Life-Giving Aquarium Fish
Viviparous fishes have found a wide distribution among beginners and experienced aquarists. Screaming bright coloring, calm behavior and simple care for various representatives of this species made them permanent inhabitants of marine and freshwater aquariums.
Aquarium fish that do not lay eggs, but give birth to live fry, are represented by families:
- four-eyed fish (has up to four species);
- Hudey (about 16 genera and 35 species);
- and the most common family is petsilievye.
The pezillium family includes about 26 genera and 186 species of viviparous fishes. It is one of the most numerous. Habitat - fresh and brackish water bodies of Central and South America, southern United States. Many species are bred in large quantities in South Asia.
Requirements for aquarium and equipment
This family prefers the pack way of life, which determines the size of the aquarium. Capacity for them should not be too small. The volume of the aquarium should be at the rate of 1.5-5 liters of water per individual, depending on the size of adult fish.
The presence of good lighting will reveal all the color range of the color of fish, and in some places dense vegetation will allow females to rest from the males constantly pursuing them.
Large viviparous individuals need a lot of space to create enough personal space (if there are a large number of males in the aquarium). The dominance of the latter in the pack determines their rivalry.The dominant male often suppresses the rest during the confrontation. The loser becomes the object of regular harassment and beatings.
In their natural environment, viviparous fish live in stagnant or weakly flowing water. Creating a small flow in the aquarium will ensure uniform mixing of water and accelerate the growth of fish. And the presence of good aeration will improve the living conditions of pets in the aquarium.
The temperature of the content for almost all types is in the range from 20 to 29 ° C. Depending on the size of the aquarium, you need to choose the appropriate heater with automatic temperature control.
For proper use of the water filter, it is necessary to select its type in accordance with the volume of the aquarium. The filter should exclude the possibility of sucking the young, which will increase its survival rate.
Content of viviparous fish
In the content of viviparous fish are simple. They have high adaptability to different water bodies and conditions in them. Thus, the petsiliev family transfers successfully:
- a sharp increase or decrease in temperature;
- low oxygen content;
- poor light;
- lack of aeration;
- as well as hard water composition.
To create a comfortable environment this family needs good lighting. Natural or artificial reflected light will emphasize the color of the fish and reveal all their coloristics.
When feeding should take into account that the main part of the diet of viviparous fish should be of plant origin. For the rapid growth of petsilievyh need to use various types of food: live, frozen, dry. You can give additional vegetables, pre-doused them with boiling water (cucumbers, cabbage, etc.). Adult fish is enough to feed once a day, and the young at least 4-5 times.The presence of abundant vegetation and at the same time free space allows you to bring the conditions of detention to the natural. Tender young shoots of plants will be an additional source of nutrition in the diet of fish.
When settling an aquarium in viviparous, it should be noted that there should be 2-3 females per male. This will avoid confrontation among males in determining the leader.
Viviparous fishes can successfully live in bad water, but to ensure the most comfortable conditions for their existence, it is necessary to carry out weekly changes. The amount of replacement is up to 30%, depending on the care requirements for each type of fish.
Viviparous fishes are distinguished by simplicity in breeding and fecundity. Adult females of some species can produce up to 200 fry for one genus. Sex differences are pronounced:
- females are larger than males;
- in males dorsal and caudal fins subtle;
- males are more graceful, slimmer, have a bright and catchy color;
- The main difference between the male and the female is the presence of gonopodium (a transformed anal fin, having the shape of a tube for the passage of seminal fluid during fertilization of the female).
The age of the fish and the conditions of keeping affect the spawn of the female, the duration of its development (from the egg to the fry - from 30 to 50 days) and the one-time number of young animals born. Puberty viviparous fish occurs 3-4 months after birth.
The female has caviar. The male with the help of seminal fluid and gonopia fertilizes her. The female bears a spawn and produces part of the fry, the remaining fertilized calf develops further. Thus, once a fertilized female without the participation of a male can give birth to fry for another six months.Females before birth give a dark spot in the anal fin. The abdomen becomes round and full.
After birth, the fry (size 0.6-1 cm) rise to the surface of the water, fill their swim bladder with air and begin the struggle for survival. They develop quickly and on the second day they eat crushed food (dry, live, frozen).
To increase the survival rate, the fry need thickets of plants. As floating well fit Riccia. During the joint keeping of adults and young animals, it is necessary to ensure sufficient feeding, then the producers will not eat their offspring.
Popular species of viviparous fish
The following types have gained wide popularity:
They differ in body shape, color, variations and preferences.
The origin of this species began in the coastal areas of water bodies of northeastern South America, the Lesser Antilles.
The size of an adult guppy is 5.5 cm. Group content should be two females and two males. The optimal volume of the aquarium - 54 l. There are no requirements for water hardness, and the temperature regime is from 25 to 27 ° C. You can feed dry, frozen, live food.
Males look slimmer, with a very bright color, have gonopodies.
Fish require a lot of vegetation in an aquarium with free swimming space.Guppies can't get along with the barbs.
In breeding, a small group of females and males grows rapidly. Growing juveniles reach sexual maturity in just a few weeks. To avoid uncontrolled breeding, after three weeks the young should be divided by sex.
Malkov best managed to breed, feeding artemia, spirulina and small dry food. It is important that the water was clean.
This view comes from the quiet backwaters of small rivers and brooks of Mexico.
The body length of an adult patchillia reaches 6 cm. It is better to keep them in a group of two males and four females in a specific aquarium with a capacity of 60 liters or a total of 80 liters. To the composition of the water, the hardness of the partilii is undemanding. The water temperature should be in the range of 22 to 26 ° C. In feeding, picky, so that suitable dry, live or frozen food.
Males are narrow-bodied, strong, with more intense coloration, have gonopodia.
Percylia require an aquarium with abundant vegetation. Get along well with other inhabitants. Keep with closely related species (swordtails) is not recommended, as there is a crossing.
Breeding can be in species and general aquariums. It should be borne in mind that in general aquariums only a few fry can survive in the first few weeks. The female, ready for childbirth, is placed in a separate aquarium with vegetation. Two weeks later, she gives birth to 100 fry. Adult individuals, as a rule, do not pursue them.
Feed the fry can be crushed dry food and larvae of Artemia. In a homogeneous age group, young animals grow faster. After 3-4 months, babies reach puberty.
From the wild form of the partilias, which is colorful by itself, as a result of crossing with similar species, new color variations were obtained.
Molly owes its origin to the coastal waters of the small bodies of water in Central America.
