and compatibility
Keep these fish should be only flocks of 7-10 or more pieces. Loneliness for the tetra is contraindicated, because it is a guarantee that her character will deteriorate. Then, instead of a calm and peace-loving creature, you will get an aggressive, annoying and poisonous life to other inhabitants of the aquarium pet.
In most cases you should not be afraid for the safety of plants or the landscape - tetras do not spoil them. They perfectly coexist with similar sizes of peaceful fish, such as guppies, mollies, swordtail, cardinal, neon, congo and others. But the neighborhood with cichlids, astronotus and goldfish is better to exclude.
Variety of species
The character and temperament of the tetras are similar, and the shape and color vary greatly. They are the basis of the classification of species. Here are some of them:
Golden or gold. Grow up to an average of 5 cm. They are distinguished by a characteristic "golden" color, active behavior, as well as a love of bright light and floating plants.
Diamond. When light hits their scales sparkles and shimmers like a real jewel.
Red Spotted. On the 6-centimeter body of the fish a red spot is clearly visible, which is sometimes called a bleeding heart.
Colombian. You can easily recognize these 6-7 cm fishes by the red tail and silver belly.
Lemon. Sometimes they are called yellow. You can recognize them by the smooth lines of the body, in the lower part of which there is a notch, as well as by the yellow or grayish-silver-green color and two oval dark spots near the gills.
Fireflies. Look very impressive in dim light due to phosphorescent lines on the body. This species is very sensitive to nitrates, so a good filter for them is a vital necessity.
Fiery. If you see on each side of a 4-centimeter translucent tetra calf a long bright red stripe, then they are the ognevichki.
Black or terns. Their black and purple diamond-shaped body is strongly flattened from the sides, and their eyes are striking in their blue with blue dots.
Copper. More common than other species. This is a miniature fish with a slender long calf and golden peach color. They are very fond of the abundance of plants and look great on a background of dark soil with not very bright light.
Royal. Painted very "nobly": pinkish, bluish or violet transparency of the back contrasts with the dark belly, and their border is marked with a fat dark stripe. The tail has a narrow black process in the middle. The average size of the fish is 5.5 cm. An aquarium with a dark background is what you need to highlight the exquisite beauty of these tetras.
There are also many other not so common species, for example, red-flipper, blue, bloody, mirror, pink, ruby, amanda, Mexican Astyanax, flashlights, blind, etc. Experts note that royal, copper, Congo are most loved by aquarists and tetragonopterus. That's why it makes sense to talk about them in more detail.
Colombia is considered the birthplace of this species, or rather the north-western part of the Cordillera, where the Nematobrycon palmeri were found in small forest streams by the American collector Palmer (hence its name). She has been familiar with European aquarists since 1959, and domestic - since 1965.
- The strong, 6-centimeter body of the palmer is elongated and slightly flattened laterally.
- The back is arched more than the abdomen.
- Teeth are clearly visible on short jaws.
- The shape of the caudal fin is unique due to the long central rays - it is three-lobed.
- The fin on the back also has the first saber rays. Fat fin no.
The sides of the young brownish, but with age brighten. Two long and wide longitudinal shiny stripes are clearly visible on both sides. The top one is usually light green or blue, and the bottom one is dark brown or black. The eyes of the males are blue, and the females are green. Fins are yellowish-green. Anal edged dark purple, dorsal and caudal reddish-brown.
Conditions of detention. For the maintenance of royal tetras it is better to equip a specific aquarium, but in general they can also live. These fish swim in all layers of water. Like the rest of the species, they are kept in flocks, in which there are more females than males. The hierarchy of these fish is very developed: the stronger the male, the more territory he controls and the more he has the harem.
- For seven fish (5 females + 2 males), an 80-liter capacity will be sufficient, which must be covered from above due to the jumping ability of the fish.
- The reservoir must be densely filled with plants (including floating) and provide snags, shelters. Vallisneria, cryptocoryne, echinodorus, thai fern, etc. are quite suitable.
- The temperature of the water is best maintained at 23-26 degrees, the hardness is not more than 8, the acidity is within 6-7.
- Substitutions do twice a month in the amount of 20-30 percent.
Feeding. As for food, these fish are not picky and willingly take as dry food in the form of plates, pellets, etc., and live. They can be given artemia, a pipe worker, a cortex, a bloodworm, a cyclop. They love mosquito larvae very much. Complement the diet of these fish with herbal supplements and oatmeal.
Breeding. Raising royal tetras is not very difficult. This becomes possible at the age of six months. A spawning fish is prepared in advance (or a separator grid is installed directly into the species), at the bottom of which several shrubs of plants are planted, such as Javanese moss, peristristis or hell, and floating species are laid out on the surface of the water.
Optimum breeding water should have a temperature of 24-28, acidity 1-5, hardness 6-6.8. For these fish, pre-separation of females and males is practiced with their abundant feeding. One male and 2-3 females are placed in the prepared container in the evening. Spawning occurs already the next morning.
Eggs are large, transparent, they can be 50-150. After the fish "swept away" the eggs, they are deposited. Spawning water from the spawning tank (up to a height of 5-8 cm) and shading it. On the 2nd day the fry appear, and on the 6th they are already swimming. You can feed them with a microworm, artemia, ciliates.
