What kind of fish to have a novice aquarist?
In order for the fish to please their owners and to reveal the amazing underwater world to the aquarist, they need to provide comfortable conditions of detention. At the same time, they should feel safe and not be constrained in their movements.
Preliminary preparation before the acquisition of small fish
If you have never had an aquarium and no experience of keeping fish, then it is best to start fish that need minimal care and are not very demanding to the conditions of existence. This will avoid the death of your fish, as well as gain experience and knowledge in the content of the aquarium.
Many tropical fish require the maintenance of a certain water quality (hardness, acidity, temperature, etc.), the presence or absence of plants, a certain brightness of the light or its absence.
For unpretentious fish, the range of comfortable conditions is much wider, which allows them to be kept in a lower-quality environment. They are also less susceptible to negative factors (improper feeding, delayed water changes, etc.).
There are several determining factors when choosing a fish:
- aquarium size;
- selection and compatibility of different types of fish;
- the size and temperament of the fish.
If you already have an aquarium, you need to determine what and how many fish you can fit into it. This will avoid overpopulation, which leads to unnecessary fights, oxygen starvation, eating predators of peace-loving fish.
If you have enough space and money to install an aquarium of any acceptable size, as well as the necessary equipment to ensure the life of the fish, you can proceed to the next heading of this article.
If you are cramped in something, then you need to define your desires, given that small aquariums are much more difficult to maintain than large ones, but the latter require more time for maintenance. For example, a 100-liter aquarium will suit a novice aquarist better than a 50-liter aquarium.
A large aquarium is simpler and better kept for several reasons:
1. Water temperature and quality are more stable.
2. The impact of adverse factors on the fish takes longer, which gives the novice aquarist the opportunity to influence them in a timely manner. For example, in winter time, the water heater broke, the cooling process is slower and you can manage to get off and buy a new one before the fish get cold. Or ampularia died from old age in the thickets of a small aquarium, the water became dull, the smell appeared, fish began to die. In a large aquarium, this process will occur many times slower and you can remove the dead snail from the can without harming the fish.
3. In small aquariums there is little space for free swimming, and, accordingly, not every favorite decor can be placed in it.
4. Ample opportunities for design and decoration.
5. A large aquarium can hold a lot of large fish or a large number of small ones, it allows you to contain various types of fish.
With all the advantages of large aquariums, it is sometimes not possible to install it. Small aquariums are great for apartments, country houses or hostels, as well as for the second floors of private houses. Large aquariums weigh a lot, they are difficult to transport, take up more space, and in unforeseen circumstances cause more damage.The biggest advantage of a small aquarium is a financial issue. Aquarium, equipment, scenery, soil, plants, the cost of electricity, the treatment of fish cost much less.
Before acquiring you need to properly assess the benefits of both large and small aquariums. Answer yourself the question: "How much aquarium would you like and is there a possibility to contain such a volume?" If finances are not important, and you do not often move, then the choice is obvious. And if you do not want or can not afford a large aquarium, then a small aquarium is what you need for you. In any case, the main thing - comfortable conditions for the maintenance of fish.
Selection and compatibility of different types of fish
In order to determine which fish you like, just read the literature, watch videos, go to a pet shop or to the bird market. Make a list of the types you like most.
This list should be a little more than you will purchase. Subsequently, it turns out that not all fish are suitable for your aquarium, some are incompatible with each other, parameters or temperature conditions will not work for others. But the abundance of species in the fish market will allow you to finally form a list of the inhabitants of your aquarium.
To understand how roomy a settled aquarium is, you need to carry out simple calculations. In various information sources they vary. Some are based on the oxygen demand of adult fish, given the surface area of the water. Some cold-loving freshwater fish require 192 cm2 and tropical ones 64 cm2.Other calculations averaged justify - one liter of water is needed per cm of body length of an adult individual (for example, you can run five fish of 4 cm each in a 20 l aquarium)
For a marine aquarium, for each fish 2.5 cm long at least six months old, 18 liters of water are needed, and for later age 9 liters.
Some fish species share the size of the aquarium geographically and protect their habitat from other representatives. This leads to a decrease in the number of inhabitants in it.
At the simultaneous maintenance of different species need to pay attention to even the acquisition of fish. The key to a good selection of pets for an aquarium is the following conditions:
- similarity of climatic conditions (it is impossible to combine freshwater and saltwater fish, freshwater and brackish water bodies);
- about the same hardness and acidity of water;
- the same temperature;
- similar conditions on the speed of flow, soil quality, the presence of thickets and shelters, lighting.
When settling an aquarium, it is necessary to take into account the preferences of the species in relation to their location in the layers of the water column, and try to evenly distribute them.
The size and temperament of the fish matter
Important parameters for species compatibility are their size and temperament. Of course, it is impossible to contain predators and herbivores in one aquarium, otherwise the latter will become food. In the wild, larger fish eat smaller ones.
Even if you only have herbivorous fish, you need to check that the size of the smallest fish is larger than the largest mouth opening of the fish in the aquarium. This will avoid unnecessary casualties.