The size of the fish reaches 8 cm. It is better to keep a group of three males and five females in a species aquarium with a volume of 80 l or in total with a volume of at least 112 l.
Water is suitable for varying degrees of hardness with temperatures ranging from 25 to 26 ° C. The health of the fish improves when salt is added to the water at the rate of 20 g per 10 l.
In the diet mollies is picky. It will suit dry, frozen or live food. It is desirable that vegetable food prevailed.Males are more graceful, brighter colored, with large fins and gonopodia.
Aquarium for maintenance is needed with dense vegetation, where there is enough space for swimming. Get along well with other species of fish, but easily interbreed with fish of the same species. Peaceful.
After pregnancy, which lasts about 4 weeks, the female gives birth to 150 fry. It is not necessary to plant young in another aquarium, since mollies do not eat their offspring. In a species aquarium breeding is particularly successful.
Feeding young stockings is successful if you use medium-sized plant and animal feed. As an additive suitable fine or pulverized dry food.
This species originates from Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. It inhabits reservoirs in the lowlands and in the highlands.
The size of an adult individual reaches 15 cm. It is better to contain a group of five females and the same number of males in a species aquarium with a volume of 112 l or in total with a volume of 160 l.
The hardness of the water is insignificant, the comfortable temperature for the content ranges from 23 to 25 ° C. Feeding is omnivorous and successfully consumes dry, live and frozen food.
Males are smaller and brighter, have gonopodia, on the tail fin there is a sword. Females are fuller, taller. The sword in the male orange-yellow, green or red with black edging. The color of the females is paler than that of the males.
In the content you need a lot of free space for swimming, and also need a place for shelter. Swordtails get along well with similar species of fish.
When grooming females, males are prone to conflicts, so it is necessary that there are more females in the aquarium. This will help avoid hassles. After four weeks of gestation, the female gives birth to up to 200 fry, which are sometimes pursued by adults. One fertilization of the female is enough for several reproduction cycles.
Young animals are better to grow separately, it will increase the survival rate and growth rate. Fry immediately begin to eat small live food, as well as dry food and powder of spirulina.
Sometimes it is possible to observe the rebirth of some females into males, especially if they are kept separate from the males.
Are viviparous fish suitable for beginners?
The content of the aquarium at home is already widely known and popular. The most popular were viviparous aquarium fish - this is due to their great diversity, fairly simple care and the opportunity to explore the water world, comfortably seated, on the contrary in a chair.
Viviparous fish in an aquarium is not a sign of a beginner, many professionals with great enthusiasm are engaged in breeding, their maintenance. They are of particular interest to fans of experiments with selection - due to the peculiarities of reproduction, there is the specificity of the appearance of diverse offspring, which is significantly different from their parents, even from their original species.
Specificity of breeding and maintenance
Care and breeding of viviparous aquarium fish is not so difficult. They adapt perfectly, allowing you to endure withstanding temperature differences, pressure surges or increased water hardness. To get such fish at home, you will need to comply with a list of criteria that are important to consider when caring for your pets.
First of all, it is bright, preferably natural lighting (or use a strong artificial). In order for your pets to grow well and develop, you should observe a balance between the place free for swimming and the filling of the space with thick thickets of aquarium plants.
If the aquarium is of a general type with a low density of fish landing, then it is recommended to give preference to floating, small-leaved, dense plants, by type or salvinia. The center of the tank should be empty - this is free space for adult fish. The optimal temperature range for the majority of viviparous is from +20 to +24 degrees.
Pecilia is well suited for beginner aquarists.
The development time of caviar in different fish species depends on many factors, ranging from the conditions of care and ending with the age of the fish - on average it is 30-50 days. A signal for pregnancy is the appearance of a dark spot on the abdomen - this is a characteristic feature for any species of viviparous fish. As soon as the fry are born, their main goal is to reach the surface in order to fill the bubble with oxygen, to escape from adult individuals, eating small crustaceans, hiding in dense thickets. From this point on, only proper care will help them survive.
If you are purposefully engaged in breeding and rearing fry, then you need to bear in mind that care for the female should be special. A pregnant fish should be planted in advance in a separately prepared vessel filled with small-leaved plants at the bottom (preferably on the surface too).
To feed the fry will not be difficult - the main thing is that the feed matches the size. At first, experienced aquarium keepers advise feeding babies with small cyclops, daphnia and young crustaceans - Artemia.
Beautiful little guppy.
A distinctive feature - female viviparous fish are larger and pale, but the males are small and very bright.
Brief description of the main types
Viviparous aquarium fish is a large group of fish that tends to live in freshwater and lightly saline waters of the continent of South America. The main difference that is reflected in the name of the group is their ability to live birth, i.e. the roe is fertilized inside the female, and fully formed fry are born that are able to feed and seek shelter.
For a brief introduction, it is worth looking at this list of species and their characteristics in order to form a complete understanding of who they are - these viviparous aquarium fish and what kind of care they should be.
- Guppies are the most unpretentious, widespread and very useful in their natural habitat (they feed on the larvae of anopheles mosquitoes);
- Sword-bearers are also quite unpretentious, the indigenous inhabitants of the lakes of Guatemala and Mexico. A feature of their exterior is the presence of a special tail fin in males - in the form of a sword;
- Plyatipetsillii - fish are able to quickly change their color, having a whole range of colors on the scales. It is best to buy them if you have a small aquarium, but you want an interesting variety;
- Girardinus - interesting fish with a colorful color, which does not impose any requirements on the environment or food, but do not like overheating of water and direct sunlight. To make the fish feel comfortable, create several darkened areas for it using aquarium plants.
- Minesia is a very capricious viviparous species. Therefore, one should begin one's experiments not with it, but with simpler options, more than enough of which.
- Formosa is a very useful aquarium species of fish: it is a nurse. In addition, the fish is very unusual and beautiful - the color is creamy yellow, big eyes and a dark stripe along the entire two-centimeter body.
A pair of girardinus.
Swordtail - a characteristic fin can not be confused.
Molynesia is a very capricious person.
Viviparsing aquarium fish
Among inhabitants of aquariums, viviparous aquarium fish occupy one of the leading places. Most fans of aquarium fish begin their passion with viviparous species. Interest in these fish can drag on for many years, not only for beginners, but also for experienced aquarists. Such a lively interest is explained by the peculiarities of reproduction of viviparous fishes, the ease of their maintenance, as well as a large variety of offspring created by breeding and crossing varieties. Such features give a good chance in a relatively short time period to obtain a variety of varieties of aquarium fish, which will be different from the already existing species.