These fish live in Africa, inhabiting the muddy waters of the Congo River (or in the old way Zaire). They were called rainbow tetras for their colorful appearance. This species was described in 1899 by Boulanger.
They are widespread and are not under threat of destruction. However, those fish that are sold in pet stores, are specially grown in Asia or Eastern Europe.
Phenacogrammus interruptus (this is the name of the fish in Latin) grow quite large: 8.5 cm - males and 6 cm - females. Their body is elongated and flattened from the sides and decorated with lush fins.Males additionally on the three-blade tail, dorsal and anal fins have long veil processes.
The main bluish iridescent background of the body contrasts with reddish-orange or golden-yellow sides. Grayish-purple transparent fins around the edges brighten slightly.
Conditions of detention. Congo is quite modest and shy. They may even not take food while the observer is standing close to the aquarium. It is not necessary to settle them with overly active and even more aggressive species of fish. Congo get along well with speckled catfish, black neons, lyalius, and tarakatums.
- For a flock of 6 fish you will need a 150-liter aquarium with dark soil, snags at the bottom and subdued lighting.
- Water should have a temperature of 23-28, hardness 4-18, acidity 6-7.5. Experts advise adding to it dry oak, beech or apple leaves, previously scalded with boiling water.
- It is desirable to replace water once a week in the amount of 15-20 percent.
- Also, these fish require a moderate course.
Feeding. Rainbow tetras are omnivores. They are fed the same way as the royal ones, but be sure to complement the menu with herbal ingredients. If this is not done, then the young leaves and shoots of aquarium plants, which the fish will eat, will suffer.
Breeding. It is believed that the breeding of Congo at home - this is not easy, but it is quite possible. Sexual maturity occurs at approximately 10 months.
First you need to select the brightest pair of fish, plant them in different containers and feed them well for two weeks. Next, the pair is placed in a spawning room with a large number of plants and a net at the bottom (it will help save the eggs from their parents eating). Stimulus to the beginning of reproduction is the increase in water temperature to 26 degrees. It should be neutral and soft.
The number of caviar can be from 100 to 200, rarely up to 300 pieces. On the first day, most of the offspring die. About a week later fry appear. They can be fed with egg yolk and infusoria, and as they grow they can be transferred to Artemia nauplii.
In nature, diamond-shaped tetras are found in rivers, streams, lakes, ponds of South America, Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay.
This fish is ideal for beginners. Its advantages include simplicity, livability, long life expectancy (5-6 years) and ease of breeding. There is also a minus - it is a habit to spoil plants. They can eat almost everything except Javanese moss and Anubias.
Tetra Plotvichka has a large, slightly elongated, 7-centimeter body with a silver neon color. From the center of the body to the tail stretches a thin black stripe with a diamond on the end. Fins (except transparent spinal and thoracic) red. Males are smaller, slender and do not have a rounded abdomen.
Conditions of detention. These active fish contain a flock of at least 7 pieces. Active and fast species such as minor, Congo, erythrozonus, and termination will be excellent neighbors for them. But slow with long fins will have a hard time.
Aquarium is better to take a spacious with a lid at the top. To ground and lighting undemanding. Permissible water parameters: temperature 20-28, acidity 6-8, hardness 2-30. It must be replaced regularly. It is better to plant a lot of plants, but in such a way that there is enough space for swimming.
Nutrition. Feed should be abundant, as they have an excellent appetite. If food is not enough, then begin to tear off the fins to neighbors in the aquarium. The food is picky and willingly take live, frozen and dry food, which is recommended to add spirulina. Remains from the bottom pick reluctantly.
Breeding uncomplicated, with preliminary separation and abundant feeding. Caviar can be laid on moss plants or even a sponge of nylon thread. There is so much of it that even after being eaten by the parents, it remains in sufficient quantity. Spawning occurs in several stages, after which the female is deposited for rest.
On the second or third day, small fry appear, hanging on the plants and the glass of the aquarium. At this time, they need enhanced aeration and "live dust" as feed. They grow very quickly and after a week and a half, they eat Cyclops. A year later, they are already able to produce offspring.
Her homeland is the south-eastern part of Brazil, where the San Francisco River flows.
The shape of the body of copper fish is characteristic of all tetras. The size does not exceed 5 cm. Males are copper-colored, and females are light yellow. From the pectoral fins to the tail, a black and blue stripe is visible. From above, parallel to it is the second band, golden in males and yellow in females. Males have reddish-brown fins and yellowish spots on tail.
Compatibility. These tetras have a peaceful disposition. They are very mobile, curious and intimidating. Keep most often in the middle layer of water. Inhabit better with a group of at least 8 pieces.
Good neighbors for them can be haratsinovye, iris, danios, laliusy, rasbory, gourami, guppies, scalar, barbus, discus, etc. Acceptable joint content with shrimps amano and cherry. But with aggressive species the neighborhood is unfortunate.
Conditions of detention. The water in the aquarium should have a temperature of 20-26 degrees, a hardness of 5 to 20 and an acidity of 6.5-7.5. It should be filtered, aerated and replaced weekly by 20 percent. The landscape is better to issue, alternating thickets and space for swimming.