Certain fish are territorial and do not let other species close to their habitat. There can be many reasons:
- suitable food supply,
- the spawning ground arrangement (the couple who carry out the treasure jealously guard the nest),
- the presence of water turbulence with optimal temperature parameters, etc.
Differences in species manifested in modes and methods of feeding. For example, somobraznye eat food from the bottom, petsliiliformnye - from the surface. Some kind of fast and agile, and some - slow and unhurried. Fish require different food, and if you do not like it, it is better to choose pets with the same way of feeding. If you do not follow the feeding regime, then some species will be hungry and others will be overfed, which will lead to a reduction in the life span of all inhabitants.
Often, fish are acquired that have not reached puberty, which leads to incorrect judgments about their temperament. Therefore, in order to fully determine whether this fish suits you, it must grow and be in comfortable conditions. Of course, if any representative is unnaturally pugnacious, cuts off fins or clogs other fish, it should be isolated.
Fish, the most suitable for beginners
This topic is hot and is discussed in many forums. There are many types of fish that require minimal maintenance. This allows you to choose the most suitable pets for each novice aquarist both in a variety of colors and in size. The aquarium can be equipped with beautiful relief and plants, and originality will give a contrast to the color of the fish.
Very often, beginners choose viviparous fish such as swordtails, plazii, guppies, mollies, etc. And this is an excellent choice. They have a good survival rate, are easy to maintain, are active, have a long lifespan and do not require strict conditions of detention.
There are some types that are ideal for beginners.
Guppy - fishes of the Petsiliev family, with a peace-loving character, calm and unhurried in behavior. Coloring is very diverse and beautiful. To the composition of the water does not impose requirements. Periodically you need to change the water. Viviparous Easily distinguished by sex. Males are much smaller, more beautiful and brighter. Omnivores. Overfeeding is not recommended. Easily tolerate a decrease in water temperature to 15 ° C.
Swordtails - Family Peziliye. Have more than 25 decorative varieties. In the male, the tail fin has the shape of a sword. Very beautiful fish that does not require special conditions and specific size of the aquarium. Viviparous, easily reproduce. When the fry appear, the parents should be moved to a free container to avoid eating the children.
Gourami - mobile fish, differing in an interesting spotty color, are curious. To other species of fish and inhabitants are tolerant. They can breathe not only air dissolved in water, but also oxygen directly on the surface. Black out.
Somics different external originality. Unpretentious, peaceful, eat any food from the bottom. Clean up the remnants of food uneaten by other inhabitants. Orderlies aquarium. Prefer bottom-living and easy to get along with other species.
Neon - Representatives of the Kharatsin, there are more than 150 species of fish. The most common among beginners are red and blue. The content is simple, undemanding to water. They love the space, the length of the aquarium should be at least 50 cm. Excellent jumpers, so you need to cover the surface of the water with glass or a lid.
Danio - schooling, bright, beautiful fish. Aquarium is needed with a length of at least 55 cm. Very mobile and like space. Requires regular water changes and good aeration. Great jumpers, so you need an aquarium with a lid or glass. Prefer good lighting and clear, clean water.
Barbusses - schooling fish. There is a huge variety of species (more than 200). In the schooling content of peace. Very active. It is not recommended to keep them with fish, the tail of which has thread-like or voile forms. They love floating plants.
gold fish - representative of the carp family. It is very popular, but it requires a large volume of aquarium (per adult of at least 35 liters of water). Prefers clear, clean water and requires its regular substitution. Very voracious, so you need to be careful with feeding. Prone to overeating.
Antsitrus - somobrazny, herbivore. Very good orderly, nibbles small shoots from the glasses of the aquarium. The oral opening resembles a suction cup. Males are distinguished by a large number of whiskers. Peaceful. It is recommended to feed tabletized plant spirulina.
Presents the most common, unpretentious, do not require special care fish that are suitable for beginners. But this does not mean that they do not need to be watched, to know their preferences, the temperature of the water, etc.
Tips from personal experience
- When buying, it is better to purchase young and healthy fish (active, without external signs of disease).
- Before launching into the aquarium, it is better to stand for 3-5 days in a separate container.
- Buy better for 5-10 pieces, it will avoid same-sex.
- You need to choose 2-3 kinds of fish. 1-2 basic, third extra. For example, mollies and gourami as the main species, and ancytrus as an additional. The first two types are active, mobile, well contrasted, and ancytrusians will be orderlies.
- It is best to buy aquarium, equipment and fish in a bird market from one seller. He will remember you, and you can take his phone number without any problems and consult on unclear questions.
Aquarium for beginners: care, content, useful video
AQUARIUM FOR BEGINNERS
Problems faced by beginners when you first start an aquarium
The motivation for writing this article was the frequent appeal of newcomers to aquarism at FORUM FanFishka.ru. Almost every day, newly minted owners of the aquarium world ask their questions to which they either do not know the answers, or need advice, or have problems after the first launch of the aquarium.
