Choosing water for the aquarium
There is no absolutely pure water in the world, it is mined in laboratories using step-by-step distillation. Water from a water supply system or natural source always contains impurities of various substances that play an important role in the ecosystem. Considering that many modern people keep fish at home, everyone wants to use the highest quality water for them. But what should be the water so that it can fill the home aquarium?
What you need to know about spring water
For a long time it was believed that spring water, recruited from a crystal clear stream, is best suited for ornamental freshwater fish. Perfectly clean, transparent, odorless and dirt free - that's exactly the kind of tank you can fill! It turned out that typing this is not always safe. Its difference from tap water is high rigidity. Even the soap in it is difficult to dissolve, what can we say about fish food. Due to the high content of magnesium and calcium salts, it has a detrimental effect on the health of the fish and their offspring (eggs). Unfortunately, the water from the spring is not recommended to add to an artificial aquarium. Occasionally it is mixed with water to increase rigidity.
Distilled and rainwater
Since the springs have increased hardness, can it be better to pour soft water into the tank - rainwater or distilled water? Again, not always - just mixing it with the plumbing. There are fish that love the environment with softened water, but many freshwater species still prefer medium, neutral water. Such water flows in domestic rivers and lakes - you can pour it purified into the aquarium, filling it with not all the space.
Watch the video on how to change the water in the aquarium.
What habitat most love aquarium fish
What water is needed for an aquarium? Combining water from different sources, it is impossible to achieve the ideal parameters. How many fish, so many requests. Some fish can live in the melt water of mountain lakes, others - in the brown marsh. In the first case, the water is very hard, in the second - soft. Fish have to settle in a different environment. It turns out that some fish are orderlies who love rotten water, others do not tolerate such parameters. Rotten environment is detrimental due to humic acids. Many freshwater biotopes of our country have pH neutral water, medium acidity, low alkalinity. For most aquarium fish, it is suitable.
Aquarium water for unpretentious fish
Water that must be prepared for not very capricious ornamental fish requires preliminary preparation. In the general aquarium it is necessary to fill in soft (sometimes medium hard) pH-neutral water. This can be plain tap water. In it, live-off and viviparous fish, which perfectly adapt to different conditions, take root well.
See how to change the water and care for the aquarium.
The degree of hardness can be measured using litmus paper, the temperature of the water - with a thermometer. Water of high degree of hardness is recommended to be mixed with soft rainwater (filtered) or distilled. Also, water from clean, melting snow or ice. The listed types of water can be collected in a clean container only after prolonged precipitation; it is enough to pour 30% soft water into infused water from the tap.
Water from the tap can not be poured immediately. It is better to pour it into a glass, and see if the glass is covered with bubbles, whether a strong smell will emanate. Such water is saturated with compounds of gases that fell into it during filtration at the treatment plant. Having let the fish in such a liquid, the pet's body will instantly become covered with bubbles, which will penetrate into the gills and internal organs. As a result, the fish will die. In addition to gas, chlorine is added to water for disinfection, it will also poison living beings.
To get rid of gases, tap water can be poured into glass containers, and let it settle there for several days (2-3 days). There is another quick way: pour water into enameled ware, bring it to the stove to 60 or 80 degrees, set aside and cool. Boiled water is harmful - it leaves on the walls of dishes scale calcium carbonate and magnesium. Boiled water can be poured into spawning, but in extreme cases. To fill the entire area of the aquarium with boiled water will take a long time. Another nuance - boiled water kills all the useful microflora.
If you do not have water supply (this occurs in our time), you should go to a clean river or lake (where there are no signs "No swimming is prohibited!", Etc.), and take water from there. If it is clean, river fishes (perch, bream, roach) really live and flourish in it, there is a water grid plant, which is a good sign. To destroy parasites, such water is heated in an enamel pot to 80-90 degrees, but not to make boiled water out of it. The parameters it will be different from the liquid from the tap, so think about whether to take such a risk. You can go to another house, and get running water there.
In addition to thawed, spring, rain and distilled water, it is advisable to pour 30% of the water from the old aquarium to the infused liquid from the tap. If he was kept safely, the fish and plants did not hurt there, the water in him was not muddy - this is a find. In the old (residential) aquarium water, whether it has been poured from a tap for a long time, there are many useful microbacteria that will create in the new dwelling the natural biological environment. In a residential aquarium environment contains a number of organic impurities that are very useful for the aquatic environment. They make the water more acidic, do not allow the putrefactive and pathogenic bacteria to multiply. If high-quality and proven water is poured into the tank, all its inhabitants can be healthy.
Why die fish in an aquarium?
