Japanese fish


Japanese carp koi

Weapons to conquer the world can be different. For example, the Japanese jokingly call such a weapon carp koi. Bright, mobile, trainable fish adorn the decorative ponds of the whole world. There are books and magazines, clubs carp koi, shows and exhibitions.

The history of the appearance of the Japanese carp

There was a Japanese carp from wild black carp, which more than two thousand years ago inhabited the Caspian Sea basin. The ancient Chinese bred carp, which possessed extraordinary taste and endurance, for food. Koi is translated from Chinese and means "carp".

Fish came to Japan with migrants from China about five hundred years ago. Japanese peasants of fish with a non-standard bright spotted color were crossed to obtain new variants of coloring. Fishes with spots of white, blue, and red became floating gems and made the fascination with selection popular among Japanese nobility.

Today, carp koi is a fish that has gone through six selection selections. Only after that she is assigned a category. Of the more than eighty varieties of Japanese carp, only fourteen colorings are considered standard.

The Japanese carp is practically a pet, having an individual character and responding to its name. He recognizes the owners of the voice and steps, it can be fed from the hands and stroked.

Content of Japanese carp in ornamental ponds

Japanese koi carp does not need complex care. For content in artificial reservoirs in Russia, it is better to choose fish grown in the north-west of the country, rather than its Japanese or Chinese counterparts, which are less tolerant of cold.

In Russian natural conditions, the pond should be at least two meters deep and with a half-meter hole at the bottom, so that in cold weather the fish can warm up and hide in the summer from the heat in the depths.

The size of the pond depends on the number and size of the fish and is calculated on the basis of water volume of 50 liters or more per fish.

When the water temperature in the fall drops below + 10 ° C and lasts about two weeks, the processes of breathing, excretion, digestion slow down in the fish’s body, carp stops feeding so that food does not rot in the esophagus.

A pond compressor or fountain will help circulate water and enrich it with oxygen. In order not to change the acidity of the water in the pond, it must be regularly cleaned from the leaves falling there from the trees.

Content of Japanese carp in an aquarium

If you provide good filtration and aeration of water, the Japanese carp can be kept in the home aquarium large enough.

Carps, like all living things, grow and change with age. Angular impetuous "teenagers" are not as beautiful and interesting as respectable adults. But for keeping at least six-year-old carps, the volume of the aquarium should reach about a thousand liters, and with the prospect of growth of its inhabitants - two thousand.

Carps themselves do not need special water clarity, but for observers there is no need for interference, therefore powerful filtration is needed. You can do without aeration, but the squishing sounds that carps emit, gulping air on the surface, do not contribute to peace.

Aquarium with Japanese carp should be well lit so that the fish look bright and contrast.

It is best to feed carps in an aquarium with dry granulated food, which enhances the color of the fish and does not affect the quality of the water. You can supplement the diet with finely chopped fruits and vegetables, the remnants of which should be removed from the aquarium after eating.

Since beautiful Japanese carps are an adornment of not only the aquarium, but also of the room itself as a whole, the choice of soil depends on the color of the fish and on the interior. The main thing is that the amount of decor in the water was minimal.

Japanese carps were bred initially for observation from above. But how wonderful a Japanese carp looks in an aquarium! The photo shows it quite clearly.

Japanese carp feeding

Feeding Japanese carp is best granulated feed, depending on water temperature and fish activity, from two to six times a day. In winter, carp eat very little. Koi carps respond well to any food. It can be beans, and cabbage, and watermelon. Since ornamental fish are intended by nature to be admired by them, the food for them is selected not only for the balance of nutrients, but also for buoyancy. Special pleasure gives owners with hand-feeding.

If under the surface of the water to establish a decorative light, then the night insects flying to its light and fallen into the pond will be a natural food for fish.

When feeding fish, no matter how much pleasure this process delivers, it is necessary to observe an unshakable rule: it is better to underfeed than overfeed, especially with artificial feed.


In China and Japan, traditional cuisine is not without carp. Carp takes a punch of a cook's knife, not flinching and not fluttering in front of him. Perhaps that is why the Japanese carp is considered to be the symbol of composure and fearlessness in the face of imminent death. The image value of this fish is great due to the ancient Chinese legend. According to this legend, the carp climbed to the Dragon Gate along the waterfall jets. Fearlessness and perseverance were rewarded - he became a dragon. In nature, carp overcomes the course, not only in search of food, but also to continue the race.

In the visual arts of Japan, carp koi occupies one of the leading places, and not only because of the bright colors. The Japanese carp is a symbol of luck, victory over circumstances, fortitude, the desire for self-improvement, inspiration for those who strive for ambitious goals.

Japanese carp tattoo

The back, chest, thigh, or shoulder are the places to which the tattoo is applied, where the Japanese carp is depicted. The value of this image is good luck. It is believed that the value of luck, which brings the image of Japanese carp koi, is proportional to the size of the tattoo.

The color of the fish in the picture is also important: black - overcoming pain and strong feelings that raised a person to new heights; red - love, strength and energy; blue is courage.

Unshakable courage, composure in battle, fearlessness before any fate - these qualities of a samurai warrior are embodied in the Japanese carp (tattoo). The value of this symbol is enhanced by the image of water, which symbolizes the flow of life. If in the figure a carp is swimming against the waves, then this means that a person is ready to overcome all difficulties in his life in order to achieve his goal. A strong character, a desire to survive against all odds will help such a person go against the opinions of others.

If a carp swims in the image with the flow, then it symbolizes peace after reaching the cherished goal, awareness of the meaning of life, confidence in swimming through the waves of life.

If the tattoo depicts a pair of fish, this means a happy union, the harmony of relations between a man and a woman. In such a tattoo, the color scheme is important: the carp is black - the father, the bright red is the mother, the white or blue is the son, and the pink is the daughter.