Features breeding aquarium viviparous fish
Reproduction and maintenance of viviparous aquarium fish is quite simple. Excellent adaptability allows them to endure temperature fluctuations and strong pressure, as well as very hard water. Для содержания большинства видов живородящих рыбок не нужен аквариум больших размеров. Желательно, чтобы освещение было довольно ярким и естественным, однако при отсутствии таких условий подойдут искусственные источники света. Хорошие условия для развития и размножения живородящих рыбок создаются в аквариумах с наличием свободного места для плавания и одновременно густыми зарослями растений.
растения для живородящих рыб
В аквариуме для живородящих должно быть много растений. Viviparous multiply even in the general aquarium, in which, with a small density of fish landing, it is possible to grow floating, small-leaved, dense plants, for example, Riccia or salvinia. In the very center of the aquarium, there should be enough space in front for adults to swim. The most favorable temperature for the maintenance of most viviparous fish is + 20-24 °. The composition of water, as a rule, for the maintenance of this type of aquarium fish is not significant, it can have significant or average hardness, be only "settled", fresh or even "old."
Depending on the age of the female, as well as the conditions of its maintenance, the duration of the development of eggs in viviparous aquarium fish ranges from 30 to 50 days (also depends on the species). The female in front of the anal fin during this period has a rather distinctly visible dark spot, which is called the “pregnancy spot”. Literally 2-3 days before the “birth”, the female's abdomen acquires a “rectangular” shape. The number of juveniles in viviparous females depends on the species, age, and habitat conditions. After the birth, the fry immediately rise to the surface of the water to fill the swim bladder with air, they literally from the first days begin to feed on small crustaceans and save their lives from adult fish.
The best breeding of viviparous fish is possible, if a particular species is kept separate from others. Shortly before the “birth”, the female is placed in a separate vessel with a large number of small-leaved plants, which can be located at the bottom of the vessel and on the surface of the water. It is possible to place the female in a separate insulator of the aquarium, the holes in which would not allow her to swim out into the common compartment. The holes in the bottom should allow the fry to fall down immediately after birth, and only then emerge. The size of only born fry is from 0.6 to 1 cm.
It does not cause difficulties and feeding the fry, they eat almost any food of the appropriate size, but it is best to give them small cyclops, daphnids and young Artemia. The use of home-made or reflex-type feeders, which are self-made or purchased in specialized stores, greatly facilitates the feeding process. The maturing of the fry of viviparous fish occurs at a rather fast pace; in 4-6 months they already become sexually mature individuals. Females of viviparous fish are larger than males, but males have a more expressive color.
Types of live-bearing aquarium fish
Viviparous fish include a large group of fish living in low-salt and fresh water bodies of South America. All species of viviparous aquarium fish are different from other ones in that the fertilization of eggs takes place inside the body of the female, fully formed fry are born, ready to eat fully. The greatest interest in breeding viviparous fish is the possibility of breeding new species, but to practice selection and crossing of various subspecies of viviparous fish, it is necessary to understand the features of the biology of this group of aquarium fish. To do this, you must have, as a rule, several aquariums, as well as theoretical training. To have a clearer idea of which viviparous fishes, let's consider their most prominent representatives:
- Guppy. This type of aquarium fish belongs to the most unpretentious, so novice aquarists are advised to breed guppies. The name of these fish received from the English botanist named Guppy. They are well accustomed and have received their greatest distribution in the aquariums of Venezuela, the island of Barbados, as well as the Trinidad Islands. Under natural conditions, guppies are very useful because they destroy the larvae of the anopheles mosquito.
red swordtails: male and female
- Swordtails - unpretentious and prolific inhabitants of the waters of Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. The males of this species of viviparous aquarium fish have as decoration tail fin, resembling a sword in shape. Sword-bearers during spawning are not averse to eating offspring, so you should organize a “birth” so that the fry fall to the bottom immediately after birth through a narrow slit.
- Platipecilia - quickly changing color, motley fishes. Their body has a whole range of color shades. These fish are the most suitable option if you want to have a wide variety of aquarium fish, but the presence of a small aquarium.
- Girardinus - These colorful fishes are unpretentious neither to living conditions, nor to food, but they do not tolerate overheating of water and direct sunlight. Girardinus is able to withstand water temperatures of + 15 ° C. Shady areas for habitat of Girardinus are easy to create with abundant vegetation. Because of these peculiarities of living, it is difficult to keep them in a common aquarium with other fish.
- Mollies refers to a rather capricious viviparous species of fish. After this initial experience, it is best to tackle this fish with guppies, swordtails, and beaches. In order to reproduce mollies, aquarists try to choose darker representatives for offspring with a black, slightly velvety color.
- Formosa - is a two-centimeter fish with a creamy yellow color and big eyes. A dark stripe runs along the body of formose, which intersects with transverse stripes at an equal distance from each other. Formosa is a useful fish, it is the nurse of the whole aquarium.
Live-breeding aquarium fish - what are they?
After acquiring an artificial reservoir from each novice aquarist, the first natural impulse is the desire to fill it with all kinds of fish. But with what, to start?
Today in the world there are many different types of aquarium fish. And the simplest thing that they usually offer or advise in a pet store is live-bearing aquarium fish. They differ from other species of fish in that they are easier to maintain. Also breeding them is not a big deal. They also have very diverse offspring.
This happens by breeding and crossing different species of fish. For some reason, it has already been developed that it is these, the so-called viviparous fishes that are always the first to populate new aquariums. But you get so used to them that you start to get involved in them for many years. Therefore, they occupy the first place among the water aquarium world. Let us consider in more detail what these fascinating representatives of the underwater world are.
Content and breeding
As mentioned above, viviparous aquarium fish, photos of which are quite often found in various aquarium magazines, are very easy to maintain, and there is no problem with reproduction. So, for this it is enough just to create good living conditions. In addition, there is absolutely no need to purchase for them huge aquariums. They tolerate temperature drops very well. Also, viviparous fish perfectly adapt to hard water, which is very important.
For them, you need at the same time a lot of space, and that there are thick thickets of plants. There are differences between male and female. As a rule, the female is somewhat larger than the male. It is very interesting to watch the female in front of the so-called "clans". The abdomen of the female becomes rectangular. It is better, of course, during pregnancy to place it separately from other fish.
The female releases live fry already. She does not delay caviar at all. Also do not forget to create for her a separate container with the same conditions as in the aquarium. For example, many experts recommend filling it with plants. Fry, to fill their swim bladder with air, immediately float to the surface. In addition, newborn fish are very agile and skillfully survive among adult fish. From the first minutes of life, they can hide between thickets and provide themselves with food. There are also no problems with feeding the fry. They are not picky and eat virtually any feed.
