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Tetras - bright fish

These fish are just universal! They can be contained in both large and small aquariums. Not only professionals can take care of them, but also beginners who have just embarked on the path of aquarism. Watching them is a pleasure. And even the “exotic” could envy their brightness, decoration and variety of colors. We are talking now about tetras - a large group of fish belonging to the family of haracin - the favorites of many breeders. What are these creatures, how to create optimal conditions for them, what to feed them and much more, read on.

Tetras in nature

Tetras came to European countries in the 60s of the 20th century from South America, where they were found in shallow warm rivers. The bottom of these bodies of water is strewn with fallen leaves. Everywhere are visible snags, branches and protruding roots of plants, which are found in abundance not only at the bottom, but also on the coastal territory.

What are tetras

For all representatives of the species are characteristic:

  • Small size. There are “babies” with a body length of 2.5 cm and 15-centimeter “giants”.
  • Narrow long body, shaped like a rhombus.
  • A rich palette of colors, which is due to a variety. There are elegant and modestly colored fish, monochrome and multicolored. Moreover, the males shine with beauty mostly, but the females got a nondescript appearance. Interestingly, in the event of a deterioration in living conditions, the beauty and brightness of the color of the tetra gradually fades away.
  • In good conditions can live up to 5-6 years.

Character and compatibility

Keep these fish should be only flocks of 7-10 or more pieces. Loneliness for the tetra is contraindicated, because it is a guarantee that her character will deteriorate. Then, instead of a calm and peace-loving creature, you will get an aggressive, annoying and poisonous life to other inhabitants of the aquarium pet.

In most cases you should not be afraid for the safety of plants or the landscape - tetras do not spoil them. They perfectly coexist with similar sizes of peaceful fish, such as guppies, mollies, swordtail, cardinal, neon, congo and others. But the neighborhood with cichlids, astronotus and goldfish is better to exclude.

Variety of species

The character and temperament of the tetras are similar, and the shape and color vary greatly. They are the basis of the classification of species. Here are some of them:

Golden or gold. Grow up to an average of 5 cm. They are distinguished by a characteristic "golden" color, active behavior, as well as a love of bright light and floating plants.

Diamond. When light hits their scales sparkles and shimmers like a real jewel.

Red Spotted. On the 6-centimeter body of the fish a red spot is clearly visible, which is sometimes called a bleeding heart.

Colombian. You can easily recognize these 6-7 cm fishes by the red tail and silver belly.

Lemon. Sometimes they are called yellow. You can recognize them by the smooth lines of the body, in the lower part of which there is a notch, as well as by the yellow or grayish-silver-green color and two oval dark spots near the gills.

Fireflies. Look very impressive in dim light due to phosphorescent lines on the body. This species is very sensitive to nitrates, so a good filter for them is a vital necessity.

Fiery. If you see on each side of a 4-centimeter translucent tetra calf a long bright red stripe, then they are the ognevichki.

Black or terns. Their black and purple diamond-shaped body is strongly flattened from the sides, and their eyes are striking in their blue with blue dots.

Copper. More common than other species. This is a miniature fish with a slender long calf and golden peach color. They are very fond of the abundance of plants and look great on a background of dark soil with not very bright light.

Royal. Painted very "nobly": pinkish, bluish or violet transparency of the back contrasts with the dark belly, and their border is marked with a fat dark stripe. The tail has a narrow black process in the middle. The average size of the fish is 5.5 cm. An aquarium with a dark background is what you need to highlight the exquisite beauty of these tetras.

There are also many other not so common species, for example, red-flipper, blue, bloody, mirror, pink, ruby, amanda, Mexican Astyanax, flashlights, blind, etc. Experts note that royal, copper, Congo are most loved by aquarists and tetragonopterus. That's why it makes sense to talk about them in more detail.

Royal tetra

Colombia is considered the birthplace of this species, or rather the north-western part of the Cordillera, where the Nematobrycon palmeri were found in small forest streams by the American collector Palmer (hence its name). She has been familiar with European aquarists since 1959, and domestic - since 1965.

  • The strong, 6-centimeter body of the palmer is elongated and slightly flattened laterally.
  • The back is arched more than the abdomen.
  • Teeth are clearly visible on short jaws.
  • The shape of the caudal fin is unique due to the long central rays - it is three-lobed.
  • The fin on the back also has the first saber rays. Fat fin no.
In addition to the main fish described above, there are also individuals with an olive-brown back and a yellowish-white belly.