As you can see, a tattoo (Japanese carp) can have a different meaning ...

Another philosophical meaning is the dignity of the Japanese carp: it can live for centuries. For more than two hundred years has lived passed from hand to hand fish - koi carp named Hanako.

Carp koi: content in an aquarium

Keeping Japanese koi carps is currently a very fashionable hobby. Although the conditions of a natural or artificial pond are more suitable for them, many aquarists who are passionate about their work successfully keep these large ornamental fish in their home aquariums. True, such an aquarium should be very large.

The fact is that carp koi was originally bred in Japan as a pond fish, but not commercial, but decorative. Thus, this species of carp is bred by humans in the process of selection and does not exist in the wild.

In all other respects, this species is a descendant of common carp and bears within itself all the species characteristics of the family Cyprinidae, with the exception of coloring.


Since the koi carp is the result of a very long selection, the requirements for its appearance are quite stringent. Professional owners of such fish first of all assess the overall proportions of the body, that is, the correct ratio of the size of the head, torso, and tail.

Head. Almost all types of decorative Japanese carps (they are sometimes called brocade because of the characteristic color and quality of the skin) have a large, dull and broad head. In adult females, the head may be slightly wider, since they often grow so-called cheeks.

Body koi in the ideal case should be exactly narrowed from the massive arms (from the beginning of the dorsal fin) to the developed caudal region. This physique gives the visual power of each individual.

Fins. Strong pectoral fins allow a large aquatic animal to balance well in a stream of water. The dorsal fin is usually not too high, which harmonizes with the overall size of the body.

Dimensions Fish can be different: from 20 cm (aquarium species) to 0.9 m (when breeding in ponds).

Weight individuals, respectively, may be different - from 4 to 10 kg. These fish live long enough compared to other ornamental species. In optimal conditions of detention, they can easily live up to 30 years!

Colour - this is what most fully characterizes the Japanese beauties. The colors can be varied, but the colors must necessarily be saturated. Individuals with even color throughout the body are especially appreciated, but there are species with patterns on the back, sides and head, as well as striped decorative carps. Bright colors (red, blue, white, yellow and others) are the result of long and painstaking selection work.

Classification. It is by their coloring that the professional razvodchiki koi distinguish the species and subspecies of this carp family, of which there are over 60. For simplicity of classification, the wise Japanese have brought all these varieties into 14 main groups, having names in Japanese. In general, in the field of breeding and breeding of these ornamental fish in the professional environment most often used special Japanese terminology.

The size of the reservoir

The brocade koi reach large sizes and gain the weight corresponding to them only in the conditions of an open pond. For normal development, they need space and relatively clean water.

In terms of the required volume and space for the maintenance of these exotic fish, there is a formula:

You do not need to be a great mathematician to determine the volume of the tank for a 70-centimeter carp. This is the minimum volume in which a large individual is practically nowhere to turn. Therefore, brocade carp is better to keep in a capacity of 500 liters and more.

In addition, in the aquarium conditions, the Japanese, as a rule, do not grow to large sizes, their length usually does not exceed 30-40 cm maximum. Such an impact on the development of conditions have a content in a small volume.

Features content in aquariums

Koi carps are relatively unpretentious. This is expressed in everything except the purity of the aquatic environment. To her decorative beauties are very, very demanding.

There are cases when wealthy koi fans organized for their pets a complex system of supplying running water. In all other cases, weekly changes of 30% of the contents of the aquarium is enough.

Filtration must be constant and powerful. For large volumes of water, which contain these large carp, it is better to use 2 external filters. Constant air saturation is another necessary condition.

Water parameters. There are some requirements for the quality of the aquatic environment. The optimum pH level should be 7.0-7.5 (neutral balance). In principle, it is allowed some offset in the direction of acidity, but not less than 6 units.

Temperature range can be very wide. Koi feel quite comfortable at a water temperature of +15 to +30 degrees; even the deviation from these limits by 5 degrees in one direction or another they carry very well.


These decorative carp are almost omnivorous, they use both vegetable and animal feed.

As a natural live feed is perfect

  • bloodworm,
  • artemia,
  • earthworms
  • small tadpoles,
  • frogs caviar

This is exactly the protein food that almost all carp eat under natural conditions.

Moreover, some of them for the Japanese contain not only all the necessary macro and microelements, but also additives that enhance the color of the fish. Perhaps the most common are JBL feeds, among which Pond Flakes, JBL Koi maxi, Koi midi, JBL Pond Vario and JBL Pond Coloron stand out. They can be used constantly.

Do not overfeed carp koi. It is better to give food more often (three times a day) and a little. In this case, the remnants of food will not remain and decompose in the aquarium, the amount of waste products will not exceed the usual concentration.

In principle, koi can never feed a whole week. Such fasting fasting will only benefit them.

Lighting should be intense. It is in bright light that the bright exotic color of brocade carps looks most advantageous. The choice of the type of lamp depends entirely on the preferences of the fish owner.

Scenery and vegetation

The soil in the aquarium should consist of sand of small or medium fraction. If there are any bottom communications, then it is better to secure them securely with the help of special silicone and sprinkle with sand.

There is no doubt that the whole soil will be broken, the elements of the aquarium interior (if any) will be turned over or shifted.

This is one of the reasons why koi fans do not particularly think about the scenery. But the main reason is that the bright and powerful Japanese themselves are a kind of decoration not only for the aquarium, but for the whole room.

As for plants, experts do not advise planting them in the ground - they will undoubtedly be destroyed. The best option are pots with plants (for example, water lilies), suspended at a depth of 10-15 cm from the bottom. Such pots should not be much, because koi need space.