The most common and popular types of aquarium fish are viviparous. They constitute a large group of such fish. The list of such fish is very large. To better know what fish belong to the viviparous, you need to get acquainted with the most common species and their names.
This type of fish, photos of which can be seen below, is the most popular and most famous. Their homeland is Latin America. They are very calm. They are very easy to maintain. Not picky, tenacious and prolific. Breeding this type of fish is not very complex. Therefore, for beginners aquarists - this is a great choice. There are many varieties, photos of which are presented below, namely:
All of the above varieties of Guppy will be the decoration of any aquarium.
This fish, whose photo you can see below, got its name because of its tail, which is very similar to a sword. Their homeland - the tropical waters of Central America, southern Mexico. She is also a viviparous fish. Also, like Guppy is safe for other fish. Swordtails are very beautiful and have a bright color. A distinctive feature between the female and female is their size. The female is slightly larger in size than the male. She is also not as expressively bright as a male. Their body has an elongated shape. There are many types of swordtails, photos of which are presented below. So, these include:
- tricolor swordtails;
- flag swordtails;
- swordsmen voilehvostnye;
- swordtails green;
- black swordmen;
- swordtails calico
Their maintenance and breeding does not require much effort. These fish differ from other fish in their mobility. Therefore, do not forget about the presence of the cover on the aquarium, as they can jump.
Homeland of these fish - South America. The description of these fish is better to start with the fact that representatives of this species equally well tolerate both fresh and lightly salted water. This species of fish is distinguished by species diversity and all sorts of colors. Males, on the other hand, differ from females in that they have a white-yellow color, which turns into bluish. Females are brownish-gray in color, as indicated in the photo below, and on the sides are small reddish lines. The reproduction of these fish is very simple. The female in just one tag produces up to 80 fry. But unlike Guppy and the Swordsman, Pecilia does not need to be transported to another container.
Pecilia is unpretentious and peaceful. You can feed the fish and dry, and live food. The optimum water temperature is 23-25 degrees. Also must be water filtration. Keeps in flocks.
Species of Pecillia:
- Calico pecilia
- Moon moon
- Petilia is red.
- Petilia tricolor.
- Pechiliya spotty.
Homeland Mollies - South America. These fish, the photos of which are shown below, prefer a little salty water. But not in any way iodized. It is best to use a special salt for aquariums. You just need to add the right amount and the right amount of salt. This can be 1 teas or 1 tablespoon of salt per 10 liters of water.
Mollies has a flat elongated body shape. Slightly similar to the Sword. The back of the body ends with a rounded tail fin. Their color is varied. There should be a lot of space in the aquarium, as the fish are very mobile. Swordsmen are also very playful and can jump out of the water. Therefore, the aquarium should be equipped with a lid. Representatives of this species breed as well as all viviparous fishes. Eat a variety of foods. Varieties of Mollies:
- black mollies;
- sailing mollies;
- splenops mollies;
- freestyle mollies;
- Velife mollies.
And finally, I would like to say that no matter how viviparous fish was acquired, no problems with it are foreseen. The only thing that needs to be done is to comply with the minimum conditions for keeping fish in an aquarium.
Viviparous inhabitants of the aquarium
Viviparous aquarium fish are often found in home aquariums due to the ease of their maintenance and breeding. The aquarium fish from the order of the toothed carnivans of the family Pelziliev are the most popular viviparous inhabitants of aquariums.
Fish from the order kartozubyh in nature inhabit the waters of the countries of South and North America in places with slow-flowing or standing waters with dense vegetation. Some species can live in alpine lakes saturated with oxygen, and some live in brackish water near the sea.Swordsman
Viviparous fishes are distinguished by external brightness and some individual features in the difference of sexes. Males are colored more expressively and smaller in size, their tail and dorsal fins are elongated. Reaching sexual maturity, the tail fin of the male turns into a mobile gonopodia or andropodium, which releases the fertilizing liquid.
The main difference of viviparous fish is that they give rise to already formed fry. Depending on the variety of fish, the maturation of eggs inside the body of the female lasts 22-50 days.
Viviparsing fish are divided into two groups:
- in one case, the fertilized calf independently develops in the body of the female, the eggs feed at the expense of their own nutritional reserves, this variant is also called egg production;
- in the second case, the fertilized eggs grow to the mother's uterus wall and feed on both their own nutrients and maternal ones.
The overwhelming majority of viviparous fishes come from the family of Pelziliys and Gudiavs. In addition to the well-known guppies, mollies and swordsmen, viviparous fish have in their assortment also other interesting representatives: limia, xenotoka, alfaro, dermogenis, belonezoks, ameca and others.
Guppy is considered to be one of the most widespread viviparous small fish. These fish are recommended for beginner aquarists, as they have a peaceful disposition, visual appeal and unpretentious care. Guppies are painted with multi-colored tones, covered with specks and stripes. Breeders continue their activities in the breeding of all new guppy species to this day. Their life lasts up to 3 years, and therefore mature quite early.
These fish come from a detachment of sargan-like families of half-fish, live in moderately warm waters and keep in the upper layer of water. The name xenotoki received due to the uneven development of their jaws. Among the varieties of xenotoks, aquarium orange and red-tailed species are popular.
Aquarium swordtails are easily distinguishable from other small fish due to their tail fin in the form of a sword. As a result of crossing species of Sword, multicolored individuals of incredible beauty were bred. These fish also stand out for their ability to produce large offspring. But spawning equipment should be equipped so that producers prone to cannibalism do not eat their fry.
Formosa have a creamy yellow color and reach up to 2 cm in length. These tiny creatures are the orderlies of the aquarium, feeding on all sorts of small organisms and bloom from plants. The fish are easy to maintain and perfectly decorate the aquarium.
Aquarium motley girardinus are natives of South America and are named after the scientist Gerard. Fish are accustomed to darkened habitats and cool water. Their distinguishing feature is that the black specks on their body suddenly turn pale from fear or a sharp drop in the temperature of the water.
Fishes of the Gudiev family, Ameks live in closed river beds with dense vegetation and a large number of algae. Aquariums ameks have a silver color, the males have a black stripe along the edge of the caudal fin. Viviparous ameks are quite aggressive among their relatives, especially during the spawning period. Pregnant females swell like a balloon, and fry are born with an umbilical cord, which falls off after 3 days.Girardinus Spotted Tail
Content in an aquarium
Viviparous fish are able to withstand almost any aquarium conditions, tolerate a strong increase and decrease in temperature, as well as hard water. The size of the aquarium can be any, for a bevy of guppies fit 5 liter capacity. Bright lighting is required, which can be both natural and artificial. Dense thickets of plants like riccia or salvinia should not fill all space with them, as the fish need free space for swimming and full development.