All who asked for help on the forum, did not go unheeded! Even if the newcomer had gross or absurd mistakes, I never scolded him, and tried to explain what was what planned.
But, at some stage, I realized that I would not be enough for everyone and that I needed methodological material for beginners!
Looking at the materials already written on the site FanFishka.ru, I saw a sufficient number of articles - “about the first steps into the aquarium kingdom”. But, all of them were scattered and only mutually complementary. After analyzing further similar materials on the Internet, my desire to write a decent, systematic material, only intensified!
For constructive conversation, let's break down the article into sections:
1. AQUARIUM FOR BEGINNERS: arrangement, launch, frequent questions, problems.
2. FISHING AND PLANTS FOR BEGINNERS: what are the issues that are necessary, problems.
3. NUANS OF YOUNG AQUARIUM: rules that will help to avoid problems with the aquarium.
AQUARIUM FOR BEGINNERS
arrangement, launch, frequent questions, problems
To create an aquarium world, you need not only the aquarium itself, but also related products. Many beginners make the mistake of buying only the minimum part of the necessary equipment. And then they begin to run in a hurry in search of a product.
Remember, as Captain Vrungel said: "How do you call a ship, so it will sail." The first launch of the aquarium should be perfect - and this will be the key to the joy and pleasure from aquarium contemplation, eliminates possible problems and difficulties, and most importantly will give you invaluable experience. In the future, you can miss something, lazy ... but not now!
Below are links to articles in this section, in bold, priority articles are highlighted:
Running Aquarium from A to Z
An example of an aquarium design 100 liters
Which aquarium is better
WHAT NEED TO AQUARIUM
I WANT TO GO TO FISH: how to equip the first aquarium.
AQUARIUM BEGINNING: the basics of the aquarium, the basics of aquarium
FIRST AQUARIUM DAYS: Start the creation of the aquarium world of fish!
INVENTORY FOR AQUARIUM AND DEVICES
BOTTOM AND GROUND OF THE AQUARIUM
CHANGE OF WATER IN THE AQUARIUM! WHAT WATER IS NEEDED FOR THE AQUARIUM?
Boiled thawed or distilled water for aquarium
Seashells in the aquarium
SMALL AQUARIUM merits and demerits!
LACK OF THE AQUARIUM, but are these fish really necessary?
AQUARIUM FOR CHILDREN
Other questions on the forum ...Here's another, for convenience, as a reminder - I give a list of what ponabitsya for a novice aquarist:
- aeration, filtration;
- heat heater, thermometer;
- lighting, if not included;
- aquatic organisms: fish, plants, mollusks, etc .;
- food for prospective fish;
- inventory: net, siphon, aquarium silicone, sponges, buckets. Secondary - hoses, valves, windshield wipers, other;
Plus, I recommend to all beginners to buy immediately a means to stabilize the aquarium water. It is called the water stabilizer. Different brands have different names, here are some of them: Tetra Aqua Safe, Sera aquatan, Sera bio nitrivec ... others. Read about them here AQUARIUM CHEMISTRY.
The above articles fully disclose all the nuances of buying, installing and running an aquarium. Below are the blitz answers to the most frequent questions of novice aquarists.
1. Question: Is it possible to put the aquarium on the furniture? In the kitchen? Bath and so on?
Answer: Can. It is important that the surface of the furniture was solid and withstand the weight of the aquarium with water, soil and decorations. The aquarium can be placed anywhere, as long as direct sunlight does not fall on it. Cooking, bathing does not interfere with the life of the fish.
2. Question: After the launch of the aquarium, the water turned cloudy - became whitish!?
Answer: Nothing wrong with that. When you first fill the aquarium with water for the first time, the reservoir's biobalance is not yet tuned, because This is a long process. Primary adaptation processes of aquarium water occur. The whiteness of the water will pass itself in 3-7 days.
3. Question: What kind of water to fill in the aquarium? How often should it be changed?
Answer: You need to pour water at least 24 hours a day. Otherwise, you can run into trouble, for example, gas embolus. Yes ... you can fill the aquarium with tap water - but, counting on it at random.
The substitution of aquarium water is strictly individual and depends on the size of the aquarium, the number of fish and plants, and other factors. In general, it is customary to replace water once a week. Но, как показывает опрос на нашем сайте - это не является догмой.
"Как часто Вы подмениваете аквариумную воду на свежую?"
4. Вопрос: Можно ли аквариум декорировать имеющимися в доме статуэтками, ракушками, бусинками и т.д.
Ответ: Can.But, you must make sure that the material from which the decor is made is not soluble in water. The same shells undergo a gradual dissolution in aquarium water, which increases, albeit slightly, the rigidity of aquarium water. Painted, plastic items are best not to use. Metal - are prohibited.
FISHING AND PLANTS FOR BEGINNERSwhat is necessary, issues issues
Giving advice on choosing fish for a novice aquarist, you can immediately get rid of him with the phrase: "Choose unpretentious in the content, small fish, for example, from the family of petsilievi - guppies, swordtails, radishes, etc.".