It is very unpleasant when the fish begin to die in the aquarium. It would seem that everything was done correctly: clean water was poured, aquarium equipment was working, the fish received timely feed. Despite this, the animals die. Unfortunately, this situation occurs in newcomers of the aquarium business quite often, which is why it is necessary to arm yourself with knowledge of the causes of this phenomenon. Each novice aquarist should understand the following in advance: if conditions are created in the water house for its inhabitants that are as close as possible to their natural habitat, then they will not get sick, much less die.
At the very least, the risk of death will be minimized.
Practice shows that in the overwhelming majority of cases, the death of fish is caused not by any external diseases, but by errors in content, illiteracy and carelessness of their owners. There are various reasons for this unfortunate phenomenon or a whole combination of causes and factors that should be considered in detail.
Poor quality aquarium water
This does not mean that the water is very dirty or muddy. No, it can be relatively pure, but poisoned by toxic chemical compounds, which are formed as a result of the vital activity of fish.
We are talking about nitrogen compounds, which include ammonia, ammonium, and other nitrates. These toxins will inevitably be present in the aquarium, as the fish every day leaves a lot of waste, which is constantly decomposed.
Thus, the visual purity of water is often accompanied by the appearance of an unpleasant smell of rot, which indicates a high concentration of toxic nitrogen compounds.
This smell is especially clearly felt if the aquarium is overcrowded and the system of biological water purification does not cope with the processing of toxins. As a result, the fish begins to gradually get poisoned and subsequently dies.
This state of aquarium water is formed in the following cases:
- in the new aquarium has not yet reached the ecological balance;
- beneficial bacteria that process toxic nitrites into neutral nitrates are not yet at full capacity;
- new fish have been added to a working balanced aqua system;
- overpopulation of the aquarium;
- biofilter failure;
- improper maintenance and cleaning of the biofilter, resulting in the destruction of the colony of beneficial microorganisms.
On this basis, certain measures are taken to prevent water poisoning. It can be either a substitution of part of its volume, or the installation of a new biofilter, or the relocation of extra fish.
Water parameters and the launch of the fish in the aquarium
The poor quality of the aquatic environment is also a violation of the pH balance and the discrepancy between the water hardness and the usual conditions for the existence of aquarium pets.
There are frequent cases when a person brings a fish just bought at a pet store and immediately releases it from the package to his aquarium, without thinking that the pet may experience a natural shock from the discrepancy between the environmental conditions. And as a result - death in the next day.
Therefore, it is necessary not only to know the exact conditions of one or another species, but also to clarify with the seller the parameters of the water in the pet store. And if necessary, organize a procedure for adapting a new fish.
The death of fish can also occur due to a decrease or increase in temperature of the aquatic environment. The opinion that a deviation from a certain temperature mode by 2-3 degrees in one direction or another will not affect the health of aquarium pets is deeply mistaken. If the temperature drops, there is a danger of dying from a cold, and as it rises, the fish may die from lack of oxygen.
Lack of oxygen as a negative factor
A fish is known to breathe air dissolved in water, and it can suffocate if it is too little in aqua. Although such cases are very rare, they do happen.
As a rule, even beginners pre-acquire all the equipment necessary for the operation of the home aquatic system.
And very often, buying a powerful enough filter, they trust him not only with water purification, but also with its aeration and mixing.Still, experts recommend to separate these two functions and ensure the continuous operation of the air compressor.
Aquarium neighbors aggression
Even if a large fish is considered a herbivore, it can easily eat small animals that fit into its mouth. For many inhabitants of the domestic water reservoir, the degree of aggression repeatedly increases during the spawning period.
There are aggressive fish because of their natural features, whose bites and bumps are very painful. All of these factors can also cause the death of aquarium pets.
When buying a fish you should not rely entirely on the opinions of sellers. As a rule, for them the most important is the fact of sale.
It is better to spend time and learn more about the compatibility of certain species even before going to the pet store. Thematic information on this subject on the Internet is quite enough.
Feed quality and overfeeding
Many novice aquarists sincerely believe that giving fish a pinch of dry commercial food every day is enough. Far from it.
Continuous feeding of the same dry food can cause the death of animals from inflammation of the stomach or intestines.
Suffice it to imagine what will happen to the human body, if it is constantly, day by day, eat the same dry food!The diet of the vast majority of fish should be diverse, include both protein and vegetable products.
Overfeeding - a very common cause of illness and death of animals. There are two significant points here. By itself, overfeeding can lead to diseases of internal organs. In addition, food debris, settling on the ground and gradually decomposing, contributes to a sharp concentration of nitrogen compounds, a large dose of which is fatal to the underwater inhabitants of the aquarium.
Illness is the most common cause
This is true, but in this case it is necessary to distinguish two main factors.