Character and compatibility

The brocade carp is a peaceful fish, the content of which in an aquarium can be perfectly combined with catfish, goldfish, mollies, and anticyrus.

Koi fans believe that their pets have intelligence. It seems so. They get used not only to the appearance of their master, but also to his voice, allowing him even to stroke himself.

If each feeding is accompanied by any sounds - by tapping stones on the glass or by the creaking of your finger on the glass - the carp will remember these sounds and will know in advance that the meal will begin soon.

As for breeding, it is practically impossible in a home aquarium. The fact is that brocade carps reach sexual maturity only with a minimum size (23-25 ​​cm), which is achieved, as a rule, only in terms of pond content. Of course, in a giant aquarium (2 thousand liters, for example), puberty and spawning of females are possible.

Due to its simplicity, this ornamental fish is extremely rarely sick. But if it still happened, then a few diseases (aeromonosis or rubella) are treated with the help of special antibiotics on prescription of a veterinarian.

The history of breeding and maintenance of the Japanese carp is rich in records. For example, the koi long-liver is known, who died at the age of 226 years, and the largest specimen of this species had a length of 153 cm and weighed more than 45 kg.

However, chasing records at home is hardly reasonable. Carp koi is interesting in itself due to its livable character, power, grace and fantastic coloring.

Video about koi carps in the aquarium:

Wise centenarians

Koi carps or brocade carps from the carp family are decorative species of common carp that have passed 6 stages of breeding. Koi were imported to Japan about 2500 years ago from China. The approximate number of species of koi carps today reaches 80 species, which are divided into 14-16 groups, united by common characteristics. Brocade carp are common in Singapore, China, Japan and Malaysia, where people cultivate the breeding of these fish in a pond or home environment.


Japanese koi carps are large in size, the five-year-old individual reaches 80 cm and more than 15 kg. Koi are evaluated on some external parameters. The carp gets a high mark if it has proportional shapes and sizes of all parts of the body, and also has a balanced color pattern.

The color of carps varies depending on their subspecies. The main shades are white, yellow, blue, cream, red, black. The brightness of the color of fish is directly affected by koi carp feeding, water quality and sunlight. In a spacious aquarium, koi will fully reveal the fullness of their color.

Koi carps have good health, unpretentious care, calm and hardy. Koi are able to distinguish colors, smells and tastes, susceptible to training. They can sleep on their side and prefer one partner. Карпы живут долго, в аквариуме до 30 лет, но в природных условиях средний возраст кои достигает 50 лет.


Карпы кои лучше всего живут в пруду, их содержание в домашних условиях возможно в крупном аквариуме на 800-1000 литров. Рыбы очень добродушные, привыкают к обществу людей, позволяют кормить их с рук и даже потрогать. The most important condition for the normal life of carp is clean water, so you should take care of thorough mechanical and biological treatment of water.

Parameters of water in the aquarium: temperature 15-28 ° C, acidity 7.5, oxygen 4 mg / l, hardness up to 15 °. The tone of the soil needs to be selected in contrast with a shade of koi; a dark substrate is suitable for red carps and a beige background for white fish. Optimal use of sand, pebbles and gravel. Carps are kept in the lower layer of water.

Filtration is necessary powerful, the lack of aeration of the fish is tolerated calmly, but the air supply must be stable. Very important for carp light, which in the aquarium should be a lot. The content in the pond should be accompanied by the presence of a UV-sterilizer, actively cleansing the water.

The vegetation is needed hard, it can be planted in separate bushes. Well suited sedge, arrowhead, Chastuh. peristristis, elodey additional biological water purifiers, and over time, koi food. The depth of the aquarium depends on the ambient temperature regime of the region, in hot climates the content at a depth of 50-70 cm is sufficient, and the wintering of fish should take place in a closed heated room or a prepared pond.

Cold care

Wintering carp in a harsh climate, especially in the pond, should be provided with the necessary conditions for their comfortable life in the winter. The minimum water temperature in winter is + 4 ° С. Wintering carp should be in a place protected from the cold or covered with a polyethylene base. In the pond, carps winter in a wintering pit 1.5 meters deep, where they turn off the filters, and punch a few holes in the ice. These holes should be regularly cleaned from the ice build-up, provide with aeration and heating device so that they do not linger. Wintering koi is associated with a decrease in their appetite, which will only wake up by spring. As food, fish will use algae. With a decrease in temperature, carps prepare for hibernation and suspend the digestive system. In aquarium conditions, wintering fish will be easier and will require less effort from their owner.


Koi belong to omnivorous fish, they can be fed with anything, but it is better not to feed koi carps than to overfeed. Food for carp should not pollute the water in the aquarium. Feeding carp koi should take place in frequent small portions, which the fish should have time to eat in 5-10 minutes. Koi do not have a stomach, all food enters the intestines and almost immediately goes through the back opening.

Optimally feed carp pellets - floating sticks of the same manufacturer or a mixture of different sizes of sticks. To add an enhancer to the color of carps, they can be fed with products containing karatenoids and vitamin A found in spirulina, fruits and shrimps. If the white parts of the body turn yellow in the fish, this indicates that its liver cannot cope with the dose of vitamin A and the koi carp feed needs to be changed. And if the white spots of koi, located near the red areas, have turned pink or reddened, then this is a consequence of a large dose of karatenoids.

In addition to pellets, koi can be fed bread, vegetables, soaked grains and legumes. Feed live feeds can only be convinced of their harmlessness.


Breeding of koi carps needs to begin with determining the sex of adults, which is very difficult to do. Visually, males have large and sharp pectoral fins. Females weigh more males and look bigger. During the spawning period, tubercles appear on the gill covers of the males. The average age of sexually mature fish ready to tolerate normal breeding is 8–15 years or a body length of 23 cm.

Proper breeding of koi is due to a good diet with proper protein content, proper water parameters and healthy fish. It is possible to stimulate the breeding of carps by choosing the right sex ratio, where one female and 2-3 males will be needed. In a separate aquarium with a temperature of 20 ° C, where the producers are transferred, water is replaced quite often and live food is added. After spawning, the parents are removed, otherwise they can eat not only caviar, but also fry. The fry will hatch in 5-7 days and will hide in shelters, eating a yolk sac.

It is recommended to feed the young fry with daphnia, spirulina, ciliates, wheat yeast, boiled egg yolk.


Against the background of koi, other fish look inconspicuous, but there are some species suitable for them in the neighbors. The carps transferred from the pond to the aquarium initially behave with caution, hiding and frightening. Juveniles adapt faster and easier. Adaptation can be accelerated by hoisting comets or shubunkins to them.

Koi carps are well combined with such neighbors as gorchak, plebostomus, trout, catfish, mollies, goldfish, gudgeons, barley, sunny bass. Small fish such as danios and cardinals will eat carps over time.

Koi carps are not just a decoration of an aquarium or pond, the owner will seriously become attached and make friends with these pets, who have amazing intelligence and interesting habits. Longevity, simple maintenance at home and their breeding will allow to enjoy the koi society for a very long time.

Brocade carp

The carp koi, or the brocade carp, is a decorative domesticated fish of the carp family, the contents of which are possible both in the pond and in the aquarium. The carp koi can be considered a fish that has passed eight selection selections. All fish have a specific category. The home of the brocade carp - China, but most often it can be found in the ponds of urban gardens in Japan. 14 species with different color were developed.

On the territory of Japan, carp koi appeared in the XV century, was introduced from China. More than 2500 years ago, these fish came to the Middle Kingdom from the Caspian regions. Initially, the Japanese peasants grew it in ponds, then used it as food. People noticed that some fish had an unusual color, in the end, chose them for growing in decorative ponds.

Hobby breeding carp turned into a national hobby. At the beginning of the twentieth century, an exhibition was held in Tokyo, where carps were presented at the official level. Nowadays there are special organizations and clubs where lovers of these fish meet and organize exhibitions.


Carp koi has 80 variations (breeds), which differ in several characteristics. All breeds are divided into 16 groups, which simplifies selection. To become an exhibition option, carp koi must pass a general assessment of the fins, the shape of the head, body color and its overall proportions. For exhibitions, mainly females are chosen, since they correspond to the volume and color. The fins of the exhibition carp should be proportional to the size of the body, the sides of the body should be equal.

Scales should be healthy, without flaws. The depth of color, the number of spots and tonality should be moderately balanced. On small fish, a small pattern is evaluated, on large ones - large spots and patterns. Also estimated is the posture of a fish, its manner of swimming in water.

Admire the Koi carps selected for the exhibition.

In addition to exhibitions, carp can often be seen in home aquariums. Some breeds look good in glazed ponds. Brocade carps are unpretentious fish, they are easy to grow. The length of the domesticated pet will be 16-20 cm, but the color will remain more faded. The more water in the tank, the longer the fish will grow. Keeping fish means an aquarium of 800-1000 liters of water, and the larger the aquarium container, the better.

In a container of 800 liters will grow 6 kilogram "giant." Keeping carps at home has several advantages:

  • easy to care for them;
  • fish have a calm disposition;
  • Koi carp is undemanding to water parameters;
  • for a beautiful decorative fish suitable water from a well, lake or river, just be sure to clean. Sour and rotten water will not accept;
  • fruits and vegetables, dry granules, egg products, raw and boiled shrimps, etc;
  • fish are amenable to training: get used to the owner and to the external conditions of the room;
  • can make a company of goldfish, catfish, mollies, golden carp.

Conditions of detention

Keep in an aquarium will not amount to hassle. Karp koi perfectly adapts to the new place and new neighbors. Clean water is desirable for them, but they tolerate slight contamination. 1/3 of the water in the aquarium should be replaced weekly. It is desirable to sterilize water with a UV filter, but not necessarily. Acceptable temperature for life: from 4 to 30 degrees, but the optimum is 20-25 degrees, i.e. average room temperature. Water conditions: fresh water with low acidity and low content of ammonia and nitrates. The average level of water acidity is 7 pH, the average hardness is 3-7 dH.

At the bottom of the aquarium, you can sprinkle the soil (fine sand, mild gravel, pebbles). Carp sorted the bottom, so be careful with the communication.

Fish love good lighting space, but at night the light must be turned off. They have a funny dream - they sleep on their side in the dark. Carps do not differ in accuracy, therefore, experienced amateurs do not recommend planting a lot of plants and decorations in the tank. If carps are sick, they are treated with antibiotics.

Koi carps multiply if they grow more than 23 cm in length. For spawning requires clean water, saturated with oxygen, the water temperature is not higher than 27 degrees. Temperature drops cause mucus.

Watch a short video about koi carp content in an aquarium.

Feed carp should feed at least 1.5% of its total weight. To obtain a bright color requires food containing carotenoids, vegetable and live food. The content involves regular feeding, in small portions. Specialized stores sell carp pellets and chips, daphnia and gammarius. You can feed it with earthworms, greens, cooked cereals and boiled egg yolk. Live food should be a treat, but not the main food.


Full brood carp breeding is possible only in the pond, where they grow longer and larger. You should know that carp aggressive to caviar and fry, can eat them.

In nature, fish breed in spring and summer, with increasing temperature. In an aquarium, the temperature increase can be adjusted artificially, but aquarium conditions are not suitable for full breeding. The optimum temperature for spawning is 20 degrees. However, spawning in aquariums is almost impossible, so they live without bringing posterity. Carp life is 70-100 years, in open water they reach a length of 90 cm.

Carp koi is one of the most beautiful ornamental fish in the pond and aquarium. Popular to this day because of its peaceful disposition, love for its owners and unpretentiousness in its content.

See also: Carp in a home aquarium.

Goldfish: aquarium species

Of all the aquarium fish, gold probably has the longest history. They were removed in China about a thousand and a half years ago from gold carp for the purpose of home maintenance. These beautiful creatures lived not only in artificial reservoirs of palaces, but also in luxurious vases in the chambers of noble people of that time. At the moment there are a huge number of varieties of goldfish. They are still in demand and decorate aquariums around the world. In this article we will look at the types that are most popular among fans.

Goldfish classification

There are two groups of rocks:

Long-bodied. The shape of the body of these fish is similar to their ancestor - wild punishment. They are distinguished by greater mobility, stamina and longevity (40-year-old longevity stories are known!). In addition, they need less oxygen. Representatives of this group are the comet, wakin and the usual goldfish.

Short-bodied. They differ in a variety of shapes, but what unites them is that the body is compressed from head to tail. Such experiments did not go unnoticed for the health of these fish. They are sick more often, adapt worse, live less (no more than 10-15 years), more demanding of conditions. In particular, they need a larger body of water and a high content of oxygen in the water. This group is represented by a telescope, a pearl, a lionhead, and others.

Goldfish species

There are many breeds, and the same goldfish can have different names in the literature, since breeders of different countries called them and called them.

Plain Goldfish

Its second name is gold carp. Was obtained by breeding from a wild goldfish. Similar to him in body shape and fins, different colors (golden-red fish).

She needs a reservoir with an abundance of plants and space for swimming. It should be kept in a species aquarium or only with peaceful neighbors.

Food is recommended a varied, balanced, no frills: animal and vegetable food in the form of tablets, granules, sticks, dry, live or frozen. Under good conditions, it can live from 10 to 30 years.


Its second name is Japanese goldfish. It is distinguished from the previous type by its stalk body and forked or single slightly elongated tail. The length of the fish sometimes reaches 30 cm. Three types of wakin coloring are known: red, white, and a mixture of these colors.


The most unpretentious and easy to keep among other varieties. It is small, with a body length of not more than 15 cm. The tail is long, forked, in the form of a ribbon. And the longer it is, the more valuable the copy. Other fins are only slightly elongated.

If the body is swollen, then such a fish is considered defective. The most valued are individuals whose body and fin colors are different (for example, silver + bright red). The disadvantages of comets are that they often jump out of the aquarium and are not fertile.


Appeared in China in the mid 19th century. Its body is swollen, it is orange-red in color, has a length of 10 cm. A distinctive feature is the tail, consisting of two halves (they can be separated or accrete) and having a transparent wide edge on the outer edge. Fin on the back is high, the rest are normal or slightly elongated. Live fantail for about 10 years.


This is a very popular and common variety of goldfish. Has a body in the form of an egg or a ball with a large head. Able to grow to 20 cm and live to 20 years. The body may be covered with scales, and maybe without it. Fins are long, thin.

The tail consists of several blades that grow together and hang down from the body in lush folds, resembling the veil of the bride (read more about the tail finch here).

Painted fish is different: in white, golden or motley color. The most appreciated is the one whose fins and body have a different shade.


Unusual appearance of her gives a round body and a kind of scales. Each scale is raised in the form of a dome and has a dark rim. In the light, chainmail looks like small pearls, so the fish bears this name. In the event of damage to the scales in its place grows new, but it is devoid of a beautiful rim.

Body length is approximately 7-8 cm. Fin on the back is vertical, other pairs and short. The tail consists of two non-hanging blades. A painted fish may be white, golden or orange-red.

The greatest difficulty in maintaining is the correct calculation of the quantity of food. The owners are misleading the shape of the body. Because of this, fish are often undernourished or overfed.

Interesting! Pearls have very funny fry, which, when they reach the age of two months, become already similar to adults and get rounded.

Water eyes

Or in a different way, a bubble. He has perhaps the most extreme appearance. This 15-20 cm fish does not have a dorsal fin, but it has blisters on the lower part of the eyes on both sides of the head. They begin to grow in 3-4 months and in size are able to reach a quarter of the body of the fish. These places are very vulnerable, delicate and fragile.

Although they may recover over time, security measures must be observed:

  • the aquarium may not contain any sharp objects, spiny algae or other types of fish,
  • Catching and transplanting pets should be done very carefully.

The fins of the bladder eyes are long. Males have a white rash on the gill plates, and growths on the pectoral fin. Feed is recommended live moths. With good care, these wonders will live 5-15 years.

Interesting! Only small fish with bubbles of the same size are allowed to breed.


Another name for this fish is the celestial eye. Astrologers got their name for the original eyes. They look like telescopes, only the pupils in them are directed vertically upwards, as if the fish admires the sky or counts the stars.

The body is in the form of an egg, the head smoothly passes into the low back, on which there is no fin. The tail consists of two blades. The traditional color is orange with gold. Especially prized fish with golden irises of the eyes.

Astronomers are short-bodied, long-bodied and veiled. They are very difficult to breed. From a hundred young fish, only one fish with perfect proportions can be obtained. Astrologers live 5-15 years.

Interesting! The heavenly eye is very revered by Buddhist monks and is necessarily contained in their monasteries.


It is distinguished from other growths on the gills and more on the forehead, which have a granular structure (they are sometimes also called fatty). In Germany, orande is called a goose head due to frontal growth. The shape of the body and fins of these fish is similar to a telescope and a tail tail.

They can be painted in white, red, black or variegated colors. The most valuable is the red-capped oranda.

Important! Not to be confused with the red cap, which has no dorsal fin.

Interesting! Not everyone knows that the fry of this fish are born with a yellow cap.In China, the following is practiced: in order to achieve red color, a special dye is injected into the growth.

Little Red Riding Hood

Obtained by selection from orande. The body is in the form of an egg and resembles a voilehvosta. It can grow up to 20 cm. The dorsal fin is quite high, anal and double tail, hanging down. The body is white. On a medium-sized head there is a rather large bright red wen. The bigger it is, the more valuable the fish is.


A special feature of the fish are powerful growths of compacted skin on the gills and the upper part of the head, as a result of which it looks like a lion's mane or a raspberry berry. These growths begin to form in fish at the age of three months and grow over the entire head, sometimes capturing the eyes.

The body is short, round, with scales. There is no dorsal fin, and the others are short. The tail may consist of two or three blades. Fish are painted in white, red or both of these colors. In Japan and China, this fish is very much appreciated and is considered the pinnacle of selection.


It is also called the Korean Lionhead. It differs from the previous type only slightly in that the formations on the head appear only in the second or third year of their life. Also known varieties without growths, but strewn with small colored dots (lips, eyes, fins and gill covers), the body is almost colorless.


Includes several breeds, which combine common features. He is also called Demenkinin, or water dragon. His body is tall, ovoid or rounded. The dorsal fin is perpendicular to the body, while the others have the appearance of a long veil. The tail is forked, its length is almost equal to the length of the body. There are with a short tail (skirt) and voile.

The telescope is distinguished by strongly convex eyes with a transparent rainbow. Eye size can vary from 1 to 5 cm! Their shape is also diverse: a cylinder, a ball, a cone. The longer the tail and the larger the eye, the more valuable the specimen. There are telescopes with scales and without.

The richness of the colors is also impressive: orange with a metallic sheen, bright red, calico, black and white, but velvety black is the most common.

Other types of telescopes:

Butterfly. A distinctive feature is the voile tail, which looks symmetrical from above.

Moor. This is a selection form of a veiled tail telescope. All fins and body are colored velvet black.

Panda. Another variation of the black telescope. The body is painted in black and white. The size of the fish reaches 20 cm.

All telescopes are very interesting and active, but at the same time capricious. They need warm water and do not need a neighborhood with other fish. Carefully follow the equipment of the aquarium because of the possibility of eye damage.

Interesting! The darker the ground, the darker the color of the telescope. But under bad conditions, the fish brightens.


This is a Japanese breed of goldfish, which served as material for breeding a voilehvost. They have a rather large size and a body expanding towards the upper part. The head is variegated. The fin on the back is quite high. Tail of 3-4 blades. The body can be monophonic or motley.


His other name is calico. This is an ordinary goldfish with a 15-centimeter body, elongated fins and transparent scales on the body.

Distinguishes these fish print color, which combines white, black, yellow, red and blue. The most valuable fish with a predominance of purple-blue.

And the color begins to manifest itself after a year and gains full strength by three.

The fish are calm, their content does not cause problems. With proper care live more than 10 years.

Velvet ball

It is also called pompon. This breed is quite rare. Body shortened, with high back and long fins. Tail forked. Original appearance give growths near the mouth in the form of fluffy lumps, with a diameter of one centimeter each. These pompons can be white, red, blue or brown. Fish are quite capricious, and the flaws in the content can lead to loss of growths, and they are no longer restored.

So, we briefly reviewed the main varieties of goldfish and their differences. Perhaps specialists in breeding new breeds will not stop at this, and the world will see more variations of Carassius auratus. But even among those already available, there is something to admire and choose for one’s liking.

Japanese koi carps are lively gems.

