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How to lower the ph of water in the aquarium

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How to lower ph (acidity of water) in an aquarium?

The acidity of the water in an aquarium is one of the important aspects that you need to constantly monitor and adjust. However, for fans of unpretentious fish (such as barbs or danios), you can not pay attention to it. If you want to have an aquarium with a variety of colorful fish, then you have to learn how to determine the pH level.

The pH level is characterized by positive hydrogen ions. Neutral water contains the same amount of ions, in acidic water the pH is less than 7, and in alkaline water it is more than 7. If the amount is 7, then this medium is neutral.

To determine the pH level in your tank, you can use litmus papers and reagents that change color depending on the environment that prevails in the tank.

The acidity of the water in the aquarium can also be measured by electronic testers: they will help you regularly and easily measure the pH level in the water, and modern models can be connected to a computer. However, their main drawback is the high price and the need to constantly do the calibration, so there should always be a suitable solution for calibration.

If you see a deviation from the norm, then depending on the results you need to lower or increase the level of acidity in the aquarium.

In order to lower the pH level, you can use drinking water that is added to the water in the aquarium. You can also add sodium bicarbonate sludge instead use water from the tap, in which the alkaline level is significantly elevated. There are many ways to lower the pH in an aquarium.

If the pH level needs to be increased, then you can use one of three methods. First, add sodium biphosphate. Secondly, pour a small amount of peat into the aquarium water. Third, use a choice of hydrochloric, acetic, sulfuric or phosphoric acid.

Changing the level of acidity should be very careful; all means should be used in small quantities, otherwise there may be irreparable deterioration. However, if deviations from the norm do not exceed 2 units, then no action is needed.

If the pH level is normal, then everything is fine in the aquarium and the biological balance is not disturbed. As soon as you see the changes - even minor ones - immediately measure the acidity. If there are deviations, then first of all try to improve the situation with the help of water changes.

pH in aquarium - photo video description review.

What is pH?

The pH value is a logarithmic scale of the proportion of H + (hydrogen) and OH- (hydroxyl) ions in the range from 0 to 14, in which 7 is a neutral value. If the concentration of H + ions is high, then the water is considered acidic, and if the concentration of OH is higher, then this is an alkaline medium. In other words, if the concentration of dissolved minerals is high, then the pH is high and vice versa. In addition, the pH depends on various factors, such as:

  • hardness of water;
  • the amount of mineral substances dissolved in water;
  • oxygen levels and more.

The importance of pH for aquarium.

Many believe that even the slightest change in pH is very harmful for aquarium fish, since, for example, water with pH = 6.5 is 10 times acidic, which has a pH = 6.6. Many aquarists are deeply convinced that all fish in nature live in a completely stable and narrow pH range. They believe that fish do not know how to adapt to changes in pH, and if this happens, they immediately die.

What really happens?
Many aquarists think that the pH level is always stable in the wild, but in reality this is not the case - it often fluctuates significantly. In Indian waters, daytime pH is much higher than during the night. In addition, the pH is lower in autumn and higher in spring. In the fall, for example, the leaves fall and rot, releasing acids into the water (for example, tannin) that acidify the water. In the spring, there is a large amount of monsoon rains that supply oxygen to the water, thus raising the pH.

