Aquarium fish tetra
Not only beginners, but also experienced aquarists, who prefer small fish, are very willing to place tetra in their home waters. She does not need complicated care. Also tetras are bright, decorative, active and very interesting to watch. Learn more about what they are so attractive and how to care for them, and we'll talk in this article.
Tetra in nature
Native to these fish are the rivers of South America with a shallow depth, covered with fallen leaves bottom, thick bottom thickets, an abundance of cliffs and protruding plant roots. In Europe, tetras were brought in the 60s of the 20th century. At the same time, several of their new varieties were discovered.
What do tetras look like?
The species combines medium-sized fish with a diamond-shaped or narrow long body, very diverse in color. According to various data, body length can vary from 2, 5 to 15 cm, depending on the variety. Tetra lives on average 5-6 years.
The body of the fish can be monochrome or multi-colored.
- There are very modestly colored individuals with gray scales and two black transverse stripes on the body.
- There are black ones with blue eyes or red rims around them.
- There are yellow-green, olive with a white belly, bronze, almost red, bluish or radiant gray with yellow-red spots on the fins and near the eyes.
Females are usually nondescript with a pinkish tail. Males, on the contrary, are beautiful and bright. The ventral and anal fins have a black edging. The tail is transparent.
Tetr is better to keep in flocks of at least 7-10 (and preferably more). Alone, their character deteriorates terribly.
From a cute, calm and peace-loving fish turns into aggressive and annoying. It clings to other inhabitants and does not let anyone into its territory, attacking everyone.
Who can I settle?
Tetras can get along with almost all representatives of the aquarium world, except cichlids, astronotus and goldfish.
Ideal neighbors are peaceful fish of about the same size as tetra: guppies, mollies, swordtails, etc. They can peacefully coexist with cardinals, neons, and congo.
Note that all these fish differ in shape, color, size, but are similar in temperament and character. Here are the main types:
Copper. She received the most common among others. She has a miniature slender long body. Color golden peach tint. This tetra is very beautiful in an aquarium with a dark ground. Does not like bright light, but loves the dense thickets of plants.
Lemon or yellow. The lines of the body are smooth, there is a notch in the lower part of it. It is painted in yellow or gray-green tones with a silver sheen. At the gills, you can see two oval dark spots.
Royal. It has a body about 5.5 cm long. It looks very advantageous in an aquarium with a dark background. It has a noble color: a transparent back with a pink, blue, purple shimmer, a fat dark band in the middle of the body, a dark belly. In the middle of the tail there is a narrow black process.
Colombian. 6-7 centimeter fish with a red tail and silver belly.
Bloody. A silver and sometimes a bright red fish with a body length of not more than 4 cm.
Gold. Small, no more than 5 cm fish with a characteristic gold glitter. Differs in activity and love to bright light and floating plants.
Fiery. It can be recognized by a bright red stripe that passes through the entire translucent 4-inch body.
Mirror. Small fish with a mirror-brown body color.
Black or ternation. The shape of her body is a rhomb, strongly flattened from the sides. The body is black and purple hue. Amaze blue with blue patches of the eye.
Pink. Least greyping among the rest.
Blue. The yellow body is elongated and slightly compressed from the sides and blueness.
Red Spotted. 6 cm fish with a red spot on the body, which is sometimes called a bleeding heart. It does not recommend significant water changes.
Krasnoplavnichkovaya. Quite large, often reaching 10 cm.
Glowworm. There are phosphorescent lines on the body, which look very nice in dim light. Sensitive to nitrates. Need a good filter.
Diamondor blue diamond. Named so thanks to the scales, which, when hit by light, sparkles and creates such an effect. Not quite a baby - 6 cm.
Torch. Small, grayish-silver with a light belly and a dark stripe on the side. The fins are colorless. There may be black or orange specks.
Blind. Historically lived in underground reservoirs, so the eyes atrophied, but the senses developed along the lateral line.
There are other, not so common species, for example, glass, ruby, amanda, Astyanax Mexican.
In general, it is simple, but regularity is required so that the fish do not lose their brightness and attractiveness.
Aquarium needed with a minimum volume of 30 liters (optimal - 50-70 liters). It should be a lot of plants and space for swimming.
Water. The most suitable parameters: temperature 22-25 degrees, hardness not more than 15, acidity 6-7. Weekly need to replace its sixth part. Mandatory requirement: the water must be clean, free of chlorine and other impurities.