Water parameters do not play a vital role, but it is better to fill the aquarium with settled old water. Types of brackish fish require the addition of table salt to water. Fish are able to tolerate jumps in the temperature regime of water, the optimum is considered to be 20-24 ° C.
Under natural conditions, kartozubye eat insect larvae and algae. Aquarium species are unpretentious and omnivorous. Vegetable food in the form of algae, crushed oatmeal, lettuce leaves is considered the most useful. But the fish with pleasure eat and live, dry and frozen food. For small species suitable daphnia, Cyclops, enhitreya, live dust.
Viviparous fishes do not present difficulties in breeding, it is only necessary to provide them with a separate tank. Оплодотворение самки происходит с помощью гоноподия самца, который вводит в тело самки свою сперму. После этого самка способна нереститься несколько раз. Разные виды рыб выметывают определенное количество мальков за один раз, перерывы между нерестами длятся до 50 дней.
В период развития икры у самок возле анального плавника ясно проступает темное пятно, а за 2-3 суток до родов брюшко становится прямоугольным. During this period, the female is deposited in a vessel with small-leaved plants, planted at the bottom and floating on the surface of the water. Spawning should be equipped so that the young fry swim up in a separate compartment away from the mother, who can enjoy them.
Fry feed on any small food such as Cyclops, Daphnia, Nauplii Artemia. Small fishes quickly ripen and already by 4-6 months become mature.
Viviparous aquarium inhabitants are gregarious fish, but get along with almost any other species that suit them in terms of water parameters and body size. Among all viviparous representatives there are both peace-loving and aggressive fish. Therefore, the best option would be to keep one species of viviparous fish in a separate aquarium.
Viviparous aquarium fish as representatives of the aquatic world occupy a leading position in the ranking of popular aquarium fish due to the lack of difficulties in the care and beauty of their appearance. Bearing offspring and birth of fish is a fascinating process for observation.
Viviparsing aquarium fish
The species of viviparous aquarium fish attract many home aquarium lovers due to their unpretentiousness and endurance. Live-breeding aquarium fish do not require deep knowledge for maintenance, care and breeding.
Common species of viviparous aquarium fish:
The main difference between viviparous fish lies in their name. Instead of throwing eggs, such fish give birth to fry alive. Eggs are attached to the wall of the uterus of the fish and developed there thanks to the nutrients received from the mother. After the birth, the fry dwells for some time at the bottom, and after a few days they rise to the rest of the fish in the upper layers of the water. About six months later, the fry becomes a full-fledged mature fish, capable of continuing the race.
The process of intrauterine development in fry in viviparous fish may take about 30-40 days. Before spawning the fry, the female's abdomen becomes almost rectangular. An interesting feature of the viviparous fish is the ability for multiple genera. After one fertilization, the female, for example, guppy, can give birth up to 6-8 times.
The number of fry that the female bears and gives birth to fish is not constant and depends on many conditions:
- fish age;
- conditions of detention.
Guppies - are the most famous species of viviparous aquarium fish. Male guppies are much larger than females in size and have bright colors. Sword-bearers also delight their masters with various bright colors - they are lemon, and red, and red-speckled. Petilia fishes can have a color of various shades, from black, gold to marble.
Live-keeping aquarium fish: maintenance and care
Viviparous aquarium fish prefer a constant water temperature of 22-26 ° C, medium hardness and weekly updating of the water in the aquarium. Viviparous aquarium fish, such as the Petsilia and the Swordsman, love high hardness water with an alkaline environment. These wishes are better fulfilled, so your pets will be healthier.
The viviparous aquarium fish prefer an aquarium of a small size, with a volume of 5-6 liters. If there are many fish, then choose an aquarium based on the volume of 1.5 liters of water per fish. Lighting is best natural, but if this is not possible, get a special lamp. Adjust the degree of light to light enough, but the algae do not bloom.
As for the vegetation in the aquarium from viviparous fish, then it should be a lot. Take care that there is a Javanese moss downstairs in which fry can hide and eat after their birth. In the upper part of the aquarium should also be thick algae, such as peristristis, lyudvigiya and others. You can also use floating plants on the water.
The maintenance of viviparous aquarium fish involves feeding them with plant and live food. You can mix different types of feed and add chopped lettuce or dandelion leaves to your diet. Do not translate the fish exclusively on plant food.
Keep viviparous fish of different species can be in the same aquarium, if the conditions of their content are the same. Do not forget about the possible crossing of these fish, the volume of the aquarium for this should be sufficient. In order to prevent interbreeding, breed fish in different aquariums. To save all the fry at birth, it is recommended to replant the female in a separate container with water and algae.
Viviparsing aquarium fish
These inhabitants of freshwater bodies of predominantly South America quickly conquered the hearts of aquarists around the world. Many of them are unpretentious, easily and quickly divorced, not too demanding to feed, lighting and even the volume of aquariums. Select the most common ones.
Vivipars aquarium fish: guppies. In Europe, these beauties appeared thanks to a botany with the surname Guppy a century and a half ago. Perhaps, it is these fish that should be started up by a beginner aquarist in the first place. They have a calm disposition, a peace-loving character (they rarely attack their own kind). These fish are very bright (especially males) and, being similar in size and structure, are very different in color. Females are usually somewhat larger and less well-dressed, but adult males delight with unusually long multi-colored fins and mantle-tails (although not all have long tails and fins). They become especially beautiful when they reach sexual maturity. Guppies do not require strict temperature control, they do not need thorough care and a huge amount of additional expensive aquarium equipment.
These aquarium fish are viviparous. The fry is born completely independent, rising to the surface of the water immediately after birth. For breeding guppies, we definitely need the “upper” algae, in which the little ones will hide from their parents, who are able to eat their own children in the first days. The optimum temperature in the aquarium is + 24 ° C.
For feeding an adult guppy, both live food and dry food are suitable. And for newborns only dry, finely ground food is suitable.
Unfortunately, these fish live a little: no more than three years. However, they ripen very early and leave large offspring. Six-month-old guppies are already able to reproduce new fry.
For breeding selected beautiful and healthy couple (or several pairs). The very close birth will indicate the appearance of a dark spot with a blackening dots (at the anus) on the rounded tummy: the dots (fry heads) are darker, the closer the delivery.