How to lower the ph of water

pH is an indicator of the acidity of the solution, characterizing the concentration of hydrogen ions. The pH of the "neutral" solution, that is, where the concentration of hydrogen ions H + and hydroxyl ions OH- is almost the same and "balances" each other, is 7.0. Typically, the pH of drinking water is close to the neutral index, that is, to 7.0. But sometimes there is a situation when it should be lowered. For example, in everyday life this may be necessary if the fish in an aquarium need a more “sour” environment. How can I lower the pH of the water?You will need
  • - strips of indicator paper;
  • - acidified water;
  • - buffer soil;
  • - carbon dioxide;
  • - a piece of wood.
Instruction1First of all, try to find out exactly what level of pH your pet needs for normal well-being and vital activity. It depends primarily on the type of aquarium inhabitants. You can use special literature for aquarists, search for information on the Internet, or ask a specialist for a question (for example, at a pet store) .2 Acquire indicator paper strips from specialized stores. Of course, they give only a "rough", very approximate estimate of the pH value, therefore it is better to measure its level using a special device - a pH meter. Such devices are in almost any laboratory. 3 You can lower the pH of the aquarium waterby adding to it exactly the calculated amount water with a lower pH (acidified). Orthophosphoric acid is commonly used as an acidulant reagent. It is better to add such water in small portions, mix thoroughly and make control measurements of the resulting pH level. Otherwise, it is easy to lower the pH to values ​​that are harmful to fish. In some pet stores there is a special buffer soil on sale. When it is placed in water, the pH level gradually decreases. It also requires constant monitoring. A good way is to introduce carbon dioxide into the aquarium water. This can be done with the help of special devices or cartridges where carbon dioxide is under pressure.6 Sometimes a simple but effective method will help. In the aquarium after pre-treatment, put a piece of wood. What kind of tree is suitable for this, what processing it will require - find out from a specialist. You will immediately solve two problems: lower the pH water, and your aquarium will get a new decoration.

What influences the acidity of aquarium water? What determines the pH in an aquarium?

  • Aeration of 20 liters of water in just 4 hours can change the pH of the tap water from 7.8 to 8.6.
  • The soil used in the aquarium also plays an important role in the pH value. Any decor, for example, corals or fossils, can increase the hardness of the water, and, consequently, change the pH in the aquarium.
  • Ornaments such as snags can quickly lower the pH.
  • A high nitrate content lowers the pH. But in any case, do not use a high content of nitrates, as a means to reduce the pH. High levels of nitrates in the water is very harmful for fish.
  • Water that is contained at a higher temperature also tends to be acidic.
  • You may also observe some pH fluctuations during changes in the level (volume) of water in the aquarium.
  • If there are plants in the aquarium, then during the day and night you can observe significant fluctuations in the pH of the water. When the light of the plants occurs photosynthesis, in which carbon dioxide is absorbed and oxygen is released. This process raises the pH level in the aquarium. At night, plants breathe, absorbing oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. This lowers the pH.
  • Artificial flow of carbon dioxide into the aquarium (CO2), which is carried out to improve plant growth, also lowers the pH of the water.

Some aquarists quite successfully contain discus, angels, apistograms and tetras in hard water aquariums, the pH of which is about 8.3-8.6. And although all sources claim that these fish need a more acidic environment, they still feel great in fairly hard, alkaline water (pH above 8).

How to raise the pH in the aquarium?

This can be done quite simply by adding a little ordinary baking soda into the water medium, which absorbs the acid. The normal dose is 5 g of powder per 100 liters. A good way, if you consider that even its overdose does not increase the level of this indicator above 8 units.

You can also add to the aquarium salts of sodium and potassium (phosphate of these substances) in the same proportion.

Pet shops sell special products for pH balancing. For example, TROPIC MARIN Triple-Buffer quickly raises the level to 8 units.

Tetra pH / KH Plus, safe for fish and plants, is also popular.

You need to know that adding branded mixtures in water may cause foam. However, it does not pose a danger to living creatures and rather quickly dissolves.

But still experienced aquarists recommend not to bring the situation to the extreme, advise to produce a powerful aeration of aqua (organics oxidizes faster), to make regular water changes and periodically clean the acidifying soil.

pH meter for aquarium

We are talking about devices specifically designed for measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions in the aquatic environment. There are quite a lot of proposals for such devices; they differ in the accuracy of measurements, the duration of work and, accordingly, in cost, from 1000 to 10 thousand rubles.