The sides of the young brownish, but with age brighten. Two long and wide longitudinal shiny stripes are clearly visible on both sides. The top one is usually light green or blue, and the bottom one is dark brown or black. The eyes of the males are blue, and the females are green. Fins are yellowish-green. Anal edged dark purple, dorsal and caudal reddish-brown.

Conditions of detention. For the maintenance of royal tetras it is better to equip a specific aquarium, but in general they can also live. These fish swim in all layers of water. Like the rest of the species, they are kept in flocks, in which there are more females than males. The hierarchy of these fish is very developed: the stronger the male, the more territory he controls and the more he has the harem.

  • For seven fish (5 females + 2 males), an 80-liter capacity will be sufficient, which must be covered from above due to the jumping ability of the fish.
  • The reservoir must be densely filled with plants (including floating) and provide snags, shelters. Vallisneria, cryptocoryne, echinodorus, thai fern, etc. are quite suitable.
  • The temperature of the water is best maintained at 23-26 degrees, the hardness is not more than 8, the acidity is within 6-7.
  • Substitutions do twice a month in the amount of 20-30 percent.

Feeding. As for food, these fish are not picky and willingly take as dry food in the form of plates, pellets, etc., and live. They can be given artemia, a pipe worker, a cortex, a bloodworm, a cyclop. They love mosquito larvae very much. Complement the diet of these fish with herbal supplements and oatmeal.

Breeding. Raising royal tetras is not very difficult. This becomes possible at the age of six months. A spawning fish is prepared in advance (or a separator grid is installed directly into the species), at the bottom of which several shrubs of plants are planted, such as Javanese moss, peristristis or hell, and floating species are laid out on the surface of the water.

Optimum breeding water should have a temperature of 24-28, acidity 1-5, hardness 6-6.8. For these fish, pre-separation of females and males is practiced with their abundant feeding. One male and 2-3 females are placed in the prepared container in the evening. Spawning occurs the very next morning.

Eggs are large, transparent, they can be 50-150. After the fish "swept away" the eggs, they are deposited. Spawning water from the spawning tank (up to a height of 5-8 cm) and shading it. On the 2nd day the fry appear, and on the 6th they are already swimming. You can feed them with a microworm, artemia, ciliates.

Tetra congo

These fish live in Africa, inhabiting the muddy waters of the Congo River (or in the old way Zaire). They were called rainbow tetras for their colorful appearance. This species was described in 1899 by Boulanger.

They are widespread and are not under threat of destruction. However, those fish that are sold in pet stores, are specially grown in Asia or Eastern Europe.

Phenacogrammus interruptus (this is the name of the fish in Latin) grow quite large: 8.5 cm - males and 6 cm - females. Their body is elongated and flattened from the sides and decorated with lush fins.

Males additionally on the three-blade tail, dorsal and anal fins have long veil processes.

The main bluish iridescent background of the body contrasts with reddish-orange or golden-yellow sides. Grayish-purple transparent fins around the edges brighten slightly.

Conditions of detention. Congo is quite modest and shy. They may even not take food while the observer is standing close to the aquarium. It is not necessary to settle them with overly active and even more aggressive species of fish. Congo get along well with speckled catfish, black neons, lyalius, and tarakatums.

  • For a flock of 6 fish you will need a 150-liter aquarium with dark soil, snags at the bottom and subdued lighting.
  • Water should have a temperature of 23-28, hardness 4-18, acidity 6-7.5. Experts advise adding to it dry oak, beech or apple leaves, previously scalded with boiling water.
  • It is desirable to replace water once a week in the amount of 15-20 percent.
  • Also, these fish require a moderate course.

Feeding. Rainbow tetras are omnivores. They are fed the same way as the royal ones, but be sure to complement the menu with herbal ingredients. If this is not done, then the young leaves and shoots of aquarium plants, which the fish will eat, will suffer.

Breeding. It is believed that the breeding of Congo at home - this is not easy, but it is quite possible. Sexual maturity occurs at approximately 10 months.

First you need to select the brightest pair of fish, plant them in different containers and feed them well for two weeks. Next, the pair is placed in a spawning room with a large number of plants and a net at the bottom (it will help save the eggs from eating by their parents). Stimulus to the beginning of reproduction is the increase in water temperature to 26 degrees. It should be neutral and soft.