First of allThe disease can occur as a result of all the reasons listed above. Any of them, if they do not kill the fish immediately, will contribute to a sharp decrease in immunity. It is on this basis that a disease can develop that can lead to death. If this happens, then pets should be treated by contacting specialists.
Secondly, the death of fish can be caused by the development of infectious diseases. This is the worst scenario that could be in the process of maintaining the aquarium. Why do infectious diseases appear? As a rule, there are two main reasons: the launch into the aquarium of already infected fish or the appearance of parasites in the water house. Fungal diseases, peptic ulcer disease, lepidorthosis, tuberculosis and many other infections can cause not only the death of an individual, but also the pestilence.
It is necessary to daily monitor the behavior of aquarium pets, carefully examine them, and in case of the slightest suspicion, move the diseased individual into quarantine and consult a specialist.
Unfortunately, at least once the fish die in almost every aquarist. And the reasons may be completely different. It is important to carefully analyze the incident, identifying a specific cause, and try to prevent its recurrence. And if there is not enough knowledge and experience, there is the Internet and advice from experienced owners of ornamental fish.
How does a fish breathe? The respiratory system of fish. How do fish breathe under water?
How does a fish breathe in water? Very interesting question, to answer it is not at all difficult. It breathes through the gills, but how exactly does this happen, because water is not air? Do all fish have gills? And can they breathe atmospheric air? And how do they get oxygen from water? So many questions arise at once, if only to think about how to breathe in water. We will try to find answers to them.
Fish respiratory organs
The main organ of respiration of fish are the gills. They are located near the head in the gill cavity. This is a paired organ. In addition, they are very gentle, so to protect them covers the top of the gill cover. But do all the gills have the same structure? Of course not. Different groups of fish it is different. For example, in cyclostomes, the gills are bag-shaped, and in cartilaginous, for example, sharks, they are lamellar. But the largest group - the bony fish - has comb-like gills. They have the most complex structure. It is also a very interesting fact: unlike all others, bony fishes "breathe" through the mouth. But in cyclostomes and cartilaginous slopes, water with oxygen enters from the outside. In the process of evolution, the respiratory system of fish is constantly becoming more complex and improved. Most fish breathe oxygen dissolved in water, but there are exceptions, those that can use the air.
Lungfish fish breathe the same way as all other species. But they have one interesting feature. This very ancient group of fish has not only gill, but also pulmonary respiration. Once these species were widely distributed on Earth. Now there is only one squad - hornbone. They are found in Australia, Africa and South America. As organs for pulmonary respiration, these fish have one or two (depending on the species) bladder. They are located on the esophagus from the ventral side. This allows the lungfish to stay in oxygen-depleted reservoirs for a long time, where other fish simply cannot survive.
Cycloster respiratory organs
At the dawn of the appearance of fish, perhaps the first to develop, though not the most complex, but still gills, are cyclostomes. It is not even completely fish. The taut (cyclostomes) appeared much earlier and are a separate detachment of the jawless. Their respiratory organs are represented by gill sacs. They are endodermal in origin and have arisen as a result of separation from the pharynx. How do lamprey fish breathe with their help? She has seven paired gill sacks, each with two holes. The first is called external, and the second is internal, it leads to the breathing tube. In addition, this hole can constantly open and close. The breathing tube itself was formed as a result of pharyngeal division. Its upper part became digestive, and the lower part became respiratory. In most of the lampreys, the outer gill openings are combined into one channel. It opens a little further than the last gill sac. In lampreys and mixin, the nasal opening is connected to the pharynx. Therefore, even when a fish digs in the sand, it can breathe. When cyclostomes feed, water penetrates into the gill sacs, not through the oral or nasal cavity, but through the outer gill openings.
The structure of the gill apparatus of bony fishes
Bony fishes breathe through the gills. They have a complex structure. So, the gill apparatus consists of five gill arches. They are in a special cavity behind the head. In order to protect the arc from mechanical damage, they are covered with a hard and durable gill cover on top. It grows as fish size increases. Gill arches on the outside have two rows of petals that are supported by supporting cartilages. They are the process of gas exchange. An artery approaches the branchial branch and brings in arterial blood. Здесь она обогащается кислородом и разносит его ко всем органам и тканям. С внутренней стороны находятся жаберные тычинки. Они выполняют роль фильтра и защищают от попадания пищевых частичек.
Как дышит рыба в воде?