But the principle of operation of all devices is the same: measuring the potential difference between the reference electrode (reference electrode) and the measuring electrode, which is lowered into the measured solution (aquarium water). Simply put, the pH meter is essentially a millivoltmeter.

The most budgetary option is the device pH-meter-pH-009, in appearance resembling a wide electronic thermometer, at the end of which there is an electrode. But the expensive option is a remote electronic unit and a measuring probe that falls into the water.

Ph controller for aquarium

These devices allow not only to measure the level of acidity of the aquarium environment, but also to automatically regulate it, lowering the alkali concentration. Their principle of operation is based on the exact dosage of carbon dioxide in the water. In principle, this unit can successfully replace all the means and methods of lowering the pH level.

Some experts recommend pH Controller Evolution DeLuxe - an easy-to-use and highly reliable device consisting of an electronic unit with a display, a Profi-Line electrode, two calibration solutions and a calibration station. One pressing of the corresponding button, input of one parameter, and the device automatically brings the necessary amount of CO2 into the water.

The German company EHEIM, which has long been producing elite equipment for aquariums, has distinguished itself in this matter. Her product with a carbon dioxide reactor can work around the clock, maintaining the right balance of acid and alkali in hard water. It should be serviced no more than once a month.

Maintaining optimal acid-base balance is a necessary necessity. The life of an ornamental fish depends on it, and there is no exaggeration in this statement.

What pH should be in the aquarium?

When considering the issue of pH, you need to know what pH level you will need to maintain in the aquarium. For example, discus likes to live at a pH of 7.0. In general, this is the optimum pH level. Almost all fish develop at a constant level, somewhere between 6.6 and 7.4. For dilution, the level should be pH 6-6.5. But for example, a stable pH of 6.6 is better than a pH value that varies between 6.6 and 7.0, even for fish that prefer 7.0.

What should be the pH level in an aquarium?

How to check tap water pH?

Many aquarists immediately test tap water for pH. However, this is not entirely accurate reading. To properly measure the pH of the tap water, you need to pour water from the tap into the container and place a spray bottle there in order to mix it for 24 hours. After that, you can take measurements. It would be nice to spend the second measurement in 48 hours to see if there are any additional changes. These values, measured after 24-48 hours, are an accurate indicator of the pH of the tap water. The sprayer is installed tap water in order to mix it and cause gas exchange on the surface of the water. This exchange reduces the amount of carbon dioxide in your water and causes the pH to rise. This pH will actually be the one you will measure in your tank.

Tip: At the beginning of, calibrate your pH - meter

Many newcomers to aquarism often make the mistake of buying a pH test and measuring right away. If you bought a controller or electronic pH meter - do not rush, calibrate it before use. If the calibration powders or solutions do not come in the configuration, you must buy them. Remember, the first step is to research the test case that you are using to see if it is accurate or not.

Most drop tests have a life of their own (usually 6 months). If your test kit is older than the expiration date, it may provide inaccurate results.

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WHAT IS AN AQUARIUM AND DOES IT WORTH TO FACT?

Water pH for aquarium

If you want to create a beautiful underwater world in your aquarium, you want to breed rare and exclusive breeds of fish, you should learn such a thing as the acidity of water.

Litmus test strips for measuring water

It is measured in chemical units Ph, for this purpose, a special test is used, the instrument or the acid-sensitive strips. If the value does not meet the norm per meter, it can threaten the health and even the life of fish and plants.

What is the acidity of the water in the aquarium

This concept is familiar to us from the school chemistry course. It means the content of positively charged hydrogen ions per meter of water. The optimum Ph value per meter is seven. This means that the tank is filled with "live" fluid, in which optimal conditions are created for the development of plants and fish. A Ph value of more than seven is considered a sign of an acidic environment, less than this figure is alkaline.
Please note that all of these figures are relevant only for wastewater and closed systems, the temperature of which is 25 degrees. If the water is warm and the test or strips show Ph = 7, this does not mean that the liquid medium is neutral.
The value of Ph depends on the presence in the aquarium or plant wastewater. In the daytime, when the tank is well lit and photosynthesis is actively undergoing, the acidity increases. At night, it decreases. Such fluctuations depend on other characteristics of aqua. The higher its rigidity, the less fluctuations your tester will show.
The acidity of wastewater and natural water bodies varies from 3 to 10. In an aquarium system, a value from 5 to 9 is necessary for fish. The final figure is determined by the specific type of plants and fish. Feeling pets is the best "tester", which shows whether the rigidity and Ph. For example, the norm for breeding males: Ph = 7.

Electronic tester

How to determine Ph level

To know what level of Ph in your tank: high or low, you need to measure it. The easiest way to determine the acidity of a living system is to apply a special test, including litmus strips and chemical reagents. It is affordable and sold in pet stores.
The strips change color depending on the content of positive hydrogen ions per meter of aqua or wastewater. Such a "device" is quite accurate: it indicates the level of Ph with an error of no more than 0.1-0.3 per meter. This is a valid scatter of data, because the acidity changes during the day.
Another option, how to measure Ph per meter, is to use an electronic tester. This device will give the most accurate answer to your question and will help control the rigidity and acidity for a long time. In many cases, the device can be connected to a computer and monitor readings online.
The tester has significant drawbacks. The water's ph varies with the temperature of the living biosystem, so it is necessary to purchase another device with it that will allow it to be measured. Another disadvantage is the high price. The test requires constant calibration, therefore, having bought it, stock up with a solution and monitor its freshness.
The tester consists of an electrode, whose service life is one year. The device must be kept moist and cleaned thoroughly before use. If you do not follow these rules, errors are possible. For example, the test will show that the rate in an aquarium with an acidic liquid, due to the fact that the rigidity of the water will be high.

How to lower the Ph of water in a live system

Defining a Ph for which a special test is used is only the first step in caring for the inhabitants of a living biosystem. The second stage is an understanding of whether this is the norm, and the performance of necessary measures.
Many inexperienced aquarists are wondering how to lower the Ph of an aquarium system or wastewater. There are the following effective methods:

  • add sodium bicarbonate to water;
  • aerate the wastewater;
  • прокипятите часть жидкости, отведенную для обитания растений и рыбок.

Понизить норма помогут щелочные препараты, например, обычная сода. Добавьте ее из расчета 0,5 чайной ложки на 50 литров. Если через час тестер отразит недостаточные изменения, добавьте еще столько же, подождите, и опять используйте лакмусовые полоски.

Как повысить Ph живой системы

If the test helped to determine that the level of Ph per meter in the living biosystem is not high enough for the normal development of plants and fish, you need to increase it. Use the following recommendations of experts:

  • add sodium biophosphate - it will increase the rigidity;
  • put a small amount of natural peat on the bottom of the tank;
  • Put a couple of droplets of the acid into the system: acetic, phosphoric or hydrochloric.

If the water hardness is at a level, Ph fluctuations associated with the cessation of daytime photosynthesis will become less noticeable. A tester or strips will show that in the water average the norm is the content of positive ions per meter.

Ph value is an important indicator for both wastewater and closed ecosystems. As well as rigidity, it determines how comfortable conditions are created for fish and plants. If the electronic device or strips show that it is raised or lowered, take immediate action. After them, perform the test again at a temperature of 25 degrees.

Peat for aquarium

PEAT FOR AQUARIUM:

use, use and cautions

The topic of peat use in aquariums is well studied in RuNet. Nevertheless, information about its use is scattered or compressed - scattered, crumpled up in various resources. In this connection, we decided to put everything together.

So, what is peat and why is it needed in an aquarium? Peat is a mixture of partially decomposed organic fossil materials of plant origin. It is very rich in organics and humic acids, which give it a brown color, resins, wax, salts and other substances. In an aquarium, peat lowers and stabilizes the pH value in a weakly acidic area while reducing water hardness, promotes good plant growth, especially the formation of roots, and prevents the active reproduction of fungi and bacteria.