But who thought it up that it is impossible to immediately start large, beautiful fish - the same tsikhlazom: severum, diamond or black-striped? If you properly care for them, then there will be no problems. And if you do not follow the aquarium and let everything go to chance, then the guppies will die in a week.
Perhaps the main qualification when choosing aquarium fish are your abilities and desires.
The opposite situation is with aquarium plants. It's not so simple. The success of plant maintenance is LIGHT + SUPPLY + CO2. Their deficiency leads to the death or poor health of plants.
Unfortunately, in the aquarium covers that come with, as a rule, there are 15-18 watt light bulbs, the power of which is insufficient for the normal existence of aquarium plants. Therefore, before you start a plant you need to study everything and prepare in advance.
The initial way out of this situation may be unpretentious, resistant aquarium plants that are not pretentious to the conditions of detention.
Below are the articles that fully and comprehensively disclose this section.
Aquarium Fish Compatibility
COMPATIBILITY OF GOLDEN FISHES
ALL about AQUARIUM FISHES
TOP: The most beautiful aquarium fish and fish!
The most unpretentious little aquarium fish
WHAT FISHES LIVE WITHOUT OXYGEN
What fish live in the aquarium. What kind of fish to get?
AQUARIUM FISHING OF ALL FLOWERS
Purchasing Transplant Fish Transportation
AQUARIUM PLANTS: let's talk about the benefits of plants for your aquarium!
CO2 for aquarium
The benefits and dangers of CO2 in an aquarium
Why in the aquarium ...
YOU CAN AQUARIUM: all the answers
Fish and snails: enemies or friends!
How much are the fish or the price of aquarium fish!
How much can the fish in the aquarium
Perhaps the most important thing when choosing fish is to take into account their compatibility and the volume of "living space". Do not chase the quantity!
Frequently asked questions by novice aquarists in this section:
1. Question: Did the fishes get covered with white dots, bumps?
Answer: This ichthyophthyriosis or "semolina" fish. It is treated with Tetra Contral or Sera Kostapur. Read more here:
Ichthyotiria how to treat semolina in aquarium fish
Discussion on the forum
2. Question: Fish die, why, what to do?
Why die fish or the sad fate of goldfish!
The first symptoms of fish disease
WHAT TO DO IF FISHES ARE DISEASE OR SUSTAINABLEWe also recommend you to look at the colorful brochure "Popular types of aquarium fish". This brochure contains all popular types of fish, with a description of their conditions of maintenance, compatibility, feeding + photos.
(to view or download, click on the image)
NUANS OF YOUNG AQUARIUM
rules to help avoid problems with the aquarium
DON'T BELIEVE SELLERS.
Unfortunately, they have such a job - to smell you as much as possible. Often the sellers' advice is wrong and aimed only at one greedy enrichment at your expense.
READ, LEARN, ASK QUESTIONS.
Actually this rule follows from the previous one - it is your weapon in the fight against lies. Your own opinion based on what you read is the key to success not only in aquarism. Read several materials on the topic of interest, for comparison and analysis.
DO NOT HURRY, AND THEN SUCCEED.
Do not rush, do everything thoroughly. It is impossible to get ahead of time - everything that was done in a hurry will collapse soon.
DO NOT OVERDO IT.
Feed the fish once a day, "do not rub" the aquarium daily, do not fill the aquarium with fish and plants. In fact: aeration, filtration, normal water temperature and feed - these are the basic living conditions of the fish.
STUDY AND USE AQUARIUM CHEMISTRY.
This will give you the opportunity to quickly adjust the bio balance of the aquarium, to keep it clean, and in the case of illness of pets - to take action on time.
BONUS: VIDEO FOR BEGINNERS AQUARIUS
I want to buy an aquarium and make fish. Where to begin???
Buy an aquarium of 20-30 liters (some 1500-2000 rub), a compressor (filter) - it purifies water and draws oxygen into it (500 - 600 rub), a thermometer (from 40 to 150 rub), a good book on breeding aquarium fish where there is a photo and description of the habitat (150 - 1000 rubles).
After that, you need to decide on the fish. If unpretentious - then guppies or neons. They need to take pack of 6-10 pieces at once and do not grow large. For these fish, the heater is needed insofar as. If the apartment is warm in winter, the fish will be fine and so. The temperature of the habitat is about 20 degrees. Well, still buy soil, algae, decal.
Other fish are more capricious.