Equipment. It is advisable to provide aeration and install a filter. Lighting is preferable diffused. In any corner it is desirable to arrange a shady place, thicker planting it with plants. It will be shelter.
Priming. Soft, flowing sand or dark gravel can be put on the bottom. Against the background of dark soil, tetras look brighter and more spectacular.
From plants You can plant cabomba, various ferns, elodiea, rogolotniki, vallisneria, Ludwigia, duckweed, salvine, Javanese moss and others, including expensive ones, since these fishes do not have the habit of spoiling the vegetation.
Decor. Oak or ash driftwood and stones are suitable for decorating the bottom.
What to feed tetra?
These absolutely picky fish eat almost everything in live, combined, frozen, granulated and other forms.
They are fed with bloodworms, a pipe worker, daphnia, Artemia, Cyclops, Gammarus, fruit flies. Crushed oatmeal and bread crumbs can be eaten, but these are undesirable foods, as they provoke obesity.
Love to pluck plants. The main advice: avoid monotony, add vegetable food and do not forget to indulge with delicacies. Feed is usually taken from the surface of the water, but can pick it up from the bottom.
Getting offspring in a home aquarium
Tetras are lip-breaking. Their reproduction is not difficult. Puberty is completed by six to eleven months. If the school is big, then the fish themselves choose a pair.
Water must be clean and rich in oxygen. Before breeding, males and females are seated in different containers and well fed.
The female gives about 150 eggs. Fish can eat it, so just in case you need to consider protection.
After three days, fry appear. They are fed with egg yolk, infusoria, nauplii of artemia. Be sure to include filtration and weak aeration of water.
Unfortunately, the survival rate of fry is low. As they grow, they will need to be sorted by size. The manifestation of color in young begins in 3-4 weeks.
As you can see, tetras are quite easy to maintain and interesting to observe. In addition, they are ideal for small aquariums in small apartments.
Video about tetra fish:
tetraBeginners and experienced aquarists with great pleasure get fish, which are known under the common name Tetras. The species includes small, variously colored fish depending on the subspecies, which barely reach seven centimeters in length. There are specimens that do not grow longer than two centimeters, and usually have a rather narrow, sometimes elongated, sometimes almost diamond-shaped body.
Origin of species
The homeland of the tetra fish is South America, in natural conditions it lives in shallow rivers, in the bottom thickets of algae and roots of aquatic plants, fallen leaves and snags. Bringing tetra steel to Europe from the sixties of the twentieth century, several new species were discovered, and the result of interspecific crossing, the black nematobrikon, was almost irretrievably lost.
All varieties of aquarium fish tetras, such as thorns, lemon, copper, royal, glass tetras, belong to schooling fish, so they should be kept in the amount of ten or twenty individuals at a time. Left alone, the individual becomes annoying and aggressive, does not allow other inhabitants of the aquarium to live in peace. She guards her territory, attacking all who sail past. In the flock, these are very cute and calm fish, the maintenance of tetras is possible in a small aquarium. The fish perfectly coexist with other peace-loving neighbors, do not undermine the soil, do not eat algae. Tetra fish can be safely settled in an aquarium with rare or expensive algae.
A variety of coloring
The color of different types of tetra is always different, there are small fish with modestly colored gray scales, only two black stripes pass across the body. There is a completely black aquarium fish tetra with bright blue eyes or a red rim around the eyes. Copper tetras have a solid yellow-green or bronze color, Tetra Amanda is almost red, and the Blue diamond is colored like mackerel and has a blue tint of the body. In many species of aquarium fish, the body is radiant gray, with a few red or yellow spots near the eyes and fins. And in all fish of this species, sexual dimorphism is very pronounced - males are always painted much brighter and more beautiful than ordinary-looking females. If conditions in the aquarium deteriorate, all tetras lose their beautiful color.
It is not difficult to contain tetras, they are not picky about feeding, they can eat any food, they love live food very much, but they do not refuse from combined ones. Water temperature should not be lower than twenty two degrees. Ideally, approximately one-sixth of the water in the aquarium should be replaced every week. Filtration and aeration are also desirable. The tetra does not like bright light, therefore it is better to use diffused lighting, it is also necessary to plant enough algae in one corner of the aquarium or on its back wall so that the fish can hide in them.
