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How to maintain the temperature of the water in the aquarium

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Aquarium water temperature

For all living creatures, including fish, the most important condition for existence is the ambient temperature. It affects not only the environment, but also the chemical and biological processes that take place in animals and plants.

As for aquariums, there should be about the same temperature in all layers, otherwise both plants and fish can suffer. Since the top layer of water is always higher than the bottom, therefore, the temperature should be measured not only on the surface of the water, but also on the ground. The regulator of the temperature of the water in the aquarium can be purchased at the store, and you can make it yourself, but you cannot do without it when breeding fish. Because some temperature changes for many fish species can be deadly.

The optimal temperature in the aquarium

There are no specific numbers to suit each aquarium, as the temperature depends on factors such as its inhabitants, plants, and the chosen maintenance mode. The temperature range for most fish is from 20 to 30 ° C, however, for each individual species of fish should maintain an optimal temperature.

So the best constant temperature range in an aquarium for guppies varies between 24-26 ° C, but some deviations are allowed - 23-28 ° C. At the same time, if the temperature drops below 14 ° C or rises above 33 ° C, then the fish will not survive.

For catfish, the temperature in the aquarium is optimal in the range from 18 to 28 ° C. However, catfish - unpretentious fish, so easily withstand significant deviations from these limits, but for a short time.

The temperature in the aquarium for scalar basically has a large range. The optimum is 22-26 ° С, but they will easily transfer the temperature drop to 18 ° С, but it is necessary to lower gradually, without sharp drops.

The optimum temperature in the aquarium for swordtails is 24-26 ° C, but since these fish are not demanding enough, they will calmly endure a temporary decrease to 16 ° C.

The recommended temperature in the aquarium for cichlids should be in the range of 25-27 ° C. Sometimes it can be increased by 1-2 degrees, but no more, since for most fish of this species the temperature of 29 ° C is fatal. At the same time, a significant decrease in temperature even up to 14 ° С can be transferred by fish quite calmly (of course, not a very long time).

How to maintain the temperature in the aquarium?

The water temperature in the aquarium should be constant. Its fluctuations during the day are allowed within 2-4 ° С. Sharper drops can have a devastating effect on the inhabitants of the aquarium.

Everyone knows that the temperature of the water in the aquarium corresponds to the temperature in the room. Therefore, when for some reason it becomes excessively hot or cold in the room, certain measures should be taken.

In the hot season you will need knowledge of how to lower the temperature in the aquarium. There are several ways to do this:

  • use of a special refrigerator for the aquarium;
  • installation of air conditioning in the room, which will maintain a certain temperature;
  • use of ice or cold accumulators.

In the case when it is too cold in your apartment during the cold season, you should know how to raise the temperature in the aquarium. The simplest version of the heater is a hot water heater. It must be placed between the heater and the side wall of the aquarium. But this is an emergency way of heating water, as it will not work for a long time to maintain the temperature of the water.

Each of the ways to increase or decrease the temperature of the water is good in its own way, and you should choose a particular one based on your specific needs.

The temperature of the fish tank

Often, novice aquarists do not rush to delve into how the temperature of the aquatic environment affects the fish and plants. Failure to observe the proper regime ends with the death of all creatures or various diseases. Sharp temperature fluctuations lead to the same consequences, when the inhabitants of the vessel experience shock and do not have time to acclimatize to new conditions. Let's consider what the normal temperature of the water should be in the home aquarium. Cold-blooded creatures are very dependent on this parameter, so this knowledge will help you avoid annoying blunders.

The direct influence of water temperature on the life of fish

In cold weather, fish minimize their activity, and their metabolism decreases. In the heat, many underwater dwellers experience a lack of oxygen, difficulty in breathing and tend to increasingly float to the surface. High temperatures lead to the aging of their body and accelerate growth. Especially important is the optimum water temperature in the aquarium for tropical species of fish. At home, their aquatic environment is almost always in one state and almost no differences are observed. Sudden changes in temperature invariably lead to a weakening of the immune system and the appearance of various infections. Creatures that hit the aquarium from our zone are more resistant. For example, a goldfish or carp are able to tolerate short-term changes in temperature.

What is the temperature of the water should be in the aquarium for fish?

Fish from different regions rarely get along in one vessel, because they are accustomed at home to a certain temperature of the liquid. For example, for creatures originally from temperate latitudes (barbus, danios, cardinal) is about 21 °, and for handsome discas from South America you need to maintain 28 ° -30 °. For beginners, it is better to select the most resistant species from the same climatic zones, so that you can easily adjust the temperature to a comfortable range of 24 ° -26 °.

How to make a water change?

Directly mixing cold fresh water with warm liquid from an aquarium is undesirable. For many fish, a similar phenomenon in nature is associated with the beginning of spawning or the arrival of the rainy season. In order not to cause a shock in their wards, it is better to refrain from similar experiments and equalize the temperature of the new water before the process of substitution.

Temperature conditions during transportation of fish

Many lovers lose the newly acquired fish only for the reason that they did not ensure the normal temperature in the container during their transportation from the store. Especially it concerns those cases when it is cold outside or the way home is not close. It is best to transport the fish in a thermos, which will protect them from possible stress. If you have only a package or a bank in your hands, then try to speed up the journey as much as possible so that the temperature change does not exceed two degrees.

How to maintain the optimal temperature of the water in the aquarium for fish?

The most often undesirable fluctuations occur in vessels installed near the windows, directly on the window sills, near the included radiators. Try to find a more comfortable place for aquariums, where the sun or other factors will least affect the life of aquatic creatures.

It is advisable to use high-quality heaters and thermometers, constantly monitoring water mode. If the temperature in your room changes by more than 5 degrees during the day, use instruments with automatic adjustment. It is desirable that the heater was washed with water, so mount the compressor near him. Moving bubbles contribute to better mixing of the liquid, all layers in this case will have a more uniform temperature of the medium.

The optimal temperature for fish in the aquarium

The expression "feel like a fish in water" is familiar to all. And it means comfort in certain conditions. But the inhabitants of the reservoirs may also experience inconvenience in their biome if their living conditions are disturbed.

Fish in the aquarium

In natural waters, fish are more accustomed to temperature changes, since this is their natural habitat. Yes, and the area of ​​water space is such that warming or cooling water occurs gradually. So the fish here have time to adapt.

With aquariums, the situation is somewhat different: the smaller the volume, the more tangible the temperature jumps. And the more likely the development of "fish" diseases. Novice aquarists should consider this feature and know what the normal water temperature in the aquarium is.

In one aquarium, it is desirable to keep the fish, accustomed to certain conditions of life, with the same features of the body. Despite the fact that all the fish - cold-storage, some of them live in cold waters, others - in the warm.

  • Fishes accustomed to warm waters can be divided into 2 species: consuming a small amount of O2 and those who need large reserves of oxygen.
  • A cold-water type of fish is only called that - they calmly withstand different temperatures, but they require a large amount of oxygen in the water.

For beginners aquarists can recommend small aquariums with low-breathing warm-water fish. In large tanks, it is better to initially contain the cold-water inhabitants of aquariums.

What should be the temperature of the water in the home aquarium

To the inhabitants of domestic ponds was comfortable, the temperature there must be at a certain level. And before you run the fish in your aquarium, you need to know what the natural conditions of its existence are (and most of the aquarium inhabitants come from the tropics).

The gradation of temperature parameters can be represented as follows:

  • The optimum temperature of the aquarium, which is suitable for most fish, ranges from 220 to 260C;
  • water temperature in the aquarium below the minimum optimum is no longer acceptable to warm-water fish;
  • a rise in temperature above 260 is permitted by 2-40 ° C if it is gradual.

Changes in temperature in a domestic pond to one side or the other from the optimal parameters are more easily tolerated by aquarium inhabitants if the water is sufficiently enriched with oxygen. The most difficult thing will be to fed fish - they need more air at any temperature drop. But with a sharp cooling, the fish will suffer and hungry.

What to do when the temperature drops

The reason for lowering the temperature of the water can become a banal room ventilation. The owner of the aquarium may not even immediately notice that the fish became ill. To raise the temperature to standard indicators, you need to go for some tricks.

  • If there is a heat heater, you are lucky - connect it and warm up the water to the desired parameters.
  • You can pour into the pond a little boiled water (no more than 10% of the total). But this should be done gradually, adding heat no more than 20 for every 20 minutes.
  • The previous method requires caution so that hot water does not get on any fish. The best option would be a plastic bottle filled with boiling water - it quietly drifts over the surface, giving off heat to the aquarium water.
  • If the fish are very bad, “water” their cognac (or vodka) - 1 tbsp is enough for 100 liters of water. of alcohol. It will a little cheer up the inhabitants of the aquarium, but the tank will soon have to be washed.

How to lower the temperature in the pond

A failed thermal sensor on a heating pad or close proximity to the heating system can provoke a sharp increase in temperature in the aquarium. Even the sun's rays in the summer will quickly warm the home water reservoir, if it is located on the southern windowsill. Try to keep the water parameters below 300 ° C, otherwise the aquarium will turn into a kind of pot with an ear.

  • To save the fish can the same bottle of plastic, but already filled with cold water or ice. Lower the temperature smoothly.
  • Keep the compressor turned on until the temperature can be reduced to normal. Reinforced aeration will allow fish to breathe "full of gills."
  • 1 st.l. will help to enrich water with oxygen. hydrogen peroxide (per 100-liter container). This pharmacy drug in parallel and hold disinfection in the pond, destroying the parasites.

It should be borne in mind that a rise in temperature is more contraindicated for aquarium fish than for its decrease. Here, even the poor health of aquatic inhabitants can be affected by the presence of various nitrates in the composition of the water, which are especially harmful at elevated temperatures.

The temperature regime must be monitored.

Experienced aquarists have long protected themselves from such troubles as the need to lower or raise degrees. To keep fish at optimum temperature limits, the following rules should be taken as a basis.

  • Choose the "right" place for the aquarium: away from heating appliances, air conditioners, away from direct sunlight (especially in summer) and drafts.
  • Thermowheel should be of high quality and reliable sensor.
  • A thermometer is an indispensable device for completing any aquarium. The location of its location, select such that it was convenient to monitor the indicators of the scale.
  • Aeration is not a whim, so the compressor should turn on regularly. What habitat without enough air will be comfortable?

How to lower the temperature of the water in the aquarium:

What is the optimum water temperature in an aquarium?

For all aquarium fish, the water temperature in the aquarium is important, so you need to monitor it periodically. For most of the inhabitants of the aquarium, a temperature range of between 22 and 26 degrees is suitable. Discus and labyrinth fish need a temperature of 28-30 degrees, and goldfish - from 18 to 23. Of course, they can live at elevated temperatures, but over time not to avoid disease: most often in animals dysfunction of the swim bladder occurs.

Ensure that there are no sudden changes in temperature (more than 4 degrees) in the aquarium. A smooth change is acceptable, but by no means drastic. However, jumps occur quite often, and especially for small aquariums, the capacity of which is less than 60 liters. This is due to the fact that a small amount of water heats up quickly, but cools down for a short time. So, for example, a window leaf that is open for a few minutes can cool the water very much, and aquarium fish will get chilodonellosis or a bacterial infection. If there is no thermometer in the aquarium, the owner will not be able to find out about such jumps in temperature, and the symptoms of the disease may appear very late.

In order to maintain the optimum water temperature in the aquarium all the time, a thermometer and a heating pad are needed. A thermometer should be in every aquarist. It should be located in the aquarium so that you can clearly see the temperature. This is important because the faster a person sees the changes and takes the necessary actions, the less the inhabitants of the aquarium will suffer. Recently, the choice of thermometers is huge, so everyone can choose a convenient one for themselves.

To maintain a constant temperature in the aquarium, you need a heating pad that heats the water to the desired temperature and then automatically turns off. If it has a high level of power, then residents of the aquarium are not afraid of drafts, temperature changes, or airing.

If you do not have the opportunity to constantly wonder what the temperature of the water in the aquarium, then you need a heating pad. The main thing is to choose a quality one, because otherwise it may not always respond to temperature drops, not turn on, or, on the contrary, warm water, not turn off, and your fish can boil. To avoid this, the heating pad must be changed periodically.

If you really care about your fish, then purchase only proven products for them; Do not rush to choose, consult with experienced aquarists, read reviews about the product and only then make a purchase.

Aquarium heater with thermostat

One of the important conditions for keeping fish at home is to maintain a stable temperature in an aquarium, which, without human intervention, always corresponds to the indoor microclimate indicator. Sharp fluctuations in the range of 2–4 degrees, caused by an open window or switched off heating, negatively affect the health of hydrobionts. This is especially true of aquariums with a small displacement, where temperature drops can occur in a matter of minutes. In addition, there are situations during the year when a long period is too cold indoors, and this can cause serious damage to the whole ecosystem.

Types of Aquarium Heaters

In order to be able to create the most comfortable conditions for the habitat of fish and plants, special devices are used - aquarium heaters. There are several types of them, but the principle of operation is the same for everyone - electric heating of the element in a sealed environment. The most commonly used heaters are:

Submersible (plastic, glass, titanium). It consists of a heating element embedded in a shock-resistant, heat-resistant body in the form of a bulb or an elongated cylinder, and is designed to be lowered into the aquatic environment.

Flow through. Имеет пластиковый корпус и монтируется в вертикальном положении на возвратный шланг внешнего фильтра, что позволяет сэкономить внутреннее пространство и создать поток тёплой, аэрированной воды.

Нагревательные кабели. Устанавливаются под грунт и позволяют равномерно прогреть весь аквариум, создать дополнительную циркуляцию воды.

Нагревательные маты. Представляют собой прямоугольные коврики, которые устанавливаются под аквариум.The heat released evenly passes through the bottom and raises the temperature of the water.

It is considered that a sufficient power of the heating device should correspond to the indicator of 1 W per liter, but in practice 0.7-0.8 W per liter is often used.

Heater for aquarium with thermostat

The main disadvantages when using a heater are associated with the need to constantly monitor its operation. Even reaching the desired indicator of water temperature, the device still continues to function and it must be disconnected from the network manually.

To get rid of this problem, a special device is used - the thermostat, which is a device with a built-in temperature sensor. It allows you to turn off the heating element when it reaches the set point and turn it on again when the water starts to cool.

Thus, a stable microclimate is achieved without temperature drops. The use of modern technology allows the manufacture of very compact and easy-to-use thermostats.

According to manufacturing technology, they are divided into two types.

Electronic. They have high accuracy (most of them are equipped with information boards). Among the shortcomings can be called the relative high cost and lack of reliability.

Mechanical. There are most often, are stable and reliable in operation, cheaper price. They often distort the actual performance by several degrees, so you need to use a separate thermometer to fine tune the device.

The level of safety in operation and durability of the device thermostats are divided into:

  • Remote - are outside the aquarium, not affected by the aquatic environment and the products of vital activity of aquatic organisms. This increases their service life and provides an opportunity to use cheaper heaters, to replace them without additional costs. To determine the mode of operation, a separate temperature sensor is used, which is located in the aquarium and is connected by wire to a thermostat.
  • Built-in - mounted in a sealed enclosure with a heating element. With this configuration, the entire system of control and heating of water becomes very compact and easy to use.

The latter type of design is most popular among aquarists and is often made in the form of an elongated glass bulb, inside of which there is an electric heater and a thermostat. For greater thermal conductivity, the space of the flask is filled with the smallest ceramic filler.

The tightness of the design provides a rubberized or plastic cap through which the power wire passes. Here is a regulator that allows you to set the desired temperature.

Well-known brands of aquarium equipment - Eheim, Fluval, Ferplast, Aquael, Tetra - produce reliable and high-quality immersion heaters for an aquarium with a thermostat of 25 to 300 watts. Such devices are able to provide the necessary conditions in aquariums up to 1500 liters.

To reduce the likelihood of overheating of water, there is a practice with the simultaneous use of several less powerful thermal devices. In the case when it is not possible to purchase the necessary equipment, it can be done by yourself.

DIY Aquarium Heater

When making such a device, you need to remember that the conditions of its operation are associated with a serious risk of electric shock.

But if the decision was made in favor of artisanal crafts, then there is a good option with the creation of a structure made of resistors (resistances), a piece of glass tube with thick walls, a dry filler and an external thermostat. Installation work is carried out in the following order.

1. The power of the heating element is determined on the basis of a special table, which takes into account the temperature difference between the required in the aquarium and the room one. The required current strength is calculated by dividing the selected power by the applied voltage. By dividing the voltage used by the calculated value of the current, you can get the resistance value of the heater. The required number of identical resistors is selected so that their total power and resistance index corresponds to the calculated values.

2. Determine the length and diameter of the glass tube based on the size and number of resistances. It is important that the successively soldered resistors are placed in the tube with a reserve of 15 cm of free space.

3. In the role of filler, you can use purified from calcined and calcined sand.

4. The bottom of the glass tube is closed with a suitable rubber stopper fitted on the aquarium sealant.

5. The ends of the network cable are soldered to the top and bottom resistors.. The whole structure is placed in the tube and covered with sand. It is important that the sand be at the bottom of the tube and cover the upper resistor.

6. Top of the tube is carefully closed with aquarium sealant. The power cord is connected to the thermostat with a remote temperature sensor, which in turn is placed in the aquarium.

7. The heater is placed vertically so that the part of the tube in which the resistors are located is hidden under water. Mounted design to the wall of the aquarium with special suction cups.

Also developed schemes for the manufacture and the thermostat on the basis of the comparator and thermistors.

findings

There is a theory according to which hydrobionts must be kept in conditions as close as possible to natural ones. Temperature changes in nature occur constantly, and there seems to be no special need to use an aquarium heater.

But in practice, it is proved that the fish and plants feel much better, they are sick less and live longer in a stable microclimate. That is why the use of a heater for an aquarium with a thermostat especially during the cold season is more than justified.

Video review of the aquarium heater with thermostat:

What is the maximum water temperature for aquarium fish?

Lord

Lighting and water temperature in the aquarium
How to light the aquarium? When addressing this issue, the following points should be taken into account: the natural light illumination of the aquarium, the power of the lamp, the depth of the aquarium, the need for specific types of fish and plants for a particular light intensity (spectral composition is important for plants), the duration of illumination.
For example, if an aquarium is located near a window, the need for its inhabitants in artificial light is less (especially in summer). Fish, with the exception of the inhabitants of shaded reservoirs and those that are active at dusk, are not so whimsical to the lighting of the aquarium, like plants. The life of the latter strongly depends on the quality and quantity of light. In most cases, the aquarium should be lit 12 - 14 hours a day.
What fluorescent lamps can be used to light the aquarium? Aquarists use the following types of lamps: LB, LD, LTB, LHB, LBU, LDC, and some others. Usually use lamps with a capacity of 20 to 40 watts. It must be remembered that the light output of fluorescent lamps is 2.5 - 3 times higher than incandescent lamps.
Approximate standards of lighting power: 0.4 - 0.5 watts per 1 liter of aquarium volume - for fluorescent lamps, 1.2 - 1.5 watts per 1 liter - for incandescent lamps. For fish and plants that cannot tolerate bright light, these rates are reduced. It should be remembered that the deeper the aquarium, the greater must be the power of the lamps.
What kind of lamp is better to use for lighting aquarium plants? When breeding aquarium plants, the best results are obtained with a combination of lighting: incandescent lamps plus fluorescent lamps such as LD, LDC (during flowering and fruiting, plants need blue rays, which give the lamp with this marking). The power of incandescent lamps for lighting aquarium with plants - 25, 40, 60 watts.
If you are mostly interested in fish, then in the presence of widespread and unpretentious plants, you can use any fluorescent lamps, preferably warm daylight, in the marking of which there is a letter B (LB, LTB, etc.), as well as incandescent lamps, better than krypton ones. The latter differ from ordinary lamps in that their flask is filled with krypton and they burn brighter, giving more orange rays.
In my room, the temperature does not rise above 18 - 20'C. Will fish live at this temperature? The temperature of the water in the non-heated aquarium is equal to or lower than in the room. For warm-water fish, this is not enough. Most aquarium fish and plants live at a temperature of 24 - 26 'and therefore need heating.
The most primitive heater is an incandescent lamp placed outside the side wall of the aquarium below the surface of the water and covered with a metal reflector. The lamp should not be more powerful than 40 watts from the strong and uneven heating of the glass can crack. This heater is not very convenient, since a lot of heat is wasted. In addition, at night it has to be turned off. Plants stretch in the direction of the lamp and bend, and the side glass quickly overgrown with algae.
The most commonly used heaters from nichrome wire, wound on a glass tube, which is placed in a tube with sand (they are produced by our industry). The power of such heaters from 5 to 100 watts. They should be used in full accordance with the instructions. Especially it is necessary to ensure that the upper end of the heater protrudes from the water - getting it into the tube results in damage to the device.
To maintain the temperature of the water in a 25-liter aquarium is not higher than in the room, 0.2 l is required for every liter of water, 0.13 in a 50-liter tank and 0.1-watt in a 100-liter tank. To keep the temperature constant, use a heater with a thermostat. The industry produces a variety of temperature controllers. One of the most common PTA-W.

Natasha

maximum! maximum when I turned on the heater and cooked the soup of my fish !! Until now, from myself in shock T was about 35-40. The minors are dead ((
therefore, 32 is the maximum but the fish remained alive))

Kostyan Zhitnik

Zhenya, depending on what kind of fish ... In general, in summer, at room, almost all fish live normally ... And in winter, it is better to put a heater ... But I do not recommend to reveal the maximum temperature by experience, it’s a pity to fish)))

Unknown

When treating most aquarium fish (except gold), some aquarists raise the temperature to 34 degrees. But for the content, of course, need a lower temperature. The discus discusses separately - they need a temperature of about 30 degrees ... and gold ones - they need colder water than others.

What is the temperature of the water needed in the tank for chyhlid?

Max frost

Cichlids are written through "and" these are wonderful fish. fishes with intelligence.
Optimal content:
Active aeration of water in an aquarium by means of continuously operating air dispensers or filter ejectors should ensure maximum saturation of water with oxygen.
The temperature of the water must correspond to the optimum value for the maintenance or dilution of one or another species. With the joint maintenance of many species of cichlids, thermal stress for fish should be avoided by proper selection of communities.
Maintaining proper water quality should be ensured by the use of activated carbon filters and periodic water changes in accordance with the requirements of the fish, but not less than 10-20% weekly. Wild fishes caught in natural waters are most sensitive to pollution. Initially, they require frequent (sometimes up to 50% daily) water changes and a perfectly functioning filtration system.
Stiffness and active reaction of water pH (sometimes salinity) is desirable to maintain in the framework of, consistent with natural biotopes.
The design and interior design of the aquarium should be performed according to the natural landscapes, taking into account the need for the necessary number of shelters, especially for territorial fish.
When choosing plants for decorating an aquarium, preference should be given to species with a strong root system and rigid leaves (echinodorus, anu biasy, sagittarii, etc.). Keep in mind that some vegetarian cichlids, such as Uaru, are very quick to kill aquatic plants (with the exception of those that they don’t like); for them it is better to decorate the aquarium with snags, stones and plastic plants, and the living ones are periodically added only as a vitamin supplement.
When choosing plants for decorating an aquarium, preference should be given to species with a strong root system and rigid leaves (echinodorus, anubias, sagitarii, etc.). Keep in mind that some vegetarian cichlids (for example, Uaru) deal with aquatic plants very quickly (except for species that they don’t like) and it’s better for them to decorate the aquarium with snags, stones and plastic plants, and live
When creating large collections of cichlids, paramount attention should be paid to the selection of communities. In the general aquarium, it is impossible to combine carnivorous and herbivorous fish, as carnivores will constantly starve, and "vegetarians", as a rule, more temperamental, will suffer from protein poisoning, digestive disorders and other diseases. It is undesirable to place cichlids in one aquarium that require alkaline and acidic water reactions, especially if their temperature requirements are also different (for example, yulidochromis and apistograms). Often, active males of a number of Malawian cichlids, trophiuses, etc. literally terrorize the rest of the inhabitants of the aquarium, preventing them from eating and developing normally. Often this is an individual trait of the individual. Such fish from the aquarium is better to remove or completely eliminate the content in this particular community of super-temperature species.
Under the conditions of captivity, fearful and cautious cichlids are better mastered in the company of schooling sociable fish of other families: barbs, danios, melanotenias, catfish, etc. The presence of imperturbable, joyful neighbors reassures cichlids and fully allows them to show their habits: guarding the territory, offspring protection, conditional signals, etc.
The optimum temperature of the content of these fish is 26 degrees Celsius.
The normal temperature (quite suitable) is -28-29 degrees Celsius (you can raise up to 31.
But for mating 31-32 degrees Celsius

Transformer Retired

Temperature 24-26 C is suitable for almost all fish. Most often this is our room temperature. Temporary summer increase with good aeration (purging) of water is tolerated by fish normally. Also for most species it is not dangerous to have a short-term drop in temperature to 18-20 C. Of the cichlids, only the discus has increased requirements for the water temperature. Their range: 28-30 C, and if you feel unwell - up to 35 C. Here you can’t do without constant heating. Heat-loving and scalaries, although not to the same extent as discus.

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