Nutrition. Feeding Hasemania Nana is recommended by daphnia and Cyclops in live or frozen form. They give color to the brightness. But the pipe builder is undesirable.
Breeding. You can breed from 4-6 months. Females are easily distinguished by a more massive and large body with a dull color. Males are more elegant and brightly colored. The breeding process is similar to those described above for other types of tetras. The difference, perhaps, is that the duration of the separate content is increased to two weeks, the number of eggs is more (up to 400), it is small, dark brown, sticky.
In conclusion, I would like to remind you of the general important conditions for all types of tetras:
- They are very sensitive to cleanliness, so water will have to be changed more often than for other fish.
- Do not tolerate chlorine and other impurities, so you need to use water only separated from at least 2-3 days.
- Looks more effective against the dark ground in dim lighting.
As we managed to learn, tetras are bright and frisky fish, which are interesting to watch. However, they do not require complex care and are perfect for small aquariums in small rooms.
If you live in a mode of almost constant employment and total lack of time, but still want to have any pets, then the fish will be the perfect solution for you. In addition, the fish do not need too much of your attention, watching the aquarium has a beneficial effect on the psyche and emotional state, allowing you to relax. If you do not want to start large aquarium inhabitants, then turn your attention to such fish as tetras. These are short-nosed fishes a maximum of eight centimeters in length, possessing bright and very various colors.
Tetras are schooling fish, so it is worth buying a digging of 7-10 individuals. Aquarium will suit them from 30 liters, with lots of different plants and a place for free swimming. By the way, tetras will not mind pinching algae, so you can buy aquatic plants with numerous small leaves. The optimal water temperature for these fish ranges from 21 ° to 26 ° C, the water must be partially changed once a week.
Remarkable is the fact that the appearance of the fish is very sensitive to the state of the environment. That is, if you follow the conditions of the fish, they are very colorful and beautiful, otherwise - all their attractiveness quickly disappears.
In food, these fish are unpretentious, can eat both live and combined dry food.
Tetras are very friendly and easily get along with other small peace-loving fish (for example, with neons or cardinals).
There are several types of tetra fish:
- royal tetra: size 5.5 centimeters, most effectively look on a dark background of the aquarium;
- Colombian tetra: about 6-7 centimeters long, tail fin red, silver belly;
- bloody tetraA: body length 4 centimeters, color varies from silver to bright red;
- golden tetra: The fish is not colored brightly, but has a noticeable golden sheen, about 3.5-5 centimeters long. They love bright lighting and floating plants, these fish are very active, constantly in motion;
- fire tetras: the body of these fish is translucent, about 4 centimeters long, a bright red stripe runs from the head to the tail;
- mirror tetra: length is 4 centimeters, the main color is mirror-brown;
- black tetra: also known as ternetia, silver-colored fish and have a very unusual body shape in the form of a rhombus, strongly flattened laterally;
- pink tetra: рыбки розовой расцветки размером 4,5 сантиметра, стайный инстинкт у этой разновидности тетр выражен слабее, чем у других видов;
- голубая тетра: размеры этих рыбок около 4-5 сантиметров, цвет желтоватый с голубым отливом, тело удлиненное и слегка сжатое по бокам.
Breeding fish tetra
Tetra reach sexual maturity between 6 and 8 months. For breeding, the pair is placed in a spawning aquarium with a volume of at least forty liters. It is necessary to feed the female intensively for 10 days before the intended spawning, then reduce the water hardness and raise the temperature by 2-3 ° С. Fertilized caviar is in a transparent shell, while the defective caviar grows cloudy within 12 hours. Approximately on the fifth day, the youngsters will swim, the infusoria or artemia may become the first food for them.
Tetras are very mobile, bright, iridescent with different colors of fish, which look very impressive in an aquarium, especially the whole flock against the background of dense thickets. They will become not only pets for which it is interesting to watch, but also an original decoration of your apartment.
Hasemania or copper tetra
Copper tetra or Hasemania nana (Latin Hasemania nana) is a small fish that lives in rivers with dark water in Brazil. It has a slightly more harmful nature than other small tetras, and can tear off fins to other fish.
Habitat in nature
Hasemania nana is from Brazil, where it lives in rivers with black water (blackwater), which darkens from the abundant layer of leaves, branches and other organic matter covering the bottom.
Small tetra, up to 5 cm in length. Life expectancy is about 3 years. The males are bright, copper colored, the females are paler and more silvery. However, if you turn on the light at night, then you can see that all the fish are silvery, and only with the beginning of the morning they acquire their famous color. And those and others have white spots on the edges of the fins, emitting fish. Also on the tail fin there is a black spot. From other types of tetras, copper is distinguished by the absence of a small fatty fin.
Copper tetras look good in aquarium densely planted with plants with dark soil. This is a schooling fish that prefers to keep the center of the aquarium. For a small flock enough volume of 70 liters. In nature, they live in very soft water with a large amount of dissolved tannins and low acidity, and if the same parameters are in the aquarium, then the hasemaniahs are more brightly colored. Such parameters can be recreated by adding peat or dry leaves to water. However, they are accustomed to other conditions, so they live at a temperature of 23-28 ° C, pH of the water is pH: 6.0-8.0 and hardness 5-20 ° H. However, they do not like drastic changes in parameters, they need to be changed gradually.