It is difficult to accurately predict the duration of pregnancy in guppies: both food and water temperature are important here. The female can carry their babies from one month to two.
Viviparous aquarium fish: colorful beaches. They have a bright color with different color combinations and shades, they easily change color, like a chameleon. Plyatipekillii suitable for those who can not afford large aquariums, but loves bright fish in large quantities. These fish are hardy, unpretentious, like the guppy, to the stern and expanse of the home. And the temperature is the same.
Without being inferior in beauty (and even surpassing) guppies, they have one more merit: they do not pose any danger to their newly born offspring. In addition, by crossing varieties of beaches and peptides (among them there are mirror, and pinpoint, and black, and spotty), you can get completely new colors.
Sword-bearers are also viviparous fishes. And also unassuming and prolific. These fish can not be confused with others: their tail fin is a real semblance of a sword that always holds with proud dignity. The more familiar color of these fish is red. However, emerald greens with various specks and stripes are increasingly common. The most prolific of them are golden cream montezums. Conditions of detention are the same as for guppies. By the way, the Sword-bearers, like the guppies, react to newborns as if they were live food, which they can enjoy with pleasure.
Eternal babies - viviparous fish with the mysterious name formosa. Creamy yellow crumbs with a dark stripe along the body and intersecting transverse stripes are also unpretentious to the volume of water space and food. A hardworking nurse of an aquarium collecting plaque from microorganisms appearing on plants and walls of an aquarium. Adults are not dangerous for their children. But it is recommended to densely plant the aquarium with plants, since it is the algae and microorganisms that develop on them that are food for these fish.
Vivipars aquarium fish: mollies. For novice aquarists are not recommended, because quite capricious. Swordtails resemble, but the dorsal fins are much higher and more voluminous. Have several varieties. The most beautiful are black representatives.
These viviparous fish carry their babies for about 45 days. In young individuals, up to 30 fry can appear, in older ones - up to 100. In a beautiful black outfit they “dress” in the second year of life. Males become "black and velvet", females - silver-gray with black specks scattered throughout the body.
The water temperature should be constant, drops are unacceptable (+ 25 ° С). Therefore, thinking about purchasing mollies, please note that you cannot do without a thermostat. Food needs a special, dry, with the presence of vitamin D. In addition, these fish are fed dried salad (garden), seaweed, dry daphnia, live food. The straw pipe for feeding mollies is not suitable (the fish die from it). The height of the aquarium (water level) is no more than 40 cm. The progeny of mollies is rather tender and extremely sensitive to deviations from the maintenance rules.
Presented viviparous aquarium fish are really easy to maintain (except for mollies). They do not require additional equipment, they also feel fine at ordinary room temperature, they leave home for any expanses of their water possessions, and undemanding to the stern. After birth, fry fry should be deposited in a separate container (any small aquarium or even a three-liter jar will do) until they grow up. But one of the main dangers is chlorinated water. In such water, the fish die very quickly. Therefore, before settling pets, make sure there is no chlorine in the water. I wish you success!
Forgotten viviparous fishes
Now there is a lot of talk about the crisis and the rise in prices, they are justified, but we need to remember that not so long ago there were no such things as CO2, special lamps and powerful filters. And there were small, on 50-100 liters aquariums with viviparous fishes and simple, often just floating plants. Simple, affordable, cheap.
I do not urge you to return to such things, but it will not hurt to remember about viviparous fishes. Moreover, many of them were undeservedly forgotten by aquarists. If you look at the USSR time book on aquarism, you will find there some viviparous aquarium fish, which are not even mentioned on the Internet. And in the book Exotic Aquarium Fishes by William Innes (Innes Publishing Company, 1948), 26 of them are listed!
Compare with modern books that list the big four: mollies, guppies, swordtails, platies, and all. If aquarists for 60 years contained many species, then why now everything has been reduced to four? The fact is that these are the brightest species, with many variations. In addition, simple live beetles from nature were often viewed by aquarists as a simple and uncomplicated fish, suitable for beginners.
Let's take a look at some forgotten viviparous fishes. All of them are peaceful, for breeding does not require special efforts, water changes and scientific degree in chemistry. Experienced aquarists will recognize old friends among them, and newcomers will get to know a new fish, which is actually a good old forgotten one.
Girardinus metallicus Girardinus metallicus
Girardinus metallicus as the name implies - metallic color. The color ranges from silver to gold, depending on the lighting, there are also vertical stripes on the body, but they are almost imperceptible. Males have black spots on the head, throat, and anal fin. Sometimes they merge, but each fish is expressed differently. As often happens in viviparous, female girardinus is larger than males and grows up to 7 cm, while males are 3-4 cm.
Girardinus MetallusGirardinus Metallus is a charming fish that will wonderfully live in an overgrown aquarium with a capacity of 40 liters or more. Unpretentious, they live in nature in brackish water, but in the aquarium they tolerate completely fresh, moderately hard water. Given the size, the neighbors for them must be chosen carefully. Cherry shrimp and snail neretina, corridors and small barbs, tetra, iris and other peaceful fish and invertebrates are perfect.
If you bred one of the standard viviparous, then the principles are the same here. For starters, there should be more females than males, otherwise they will chase the females so that it leads to stress. Then you need floating plants, such as pisti. They will give shelter to both females and fry. Although girardinus metallicus does not hunt for its fry, they can still eat the fish. And when there are floating plants on the surface, in the morning it is very easy to catch fry that hide in their shadows.
Formosa Heterandria formosa
It is unusual for these fish that both females and males are very similar. They are silvery, with a wide black stripe running in the middle of the body. They also have a black spot at the caudal fin. To determine the sex of formosis, you need to look at the anal fin, which in males forms gonopodia. This is common for all viviparous traits, with the help of gonopodium (similar to a tubule), the male directs the milt to the female.
Formosa - small fish! Males are not more than 2 cm, and females are 3 cm in length. Although they are very peaceful, such modest size imposes restrictions on neighbors, with which it is possible to contain formosis. If you want a specific aquarium, then opt for cherry shrimps and banana shrimp, as they need the same conditions. This is cool, hard water and a large number of plants. A small addition of salt will create the necessary conditions for formosis, they live in nature in brackish water. Salt is also useful in bacterial diseases, but you can do without it.
Unlike many tropical species, formosa is a subtropical species and loves water with temperatures around 20 ° C, slightly cooler in winter and slightly warmer in summer.