The tetra fish breeds beautifully in captivity, it reaches sexual maturity at six months, but the selection of future producers should be made from three to four monthly fish. Spawning occurs after the special preparation of water and the deposition of females and males in a special compartment. After the roe is marked, it matures for about three days. And now you can feed the fry. Their survival rate is quite low. This is due to the fact that not all aquarists can provide high-quality tetra content, including the first complementary foods, which are crucial for subsequent survival. The tetra fish are fed to babies with artemia, nauplii of crustaceans and ciliates.
Aquarium minor - what kind of fish?
Minor serpas (Latin Hyphessobrycon minor) is a small aquarium fish of the Kharatsyn family. Natural habitat - freshwater with a slow flow in South America. Like any tetra, the adult minor reaches a size of no more than 5 cm in length; it lives 5-6 years in captivity.
The body structure is slender, tall, flattened on the sides, oblong. Dorsal fin is vertical, quadrangular in shape, also elongated. The body color is olive green on the back, and bright red at the bottom. Along the perimeter of the body is a dark horizontal strip. Gill covers and dorsal fin covered with fine dark spots.
The dorsal fin has a black color, with a white border, the other fins are red. Adipose fin translucent. The tail fin is two-bladed, red, with no scales at its base. Adult females do not have the bright color of the body and fins, as males, but their body is more rounded and full, during the spawning period you can clearly see the swollen abdomen.
The minor character is calm and peaceful. Like a schooling fish, it prefers to keep in a shoal of 4-6 individuals and more. Alone, the fish can attack the neighbors in the aquarium. It is unacceptable to keep the tail-tailed fish with which all fins can nibble. This aquarium tetra perfectly coexists with peaceful and mobile fishes, compatibility is possible with neons, petilias, lanterns, pulcheras, ornatus, and other tetras.
Look at the common aquarium with minors.
How to keep at home
Fish content in a minor is allowed in a long and fairly spacious aquarium. The optimal reservoir capacity is 10 liters of water per individual from the joint. The tank should be covered with a lid so that no tetra could jump out of it.
Characteristic are very fond of thick plants and spaces for swimming. They prefer to swim in the upper and middle ball of water. Ground plants (Anubiasa, Elodieu, Javanese moss, cryptocoryne) can be planted on the bottom, fixed with stones, floating plants should be located above the water surface.
Recommended parameters of the aquatic environment: temperature 22-26 degrees Celsius, acidity of water 6.8-7.0 pH, water hardness - 4-8 dGH. Need to adjust the quality of aeration and filtration. Once a week you need to replace 20% of the water with fresh and clean. These aquarium fish love the water, which added a little boiled peat.
The intensity of illumination is average, use fluorescent lamps, including them for 10 hours a day. Gravel or medium sand is suitable as a soil. At the bottom you can put snags, grottoes, caverns, which will serve as shelters for each fish.
The fish is more undemanding in food, the main rule is to give her medium-sized food that she will be able to capture with her mouth. Food should be balanced, varied. Give your pet live food (daphnia, artemia, bloodworm, cyclops, crustaceans, small insects), dry food in the form of granules and flakes, vegetable food (duckweed, sheets of lettuce and dandelion, spinach, peristomist).
Watch the fun and moving minors.
Aquarium minors should spawn in a specially prepared spawning tank with a water capacity of 20-25 liters. At the bottom of the tank lay separator mesh to protect the eggs. In the aquarium it is better to install dim and diffused lighting. Soil lining is optional, place in the water plants with long stems, or Thai fern, Javanese moss and peristristum. The height of the water in the aquarium is 10-15 centimeters, the parameters of the aquatic environment: temperature 26-28 ° C, hardness - 15 dH, acidity 6.2-7.0 pH. Water can be taken fresh and infused, or with the addition of peat extract. Peat water is prepared as follows: boiled peat concentrate (neutral acidity) is poured into the infused water, and infused for 7-30 days.
How to choose manufacturers? For breeding in the seine, select a pair of individuals, or several pairs of fish. 7 days before spawning, females and males are kept separately, feeding them with live food. In the spawning tank, they must be placed in the evening, 2 hours before the lights are turned off. A few days later, in the morning, spawning will occur, the female produces 200-300 small eggs. If breeding does not occur, you can replace the pair, or not feed the day males and females. Eggs fall to the bottom, sticking to the grid and leaves of plants. After the process, all manufacturers are removed back into the general aquarium, the spawn is supplied with aeration, its walls are shaded with dark paper.
Fry larvae will hatch in 48 hours, after that they will hang on the plants, in 3-5 days they will swim independently. Starter feeding for them - ciliates, rotifers, cyclops larvae, small nematodes. Every 2-3 days the water in spawning should be replaced with clean water, gradually increasing its level of hardness. Fry grow quickly, become mature at the age of one year.
Tetras are fishes of the Kharacin family, the origin of which are the waters of South America.
In the wild, their habitat is a river with crystal clear water rich in oxygen. They feed on insect larvae and tender parts of aquatic plants. Tetras are gregarious creatures, so one cannot meet them alone. And in aquariums, fish should be kept in flocks with constant aeration and water filtration. Artificial home pond should be densely planted with plants and decorated with snags. Tetra fishing will surely love such an aquarium!
Today, the room for fish can be settled more than a dozen species of these representatives haratsinovyh. Among which is "Amanda". This type of tetra was discovered quite recently in the central part of Amazonia. Very small in size, but with a soft and very delicate color. Ideal for a tropical forest aquarium in the company of peaceful catfish and other peace-loving haracin. Such as koelurihtisami (or "Blue Diamond") with a pleasant and harmonious color. But this type of dynamic fish rarely occurs at home due to the problematic breeding. А вот тетра лимонная, наоборот, очень популярна. Она неприхотлива и миролюбива. Замечательно вписывается в тропический аквариум.
Tetra, the species of which are not whimsical in the majority, is popular because of the colorfulness of the species. So, to the above fish. It is possible to add such ones as rhodostomus ("redrota" tetra) with contrasting color and sapphire tetra with bright color.
It is worth noting a variety like glass tetra. This type of name was due to the almost transparent body. A contrasting red spot on the tail contributed to the growing popularity of the fish.
All species of fish mentioned above are completely omnivorous. They eat live, dry, frozen food and love to eat vegetable. As a rule, they are all peace-loving, with the exception of bloody tetras, which constantly quarrel with their neighbors.
Fish tetra in the aquarium
American tetras are an excellent decoration for any aquarium with a large number of plants with small delicate leaves and, preferably, a dark, almost black, primer. All types of tetras are distinguished by an unusual, attractive color and peace-loving character; with proper care, tetras reproduce well. Living in an aquarium, subject to the host of a number of simple rules, small mobile fish can not less than 5-6 years, frolicking and playing.
In the natural environment, tetras are found in the clear waters of South and Central America, choosing for the life of the lake, a river with oxygen-rich water and a large number of plants. For these moving fish, the aquarium will have to be decorated with abundant vegetation - and, only a part of the aquarium should be planted. In the second part - the tetra fish will be fun, defiantly swim with their comrades.
As a rule, all tetras need a large company — it does not make sense to start one or two fish, because sociable fish bored without the opportunity to communicate with their relatives. Having launched into the aquarium a whole family of 5-20 fish, the owner will be able to admire the bright kids who are actively frolicking in the thickets, peacefully floating near the surface and eating food together.
The main condition for the prosperity of fish is excellent filtration, aeration of water. Aquarium fish tetra, like its wild counterparts in appearance, is unpretentious to the proposed food - these babies, rarely growing to 7 cm, are quite voracious. They like tetras to eat and dry, and frozen food, gnawing small leaves of aquarium plants with appetite. As a rule, aquarists feed tetras with a pipe maker, shredded bloodworms, cyclops, complementing food with vegetable feed.
The group of tetras gets along well with medium-sized herbivorous neighbors, almost all species of these fish are peaceful in the group. Aggression can be seen in the behavior of single tetras. Left without a company, the tetra can begin to assert its "possessions", protecting the territory that it has chosen for itself.
Ternesia is a fish from the family of haracins from the South American continent, also known as the black tetra or the mourning tetra. This fish has become popular all over the world due to its subtle beauty and fertility. Compatibility with a large assortment of fish in the aquarium and simple breeding are also the reason for its widespread celebrity.
Scientific experiments conducted on ternenii, served to the removal of genetically modified individuals that can shine under ultraviolet light. Fragments of jellyfish or red coral DNA were inserted into their DNA, as a result of which their color became multi-colored.
These types include termination caramel or multicolor. Coloring injections are given to albino fish forms, giving them bright iridescent shades of gold, pink, green or blue. Multicolor termination is capable of breeding quite healthy offspring, like other transgenic forms of these fish.
Ternesia looks very effective. The body shape is flat and rhomboid, flattened on the sides. On the back there are 2 fins, one of which is fat and does not have hard rays. The anal fin is fork-like, and the ventral stretches to the very tail, resembling a fan or skirt. In size, aquarium fish reaches 4-6 cm.
Looking at this fish, it seems that it is painted with magic silver colors with a greenish shimmer on the back, and 3 transverse stripes are painted against the background of the body. One band crosses the eye, which has a yellow iris, the second is located behind the gill cover, and the third passes from the edge of the dorsal fin to half of the body.
Young individuals are painted more brightly in silver color, and in adults there are clearly pronounced dark stripes. Males are smaller and slimmer than females, the edge of the tail fin is outlined with white edging. Terrestinia can change color when frightened or the deterioration of their conditions of detention. The life of a black tetra is 3-4 years.
Care in the aquarium
Thorns is a peace-loving and schooling fish, unable to bear the loneliness, from which it becomes aggressive. The content of ternations is not particularly difficult. It is recommended to keep fish in a closed aquarium of 30-40 liters for 5-7 termination. For soil suitable river sand, pebbles and fine gravel. The darker the substrate, the brighter the fish will look on its background.
Plants should not block the space, so it is better to choose small-leaved, planting them bushes. A good combination will be with Javanese moss, Echinodorus, hygrophilic, cryptocoryne. Water temperature is 21-24 ° С, hardness is 7-8 °, acidity is 6.5-7, filtration is important. The lighting should be dim, otherwise the black tetra will look pale. The fish is sensitive to lack of oxygen, therefore, artificial aeration and water replacement 1/5 part weekly is necessary.
Because of the special physical structure of the mouth, it is difficult for small fish to take food from the bottom, so a special feeder is installed for them. These fish are unpretentious in food, they feed on any food, vegetable, combined, dry food will be suitable for adult fish. Cyclops, daphnia, rotifers, pipe creeper, small bloodworm, and corret are suitable as live food.
Ternets float on all water levels and are very mobile. In a spacious container it is kept on the territory without thickets, and in a small aquarium it takes shelter in plants. For decoration snags, stones and caves are appropriate.
Dilution of ternations at home is not difficult. Black tetras are quite prolific creatures, they have a pair spawning, although pack spawning is often practiced. The reproduction of ternations requires a separate spawning area of 30 liters, preferably oblong. The bottom is covered with small-leaved plants and a kapron net to avoid eating the eggs by the parents.
Spawning occurs rapidly, the water parameters change: hardness up to 4 °, temperature 25-26 ° С, acidity 7. A week before spawning, it is recommended that the male and female be kept separate. Spawning occurs as follows: first, the male is planted in the tank, and the female is placed in a few hours later. During this period, you need to feed them with bloodworms.
The spawning itself takes place on days 3-6, when the female will pick up enough eggs, and the male will milk. The male chases the female for 2-3 hours, after which spawning begins. Females lay from 1000 eggs, at the end of the producers it is necessary to plant.
Termination larvae hatch in about a day, and after 3-5 days the fry begin to swim and take food. Infusoria, Nauplii Artemia are well suited. Puberty of terntions occurs by 6-8 months.
Neighborhood in the aquarium
Peaceful behavior black tetra and compatibility with many fish is great for a mixed aquarium. Good compatibility with terns for gourami, swordtails, cardinals, petilias, catfish, discus, scalar.
Unfavorable compatibility with cichlids, barbs and other aggressive species. Smaller species can hurt their voile fins, and the crested itself can bite fish larger than itself.
Ternets are quite resistant to diseases, but parasites must be avoided in the aquarium. To maintain hygiene, it is recommended that new fish and plants be quarantined for at least 3 weeks.
A decrease in the acidity of water can lead to acidosis, and an untimely change of water increases the concentration of ammonia, which leads to disease of acetamia.
In any case, it is possible to understand the health of the fish by changing its external signs, to accurately determine the disease it is necessary to diagnose it. Self-treatment of the disease is carried out by standard means as for other fish: by raising the temperature to 30 ° C and by salt baths.
Common ternetia, and even more voiley, will look presentable in any aquarium and will decorate it with its presence. Even the most beginner aquarists can cope with the content of the black tetra, especially considering its compatibility with many other aquarium inhabitants. Her smooth movements and modest temper, not to mention the attractive prettiness, will deliver a truly aesthetic pleasure to the owner.