Despite their small size, they can tear off fins to other fish, but can themselves be a victim for large and predatory aquarium fish. In order for them to touch other fish less, it is necessary to contain copper tetra from a flock, from 10 individuals. Then they have their own hierarchy, order and more interesting behavior.
Get along well with rhodostomus, black neon, tetragonopterus and other fast tetras and haracin. It can be contained with swordtails and mollies, but not with guppies. Do not touch and shrimp, as they live in the middle layers of water.
Not picky and eat any kind of feed. To make the fish brighter colored, it is advisable to regularly give live or frozen food.
The males of the copper tetra are brighter colored than the females, and the females also have a more rounded abdomen.
Reproduction in copper tetras is quite simple, but you have to plant them in a separate aquarium, if you want to get more fry. In the aquarium should be twilight and shrubs with small leaves, well suited Javanese moss or nylon thread. Caviar will fall through the threads or leaves, and the fish will not be able to reach it. Aquarium should be covered or float on the surface of floating plants.
Producers need to be fed live food before planting to spawn. They can spawn in a flock, 5-6 fish of both sexes will be enough, however, and they are successfully divorced in pairs. It is advisable to plant manufacturers in different aquariums, and feed them abundantly for a while. Then put them in the evening in spawning, the water in which should be a few degrees warmer. Spawning begins early in the morning.
Females lay their eggs on plants, but the fish can eat it, and at the slightest opportunity they need to be sown. The larvae will hatch in 24-36 hours, and in 3-4 days the fry will start swimming. The first days of the copper tetra fry are fed with small feeds, such as ciliates and green water, as they grow, they give a microworm and nautilia of artemia. Caviar and fry are photosensitive in the first days of life, so the aquarium should be removed from direct sunlight and kept in a fairly shaded place.
Aquarium minor - what kind of fish?
Minor serpas (Latin Hyphessobrycon minor) is a small aquarium fish of the Kharatsyn family. Natural habitat - freshwater with a slow flow in South America. Like any tetra, the adult minor reaches a size of no more than 5 cm in length; it lives 5-6 years in captivity.
The body structure is slender, tall, flattened on the sides, oblong. Dorsal fin is vertical, quadrangular in shape, also elongated. The body color is olive green on the back, and bright red at the bottom. Along the perimeter of the body is a dark horizontal strip. Gill covers and dorsal fin covered with fine dark spots.
The dorsal fin has a black color, with a white border, the other fins are red. Adipose fin translucent. The tail fin is two-bladed, red, with no scales at its base. Adult females do not have the bright color of the body and fins, as males, but their body is more rounded and full, during the spawning period you can clearly see the swollen abdomen.
The minor character is calm and peaceful. Like a schooling fish, it prefers to keep in a shoal of 4-6 individuals and more. Alone, the fish can attack the neighbors in the aquarium. It is unacceptable to keep the tail-tailed fish with which all fins can nibble. This aquarium tetra perfectly coexists with peaceful and mobile fishes, compatibility is possible with neons, petilias, lanterns, pulcheras, ornatus, and other tetras.
Look at the common aquarium with minors.
How to keep at home
Fish content in a minor is allowed in a long and fairly spacious aquarium. The optimal reservoir capacity is 10 liters of water per individual from the joint. The tank should be covered with a lid so that no tetra could jump out of it.
Characteristic are very fond of thick plants and spaces for swimming. They prefer to swim in the upper and middle ball of water. Ground plants (Anubiasa, Elodieu, Javanese moss, cryptocoryne) can be planted on the bottom, fixed with stones, floating plants should be located above the water surface.
Recommended parameters of the aquatic environment: temperature 22-26 degrees Celsius, acidity of water 6.8-7.0 pH, water hardness - 4-8 dGH. Need to adjust the quality of aeration and filtration. Once a week you need to replace 20% of the water with fresh and clean. These aquarium fish love the water, which added a little boiled peat.
The intensity of illumination is average, use fluorescent lamps, including them for 10 hours a day. Gravel or medium sand is suitable as a soil. At the bottom you can put snags, grottoes, caverns, which will serve as shelters for each fish.
The fish is more undemanding in food, the main rule is to give her medium-sized food that she will be able to capture with her mouth. Food should be balanced, varied. Give your pet live food (daphnia, artemia, bloodworm, cyclops, crustaceans, small insects), dry food in the form of granules and flakes, vegetable food (duckweed, sheets of lettuce and dandelion, spinach, peristomist).
Watch the fun and moving minors.
Aquarium minors should spawn in a specially prepared spawning tank with a water capacity of 20-25 liters. At the bottom of the tank lay separator mesh to protect the eggs. In the aquarium it is better to install dim and diffused lighting. Soil lining is optional, place in the water plants with long stems, or Thai fern, Javanese moss and peristristum. The height of the water in the aquarium is 10-15 centimeters, the parameters of the aquatic environment: temperature 26-28 ° C, hardness - 15 dH, acidity 6.2-7.0 pH. Water can be taken fresh and infused, or with the addition of peat extract. Peat water is prepared as follows: boiled peat concentrate (neutral acidity) is poured into the infused water, and infused for 7-30 days.