You also need a strong current and a lot of free space. Like other viviparous, formosa loves a mixed diet consisting of plant and animal feed.
Limia black-band Limia nigrofasciata
If the two previous fish are underestimated by aquarists, then the limy is unnoticed by them. The limb has a black-striped silver body, with a honey shade, while the males have black stripes along it, justifying the name of the fish.
Keeping them is as simple as a piece of them, they are similar in size and character, but the limbs like slightly warmer water. Temperatures from 24 to 26 will be just right. Like petilia, they like a small flow, but the parameters of water can be very different, although hard and slightly salty water is preferable. They live in abundantly overgrown reservoirs, where the bloodworm and other animal feed are caught only by chance.
Very livable, even more than other live-grounders. You need to keep them at least 6 pieces per aquarium, two males and four females per 50 liters of water. Floating plants will be a plus, as they provide shelter for a little nervous and shy fish and harbor fry.
Limia Black Striped
Black-bellied Limia melanogaster
Black-bellied Limia is sometimes sold and found in catalogs. Appearance is very variable, but females are usually grayish-green with blue scales along the middle of the body. Males are similar, but smaller and they have black dots on the head, fins. Males and females have a large black spot on their belly, which gave them a name.
Again, in size and behavior, they are similar to placium. Males up to 4 cm in length, females slightly larger and fuller. Breeding is standard for all viviparous species. By the way, the black-squirrel limia can form hybrids with partilias, so to save the breed it is better to contain one species of viviparous per aquarium.
Frequent mollies Poecilia salvatoris
The fish is attributed to mollies, it has only recently been identified as a separate species, and in the west it is becoming increasingly popular.
The male and female are silvery-white, with orange and blue scales, but the female is slightly paler colored. The color gets stronger with time and the old, dominant males acquire large, sailing fins and bright, bright colors.
The ill luck is that usually viviparous fishes are very peaceful, but salvatoris, on the contrary, like to tear off fins and pugnacious. So despite all the attractiveness, this fish is not for beginners and, it is better to keep it separate.
In small aquariums, males fight incessantly, and even if only two males live in it, the weaker will be killed to death. Содержать их нужно в группах, где на одного самца приходится две самки или вообще один самце и несколько самок.
Как и другие моллинезии, этот вид в основном растительноядный, и хорош ест хлопья с клетчаткой. Максимальный размер около 7 см, причем самки значительно меньше самцов. Аквариум объемом 100 литров будет достаточным для группы из трех самцов и шести самок. Аквариум нужно накрывать, так как рыбки могут из него выпрыгивать.
Полурыл красно-черный dermogenys spp.
In the genus Dermogenys, there are more than a dozen very similar fish, most of them are found on sale under the name D. pusilla, but in fact no one distinguishes them from each other. Body color varies from silvery white to greenish gray, and males can be spotted in red, yellow or black on the fins. True, there are actually many different variations, and one may be more tangibly brighter than the other.
Males are aggressive towards each other, but in a spacious aquarium avoid fights. An aquarium of 80 liters is enough for three males and six females. For half-fish, a varied diet is needed, including live, vegetable and artificial foods.
Previously, polyls were considered not suitable for keeping fish in the general aquarium, but this is not quite so. Yes, they can compete with fish during feeding, but you can pick up catfish, akantoftalmusov and other bottom fish. By the way, they are very bouncy, so cover the aquarium!
Breeding is similar to other viviparous, the female gives birth to fry three or four weeks after mating. The fry are large, 4-5 mm and can eat finely divided flakes, naupilii of artemia, a microworm and even small daphnia. But, they are prone to infertility in adulthood. Aquarists say that at first females give birth to 20 fry, then the number decreases and disappears altogether. It is better that several generations of dermogenis live in the aquarium.
Ameka Ameca splendens
Troublesome look, since Ameks are glossy and love to tear off fins. Moreover, not only fish with veil fins or slow ones fall under the distribution, they even manage to pursue corridors! Amek can be kept with other fish, but it must be fast species, such as barbs or terns. Besides the fact that they cut off fins, the males still do not tolerate each other. It's funny that this behavior is more in the aquarium, in nature they are quite tolerant.
So what are they good for? It's simple, these are beautiful, interesting fish. The females are silvery with black dots, the males are turquoise in color, with a metallic sheen. Dominant males are brighter than others.
Females give birth to about 20 fry, large, up to 5 mm long. These fry are slightly smaller in size than mature neons sold in pet stores! Adult fish ignore their fry, so they grow and form flocks with their parents.
The content is simple, for lima need an aquarium from 120 liters, with water hard and powerful over. Temperature for contents from 23C.
It is best to live in large groups, where there are two females for one male, and not less than 4 males themselves, in order to avoid fights. You need to feed high-fiber flakes, but fresh vegetables and soft algae with duckweed will help these greasers to wait out the time between feedings.
By the way, in the nature of the lima almost extinct, so that you save nature and help the mind to survive.
This is only a brief review of viviparous fish that are not very popular today. It is easy to see that they are all unpretentious, interesting and unusual. No matter who you are, a beginner who wants to try his hand with hardy fish or an experienced aquarist, there is always a live-giving fish to your taste.
Unpretentious aquarium fish
Caring for aquarium fish - the whole science. At first glance, it is impossible to remember all the conditions and requirements for the content, it is difficult to find the means to purchase a huge aquarium and expensive equipment for it and time to prepare special feeds and regularly test the water. But there are fish that will forgive the newcomer for his inexperience and possible mistakes, and caring for them will not require huge material and temporary resources from him. About these simple to care, tenacious and unpretentious inhabitants of the aquarium and will be discussed.
They are considered the most undemanding to the conditions of detention and, in the general opinion, are the best option among aquarium fish for beginners. In turn, among this group there are also champions in vitality. Of course, this is a guppy. These fish are familiar to all, they were popular even in those prehistoric times when the filter, compressor and thermostat in the aquarium were considered a luxury. And the guppies in these aquariums lived, sparkled with their magnificent tails and multiplied.Small fishes of this species can live in a small amount of water, without filtration and aeration, at different temperatures, exclusively on dry food. Of course, such a life cannot be called a comfortable life, and this may soon manifest itself in a deterioration in the appetite of small fishes and paling of their colors. Therefore, it is still very desirable to install a filter in the aquarium, carry out water changes regularly (once a week at 20-30%), and try to diversify the food as much as possible.
Another condition for a long and happy life of gops is that there must be a few of them in the aquarium, not less than 5-6 pieces, since they are packaged and feel alone and uncomfortable.