Koi carps are decorative domesticated subspecies of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The koi carp is considered to be a fish that has passed 6 selection selections, after which it is assigned a certain category. Approximately 2500 years ago, carps were brought to China from territories adjacent to the Caspian Sea. It is not known for certain when the carp appeared in Japan; The first mention of it dates from the XIV-XV centuries AD. er - most likely, the carp was introduced to Japan by Chinese conquerors. The Japanese called it "Magoi" - black carp. Later, Japanese peasants began to grow it in artificial ponds for human consumption. In hard-to-reach mountain areas, carp were often the only source of food for humans, such as in Niigata province.
Sometimes some carp appeared deviations in color, fish with non-standard pattern were not eaten and kept at home. Gradually the cultivation of colored carps grew into a passion of the peasants. The owners crossed their fish, while receiving new color variations. This hobby has become popular among merchants and nobles and gradually spread throughout Japan. The Tokyo exhibition of Taisho in 1914 for the first time presented colored koi to the general public. Now in many countries there are clubs and associations of koi lovers, exhibitions and shows are held. Carp koi - great fish for keeping in ornamental ponds.
To date, there are 14 breed groups of carp koi (in one group there may be up to several dozen breeds!). If you want to have such a strange beauty in your home, the most difficult thing is to make your choice, because all the carps are equally beautiful, graceful and very interesting to watch.
Interesting Facts
At the beginning - a little about the word "koi". If you do not care how you look in a society of koi-lovers (and even before the fishes themselves)))) remember: the word "koi" never leans. There are no such words as "koya", "koyi", "which", "which". Always and everywhere only KOI is written and said, which is translated from Japanese and means carp.
To understand the beauty and uniqueness of koi carps, it is necessary at least in general terms to know the meaning of their purpose in the mythology, poetry and visual arts of the countries of the East. It is necessary to penetrate the philosophy and culture of Japan, look at it through the eyes of a connoisseur, understand something, comprehend something ... And, probably, “experience” something in life itself and overcome in order to have an idea about it. Carp is not just a “pretty fish”, but a living symbol, a living legend.
Japanese culture involves the enjoyment of contemplation, that is, the silent observation of natural beauty. For example, everyone has heard about the legendary sakura bloom, raised to a cult, but few know that the Japanese appreciate not only the fragile beauty and fragrance of flowers, but also the moment when these flowers begin to fall off. They can sit for hours and watch as snow-white or pinkish shreds spin in the wind and cover the ground. Flowering goes away, but this is not sad - this is natural, there is beauty in this too. Everything that happens in nature, its cycles, has its own special meaning for the Japanese. The same with carp.
Japanese culture is generally filled with symbols! Every animal, every bird, every flower means something. Carp for the Japanese - a symbol of prosperity, longevity, wisdom and courage, some kind of inner strength. There is even a form of martial arts - "Koi no takinobori ryu", whose name translates as "carp, swimming up the waterfall." Watching carps frolicking in the water is a contemplative ritual for the Japanese, like meditation. In China, carps were also always held in high esteem. We will tell you a very beautiful Chinese myth, which is as well as possible echoes Japanese symbolism, revealing the image of this wonderful fish.
Every self-respecting carp all his life dreams of becoming a dragon! When he grows up a little and gains wisdom, he gets to the magic river, and swims (notice!) Against the current. Underwater sharp stones, shoals, whirlpools and rapids lie in wait for him on this dangerous path. But if his spirit is not broken and he overcomes all difficulties, soon the so-called dragon gates will open before him: by jumping over them, he will turn into a dragon - big, brave, wise and immortal. At the moment of jumping through the gate, a transformation occurs - it is these metamorphoses that are depicted in the drawings, stone and porcelain figurines. The figure with the dragon's face, scales and fish tail is called: dragon fish. She is very beautiful in appearance (believe me, I have a china car-dragon in my house!), And symbolizes such a talisman of luck and perseverance, achieving goals and overcoming difficulties. Feng shui dragon fish is recommended for people who need to do something important, achieve something, climb the career ladder, or overcome their lack of complexes, timidity and indecision.
Our floating pets.
What is a koi carp in a garden pond? To begin with, the carp koi is perfect not only for contemplative observation, but also for full communication! Of course, this fish cannot be kept in an ordinary aquarium (it grows throughout life and can reach enormous proportions), but in the pond you will have to swim not just a “live decoration”, but a real favorite pet! Compliant, faithful, able to recognize the owner, his household and friends, to respond to the name, to respond to affection.
How we love our dogs and cats! And how we grieve when they leave us ... They write about koi that they live for about 70 years, but this is not the limit! In Japan, lived the famous female carp named Hanako (she is known to the whole world), who lived for over two hundred years! Like a family jewel, it was handed down from generation to generation, from father to son. You understand that such a fish can accompany you all your life (and even get to your descendants), and it's so great!
Many people treat aquarium and pond fish frivolously - they believe that a silent, incomprehensible, slippery scaly creature cannot be caressed or stroked, talk to him - in a word, that supposedly there is no “return” from the fish. As they say, any point of view has the right to exist, but not in the case of koi carps! Communicating with his carp, the owner begins to comprehend new facets of mysterious life forms different from us, to feel precisely the “return” from the contact and receive more and more pleasant surprises from exotic pets: not just “rang the bell - beautiful fish swam”. Koi carps are very intelligent, they have a good memory. The fish will recognize its beloved master not only by his voice, but by the vibration of his steps, which is unique for everyone! And apparently koi also distinguish one person from another. They are very fond of affection, they can be called, pat, communicate. The best and easiest way to tame a carp is to feed it from the hands. At first, we just syply feed, and give a treat from the hand, and very soon the fish will have full confidence in the owner.
By the way, at carp shows, koi are judged not only by the exterior. Among the various criteria by which fish are awarded (or not awarded) points, there is such a point as loyalty to a person. Carp should not be shy or aggressive, should respond to feeding and affection, not be afraid of the hands of man. If the fish does not show a healthy curiosity towards the audience and the judges, it is nervous, slips out of the hands, rushes uneasily in the water - for this they lower the assessment. All fish have different reactions to people, different characters. If there are several koi living in your pond, you will certainly notice the difference! Someone is more active and agile, someone is lazy, a gentle little girl, and someone is a lone wolf, who politely allows himself to be stroked, but he keeps to himself. Just like people!
It is clear that the fish that live for so long, will be for the owner not just decoration. Most likely, you will give your pet a name. In Japan, every koi carp has a name! Again - a poetic, romantic name; either human or figurative. Carp have their own pedigrees: it is interesting that the founder of a certain line is not the male, but the female, and it is her name that is indicated in the documents first of all. For example, carp "Heavenly mist, daughter of the famous Peach Petal." Carp females are valued more expensively than males and more often participate in exhibitions: they are larger than males, therefore color spots or an intricate pattern on their backs looks much more impressive, because their back is much wider. In addition, the movements of the females are calmer and slower, they collect food from the surface of the water for a long time, unlike the males, who grab it and go to the bottom.
Shows carp koi.
In Japan, the Koi carp exhibition is a complete event. It is interesting not only to participants and judges, it is not only a bright holiday for the audience. For hobbyists here there is an opportunity to learn in detail about the breeds and colors, peculiarities of content and breeding, to exchange experience with compatriots and foreign friends "according to interests". If the prize-winning fish has proven itself, entire lines are already lining up on its offspring. (Although many fish of the show class specifically refrain from manifestations of mating behavior, because as a result of rapid spawning, koi can lose some colored scales.) And when the exhibition ends, backstage sales, exchanges often begin, and the breeders agree among themselves about "infusions" fresh blood inside any of their pedigrees.
Auctions and sales of koi are not only confined to exhibitions. In September-October, they have been fishing for ponds - Ikeage (Ikeage), in English literature this term sounds like harvesting - literally: harvesting, when ponds are freed from fish, and transferred to enclosed spaces. Adults, young fish (most often sell carp-dvuhletki) or fry (promising koi up to a year, called Tosai) are put up for sale, and amateur collectors and dealers from different cities and countries also come to this event. By the way, a good koi with a pedigree is not cheap, and the cost of some fish is comparable to the cost of an old car or a thoroughbred horse - tens of thousands of euros.
And in Japan there is a carp feast! It is dedicated to the Day of the Boys ("Tango no seku") - a symbolic holiday, held on May 5th. It is similar to the initiation ritual: when boys are “initiated” into men - the child begins to realize himself not only as his mother's favorite, but also as the future valiant samurai, protector of the motherland and his family. The most famous attribute of the Day of the boys is "Koi nobori" - paper or cloth images of carps, which are hung on a pole near the house. The sizes of these carps are quite impressive, up to ten meters or more, and depend on the age of the children. The older the child, the longer the fish. Karpov hang out by the number of children in the house. And, of course, the main story on this holiday is the legend of the brave carp, which we have already spoken about.