The number of caviar can be from 100 to 200, rarely up to 300 pieces. On the first day, most of the offspring die. About a week later fry appear. They can be fed with egg yolk and infusoria, and as they grow they can be transferred to Artemia nauplii.

Tetragonopterus

In nature, diamond-shaped tetras are found in rivers, streams, lakes, ponds of South America, Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay.

This fish is ideal for beginners. Its advantages include simplicity, livability, long life expectancy (5-6 years) and ease of breeding. There is also a minus - it is a habit to spoil plants. They can eat almost everything except Javanese moss and Anubias.

Tetra Plotvichka has a large, slightly elongated, 7-centimeter body with a silver neon color. From the center of the body to the tail stretches a thin black stripe with a diamond on the end. Fins (except transparent spinal and thoracic) red. Males are smaller, slender and do not have a rounded abdomen.

Conditions of detention. These active fish contain a flock of at least 7 pieces. Active and fast species such as minor, Congo, erythrozonus, and termination will be excellent neighbors for them. But slow with long fins will have a hard time.

Aquarium is better to take a spacious with a lid at the top. To ground and lighting undemanding. Permissible water parameters: temperature 20-28, acidity 6-8, hardness 2-30. It must be replaced regularly. It is better to plant a lot of plants, but in such a way that there is enough space for swimming.

Nutrition. Feed should be abundant, as they have an excellent appetite. If food is not enough, then begin to tear off the fins to neighbors in the aquarium. The food is picky and willingly take live, frozen and dry food, which is recommended to add spirulina. Remains from the bottom pick reluctantly.

Breeding uncomplicated, with preliminary separation and abundant feeding. Caviar can be laid on moss plants or even a sponge of nylon thread. There is so much of it that even after being eaten by the parents, it remains in sufficient quantity. Spawning occurs in several stages, after which the female is deposited for rest.

On the second or third day, small fry appear, hanging on the plants and the glass of the aquarium. At this time, they need enhanced aeration and "live dust" as feed. They grow very quickly and after a week and a half, they eat Cyclops. A year later, they are already able to produce offspring.

Copper tetra

Her homeland is the south-eastern part of Brazil, where the San Francisco River flows.

The shape of the body of copper fish is characteristic of all tetras. The size does not exceed 5 cm. Males are copper-colored, and females are light yellow. From the pectoral fins to the tail, a black and blue stripe is visible. From above, parallel to it is the second band, golden in males and yellow in females. Males have reddish-brown fins and yellowish spots on tail.

Compatibility. These tetras have a peaceful disposition. They are very mobile, curious and intimidating. Keep most often in the middle layer of water. Inhabit better with a group of at least 8 pieces.

Good neighbors for them can be haratsinovye, iris, danios, laliusy, rasbory, gourami, guppies, scalar, barbus, discus, etc. Acceptable joint content with shrimps amano and cherry. But with aggressive species the neighborhood is unfortunate.

Conditions of detention. The water in the aquarium should have a temperature of 20-26 degrees, a hardness of 5 to 20 and an acidity of 6.5-7.5. It should be filtered, aerated and replaced weekly by 20 percent. The landscape is better to issue, alternating thickets and space for swimming.

Nutrition. Feeding Hasemania Nana is recommended by daphnia and Cyclops in live or frozen form. They give color brightness. But the pipe builder is undesirable.

Breeding. You can breed from 4-6 months. Females are easily distinguished by a more massive and large body with a dull color. Males are more elegant and brightly colored. The breeding process is similar to those described above for other types of tetras. The difference, perhaps, is that the duration of the separate content is increased to two weeks, the number of eggs is more (up to 400), it is small, dark brown, sticky.

Summing up

In conclusion, I would like to remind you of the general important conditions for all types of tetras:

  1. They are very sensitive to cleanliness, so water will have to be changed more often than for other fish.
  2. Do not tolerate chlorine and other impurities, so you need to use water only separated from at least 2-3 days.
  3. Looks more effective against the dark ground in dim lighting.

As we managed to learn, tetras are bright and frisky fish, which are interesting to watch. However, they do not require complex care and are perfect for small aquariums in small rooms.

Royal Tetra: content, compatibility, photo-video review


Nematobrycon palmeri

Royal tetra

Order, family: carps, haracinovye.

Comfortable water temperature: 21-24 ° C.

Ph: 6,5-7,0.

Aggressiveness: not aggressive 0%.

Royal tetra compatibility: non-aggressive, peaceful fish (neons, other tetras, swordtails, petsyli, ornatusa, pulchera, lanterns).

Personal experience and useful tips: beautiful fish - I recommend.

Description:

The maximum body length is 7 cm. The main body color is silver-yellow with a bluish or greenish sheen. Through the entire body stretches a longitudinal wide blue-black stripe, which comes from one side to the head and from the other to the tail fin. The fins of the fish are transparent, slightly yellowish. Caudal fin as a trident. Males are larger and brighter than females, with elongated dorsal fins and with medium-sized elbows with a tail fin. A special feature of the royal tetra is that it floats upside down with a slope of 45 ° C.

The royal tetra, like all haracin ones, is unpretentious to the conditions of detention. Can be kept in small aquariums. But it is desirable to keep the fish flock, for which the aquarium should be more from 60l.

Recommended for royal tetras water parameters: dН up to 15 °; pH 6.5-7.0; t 21-24 ° C. Replace the twentieth part of the water with fresh, settled water every two weeks.

All modern aquariums are equipped with lids, but for those who have a “handicraft” aquarium or without a lid, it should be noted that the fish easily jump out of it. Close it !!!

The fish is peaceful, compatible with virtually all fish (except for predators). Neighbors: neons, other tetras, swordtails, petsyli, ornatusa, pulchera, lanterns.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking.In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

Photo compilation of royal tetras

Interesting video about the royal tetra

Erythrosonus - tetra firefly: content, breeding, photo-video review


Hemigrammus erythrozonus Erythrosonus

Erythrosonus (Hemigrammus erythrozonus Durbin, 1909). Common Russian name Tetra firefly. Old Russian aquarists also call the fish "Gracilis" (after the outdated Latin name Hyphessobrycon gracilis). It belongs to the Cyprinidae order (Cypriniformes), the suborder Characoidei, the Haracin family, or the American tetras (Characidae). Size about 4 cm.

The homeland of the fish is the north of the South American continent (Guyana, Suriname). Lives erythrozonus in small rivers with a peat bottom, under a thick canopy of trees. Light penetrates the water through dense foliage in very small quantities, giving only twilight. From peat and humic acids formed from decaying falling leaves, the water has a brown color, which further reduces its translucency. As a result of this, the fish (being a school) have a red stripe along their entire bodies to find each other in the darkness, which, falling under the dim sun glare, flashes like a bright neon advertisement. With the exception of this band, the rest of the body of the fish is brownish-transparent ... The male has a flat, even slightly concave abdomen; in the female, the belly is slightly convex.

A feature of dark reservoirs saturated with humic substances is also the fact that the water in them is almost completely devoid of bacteria - that is, practically sterile - and has an acidic active water reaction (pH), of the order of 6.0-6.5. And the almost complete absence of calcium in the peat-deciduous bottom gives a very low stiffness (gH-1-3, KH-0-0,1). The difficulty of the sun lighting the water for most of the year led to the fact that the eggs and larvae of this fish very poorly tolerate direct light (they, of course, do not "light up" like film - but close to it) ...

For the maintenance of erythrosonus - tetra firefly compliance with these conditions may be less stringent!

It is enough to maintain the pH at 7.0 and gH to 10-12. Schooling fish, mobile, active when feeding (only the feed should be small enough - the mouth of the fish is small). Other commensurate tetras are quite suitable for the company (various neons, other small Hifessobrikons and hemigramuses); from other softwater fish with erythrozonuses, small shellfish can be kept along the corridors, as well as small American and African tooth-toothed ones; small barbs ...

But keep in mind that erythrosis (like most fish in this area of ​​South America) tolerates some increase in nitrites and nitrates, but does not tolerate large amounts of fresh water when it is replaced! It is better to substitute small portions, but more often ...

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

Dilution of erythrosone tetra fireflies at home is quite possible!

On photo male and female erythrosus - tetra firefly

Although fraught with some difficulties associated with the above living conditions). To prepare the producers for spawning, it is advisable to plant the male and female in specially prepared bails for 4-5 days and feed them with small moth or (which is better) with small red daphnia. Water for spawning is easiest to take rain, boiled with a small amount of peat (to get gH = 0-1, KH = 0-0,1, pH = 6). Part of the water should be left in reserve (it will be clear later why) ... It is possible to use the drug "Ikhtiovit Akvagumat" instead of peat - but it is better to add it twice - before and after boiling ... Even a three-liter can with a light purge in it can be spawned. The jar should be pre-washed with hot water and poured into it has not yet cooled cooked water. In a jar, lower a bush of artificial plants scalded with boiling water and cover with something to prevent dust from entering. Next, you need to tightly wrap the jar with 2-3 layers of newspaper (to protect from light) and secure the newspaper on the bank with an elastic band. Behind you need to put some weak lighting device (but so that the light does not fall on top!) Do not turn off the light at night! The front of the need to cut out the blade on the newspaper below the inverted letter "P". Thus, lifting this "P", it will be possible to surreptitiously watch the process ...
So, before landing fish bank should stand with a spray 3-4 days (at t 24-25 °). Then you need to catch a pair (male and female) of erythrosalonus, ready to spawn and plant them in some temporary small vessel with a very small amount of water from the aquarium, where they lived. And then in small portions add the prepared water in reserve (that's what it was needed for), identical to the water in the spawn. These small portions should be added once every 5 minutes for at least half an hour in order to adapt the fish to the spawning water. It is better to do it at 5-6 pm. Then it is possible to transplant the producers into the spawning ground (scallop up the net) and close the jar again. If producers are well prepared, spawning can occur even this night or in the morning. You can follow him. During spawning, the fish are tightly pressed to each other, they rise above the plants to the surface of the water, they do somersaults and spread headfirst, throwing a portion of eggs and milt. It lasts 2-3 hours. A total of 80-100 eggs are leached out. After spawning, the fish need to be landed (with a scalded net again) and the can is closed again. Light (through the newspaper) should be around the clock. After about a day, the larvae will begin to hatch. After another 2-3 days, they will swim - and you can begin to feed them (by infusoria or - if it is not there - rubbing VERY MUCH SIGNIFICANT amount of feed "Sulfur Micron" in water). Three days later, you can remove the newspaper. Replace only the water that was made in reserve. Two weeks later, you can already turn off the light at night and handle the fry, as with any fries haratsinok. After a month, you need to start changing the water to the one in which you will already keep the fry under normal conditions ...

Fry grow quickly. By the age of one month they already have a red streak. They ripen after six months.

FanFishka.ru thanks author V.M. Chernyavsky

for cooperation and the material provided.


Photo selection Tetra firefly, erythrosonus

Interesting video with erythrosonus

Tetra

tetra

Beginners and experienced aquarists with great pleasure get fish, which are known under the common name Tetras. The species includes small, variously colored fish depending on the subspecies, which barely reach seven centimeters in length. There are specimens that do not grow longer than two centimeters, and usually have a rather narrow, sometimes elongated, sometimes almost diamond-shaped body.

Origin of species

The homeland of the tetra fish is South America, in natural conditions it lives in shallow rivers, in the bottom thickets of algae and roots of aquatic plants, fallen leaves and snags. Bringing tetra steel to Europe from the sixties of the twentieth century, several new species were discovered, and the result of interspecific crossing, the black nematobrikon, was almost irretrievably lost.

All varieties of aquarium fish tetras, such as thorns, lemon, copper, royal, glass tetras, belong to schooling fish, so they should be kept in the amount of ten or twenty individuals at a time. Left alone, the individual becomes annoying and aggressive, does not allow other inhabitants of the aquarium to live in peace. She guards her territory, attacking all who sail past. In the flock, these are very cute and calm fish, the maintenance of tetras is possible in a small aquarium. The fish perfectly coexist with other peace-loving neighbors, do not undermine the soil, do not eat algae. Tetra fish can be safely settled in an aquarium with rare or expensive algae.

Variety of coloring

The color of different types of tetra is always different, there are small fish with modestly colored gray scales, only two black stripes pass across the body. There is a completely black aquarium fish tetra with bright blue eyes or a red rim around the eyes. Copper tetras have a solid yellow-green or bronze color, Tetra Amanda is almost red, and the Blue diamond is colored like mackerel and has a blue tint of the body. In many species of aquarium fish, the body is radiant gray, with a few red or yellow spots near the eyes and fins. And in all fish of this species, sexual dimorphism is very pronounced - males are always painted much brighter and more beautiful than ordinary-looking females. If conditions in the aquarium deteriorate, all tetras lose their beautiful color.

Content

It is not difficult to contain tetras, they are not picky about feeding, they can eat any food, they love live food very much, but they do not refuse from combined ones. Water temperature should not be lower than twenty two degrees. Ideally, approximately one-sixth of the water in the aquarium should be replaced every week. Filtration and aeration are also desirable. The tetra does not like bright light, therefore it is better to use diffused lighting, it is also necessary to plant enough algae in one corner of the aquarium or on its back wall so that the fish can hide in them.

Breeding

The tetra fish breeds beautifully in captivity, it reaches sexual maturity at six months, but the selection of future producers should be made from three to four monthly fish. Spawning occurs after the special preparation of water and the deposition of the female and males in a special compartment. After the roe is marked, it matures for about three days. And now you can feed the fry. Their survival rate is quite low. This is due to the fact that not all aquarists can provide high-quality tetra content, including the first complementary foods, which are crucial for subsequent survival. The tetra fish are fed to babies with artemia, nauplii of crustaceans and ciliates.

Congo fish - beautiful tetra

Congo (lat. Phenacogrammus interruptus) is a shy, but incredibly beautiful aquarium fish. Perhaps one of the most luxurious haracin. The body is very bright, fluorescent colors, and the fins are a gorgeous veil.

Tetra Congo is a very peaceful, schooling fish that grows up to 8.5 cm. For a flock of these fish you need a large aquarium so that there is a free place for swimming, but in order that they can fully reveal their beauty.

For Congo, soft water and dark ground are best. They feel more comfortable in an aquarium with a dim light and plants floating on top, with such lighting their color looks most advantageous. The Congo is rather shy fish and should not be kept with aggressive or very active species. And they are very shy while eating and can start eating only after you leave the aquarium.

Habitat in nature

Congo (Phenacogrammus interruptus) was described in 1899. Quite widespread in nature and not under threat. Congoes live in Africa, in Zaire they mostly inhabit the Congo River, which is characterized by slightly acidic and dark water. They live in flocks, feed on insects, larvae, and plant debris.

Description

Congo is a rather large fish for tetras, it can grow up to 8.5 males and up to 6 cm females. Life expectancy from 3 to 5 years. In adult congo, the color is like a rainbow, which shimmers from the blue on the back, golden in the middle and blue again at the abdomen. Voile fins with white edging. Describing it is difficult, easier to see once.

Difficulty in content

The Congo is medium in complexity, and recommended for aquarists with some experience. She is completely peaceful, but for her neighbors need to be selected with caution, some species of fish can pick off their fins.

Feeding

In nature, Congo mainly eats insect worms, larvae, aquatic, and also plant food. In an aquarium, feeding it is not difficult. Almost all types of feed are good. Flakes, pellets, live and frozen feed, the main thing that the fish could swallow them. Of the possible problems, the congo is a rather timid fish, they do not keep up with their brisk neighbors and may even not take food while you are near.

Content in an aquarium

Congo successfully lives, and even breeds in aquariums of 50-70 liters. Since it is bred for sale very actively, the fish has adapted to different conditions and aquariums. But, since it must be kept in a flock of six fish, it is recommended that the aquarium be 150-200 liters. It is in the flock and open space, the congo will be able to fully reveal its beauty.

Water content is better to be soft, with a neutral or acidic reaction and a good flow. The light in the aquarium is muffled, it is better that there are floating plants on the surface. It is important that the water in the aquarium is clean, regular changes are mandatory, as well as a good filter.

Recommended water parameters: temperature 23-28C, ph: 6.0-7.5, 4 - 18 dGH.

Ideally, it is better to create a biotope native to it - a dark soil, an abundance of plants, snags. At the bottom you can put the leaves of plants, give the water a brownish color, as in its native Congo River.

Compatibility

Peaceful fish, although in a close aquarium may try to bite neighbors. Not very good friends with plants, especially with soft species or with young shoots that can break off and eat. Good neighbors for them will be speckled catfish, black neons, lyalius, tarakatums.

Pack:

Gender differences

Congo males are larger, more brightly colored, they have larger fins. Females are small, painted much poorer, their belly is larger and rounder. In general, to distinguish adult fish is quite simple.

Congo male

Breeding

Dilute Congo is not easy, but possible. They select the brightest pair of fish and intensively feed them with live food for a week or two. At this time, the fish is best seated. In the spawn you need to put a net on the bottom, as parents can eat caviar. You also need to add plants, in nature spawning occurs in the thickets of plants.

The water is neutral or slightly acidic, and soft. Water temperatures should be increased to 26C, which stimulates spawning. The male pursues the female until it starts spawning. During which the female can lay up to 300 large eggs, but more often 100-200 pieces. During the first 24 hours, most of the eggs may die from the fungus, it must be removed, and methylene blue added to the water. A full fry appears after about 6 days and needs to be fed with infusoria or egg yolk, and as it grows with naupilia of artemia.

Palmeri or royal tetra

The aquarium fish royal tetra or palmeri (lat. Nematobrycon palmeri) feels great in common aquariums, preferably densely overgrown with plants. She can even spawn in them, especially if she keeps royal tetras in a small flock. It is desirable that the fish in such a flock be more than 5, since they can tear off the fins to other fish, but keeping in the flock significantly reduces this behavior and switches them to sorting out relationships with relatives.

Habitat in nature

Homeland fish - Colombia. The royal tetra is endemic (a species found only in this region) of the San Juan and Atrato rivers. Meets in places with a weak current, in small tributaries and streams flowing into rivers. In nature, they are not very common, in contrast to aquarium lovers and all fish found for sale exclusively commercial breeding.

Description

Attractive coloring, elegant body shape and activity, these are the qualities for which this fish was called the royal one. Despite the fact that Palmer appeared in aquariums more than forty years ago, it still remains popular.The black tetra grows relatively small in size, up to 5 cm and can live about 4-5 years.

Difficulty in content

Simple, quite unpretentious fish. It may be contained in the general aquarium, but it is important to remember that it is a schooling, and keep more than 5 fish.

Feeding

In nature, tetras eat various insects, worms and larvae. In the aquarium unpretentious and eat both dry and frozen food. Plates, granules, bloodworm, tubule, coretr and artemia. The more varied the feeding, the brighter and more active your fish will be.

Compatibility

This is one of the best tetras for keeping in a common aquarium. Palmer is lively, peaceful and contrasts well in color with many bright fish. It gets along well with various viviparous, and with danios, rasssets, other tetras and peaceful catfish, such as corridors. It is necessary to avoid large fish, such as American cichlids, which will consider tetras as food.

Try to keep black tetras in the pack, preferably from 10 individuals, but not less than 5. In nature, they live in flocks, and feel much better surrounded by their own kind. In addition, they look better and do not touch other fish, as they have their own schooling hierarchy.

Content in an aquarium

They prefer aquariums with a large number of plants and diffused light, as in the rivers of Colombia they live in the same conditions. In addition, dark soil and green plants make their coloring even more spectacular. Requirements for the content of royal tetras usual: clean and regularly replaced water, peaceful neighbors and diverse feeding. Although it is bred a lot and it has adapted to different parameters of water, the ideal will be: water temperature 23-27С, pH: 5.0 - 7.5, 25 dGH.

Gender differences

It is possible to distinguish a male from a female by size. Palmer males are larger, more brightly colored and have more pronounced dorsal, anal and ventral fins. In males, the iris is blue, and in females it is greenish.

Breeding

Keeping in a flock with an equal number of males and females causes the fish to form pairs themselves. For each such pair, a separate spawning is needed, since the males are quite aggressive during spawning. Before planting fish in spawning fish, spread the male and female in different aquariums and feed them abundantly with live food during the week.

The temperature of the water in the spawning should be about 26-27C and about pH 7. Also, the water should be very soft. In the aquarium you need to put a bunch of small-leaved plants, such as Javanese moss and lighting to be very muted, natural enough, and the light should not fall directly on the aquarium. There is no need to add soil or any decorations to the spawner, this will facilitate the care of fry and caviar.

Spawning begins at dawn and lasts several hours, during which the female lays about a hundred eggs. Often parents eat caviar and need to spawn immediately after spawning. The fry is hatching for 24-48 and will float in 3-5 days, and the ciliate for it is the infusoria or micro-worm, and as it grows it is transferred to the nautilia of artemia.

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