Relatives of guppies, equally popular in novice aquariums, are swordtails. These small bright fish also do not require special care. They are larger than guppies, so they need at least 40-50 liters of an aquarium; about 6 liters of water should be consumed per individual. Otherwise, the fish is also unpretentious, tolerates non-ideal conditions in the aquarium, organic water pollution or high nitrate content in it, and even breeds under these conditions.
Petilles and mollies are also viviparous fishes, almost as good as guppies and swordtails in their resilience. They need a more constant water temperature. Here, perhaps, all the difference.
The colors and forms of viviparous fish are so bright and diverse that you can create a beautiful, lively and interesting aquarium, using only representatives of these species. And the ease of their reproduction at home (fry are born already well-formed, they eat adult food themselves, and for their successful development it is necessary to ensure only the presence of thickets of small-leaved plants, you can even artificial, where they can hide) and allows even the beginner Aquarist feel like a true fish farmer.
It should be noted that at present breeders have deduced a large number of different forms of viviparous fish - with unusual colors, veil fins, and so on. These fish are unusually beautiful, but they are much more demanding of conditions of detention and not always suitable for inexperienced owners.
Carp representatives are the next most popular among beginners and ability to survive in difficult conditions.
In this group, in the first place, it should be noted danio rerio. This fish, it seems, takes nothing. In my aquarium, my friends once broke the thermostat, in the very heated water all the fish died and only the danios continued to swim as if nothing had happened. These persistent kids even launched into space.
Danio have quite ordinary appearance, but they captivate with their activity and swiftness. The schooling fish, but does not require a lot of space, 8-10 individuals will be perfectly able to live in a twenty-liter aquarium.
It is also quite easy to propagate them - it is enough to set a female (2) and three males ready for spawning into a small container, put them near the window early in the morning so that the first rays of the morning sun hit the bank and the fish begin to actively spawn. Growing fry, of course, more difficult than that of viviparous fish, but with due diligence and it is quite possible.
Another frequent inhabitant of small aquariums is the cardinal. This is a small-sized, up to 4--5 cm long, slender and mobile fish with bright fins. Cardinals are undemanding to the parameters of water, have a peaceful and livable nature, use dry or live food. A flock of nondescript at first glance cardinals will liven up any aquarium.
Barbus are also representatives of carp. In aquariums there are many species of this genus, the most unpretentious of them is considered to be a Sumatran barbus.
He has a bright golden-black striped color, and indeed in the aquarium it is difficult not to notice, his character is too active. Because of this, the bar should not be settled in an aquarium with calm phlegmatic fish, they will be uncomfortable with this jumping bully. Barbs are prone to obesity, so you should not overfeed them. Another possible problem in fish of this species is the stagnation of calf in females. To avoid this, you need to raise the temperature in the aquarium twice a year, stimulating spawning.
Labyrinth fish, perhaps the largest and most elegant of those who can advise a novice for a small aquarium. Macropods reach a length of 9 cm, males - 6 cm (plus luxurious fins of almost the same length), and at the same time they can live in a three-liter jar without aeration, if only there is space between the surface of the water and the lid.
These fish have a special organ - a labyrinth, which allows them to breathe atmospheric air, so they feel good in oxygen-poor water, and other water parameters (temperature, hardness, pollution degree) are not too demanding either.
They have a very good regeneration ability, they can quickly restore damaged fins. Their disadvantage is an aggressive, fighting character: the males are completely intolerant of the males of their own species, and in some cases they can attack other species of fish, especially the macropods. Other labyrinth fish - liliusi, gourami - have a more peaceful disposition (although sometimes gourami, guarding the nest, can survive from a small aquarium of their neighbors), but are somewhat inferior to macropods and cockerels in terms of simplicity. They, especially breeding forms, require a constant temperature in the aquarium, clean water, the presence of thickets of living plants.
These include such popular species as ternets, neons, various tetras: copper, firefly, rhodostomus. Small, very charming schooling fish with interesting colors, red and golden spots, glowing neon stripes. In ternation, the color is not bright, but its albino form was learned to dye artificially, receiving multi-colored fishes, called caramels.
The mentioned representatives of the haratsin ones are capable of living in small aquariums, however they are more demanding in terms of conditions. In particular, they prefer soft, acidic water and do not like massive changes, so the water for the aquarium is better to peat and change regularly, but little by little. In addition, in the aquarium with these fish is very desirable to have live plants.
Because of their funny appearance and behavior are very popular with beginners. However, they often lose sight of the fact that rather large catfish grow from the majority of cute little mustaches sold in pet stores. Torakatumov, plexostomus, pterigoplihtov and antsistrusov in an aquarium with a volume of 30-40 liters to keep absolutely impossible.
An unpretentious pygmy corridor (Corydoras pygmaeus) or its close relative dwarf corridor (Corydoras hastatus, catfish) is well suited for small aquariums. They grow only about 3-4 cm, they feel good in a large range of hardness and acidity, do not pay attention to the intensity of light, feed on any dry and live food, if only he was small enough and placed in their mouths. Demanding on temperature only. It should be in the range of 24-26 ° C. Schooling fish, you must keep them in groups of at least 5-6 pieces.
Another small catfish - ototsinklyus. He also does not need large amounts of water for life, but for him the presence of living plants, vegetable dressing and pure water with a low content of nitrates are necessary.
All these catfish are peaceful and can get along with any fish that will not offend them.
If a novice aquarist is immediately serious and ready to spend time on caring for an aquarium and studying special literature, you can recommend him to buy the most simple cichlids - the angelfish and black-striped chichlases. These species need a sufficiently large amount of water (at least 100 liters per pair) and careful selection of neighbors, but otherwise they are not too demanding.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that there are no aquariums and fish that do not require care at all. Fish, like frogs, turtles, tritons are living creatures, and care about them should be constant. If you don’t want to mess with the aquarium, and you just want beauty and pleasant murmur, it’s better not to torture animals and not to suffer yourself, but to buy a bubble panel and admire its pacifying gurgle.
In addition, it is not enough just to pick up unpretentious fish, it is necessary to consider the following:
- fish must be compatible, since if, for example, simple guppies and barbs are placed in one aquarium, nothing good will come of it;
- it is preferable to place in one aquarium related species or species that live in nature under similar conditions;
- when choosing fish, it is necessary to take into account what maximum size they can achieve, and based on this, determine the capacity of their aquarium;
- most small fish are schooling, they need to be acquired immediately by the group.
Only by observing these conditions, you can make your first aquarium a source of beauty and pleasure.
The story of the small and unpretentious fish look at the video: