Gold fish

Golden fin fish

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Goldfish: aquarium species

Of all the aquarium fish, gold probably has the longest history. They were removed in China about a thousand and a half years ago from gold carp for the purpose of home maintenance. These beautiful creatures lived not only in artificial reservoirs of palaces, but also in luxurious vases in the chambers of noble people of that time. At the moment there are a huge number of varieties of goldfish. They are still in demand and decorate aquariums around the world. In this article we will look at the types that are most popular among fans.

Goldfish classification

There are two groups of rocks:

Long-bodied. The shape of the body of these fish is similar to their ancestor - wild punishment. They are distinguished by greater mobility, stamina and longevity (40-year-old longevity stories are known!). In addition, they need less oxygen. Representatives of this group are the comet, wakin and the usual goldfish.

Short-bodied. They differ in a variety of shapes, but what unites them is that the body is compressed from head to tail. Such experiments did not go unnoticed for the health of these fish. They are sick more often, adapt worse, live less (no more than 10-15 years), more demanding of conditions. In particular, they need a larger body of water and a high content of oxygen in the water. This group is represented by a telescope, a pearl, a lionhead, and others.

Goldfish species

There are many breeds, and the same goldfish can have different names in the literature, since breeders of different countries called them and called them.

Plain Goldfish

Its second name is gold carp. Was obtained by breeding from a wild goldfish. Similar to him in body shape and fins, different colors (golden-red fish).

She needs a reservoir with an abundance of plants and space for swimming. It should be kept in a species aquarium or only with peaceful neighbors.

Food is recommended a varied, balanced, no frills: animal and vegetable food in the form of tablets, granules, sticks, dry, live or frozen. Under good conditions, it can live from 10 to 30 years.

Vakin

Its second name is Japanese goldfish. It is distinguished from the previous type by its stalk body and forked or single slightly elongated tail. The length of the fish sometimes reaches 30 cm. Three types of wakin coloring are known: red, white, and a mixture of these colors.

Comet

The most unpretentious and easy to keep among other varieties. It is small, with a body length of not more than 15 cm. The tail is long, forked, in the form of a ribbon. And the longer it is, the more valuable the copy. Other fins are only slightly elongated.

If the body is swollen, then such a fish is considered defective. The most valued are individuals whose body and fin colors are different (for example, silver + bright red). The disadvantages of comets are that they often jump out of the aquarium and are not fertile.

Fantail

Appeared in China in the mid 19th century. Its body is swollen, it is orange-red in color, has a length of 10 cm. A distinctive feature is the tail, consisting of two halves (they can be separated or accrete) and having a transparent wide edge on the outer edge. Fin on the back is high, the rest are normal or slightly elongated. Live fantail for about 10 years.

Vualekhvost

This is a very popular and common variety of goldfish. Has a body in the form of an egg or a ball with a large head. Able to grow to 20 cm and live to 20 years. The body may be covered with scales, and maybe without it. Fins are long, thin.

The tail consists of several blades that grow together and hang down from the body in lush folds, resembling the veil of the bride (read more about the tail finch here).

Painted fish is different: in white, golden or motley color. The most appreciated is the one whose fins and body have a different shade.

Pearl

Unusual appearance of her gives a round body and a kind of scales. Each scale is raised in the form of a dome and has a dark rim. In the light, chainmail looks like small pearls, so the fish bears this name. In the event of damage to the scales in its place grows new, but it is devoid of a beautiful rim.

Body length is approximately 7-8 cm. Fin on the back is vertical, other pairs and short. The tail consists of two non-hanging blades. A painted fish may be white, golden or orange-red.

The greatest difficulty in maintaining is the correct calculation of the quantity of food. The owners are misleading the shape of the body. Because of this, fish are often undernourished or overfed.

Interesting! Pearls have very funny fry, which, when they reach the age of two months, become already similar to adults and get rounded.

Water eyes

Or in a different way, a bubble. He has perhaps the most extreme appearance. This 15-20 cm fish does not have a dorsal fin, but it has blisters on the lower part of the eyes on both sides of the head. They begin to grow in 3-4 months and in size are able to reach a quarter of the body of the fish. These places are very vulnerable, delicate and fragile.

Although they may recover over time, security measures must be observed:

  • the aquarium may not contain any sharp objects, spiny algae or other types of fish,
  • Catching and transplanting pets should be done very carefully.

The fins of the bladder eyes are long. Males have a white rash on the gill plates, and growths on the pectoral fin. Feed is recommended live moths. With good care, these wonders will live 5-15 years.

Interesting! Only small fish with bubbles of the same size are allowed to breed.

Astrologer

Another name for this fish is the celestial eye. Astrologers got their name for the original eyes. They look like telescopes, only the pupils in them are directed vertically upwards, as if the fish admires the sky or counts the stars.

The body is in the form of an egg, the head smoothly passes into the low back, on which there is no fin. The tail consists of two blades. The traditional color is orange with gold. Especially prized fish with golden irises of the eyes.

Astronomers are short-bodied, long-bodied and veiled. They are very difficult to breed. From a hundred young fish, only one fish with perfect proportions can be obtained. Astrologers live 5-15 years.

Interesting! The heavenly eye is very revered by Buddhist monks and is necessarily contained in their monasteries.

Oranda

It is distinguished from other growths on the gills and more on the forehead, which have a granular structure (they are sometimes also called fatty). In Germany, orande is called a goose head due to frontal growth. The shape of the body and fins of these fish is similar to a telescope and a tail tail.

They can be painted in white, red, black or variegated colors. The most valuable is the red-capped oranda.

Important! Not to be confused with the red cap, which has no dorsal fin.

Interesting! Not everyone knows that the fry of this fish are born with a yellow cap. In China, the following is practiced: in order to achieve red color, a special dye is injected into the growth.

Little Red Riding Hood

Obtained by selection from orande. The body is in the form of an egg and resembles a voilehvosta. It can grow up to 20 cm. The dorsal fin is quite high, anal and double tail, hanging down. The body is white. On a medium-sized head there is a rather large bright red wen. The bigger it is, the more valuable the fish is.

Lionhead

A special feature of the fish are powerful growths of compacted skin on the gills and the upper part of the head, as a result of which it looks like a lion's mane or a raspberry berry. These growths begin to form in fish at the age of three months and grow over the entire head, sometimes capturing the eyes.

The body is short, round, with scales. There is no dorsal fin, and the others are short. The tail may consist of two or three blades. Fish are painted in white, red or both of these colors. In Japan and China, this fish is very much appreciated and is considered the pinnacle of selection.

Ranchu

It is also called the Korean Lionhead. It differs from the previous type only slightly in that the formations on the head appear only in the second or third year of their life. Also known varieties without growths, but strewn with small colored dots (lips, eyes, fins and gill covers), the body is almost colorless.

Telescope

Includes several breeds, which combine common features. He is also called Demenkinin, or water dragon. His body is tall, ovoid or rounded. The dorsal fin is perpendicular to the body, while the others have the appearance of a long veil. The tail is forked, its length is almost equal to the length of the body. There are with a short tail (skirt) and voile.

The telescope is distinguished by strongly convex eyes with a transparent rainbow. Eye size can vary from 1 to 5 cm! Their shape is also diverse: a cylinder, a ball, a cone. The longer the tail and the larger the eye, the more valuable the specimen. There are telescopes with scales and without.

The richness of the colors is also impressive: orange with a metallic sheen, bright red, calico, black and white, but velvety black is the most common.

Other types of telescopes:

Butterfly. A distinctive feature is the voile tail, which looks symmetrical from above.

Moor. This is a selection form of a veiled tail telescope. All fins and body are colored velvet black.

Panda. Another variation of the black telescope. The body is painted in black and white. The size of the fish reaches 20 cm.

All telescopes are very interesting and active, but at the same time capricious. They need warm water and do not need a neighborhood with other fish. Carefully follow the equipment of the aquarium because of the possibility of eye damage.

Interesting! The darker the ground, the darker the color of the telescope. But under bad conditions, the fish brightens.

Riukin

This is a Japanese breed of goldfish, which served as material for breeding a voilehvost. They have a rather large size and a body expanding towards the upper part. The head is variegated. The fin on the back is quite high. Tail of 3-4 blades. The body can be monophonic or motley.

Shubunkin

His other name is calico. This is an ordinary goldfish with a 15-centimeter body, elongated fins and transparent scales on the body.

Distinguishes these fish print color, which combines white, black, yellow, red and blue. The most valuable fish with a predominance of purple-blue.

And the color begins to manifest itself after a year and gains full strength by three.

The fish are calm, their content does not cause problems. With proper care live more than 10 years.

Velvet ball

It is also called pompon. This breed is quite rare. Body shortened, with high back and long fins. Tail forked. Original appearance give growths near the mouth in the form of fluffy lumps, with a diameter of one centimeter each. These pompons can be white, red, blue or brown. Fish are quite capricious, and the flaws in the content can lead to loss of growths, and they are no longer restored.

So, we briefly reviewed the main varieties of goldfish and their differences. Perhaps specialists in breeding new breeds will not stop at this, and the world will see more variations of Carassius auratus. But even among those already available, there is something to admire and choose for one’s liking.

Types of goldfish

Goldfish (lat. Carassius auratus) is a freshwater fish of the carp family, of the Beaverguda order, of the Karas family. For the first time, goldfish were domesticated more than 1500 years ago in China. They are direct descendants of gold crucians. Nowadays, many types of goldfish are popular pets that have many morphological characteristics.

Origin, General Characteristics

More than 1000 years ago, a goldfish was a dweller of ponds and small decorative ponds, later it began to be kept in small clay tanks, which became the prototypes of modern aquariums. In the XIV century, the Chinese ruler ordered to organize the production of special containers for the maintenance of "silver" crucian carp. The vessels were made of porcelain and ceramics, decorated with ornaments, and enjoyed great popularity among the nobility.


Although the cups were not transparent, and the goldfish could not watch the world through them, however, people began to pour sand onto the bottom of the cups and add plants to the container. In such a vessel usually contain one or more fish. In the modern aquarium, everything is different - the tanks are transparent, equipped with instruments and decorations, so all types of goldfish can feel as comfortable as possible.

These are the most popular fish for beginners, which are distinguished by endurance and unpretentiousness in the content. However, almost all goldfish are cool-loving, they prefer to live in water at a temperature not higher than 24-25 ° C. Some tanks require aeration of water, and, of course, mandatory filtration and siphon of the soil. Goldfish are untidy: they constantly dig up the ground, eat a lot of food, and leave behind a lot of excrement. At least one individual needs at least 50 liters of aquarium water. It is recommended to settle with non-aggressive, omnivorous fish that will not bite off the fins, and will be able to live in cool water.

See how to contain goldfish.

As aquarium decorations, you can use plants, shelters and snags. The entire decor is required to process, it should not be scratches, sharp corners. It is not recommended to install sinks, stone sculptures, snags with pointed branches in the tank. It is advisable to plant hard-leaved and soft-leaved plants that a goldfish can eat (duckweed, wolfia, richchia). Some goldfish are contained in almost empty reservoirs due to the high probability of injury (telescopes, tails).

All goldfish are omnivorous hydrobionts. In addition to plants, they eat live, frozen and branded feed. With pleasure they eat food "for people" - boiled cereals, lettuce, spinach, dandelion, nettle. From animal food they can be given a chimney, daphnia, artemia, bloodworm, cortex, sliced ​​meat of shrimp, earthworms. Goldfish are highly prone to overeating, so feed should be given metered - 2 times a day in small portions. Adults prefer plant food, and young animals prefer protein foods.

How to breed goldfish?

The goldfish becomes mature at the age of 1 year, but if you plan to cross breeds, it is better to wait until it reaches a more mature age (4-5 years). In the wild, Karasiki spawns in the middle of spring. The readiness for spawning is determined by external signs: in the area of ​​gill covers hillocks appear of a light shade, the pectoral fins are characterized by small notches. These features of appearance are peculiar to both males and females. The abdomen of females is rounded and increases in size.

The male begins to pursue the female, drives her into shallow water with dense vegetation. Therefore, simulating reproduction in the natural environment, the water level in the spawning tank is reduced to 15-20 cm. For a spawning aquarium, a capacity of 50-100 liters with aeration and good lighting is suitable. In spawning you need to put a separator grid so that manufacturers do not eat fallen eggs. Planting of dense vegetation is allowed. Spawning lasts 2-5 hours, after the process, the male and the female need to be deposited.

Look at the spawning goldfish.

In one year, goldfish can breed 2-3 times. Larvae of fry appear 2-6 days after fertilization, which depends on the temperature of the aquatic environment. The lighting speeds up the ripening process, and the shade stops. In the first days of life, the larvae are almost stationary, fixed on aquatic plants, and eat up the contents of the yolk sac. After its exhaustion, the fry begin to swim independently in search of food.

Starter feed - Artemia nauplii, live dust, rotifers, special fry food. When the fry grow up, they need to be sorted by size, and settled in different tanks. Tellingly, the descendants of beautiful parents may turn out to be plain and vice versa.

Species diversity

For two thousand years of breeding production, goldfish became the real queen of aquariums, since various breeds were bred in Japan, China and other countries of the world. Nowadays, there are several dozen breeds that differ in external characteristics. They are full of different shapes, colors, variations of fins. There are two species of breeds that are distinguished by body symmetry: long-bodied goldfish and short-length goldfish.

The goldfish ordinary - practically does not differ from its ancestor. The color of the scales is golden, the body is elongated, the fins are golden, translucent.

Butterfly fish - aquarium fish of unusual appearance. The color of the body is metallic, the tail fin is forked, resembles butterfly wings. The eyeballs are large, so the butterflies are kept in tanks without decorations.

Fantails are popular aquarium fishes that do not differ in color from ordinary goldfish. The tail fin has two blades that are raised up. When a fish opens its tail, it resembles a lady's fan.

Вуалехвосты - имеют яйцеобразную симметрию тела, окрас чешуи белый с цветными вкраплениями, встречают и другие вариации окраса. Все плавники длинные, хвост раздвоенный, шлейфовидной структуры, разделяется на несколько частей.

Жемчужинка, или тинсбрин - порода неповторимой внешности: тело короткое, имеет форму пузырька. All scales have the similarity of bloated, individually taken "pearls".

Lionhead - different swollen and short symmetry of the body, on the head there are growths that resemble the lion's mane.

Oranda - has a short, swollen body. The color of the scales is golden, the fins are thin, void-like. On the head, between the eyes are visible massive growths.

Ranchu - different body egg shape, body size is short. All fins are short, small growths can be seen on the head.

Ryukin - this breed is bred in Japan. The body is short, spherical, on the back there is a curvature in the form of a massive hump. The color of the scales is golden.

Telescopes - aquarium fish with large, bulging eyes. Color scales dark, fins long. It is recommended to keep in an aquarium without decorations and sharp corners.

Shubunkin - in the form of the body does not differ from an ordinary goldfish, but the body has a motley color, the scales are transparent.

Types of goldfish


TYPES OF GOLDEN FISHES

with photo, description and links

The variety of aquarium fish sometimes affects. And given the fact that one species of fish has its own varieties - the aquarium world becomes just gigantic.

Sometimes it is even difficult for an experienced aquarist to tell what kind of fish it is. Hopefully, the following selection of GOLDEN FISH SPECIES will help you figure out who is swimming in your tank.

Carassius auratus

Order, family: carp.

Comfortable water temperature: 18-23 ° C.

Ph: 5-20.

Aggressiveness: 5% are not aggressive, but they can bite each other.

Compatibility: with all peaceful and non aggressive fish.

DESCRIPTION:

Golden, or Chinese, crucian carp in nature lives in Korea, China and Japan.

The goldfish was bred in China more than 1,500 years ago, where it was bred in ponds and garden ponds on the estates of nobles and wealthy people. For the first time, a goldfish was imported to Russia in the middle of the 18th century. Currently, there are many varieties of goldfish.

The color of the body and fins is red-golden, the back is darker than the abdomen. Other types of color: pale pink, red, white, black, black and blue, yellow, dark bronze, fiery red. A goldfish has an elongated body, slightly compressed from the sides. Males can be distinguished from females only during the spawning period, when the female's belly is rounded, and the males on the pectoral fins and gills develop a white “rash”.

For the maintenance of goldfish, an aquarium with a capacity of at least 50 liters per specimen is best suited.. Short-bodied goldfish (voiletails, telescopes) require more water than long-bodied (simple goldfish, comet, shubunkin), with the same body length.

With an increase in the volume of the aquarium, the planting density can be slightly increased. In particular, in the volume of 100 l you can settle two goldfish (you can have three, but in this case it will be necessary to organize a powerful filtration and make frequent water changes). 3-4 individuals can be planted in 150 l, 5-6 in 200 l, 6-8 in 250 l, etc. This recommendation is relevant if we are talking about fish of at least 5-7 cm in size without taking into account the length of the tail fin.

A special feature of the goldfish is that it loves to rummage in the ground. As the soil is better to use coarse sand or pebbles, which are not so easily scattered fish. The aquarium itself should be spacious and species, with large-leaved plants. Therefore, in an aquarium with goldfish, it is better to plant plants with hard leaves and a good root system.

In the general aquarium, goldfish can be kept along with calm fish. The necessary conditions for the aquarium are natural light, filtration and aeration.

Water characteristics: temperature can vary from 18 to 30 ° C. The optimum should be considered in the spring-summer period 18 - 23 ° С, in the winter - 15 - 18 ° С. The fish tolerate a salinity of 12-15%. If you feel unwell fish in the water, you can add salt, 5-7 g / l. It is advisable to regularly replace part of the volume of water.

Goldfish are unpretentious regarding feed. They eat quite a lot and willingly, so remember that it is better to underfeed the fish than to overfeed them. The amount of food given daily should not exceed 3% of the weight of the fish. Adult fish are fed twice a day - early in the morning and in the evening.

Feed is given as much as they can eat in ten to twenty minutes, and the remnants of uneaten food should be removed. It is necessary to include both live, and vegetable food in their diet. Adult fish that receive proper nutrition can endure a week-long hunger strike without harm. It must be remembered that when fed with dry food, they should be given in small portions several times a day, because when they get into a wet environment, in the fish's esophagus, it swells up, increases significantly in size and can cause constipation and disruption of the normal functioning of the digestive organs of the fish, the consequence of which may be the death of the fish. To do this, you can first hold the dry food for some time (10 seconds - flakes, 20-30 seconds - granules) in water and only then give them to the fish. When using specialized feeds you can improve the color of the fish (yellow, orange and red).

Long-bodied goldfish durable, under good conditions, they can live up to 30 - 35 years, short ones - up to 15 years.

Types of goldfish

Heavenly eye or astrologer

The astrologer has a round, ovoid body. A feature of the fish are its telescopic eyes directed slightly forward and upward. Although this is considered a deviation from the ideal, these fish are very beautiful. Color stargazers orange-golden color. Fish reaches a length of 15 cm.
Read more about this Golden Fish here.
Astrologer or celestial eye: description, content, compatibility
Water eyes

This fish is the result of the inexorable and merciless selection of Chinese goldfish. The size of the fish is 15-20 cm. It has an ovoid body, the back is low, the profile of the head passes smoothly into the profile of the back. Coloring is different. The most common are silver, orange and brown colors.
Read more about this Golden Fish here. Water eyesVualekhvost or Fantail

The veiltail has a short, high rounded egg-shaped body and large eyes. The head is big. The color of the veil tail is different - from a monotonous golden color to bright red or black.
Read more about this Golden Fish here.
Everything about Veilhvostah
Pearl

Pearl is one of the fish included in the so-called "Golden Fish" family. The fish is unusual and very beautiful. Bred it in China.
Read more about this Golden Fish here. Pearl
Comet

The body of the comet is elongated with a long ribbon forked tail fin. The higher the grade of the fish specimen, the longer its tail fin. Comets are very similar to voilehvosta.

Read more about this Golden Fish here. Comet
Oranda

Oranda is one of the fish included in the so-called "Goldfish" family. The fish is unusual and very beautiful. Orana differs from other goldfish - with a growth-cap on its head. The body, like many "Goldfish" ovoid, swollen. In general, similar to the veiltail.

Read more about this Golden Fish here. Oranda
Ranchu

Another artificially derived form of "Golden Fish". Homeland - Japan. Literally Ranch translates as "cast in orchid." The fish is unusual and very beautiful.

Read more about this Golden Fish here.
Ranchu: description content compatibility Shubunkin

Another breeding form of "Golden Fish", derived in Japan. Suitable for maintenance in spacious aquariums, greenhouse and ornamental ponds. In Japanese pronunciation, its name sounds like sibunkin. In Europe, the first fish appeared after World War I, from which it was imported into Russia and the Slavic countries.
Read more about this Golden Fish here. Shubunkin
Telescope

The telescope is one of the fish included in the so-called "Golden Fish" family. The fish is unusual and very beautiful. Received its name for large bulging eyes, which may have a spherical, cylindrical or conical shape. Fish size up to 12cm.
Read more about this Golden Fish here. Telescope
Lionhead

The fish is unusual and very beautiful. The fish has a short rounded torso. The posterior profile of the back and the upper outer edge of the caudal fin form an acute angle. In the area of ​​the gill covers and the upper part of the head one can see volume growths that are formed in these fish at three months of age.

Read more about this Golden Fish here. Lionhead
Ryukin

Vakin

Video with Golden Fish species

fanfishka.ru

Fin rot - description of treatment symptoms video video photo.

aquarium-fish-home.ru

Name 6 fish fins

Sandra

A fin is an organ (device) used to control movement in air, water, or other liquid media. Most often has a flat shape.
In fishes and other aquatic vertebrates, the fins serve as propellers, stabilizers, and rudders. The fins are paired (chest and ventral) and unpaired (dorsal, anal, caudal).
1 - dorsal fin. Needed to stabilize the body (to prevent rotation around the longitudinal axis). In some fish it serves also as a protection (it carries thorns). Many dorsal fin fish have two: anterior and posterior.
2 - fatty fin. A special type of dorsal fin - soft, easily bent, devoid of rays and rich in fat. It is characteristic for salmon, haraciform, catfish and some other fishes.
3 - caudal fin. In most aquatic vertebrates it serves as the main mover.
4- anal (tailtail) fin. The anal fin, being unpaired, plays the role of the keel in fish. The number of rays in the anal fin is an important feature in the systematics of fish.
5 - ventral fin (pair). Pelvic fins, located in front of the pectorals, play the role of additional depth rudders, contribute to the rapid immersion of fish.
6- pectoral fin (paired). The work of pectoral fins helps the fish to maintain a normal body position in space. In addition, raking one or the other, then both together with the pectoral fins, the fish turns in one direction or another, up or down. Ottopyrivaya abdominal and pectoral fins, fish can inhibit.

ilkin agaev

A fin is an organ (device) used to control movement in air, water, or other liquid media. Most often has a flat shape.
In fishes and other aquatic vertebrates, the fins serve as propellers, stabilizers, and rudders. The fins are paired (chest and ventral) and unpaired (dorsal, anal, caudal).
1 - dorsal fin. Needed to stabilize the body (to prevent rotation around the longitudinal axis). In some fish it serves also as a protection (it carries thorns). Many dorsal fin fish have two: anterior and posterior.
2 - fatty fin. A special type of dorsal fin - soft, easily bent, devoid of rays and rich in fat. It is characteristic for salmon, haraciform, catfish and some other fishes.
3 - caudal fin. In most aquatic vertebrates it serves as the main mover.
4- anal (tailtail) fin. The anal fin, being unpaired, plays the role of the keel in fish. The number of rays in the anal fin is an important feature in the systematics of fish.
5 - ventral fin (pair). Pelvic fins, located in front of the pectorals, play the role of additional depth rudders, contribute to the rapid immersion of fish.
6- pectoral fin (paired). The work of pectoral fins helps the fish to maintain a normal body position in space. In addition, raking one or the other, then both together with the pectoral fins, the fish turns in one direction or another, up or down. Ottopyrivaya abdominal and pectoral fins, fish can inhibit.

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