Дыхание рыб происходит следующим образом. При вдохе она открывает широко ротовое отверстие. При этом жаберные дуги максимально раздвигаются, а жаберная крышка, напротив, плотно прижимается к голове. Thus, the water enters the mouth and passes on, but does not come out. Further, in the gill cavity, oxygen is absorbed through the petals. The acidified blood coming to them is saturated. Enriched with oxygen, she carries it to all the tissues of the fish. When you exhale, the mouth of the fish closes, and the gill covers are raised. Thus, the water is squeezed out. In the capillaries of the petals on the gill arches, not only gas but also water-salt metabolism occurs. Not only carbon dioxide is released into the water from the blood vessels, but also ammonia and other substances that are produced during metabolism. This is a detailed description of how fish breathe under water.
Additional respiratory organs
But like most species on Earth, fish have additional respiratory organs. Of course, gills remain the main ones. But besides them, the skin, intestines and even special organs, such as pulmonary sacs or the "labyrinth", are involved in the gas exchange process. But all of this should be discussed in order. In many species of fish, especially in those that choose turbid, oxygen-depleted water as their habitat, skin respiration is very intensive. How does a fish skin breathe? It simply absorbs oxygen through its surface. Sometimes such breath even comes out on top. Another device is the swim bladder. It accumulates air, and the fish absorbs oxygen from it. So she can even live for some time out of the water. The intestine can fulfill the same role as the swim bladder. The labyrinth fish in the gill cavity has a special pocket-like section. Its walls are densely penetrated by capillaries. There are processes of gas exchange. It is noteworthy that labyrinth fish breathe atmospheric oxygen. They can do without water for several days. Of course, these are not all examples of how different species of fish surprisingly adapt to the environment. They still have a lot of secrets to survive even in very difficult conditions.
What to do if you find a dead fish?
Suddenly discovered that you have died in a fish tank and do not know what to do now? We have compiled five tips for you to cope with the death of the fish and what to do if this happened. But, remember that even in the most ideal conditions, they still die. Often, suddenly, for no apparent reason and very annoying for the owner. Especially if it is a large and beautiful fish, such as cichlids.
Often aquarium fish die due to the fact that the water parameters have changed. The most pernicious effect on them is the low level of oxygen content in the water. Characteristic behavior is that most fish stand in the surface of the water and swallow air from it. If the situation is not corrected, then after a while they begin to die. At the same time, such situations can occur even among experienced aquarists! The oxygen content in water depends on the temperature of the water (the higher it is, the less oxygen is dissolved), the chemical composition of the water, the bacterial film on the surface of the water, the outbreak of algae or ciliates. You can help partial water changes by turning on aeration or directing the flow from the filter close to the surface of the water. The fact is that during gas exchange, it is the fluctuations of the water surface that play the decisive role.
1. Look at
Check and recalculate your fish daily, while feeding. Are they all alive? Are everyone healthy? Does everyone have a good appetite? Six neons and three speckled, everything is in place?
If someone is missed, check the corners of the aquarium and lift the lid, maybe it is somewhere upstairs in the plants? But you can not find a fish, it is quite possible that she died. In this case, stop searching. As a rule, a dead fish becomes visible anyway, it either floats to the surface, or lies on the bottom, the floor is snagged, stoned, or even falls into the filter. Every day, inspect the aquarium, did the dead fish appear? If found, then ...
2. Remove the dead fish
Any dead fish, as well as large snails (such as ampoules or mariz) should be removed from the aquarium. They rot very quickly in warm water and create soil for the development of bacteria, the water is muddier and begins to stink. This all poisons other fish and leads to their death.
3. Look at the dead fish
If the fish is not too decomposed, do not hesitate to examine it. This is unpleasant, but necessary. Are her fins and scales full? Maybe her neighbors beat her to death? Are the eyes in place and are they dull? Strongly swollen belly like in the picture? Maybe she has an internal infection or she has poisoned herself with something.
4. Check water
Every time you find a dead fish in your tank, you need to check the quality of the water with the help of tests. Very often the cause of fish death is the increase in the content of harmful substances in the water - ammonia and nitrates. To test them, get in advance tests for water, better drip.
The test results will show two results, either everything is fine in your tank and you should look for the cause in another one, or the water is already rather polluted and you need to replace it. But, remember that it is better to change no more than 20-25% of the volume of the aquarium, so as not to change the maintenance conditions of the fish too dramatically.
If the water is all right, then you need to try to determine the cause of death of the fish. Of the most common: disease, hunger, overfeeding (especially dry food and bloodworms), long stress due to improper housing conditions, age, the attack of other fish. And a very frequent reason - and who knows why ... Believe me, any aquarist, even the one who has been keeping a complex fish for many years, has sudden deaths to watch his favorite fish.
If the incident is a single case, then do not worry - just watch out for new fish or die. If this happens all the time, then obviously something is wrong. Be sure to contact an experienced aquarist, it's easy to find now, since there are forums and the Internet.