How to choose manufacturers? For breeding in the seine, select a pair of individuals, or several pairs of fish. 7 days before spawning, females and males are kept separately, feeding them with live food. In the spawning tank, they must be placed in the evening, 2 hours before the lights are turned off. A few days later, in the morning, spawning will occur, the female produces 200-300 small eggs. If breeding does not occur, you can replace the pair, or not feed the day males and females. Eggs fall to the bottom, sticking to the grid and leaves of plants. After the process, all manufacturers are removed back into the general aquarium, the spawn is supplied with aeration, its walls are shaded with dark paper.
Fry larvae will hatch in 48 hours, after that they will hang on the plants, in 3-5 days they will swim independently. Starter feeding for them - ciliates, rotifers, cyclops larvae, small nematodes. Every 2-3 days the water in spawning should be replaced with clean water, gradually increasing its level of hardness. Fry grow quickly, become mature at the age of one year.
Care for red tetra or rhodostomus
Rhodostomus, or the red-bearing tetra, is an aquarium fish of the Kharatsyn family (first described in 1886). The natural habitat is the delta of the South American Amazon River, where many species of fish of this family live. In the rivers of Colombia and Venezuela, the water is soft and sour due to the strong effect of tannins, which appear here as a result of oxidation of leaves and organic matter. This species hardly passed acclimatization in European countries, due to which it partially lost its bright color.
The length of an adult individual is 4.5–6 centimeters. Males of rhodostomus have a more elongated slender body with a hook on the hind fin, and in females it has a protruded abdomen. Color does not depend on the floor: it is identical. In the red-nosed tetra rhodostomus, the name is obtained for a reason. The head and gills of these fish are bright red. The body is a bluish-transparent color, the tail is painted in black and white stripes. Eyes - coal-black, pectoral and anal fins transparent, fatty fin of white-blue color.
Rhodostomus is very demanding in maintenance and care. They have a peace-loving, but fearful character, lead an active lifestyle.
Conditions in aquariums
Red tetra is not easy to adapt to the conditions of the aquarium, its content requires a certain competence. This is a schooling fish that loves a large space for action. Therefore, an aquarium should be purchased with a volume of at least 40-50 liters. At the bottom of it you need to carefully lay out the gravel soil (river sand is not excluded), which is not amenable to purulent processes. Then you can plant on it (ferns and arrowhead), dry leaves and snags. Rodostomuses like to be surrounded by algae - in stressful situations they hide there. You should not put the aquarium in a noisy, crowded place.
Look at the rhodostomusas floating to the music in the aquarium.
To ensure comfortable living conditions close to natural, one should combine optimal water conditions, without which a full life and quality care is impossible. The pH level should be 5.8-8, and the water temperature should be 22-26 ° C with hardness from 6 to 15 °. It is better to use an external filter, since rhodostomus is sensitive to nitrates and ammonia. Aquarium lighting is preferably dull, soft, resembling a shade of dense thickets.
Weekly replace 25% of the water from the aquarium. If the color of the fish has faded, it means that the quality of water has deteriorated (for ammonia and nitrates).
Rhodostomus swims in all layers of water, there is no leader among the schools of fish. They feel great next to their relatives of 5-7 individuals. They can also be lodged with other members of the Hemmigramus genus.
Rodostomus is fastidious in content, and breeding it is no less serious task. The fact is that in adult parents, caviar can not be fertilized, provided poor-quality water. Another reason why its breeding is problematic - the fish fry grows very slowly. The sex of the fish is difficult to determine until the beginning of spawning. A spawning aquarium should be kept in perfect cleanliness with a UV sterilizer in the filter in order to purify water from fungi and harmful bacteria. Males and females that intend to spawn should be grown in sour and soft water. Before spawning, rhodostomuses feed on live food.
Rhodostomus reaches sexual maturity after 8-12 months of life in good aquarium water. In separate aquariums for males and females (before spawning), the water conditions should be slightly different: the water temperature should be raised by 1-2 degrees, the water hardness should be reduced to 4-6 o, the pH level - to 6.6-6.8. In addition, before settling in a spawning aquarium, it should be carefully prepared. To do this, you need to take rainwater, water from forest puddles, distilled water, adding to it a decoction of peat.
The resulting water must be very well filtered and poured into the prepared aquarium a few days before landing the parents. At the time of settling, the parameters of water in the spawning pool should be as follows: temperature 25 ° С -27 ° С, water hardness 2 ° - 4 °, pH 6.0 -6.2. Rhodostomus breeding its stimulates to great attention to every detail.
Inside the aquarium should be placed a grid for spawning, and cover it with glass so that the fish do not jump out. Spawning lasts about ten days, during which males actively look after females until they get tired of their obsession. Males in spawning should be twice as large as females.
In the evening, the fish spawn, in the morning there is throwing caviar. So that adult individuals do not accidentally eat offspring, they are resettled, and the caviar aquarium itself is obscured. The incubation period is more than 24 hours, after which the net and plants are removed, reducing the water level. For 1 time the female brings 400 sticky eggs, for 4 days fry appear, which are fed with infusoria and live dust. By the age of 2 months reach the length of adult rhodostomy. Under favorable conditions, rhodostomus spawns 7-8 times a year.
On the video - rhodostomy with swordtails in the general aquarium
Rhodostomus is unpretentious in food. The adult fish consumes both dry and frozen food: cyclops, daphnia, small moths, insect larvae, artemia, and a shredder. It is better to give less dry food, and preferably smaller ones, because the red tetra has a small mouth.
When you can overcome the difficulties associated with the breeding and care of this beautiful and harmless fish, the result will not wait long. All efforts will not go in vain if the work approached with love and responsibility. Lovely radostomusy will delight the eye of his master and his guests.
See also: The smallest aquarium fish.
Rodostomus - red tetra: content, compatibility, breeding, photo.
Origin and habitat
Rhodostomus, as well as most fishes of the family of the Karatsin family, lives in the rivers of South America, in the tributaries of the Amazon, carrying brown water from fallen leaves and other organic compounds of water, as well as in the Rio Vaupes River in Colombia and Rio Negro in Brazil.
The diamond rhodostomus was described in 1986, it is also called the red-bearing or red-headed tetra.
The body of this aquarium fish is silvery with a neon shade, full and elongated, it grows up to 4.5 cm in length. Their distinguishing feature is a red nose and a black and white striped tail - 3 black stripes are located between 4 white. During stress, the red mark becomes much paler.
Three types of rhodostomus differ slightly, their differences are almost not noticeable. The main difference is the size of the red spot on the nose (only in the red diamond-bearing tetra does it go beyond the gills).
A rhodostomus aquarium can live up to 5 years or more.
Outwardly, not very attractive. The body is elongated, translucent silver color with a greenish tint. The head is red. The tail fin is painted in black and white stripes. Color saturation depends on external conditions. When stress or deterioration of conditions of detention head rhodostomusa becomes a pale red color.
If the conditions are suitable, then the head is colored ruby red. So the color is an excellent indicator of the condition of the fish and the quality of housing conditions, warning the aquarist about possible problems. The body length is about 5 centimeters.
Aquarium volume: 55 l and more for a small flock
Suitable for nano aquarium: Yes
Priming: dark sand
Lighting: moderate - moderate
Temperature: 22 - 27 ° C
Breeding temperature: 25-27 ° C
pH: 5.5-6.8 - pH (6.0 to 6.5 is best for dilution)
Hardness of water: 2 - 8 ° dGH
Water movement: moderate
Swimming places in the aquarium: all levels
Rodostomusi prefer to live in a company of at least 6-8 individuals. At the same time, an aquarium for such a quantity of fish should be not less than 50 l. It is advisable to thickly plant it underwater plants. Родостомус, содержание которого в аквариуме не будет сложным, если жесткость воды будет 6-13 единиц, pH - от 5,8 до 7,8 и температура воды 23-27ºС, предпочитает находиться в нижнем или среднем слое воды.
Обязательны фильтрация и аэрация. Каждую неделю нужно заменять третью часть воды. По внешнему виду тетра родостомус можно определить, когда вода в аквариуме станет слишком загрязнена нитратами, нитритами и аммиаком. In this case, the red color on the fish's head noticeably fades. This means that the water in the aquarium urgently needs to be changed, otherwise its inhabitants may die. The lighting of the aquarium with rhodostomus should be muffled.
These fish are not choosy in feeding and are happy to eat daphnias, Artemia, and a tubule (both live and frozen), and also eat dry fish food in the form of pellets or flakes.
Rodostomusy peaceful fish, the best will look a group of 7 - 10 individuals. Look good in an aquarium with free swimming space. Other peaceful tetras will be excellent neighbors for them; they will look especially beautiful with blue or red neons, black neons, ramings, peaceful dwarf cichlids, peaceful catfish - corridors. If you want to create a biotope, then neons and corridors are the best fit for the neighbors, as they are neighbors in the wild.
Feed and Feeding
Rhodostomuses are omnivorous, they are suitable for all types of aquarium feed: dry high-quality feed in the form of flakes or pellets, for example, Tetra or Sera for tropical fish; live food, such as small bloodworm, tubule, artemia, and frozen foods. Make sure that the food is small enough so that the rhodostomuses can take it with their small mouth.
Live artemia you can grow yourself in salt water, and Artemia eggs for breeding can be found in many online stores.
It is desirable to feed aquarium fish rhodostomus several times a day in small portions (food should be eaten in less than 3 minutes).
Breeding rodostomusov and sex differences
There are practically no external differences between the female and the male. Females are slightly larger and can be distinguished by a larger abdomen. In an attempt to breed, you can face many problems, especially if there is no experience of breeding other aquarium fish.
Due to the long maintenance of rhodostomus in hard water rich in calcium salts, fish can become infertile. Therefore, for successful spawning, producers must live all their lives in soft water. Failure to comply with this requirement makes all attempts by an aquarist to propagate rhodostomuses to no avail. It is recommended to put a little peat in the filter or add a specialized "Blackwater" water additive (for example, Tetra Blackwater Extract). This will help to create conditions in the aquarium as close as possible to natural ones.
Parents must be fed with live food (bloodworm, daphnia, artemia). Producers are deposited in a spawning tank a week before spawning. In the spawning aquarium should not be a bright light. Be sure to need small-leaved plants. Best suited Javanese moss laid on the bottom of the aquarium. Spawning aquarium should be in a quiet place, away from the permanent location of people, so that the fish do not get scared and do not experience stress. The temperature is slowly increased to 32 degrees Celsius.
It is almost impossible to observe spawning, as the light in the aquarium should be muted. Males chase females and fight about them side by side, stimulating spawning. After the females spawn, and the males will fertilize her parents should be transplanted to another aquarium. Caviar is susceptible to fungal diseases. In water you need to add a special antifungal agent to prevent caviar contamination. The fry hatch out of the calf and start swimming around 4 days. The first day or two feed on the remains in the yolk sac, after which they begin to swim freely in search of food.
In the first days, the fry are fed with infusoria, a little later with the freshly-hatched nauplii of Artemia. The water in the aquarium should be replaced once a day at 10 percent of the volume. Water should be as soft. In raising fry, the aquarist faces another problem.
Malek rhodostomusa grows very slowly. Slowest of all from the whole family haracin. And transfer them to the usual "adult" food will turn out somewhere in half a year. During this time, put artemia just annoying. You can certainly feed the frozen, but the fry takes it not so willingly as live.
Water in the first three months should be 30-32 degrees. This contributes to faster growth. The fry are susceptible to various bacterial infections, so it is advisable to filter the water through a UV sterilizer. This prevents possible outbreaks of disease.
RIVULUS CONTENT DIVISION COMPATIBILITY PHOTO DESCRIPTION CARE.
STEELS CONTENTS BREEDING COMPATIBILITY PHOTO DESCRIPTION.
POLICENTRUS OR FISH WOOD CONTENTS DIVISION COMPATIBILITY.
TETRES CONTENTS SPECIES SPRAYS PHOTO COMPATIBILITY VIDEO.
Black and White Terns - Content Rules
Black tetra, thorny (lat. Gymnocorymbus ternetzi) is also known as "black widow tetra" - it is a small freshwater fish of the Haracine family. Confusion often occurs because it is not the only fish known as "tertion". She has a "cousin" brother, Gymnocorymbus thayeri, who is also called "tertion".
Gymnocorymbus thayeri is a shy fish and not as hardy as a "black widow." In addition, there are other color forms with a beautiful appearance. These include white terns and colored tetra (caramel). The black tetra Gymnocorymbus ternetzi was described by Bulenger at the end of the 19th century. This fish is found in South America: in the rivers of Paraguay, where it lives in the upper layers of water.
Description. Content policy
Ternesia has a deep rich color and a compressed body. This fish reaches the size of 5.5 cm in the home aquarium. Life expectancy from 6 to 7 years. It is distinguished by two vertical stripes, and well-developed dorsal and anal fins. During puberty, the saturated black lines on the body fade. The body is diamond-shaped, with a silvery sheen.
Black ternation is easy to maintain, perfectly adapts to changes in water parameters, and is an excellent decoration of the general aquarium. This aquarium fish is omnivorous. In the wild, black tetras feed on worms, small crustaceans and insects, but in captivity they usually eat varieties of live, fresh, and branded products. Crank, Artemia, Cyclops they also love.
See how to keep black thorny in your home aquarium.
Since they are active swimmers, the ternation must inhabit a reservoir of 50 liters per individual. They love soft, peat-filtered water. Fish prefers vegetation cover and dark gravel as a substrate. As plants, you can choose Javanese moss, cryptocoryne, echinodorus. She also needs an open area to swim freely. Aquarium should be closed with a lid, because this fish jumps well.
The content of the black tetra is possible only in pure water. An aquarium is a closed system that requires meticulous care. Over time, organic substances decompose, nitrates and phosphates accumulate, increasing the water hardness. Therefore, water should be replaced regularly (25% of the total) once a week. Aeration and filtration are required.
Lighting in the aquarium: moderate
Temperature: 21 to 26 ° C
Dilution temperature: 27 to 29 ° C
PH range: 6.0-8.0
Stiffness range: 3-30 dgH
Salinity: does not like salted water
Water flow: moderate
Swimming area: this fish will swim in all layers of water.
Ternesia is an active fish, and can be aggressive to the tail and small fish. Not recommended content alone. In large groups, optimal compatibility. Each fish will focus on each other, and not on smaller fish. Compatibility in the general aquarium is possible with fish of similar sizes. With age they become calmer. Ternetia gets along well with the majority of viviparous, danios, rassori, other tetras, the peaceful inhabitants of water bodies, as well as some dwarf cichlids.
Like most aquarium fish, tetra is prone to scale diseases, parasitic invasions (protozoa, worms, etc.), ichthyoftorosis, and bacterial infections (common). The black tetra is extremely hardy, and the disease does not appear if you provide quality aquarium maintenance and care. Remember that raw soil and scenery, new fish can be a source of disease. Make sure that all new fish have passed quarantine, and that the water balance in the aquarium is not disturbed.
Sex differences. Breeding
The male's dorsal fin is more narrowed and longer than that of the female. Mature female is more rounded than male. The aquarium ternetia was bred in captivity, various color forms appeared later, and they have lush fins. Perfect for beginners aquarists who decided to breed fish.
Look at the spawn spawn.
For breeding to be successful, females must dwell separately from males for 7 to 10 days before spawning. You need to feed them with live foods frozen. Then they can be run into a 40-liter tank, where a sponge filter and aeration compressor should be installed. Water temperature in spawning, stimulating reproduction: from 27 to 30 degrees Celsius. Neutral acidity, water hardness below 15 dH. In the tank you can put Javanese moss, which will serve as a substrate for caviar. The separator net is also suitable, but the caviar must pass through without any damage.
Breeding will begin when the males start chasing. The female will set aside from 500 eggs for 2-3 hours. After successful laying, manufacturers must be removed so that they do not eat caviar. All unfertilized eggs should be promptly removed so that they do not become covered with fungus. The larvae will hatch in 18-36 hours, and the fry will swim in a few more days.
Maintenance and care of the fry: to feed with infusoria during the first days of life. Later, you can give a micro-worm and nauplii Artemia. The biggest problem is that the fry are prone to starvation if they cannot find a source of food in a dark reservoir in a timely manner. Give the fry a lot of light, day and night, until they are big enough. Then they will be able to eat the newly hatched Artemia.
Rainbow Tetra from Congo
Tetra Congo (lat. Phenacogrammus interruptus) is a bright representative of the Kharatsin family. Despite its small size, different contrasting appearance, it is difficult not to notice among the aquarium thickets. The luxurious body flickers with a fluorescent shimmer, and thin fins resemble a ladies' fan.
Congo fish live in flocks, so they need a spacious aquarium for swimming. In captivity they grow up to 8 centimeters in length.
Natural habitat - the Congo River, which is located in the eponymous African country Congo (Zaire). It was first described by the French zoologist P. Boulanger in 1899. Congo tetra described as a beautiful, calm, gregarious fish, leading an active lifestyle. Due to its unusual iridescent color, it was named "Blue Congo" and "Rainbow Congo." In the Congo River, where these fish constantly live, the water is acidic and dark. The diet - zooplankton, insects and plant debris.
Appearance and feeding
Blue Congo can be called a large tetra, because an adult grows up to 6-8.5 cm in length. Live 3-5 years in good conditions. The adult fish looks like a rainbow, its color is replete with blue, orange, yellow, white and pink. Females are smaller than males, their belly is rounded, males have longer fins. The fins of the fish are transparent, of a void shape with a white tint. The dorsal fin is narrow, resembling a sail.
See how the rainbow tetra looks like.
The maintenance of such a pet is possible at home if you are an experienced aquarist. When you skillfully choose neighbors for the tetra, you can not worry about her safety. Incorrect neighborhood can lead to adverse consequences.
For a full life in captivity will need both live and vegetable food. The rainbow tetra is an omnivorous fish, which simplifies its maintenance at home. Food can be purchased at a pet store: suitable flakes, small granules, which the fish can swallow. Accepts live and frozen food. However, because of their timidity, they do not eat in plain sight, or do not have time to collect all the food, so carefully watch their meal.
Blue tetra content
Iridescent tetras prefer dark water, not hard, with dark ground. It is desirable that the aquarium was floating vegetation. Soft lighting sets off the shimmer of scales, such a sight looks amazing. Aggressive, large fish can offend them by cutting off fins. It is better to keep the pack in a separate nursery, together they feel comfortable and safe. Some razvodchiki contain them together with speckled catfish, liliusami, neons.
The scenery of the water reservoir should create the effect of a natural biotope, where there are different snags, shelters, hard-leaved plants and dark soil. Water should be soft, sour. A 70-liter aquarium is suitable for a small flock, but there is plenty of room for them to enjoy. For a flock of 6 individuals, a 200-liter container would be a decent home.
- Neutral or acidic pH level 6.0-7.5;
- On the surface of the water - floating vegetation;
- Clean water with a regular change of 20% of the volume once a week, filtering;
- Water temperature - 23-28 degrees, hardness - 4-18 °;
- To give the water the effect of a natural river, brown leaves can be laid out at the bottom of the container.
Look at the spawning of Phenacogrammus interruptus.
Breeding conditions in spawning
Breeding rainbow tetra is possible if you are an aquarist with experience. In spawning, they do not just multiply. For the brood, you will need the brightest pair of fish, which should be settled in separate containers for two weeks, feeding them with live food. At the bottom of the spawning ground should lay out the separator mesh and plants to protect the eggs - like many tetras, Congo eat their offspring because of negligence.
The stimulation of reproduction is the acidity and softness of the aquatic environment, as well as the temperature rise to 26 degrees. In the spawning, the ready-made male actively cares for the female, chasing her until she agrees to spawning. During the day the fish lays 100-300 large eggs. But on the first day, many of them die from a fungal disease, so it is recommended to add methylene blue to the water.
Parents need to sit out. After a week, fry appear, starter food for them - egg yolk and infusoria. Then add to the diet it is recommended naupilii artemia. They become sexually mature at the age of 10 months.