The aquarium is preparing to start a whole month. For a beginner, an optimal volume of 50-100 liters. New aquarium before installing, thoroughly rinse the host. soap without additives or with soda. To it you must first of all purchase a filter with aeration and a water heater with a thermostat (the temperature in the aquarium should be 24-26 C) - all the equipment is matched to your aquarium volume. Thoroughly washed (if bought at a pet store) or boiled for 2 hours if they collected themselves) - the soil should be 3 - 5 mm, poured into the aquarium, half filled with water, you can directly from the tap, a filter with an aerator and water heater are installed with thermostat (all equipment must be completely immersed in water), be sure to thermometer monitoring the temperature of the water and the water heater and left in working condition for a week. During this time, you decide on aquarium plants, whether living or artificial and 3 living are the most unpretentious: Arrowhead, Valisnenria, Roghubnik (floating on the surface of the water), Indian fern, (decorations - grotto, snag, scenery - is chosen to taste), plant live plants for a week (if planned), completely fill the aquarium with water (it should be separated for at least 3 x days), the filter with the water heater should work continuously without shutting down
(24 hours a day) and leave for 2 - 3 weeks to fully establish biological equilibrium. During this time, a colony of beneficial bacteria will settle on the filter material and in the soil, and you will be able to determine the aquarium community, i.e., fish.
In an aquarium with a capacity of less than 50 liters fit
1. Guppies alone or with specialties
2. Aquarium with harazinki - Neon, Cardinals, Minor, Ternetsii, catfish - Mottled, Antsistr, Golden, Gastromizon
If the aquarium is over 100 liters then you can
1. Barbs - kept away from other fish
2. Angelfish, Gourami, Sword-bearers, Black Moth - you can keep each view separately or together
4. Goldfish - one fish should have at least 10 - 15 liters without tail fin
It is necessary to transfer the fish to the aquarium slowly over a period of 3 to 4 hours for the night, pouring half a glass of water from your aquarium every 20-30 minutes into the bag with the fish brought.
It is desirable to feed the fish with high-quality feed, frozen bloodworm, daphnia, Golden feed with vegetable feed (like duckweed), dry food as an additive - adult fish 1 time per day, adolescents 2 times. 12 day a week full hunger strike (fasting day).
First you need to gather information ...
Believe the sellers in the zoo shop is not worth it ... believe me - 99% of them do not understand anything in fish and they have one goal - revenue ... therefore they will calmly advise you 20 gold and ten scalar in a beautiful 10L vase on the leg ("what?? glamorous after all?!?! ") and it is extremely difficult for a newcomer to find from their amount the remaining 1%
Step one - decide on the type of fish ... for starters, choose 1-2 species and 1 type of catfish (from your own experience, especially if the aquarium is for a child - pay attention to the viviparous: guppies, molines, swordtails)
the second step - under the already selected type of fish we select the volume of the aquarium. carefully study the information about the volume of water for each species separately !! ! in many sources they give a formula of 1 l per 1 cm of the length of the body of a fish ... it is categorically not correct !!!! this formula is suitable only for the same live-bearers ...
The third step is to carefully study the information on the proper start of the system ... just pouring in the soil and pouring water is absolutely wrong ...
the fourth step - only after the information is read, the aquarium is up and running for 2-3 weeks without incident (for example, without cloudiness of water) only after that you can start buying fish ... do not rush to buy the whole flock at once ... break it 2-3 times ...
and do not rush to buy everything in one day ... I think if you stretch the child’s pleasure with the process of organizing the system - it will only be more interesting for him ... and as a result there will be less children's tears over the dead fish
there are a lot of aquarium portals ... it’s enough to type "an aquarium forum" in the search
as well as you can visit the aquarium community "Aquarium at Home" //my.mail.ru/community/akva-xobbi here will always help and prompt
Do not buy an aquarium less than 50-70 liters. It is much easier to care for such volume, it is faster and better established biological balance. Better get an elongated rectangular aquarium. The soil is 1-2 cm thick, the plants are better alive - arrowhead, echinodorus, 2-3 bushes will be enough, they are unpretentious and grow well. Do not worry about the decor, a large number of spoils the look of the aquarium. A filter with aeration is required (I have Aquael, everyone is happy). Thermometer. Feed dry Tetra (I like). Get 1-2 somikov (pterihi, antsistrusy), fish, I would advise the Sword (they are bright and unpretentious), mollies (there are black, yellow, white), danios, cardinals. Once a week, the replacement of 20% of water (water from under the tap should be left for a day or two). Siphon clean the soil every 7-10 days. If necessary, you will have to clean the glass from the inside with a green sponge, but usually the teteter beautifully cope with this.
Good luck to you! If anything - write!
Aquarium in the house - where to start?
Before we talk about the rules of care for an aquarium, it is useful to understand what it is for. Most people keep it for beauty. Many have a rest, admiring the change of pictures behind the glass bank. Someone keeps him in the apartment to humidify the air. Just listed is enough for the aquarium to take place in our home.
The main thing, probably, lies in the fact that caring for an aquarium opens up for many children the path to knowledge in science, where fish faithfully serve medicine, biology, and fisheries. An experienced aquarist will always find application in this industry. It is also very important that the aquarium is a model of the terrestrial biosphere. So, in your house decided to start fish. Where to start? With a choice of aquarium, of course. They are glass, prefabricated (metal frame, glass walls) and plastic. The first are good because they are always at hand: any jar can be turned into an aquarium. It is better to take rectangular cans. Round and spherical distort the shape of its inhabitants. In addition, glass aquariums have a small volume. They can not show all the variety of colors of the water world because of the relatively small number of inhabitants, which is provided by larger prefabricated aquariums.
But do not strive to acquire a very large aquarium - more than 10 buckets. In the event of a leak, you can flood your own and neighboring housing. It is accepted to divide prefab aquariums into very thin - “pictures”, a little thicker - “screens” and usual ones with a ratio of width to depth approximately one to one, and two to one lengths to them. Plastic aquariums for the constant maintenance of fish are uncomfortable: plastic quickly loses its transparency. They are only good for transporting fish.
Choosing an aquarium, do not forget to get the necessary equipment: nets, a rubber hose for making siphons, a water thermometer, a basin, a bucket, banks of different sizes for storing feed and temporary keeping of fish, a reflector for lighting and heating water with a lamp not exceeding 10 watts for every 10 liters of volume. To hurry with the acquisition of more complex equipment: thermostats, filters, aerators - novice aquarist should not. Over time, having gained experience and knowledge, everyone will decide how much, when and what new devices and automatons should be installed.
At home, you need to choose a place for an aquarium, then proceed to the preparatory work on its settlement with plants, clams and fish. First of all, check whether the acquired or made aquarium is flowing. Fill it with tap water to the brim. If everything is in order, you can do the washing of the aquarium. Putty and glass in a new fish house may contain harmful substances. They are removed during the week, daily replacing tap water. Water from local water bodies can only be used after pasteurization: two to three times heating to 80–90 degrees, in order not to introduce pathogens or parasites into the aquarium. Last time, wash it with soap and rinse well.
The next stage is laying the ground. It is made of well-washed sand or pebbles. The soil should be 4 to 5 centimeters thick. Pebbles can be put on its surface, better dark, to create a resemblance to a natural bottom. Now you can purchase plants. They are bottom and floating on the surface or in the water column. First landing is best done before filling the aquarium with water. Large dark green plants should be planted in the corners and along the back wall, light - in its center, and along the front glass - plants with beautiful patterned leaves. When planting it is important to ensure that the roots in the ground are properly located. After planting is completed, the aquarium is filled with settling tap water. She is defended for five days to get rid of chlorine. A few days later, when the bottom plants take root, you can put floating species into the aquarium and start up clams.
By this time, the aquarium comes to life. It forms the complex world of bacteria, the smallest algae, fungi and protozoa. Plants, releasing oxygen into the water, created favorable conditions for them. Such an aquarium is ready to meet fish or other large aquatic animals. Aquarists contain not only fish, they have shrimps, turtles and other exotic inhabitants of the waters.
Those who take the first steps in the creation of an aquarium should begin with the most undemanding inhabitants: with cold-water goldfish or some viviparous, such as guppies.
Novice aquarists often do not know the rules for selecting fish for living together. Remember that you should not keep together cold-water and warm-water fish, predatory and peaceful, large and very small. The density of the inhabitants of the aquarium should be optimal. When determining it, we recommend focusing on the following indicators. When keeping cold-water fish and very large heat-loving ones, take two liters of water for every centimeter of body length. The rest of the fish need to allocate at least a liter.
What is a healthy aquarium? This is clear water, bright greens, joyful behavior of the fish. He over the years does not need a complete change of water. In cold-water fish (they are big muddy) need to be cleaned once a week. In warm-water - once or twice a month. Cleaning begins with cleaning the glass of bacterial algal plaque. Then remove dead and excess plant sprigs (in the event that there are too many). In a well-lit aquarium, they can take up to half the volume of water. After completing these operations, siphon is removed from the bottom of the sludge, dirt, remnants of food. Purify water is added to a clean aquarium to the level of the previous level.
For warm-water fish, the constancy of the temperature regime is very important: temperature fluctuations during the day should not be allowed more than one degree. Although, of course, you can gradually accustom these fish to life at unusual temperatures (16 - 18 degrees), but it is still better to maintain 23 - 26 degrees in an aquarium - their living conditions in their native waters.
Very important for the normal health of pets has them proper feeding. Feed the fish should be once or twice a day. Leftovers after 10 - 15 minutes must be removed. They pollute the environment and contribute to the appearance of putrefactive bacteria in the aquarium. If there are signs of deterioration of water, it is necessary to make a thorough cleaning, replacing up to half the volume of water in the aquarium. If this does not help, catch fish, take out plants, rinse both them and the ground. In short, start over.
For feeding use dry, live, granulated factory feed. Try to feed the fish last, gradually adding live food. Best of all, he was homemade.
We want to have a fish. Where to begin?
First you need to decide on the type of fish. Everyone has different tastes - how can you advise something?