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Extraordinarily beautiful Koi fish

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Extraordinarily beautiful Koi fish

Koi (jap. 鯉, koi, or more precisely 錦鯉, nishikigoi (nishikigoi), that is, brocade carp) is a decorative variety of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The koi carp is considered to be a fish that has passed 6 selective selections, after which it is assigned a certain category.

Karp Koi is the personification of calm, composure, loyalty and wisdom, as well as a symbol of perseverance and commitment to the goal. In Japan, this fish is highly respected, it has long been revered as a symbol of courage, courage and courage, as well as love and happiness. And yet it is believed that carp attracts wealth))
The word “koi” is translated from Japanese as “carp”.
Previously, carp stuffed samurai (he was considered a symbol of samurai valor). All because of the spawning carp swim upstream, many die, those who survive spawn a new generation. "The majority swims with the flow, daring units swim against the flow."

Carp Koi symbolizes the preservation of all things and success in life. In the Land of the Rising Sun, it is customary to launch carps into the pond, since it is believed that the divine messenger will quickly reach them to the sky and bring news about the state of affairs on earth. In China, there is a belief that a fish swimming upstream against the Yangtze becomes a dragon. In accordance with the legend above, carp with a dragon's head is sometimes depicted as an intermediate stage of transformation. Carp also symbolizes abundance, wealth, fertility, harmony. In general, the image of a fish swimming against the stream is a strong motivational symbol.
For a long time, koi carp remained the property of only noble people.

Approximately 2500 years ago, carps were brought to China. The ancient Chinese appreciated these fish. They gave them the name “Koi”, which we use to this day.

According to legend, in 533 BC, Confucius named this name his newborn son in honor of the fish presented to him by the emperor Shoko. Until now, in China and Japan, carp is the personification of strength and endurance. It is not known for certain when the carp appeared in Japan. The first written mentions of him belong to the 8th century of our era.

Most likely, the carp was introduced to Japan by Chinese conquerors and settled in local rivers and lakes. The Japanese called it “Magoi” - black carp. Later they began to grow it for eating. Very often, carp was the only source of protein for peasants living in hard-to-reach parts of the country.
It is hard to believe that Modern Koi evolved from the common carp that inhabit the lakes and rivers of Europe and Asia today. No one can say for sure when fish farmers began to notice changes in the color of their carps. Locals say it happened between the 1840s and 1844s.

Shortly thereafter, the cultivation of “colored carp”, or chirogy, became the passion of peasants. Fishes, in the color of which noticed deviations, began to contain as their domestic animals. On some of the koi, white areas appeared, on the others - individual red scales. The owners crossed their pets with similar fish that belonged to their neighbors, and the hobby began to gain momentum.

The Tokyo Exhibition of Taisho in 1914 first presented colored koi to the general public. The Japanese public was amazed because no one had ever seen such beautiful carps. It is said that after the exhibition, some of the koi presented were placed in a moat surrounding the Imperial Palace in Tokyo. From this point on, colored carps were grown specifically for sale.

Koi classification

There are more than 80 koi breeds. For convenience, they are divided into the following 14 groups combined by one or more common characteristics:

Kohaku Taisho Sanke

Sova Sanshoku Utsurimono

Becco Tancho

Asagi Shusui

Koromo Kinginrin

Kavarimono Hikarimudzhi Mono / Ogon

Hikarimyo Hikariutsuri

Goshiki Kumonri


The most popular is this, as it resembles the Japanese flag)))

Carp Koi (Koi-fish)

Carp tattoos are as diverse and popular as the fish themselves.
The design of carp tattoos often includes sakura, waves or splashes, and lotus flowers.

Koi Tattoo Meaning - Also known as the Japanese carp - a bright golden, orange and white fish. In Japanese, tattoo is one of the most visible and popular styles. It has many meanings, just like its ability to climb waterfalls and also symbolizes courage in hopeless situations.

Koi is considered a manly symbol. According to legend, koi climb the waterfall bravely, and if they catch him, he faces death bravely, like a samurai. Other Japanese meanings have perseverance and strength.
In China, if koi succeeded in climbing the “Dragon Gate” on the Yellow River, the koi would be reincarnated as a dragon. From the Chinese legend, koi is considered a symbol of progress and aspiration.

When Koi is used in tattoos, especially with running water, it symbolizes courage and the ability to achieve goals and overcome the difficulties of life. Tckb koi is floating upstream, which means that the owner of the tattoo is still struggling with problems, while koi floating downstream means that the owner of the tattoo has already overcome difficulties.

In our city garden, too, there are such beauties))

In Japan, it is popular to make origami, especially love to make Koi

one of the origami options - instruction


Money Koi =)))))

Feed the fish)))

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Japanese fishes in the Planet Zhelezyak