Then buy an aquarium — different types of fish have their own requirements for the volume of the aquarium. Or, first you buy an aquarium (the bigger it is, the better - it will be easier for a beginner to take care of), and in the future you will select residents for this volume. The tank should be rectangular, not round. Buy a filter suitable to the filter, natural, and not colored primer, so that the layer can be 5 cm, the fines fraction, heater, thermometer, dip net, siphon, decorations (snags, etc.- and shells, locks, colored glass windows and other nonsense are not needed). Glue the background (monophonic, for example, black or dark blue). If the aquarium has no lamp covers, buy lamps. Plants must be alive (some fish that spoil the plants will have artificial decorations), and there should be a lot of them. And only after the aquarium has been launched (in about a couple of weeks) will it be possible to buy fish. On the correct start of the aquarium a lot of information on the forums, read.
Fish should be bought last. First you need to equip everything for them. Aquarium, depending on the number and size of fish. Install a good filter, aeration and scenery that mimic the underwater world. And about the breeds of fish read on the Internet and find appropriate to your eye.
But suppose you have equipped everything, and so on. Then when you have a fish in a package, you put a bag of fish in the aquarium, but don't wait for ten minutes to get used to the fish and let the filter go to the aquarium, but if you have it fish, then catfish are not needed; in general, the filter is not needed;
I want to get aquarium fish - where to start?
Start first with the relevant literature! As soon as you get an aquarium and other personal belongings to it (equipment, soil, decor elements), do not rush to run the fish! As long as a microclimate is created in your aquarium, you will have plenty of time to study, pick up fish!))) Here you can be helped by a good aquarium site //www.aqa.ru/forum/
From the idea of institution of the aquarium and its inhabitants ...
For a start, look at the problems with which you will face and start the most simple fish, such as guppies, neons, catfish ...
And the bigger the aquarium, the easier it is to look after it ...
buy an aquarium filter soil plants siphon so that the soil can be cleaned with a sponge so that the glass can wash the rock or the castle and determine which aquarium you will take the more the easier it is to care for it better of course 150 liters and you will not be worried and you can taste the fish
I want to have a small aquarium and small cheap fish. I can handle it?
There is an opinion that the larger the aquarium, the easier it is to care for it. I started with a little. Be sure to need a system that enriches water with oxygen. Include at least a couple of hours a day. Snails to clean the walls of the aquarium. Some algae. From fish it is better to give preference to viviparous, guppy, swordtails. Only young animals immediately catch juicy and otsleylyat, and then their parents will eat them.
If without a lamp, then you need to adjust the place of the aquarium in the apartment. A lot of light green algae bloom on the walls. Little brown algae will prevail. Close to the window-in sunny weather, the fish "cook"
The larger the aquarium, the easier it is to look after it! In a small aquarium och. easy to disrupt the ecosystem. He gave a little extra food, the light mode changed slightly or (after cleaning) the composition of the water and already problems! not to mention the change in temperature (a smaller volume of water is more susceptible to fluctuations) If you don’t want to wind up big, look closer at 50-100 liter, It’s more or less normal. And the fish ... Guppies are the most unpretentious in the care and reproduction, they are viviparous.
11 quick tips for a novice aquarist
1) Do not immediately buy a small aquarium, take at least 60-80 liter, if, of course, at home there is a place for it. Larger aquariums are more resistant to temperature and chemical changes. Recently, the trend is for nano aquariums (aquariums up to 20 liters), but it is better to start with a larger aquarium.
2) Wash the filtering elements of your filter only in aquarium water (not in the aquarium itself), for example, in a bucket or basin, this will allow you to save those bacterial colonies that in turn help you in the fight against ammonia and nitrite. Tap water can kill them, which for some time will disrupt the biological work of your filter.
3) Do not forget and do not be lazy to replace every week 20-25% of water, this will allow you to fight with nitrates in your aquarium. And remember that you should not, as 80% of people in our country thought, pour out all the water once a year and boil the soil, it’s enough to replace 20-25% of the water with fresh water, which will ensure a long and happy life of your aquarium.
4) Do not overfeed fish, it is very important. Firstly, overfeeding harms the fish itself (here you can look at people, overeating was not good for anyone), and secondly, the food that was not eaten starts to rot in the aquarium (the smell of the swamp), which significantly spoils the water quality.
5) Always check the compatibility of the purchased fish. You must admit that nobody saw an open-air cage with wolves, penguins and rabbits living together in a zoo. In the aquarium just as well.
6) Do not release a new fish from the bag or bottle directly into the aquarium, first place this bag in the water to even out the temperature, then add 50-100 ml of water from the aquarium into the bag, the bottle - this is done in order to level the parameters water. It is better to do this alignment within 20-30 minutes, no less.
7) Before buying fish, inspect it very carefully for damage, cloudiness, sores and other abnormal condition.
8) Use the quarantine aquarium for newly arrived fish, this will help to keep the fish that you already have. The question is especially acute when the fish is not cheap, and in any case, the fish after some time become full members of the family and we, aquarists, need to take care of their health. So just in case keep a quarantine aquarium where you can watch a new fish for a couple of weeks for its health.
9) Run the aquarium consistently, so as not to overload the filtration system. The filtration system as a human body, if it is trained gradually, it will give a greater result than if you immediately give a greater load. Colonies of bacteria develop gradually with increasing load, so do not immediately run all the fish that you have identified yourself.
10) Do not believe the rule of 1 cm fish = 1 liter of water, who invented it and when, but this rule is not entirely correct.
11) Do not get carried away using chemicals, especially if you do not fully understand their effects and the consequences of their use.
12) Do not buy at the same time an aquarium and fish. To start, you need to purchase an aquarium, then start it up - put a well-washed, good soil, fill it with water, turn on the filter and let stand for several days. From now on, the filter can no longer be turned off. Then buy plants, plant them, and from this point on, turn on plant lighting in the aquarium. Living plants (not plastic) in an aquarium will noticeably simplify your life, they will create a favorable habitat for fish closer to nature, and also help in restoring the water balance by absorbing nitrites and nitrates harmful to fish. And only in a week or two it is possible to bribe fish and run into an aquarium - and then not in a crowd. Otherwise you will have a case.
It is worth remembering that the path to success in aquarism is through scooping up new and new information through books, magazines, forums and aquarium portals that help us to succeed in our hobby.
we have an aquarium of 30 liters, this is our first aquarium ... we bought the inner most expensive filter, installed it so that the flute (that is, a plastic watering can, from which the filtered water flows) was slightly above the water, well, a couple of centimeters, it turned out filter and compressor (for air) in the same device, before releasing the fish into the water, you need the aquarium with water, the filter and the algae to stand for about three days ... the fish bought three goldfish, 4 angelines, 4 fish that clean the aquarium and one cock ... and 3 snails ... live vut ... rejoice and grow, especially the cockerel ... eat fresh-frozen bloodworm and some other dry food. -2 times a day
The optimal volume of aquarium for a beginner from 50 liters. It is easiest to establish a biological equilibrium. Often, beginners make the first and most huge mistake - they flood the water, plant the plants, and launch the fish. And after 2 days, there comes a time of disappointment - muddy, smelly water, badly feeling fish, and a tantrum of the host. Why all? The aquarium was not running properly. Let's start from the beginning. You bought an aquarium. Together with the aquarium, the necessary equipment is taken: nets, a siphon for cleaning the soil, a thermometer, a heating pad with a thermostat, a filter with aeration. It should be noted that the filter is selected for performance depending on the volume of the aquarium from the consideration that it must pump at least 4 volumes of the aquarium per hour. An example of an aquas 100l - we take the filter with a capacity of 600-700 l / h. The capacity of the heating pad is also determined by the volume of aquas 1W per 1 liter. Soil and decorative elements can also be bought immediately. Install the aquarium on the cabinet level-aligned. Under the bottom of the aquarium it is necessary to put a soft gasket - it can be a travel mat or foam sheet thickness of about 5 -8mm. Use soft damp cloth to wipe the glass inside from dust and litter. Fill the aquarium a third with water - check the tightness of the seams, making sure that everything is normal to add water until it is completely filled.
Next, prepare the soil:
1. If the soil is artificial or natural bought in a pet store. Thoroughly wash, as they say, until blue in the face, changing the water until it remains clear when “rinsing”
2. If the soil is natural. Pre-disinfection is required for at least 1 hour at a temperature of about 90 C. Ensure that the soil is neutral (acetic acid). The aquarium stood for a day without comment - you can fall asleep ground. The thickness of the soil layer depends on what the aquarium will be - with plants (about 5 cm thick) or without (3 cm is enough).
Covered with soil. Arranged the elements of decor. Install equipment:
1. We hang a heating pad (water heater). The value of the thermostat is set to 24 - 26 degrees. Turn on.
2. Install the equipment. It should be noted that the filter should work around the clock, it is impossible to interrupt its operation for more than 3 hours. Turning off the filter for the night is a bug for newbies, then a little boom boom boom happens, in a simple way the release of organic matter and kapets to everyone. At this stage, you can plant the plants to decide what will be living or artificial.
4. Lighting about 6 - 9 hours a day.
In this state, the aquarium should be at least 2 weeks. During this period, turbidity of water can be observed - the result of the process of reproduction and death of bacteria, the beginning of the establishment of a bio-balance. After, we launch the first inhabitant of an inexpensive and tenacious one - for example, catfish Ancistrus. We are waiting for another two weeks, Somic can be given a small pinch of food. The start-up process can be accelerated by forcibly placing bacteria into the aquarium with a portion of water from a well-established aquarium. Fish: their most simple and unpretentious: this is Guppy + Petsilii, you can have a flock of haracíns: Danio, Cardinals, Minor, Thornea at the bottom of Ancistrus and a few speckled catfish. The water in the aquarium is never completely changed but only replaces 20-30% of the total volume with a ground siphon 1 time in 7–10 days, the filter is washed only as it is contaminated no more than 1 time in 10–14 days. Feeding: adolescents are fed 2 times a day, adult fish 1 time one hour after turning on the light in the aquarium and an hour before turning it off, they give exactly so much that during 2 maximum 5 minutes it is completely eaten without residue 1 day a week unloading.