From the definition we can deduce the key points for what it is necessary to use peat in an aquarium:

1. Acidification of water - lowering the pH value.

2. Mitigate aquarium water - lowering the kH and dH values.

3. Water enrichment with useful elements, the main of which are humic acids and tannins.

4. It has easy bactericidal and fungicidal properties.

Knowing the unlimited zeal of novice aquarists to use and test everything in their new aquarium, let's make a reservation right away:

1. Peat aquarium water should occur with the mind. It can not be used, say, as aquarium coal - fell asleep in the filter and rejoice.

2. Before using peat you need to know the parameters of the aquarium water. Peat can not be used with low acidity and hardness.

3. Peat is undesirable to use in aquariums, where alkaline fish live - they will not like it.

4. Peat tints the water, giving it a tea color. What some aquarists, out of aesthetic motives do not like.

After voiced precautions, let's more specifically designate what makes peat with aquarium water. It can be said that peat “ages” aquarium water, makes it natural, natural for some (soft water and acid-water) aquatic habitats - the predominant habitat of which is South America (Amazon) and South Asia. For example, these are the scalars, neons, discus, arovana, the Arnold chapel, a family of labyrinth fish, aquarium plants and shrimps.

It can also be said that peat is a substitute for natural processes in an aquarium.

Amazon river

Here is an example: somewhere far away, among the Amazonian lawns, forest edges, tree roots, a trickle flows, its water flows through fallen and dead tree leaves, dead leaves, flows through fallen wood, mosses, creeks and thereby absorbs the decay products of plant organic matter , in particular humic acid. Humic acids themselves are complex molecular compounds that are poorly understood by humans and cannot be chemically reproduced in the laboratory.

And so, at the end of its route, the trickle flows into the lake, thereby introducing into it, enriching it with useful organic matter.

Amazon Biotope

Such a mechanism, invented by Nature to maintain the ecosystem - the dead gives life to the new!

Ways to make peat in the aquarium:

- peat broths;

- peat extracts;

- falling asleep peat in the filter compartment;

- Laying peat layer in the aquarium soil;

Peat broth

Peat is boiled preferably in distilled water (at the rate of 5 g. Peat per 1 liter of water) for half an hour until the water becomes dark brown in color, then water is passed through a sieve to remove impurities. The resulting broth is poured in small portions into the aquarium, making sure that it is distributed evenly, and constantly check the pH value. The recommended lower limit of pH 6.

Peat extracts

Probably the most popular is peat extract. TetraToruMin - it is a liquid conditioner, creating the effect of the so-called "black water"typical of the South American basin, which is common for haracin, soft water cichlids, etc.
Created on the basis of peat extract, contains tannins, humic acids and hormones. A beneficial effect on the natural behavior of fish and their color, improves plant growth. The conditioner facilitates care of especially valuable, capricious breeds of fishes and creates conditions for their successful reproduction. With regular use of ToruMin, the light transmission of water decreases slightly, which stops the growth of algae. Water acquires increased transparency and light brownish tint.
In addition, ToruMin has a moderate antibacterial and antifungal effects.

Granulated peat

(for filters and primer)

Peat water in the aquarium can be using a filter filled with peat (approximately 1 liter of peat per 100 liters of aquarium water). At the same time, peat should be moderately compacted, since with strong compaction it is poorly permeable to water, and if it is too loose, there is a strong flow of water and it does not have time to enrich it with substances from peat. During filtration, the pH and CN values ​​in the aquarium are regularly monitored.

JBL Tormec activ - a filler in the form of granules from a two-component peat of different acidity for the gradual softening of water. Effectively and reliably reduces carbonate hardness and pH in aquarium water. The special structure of the filler ensures a long lasting effect, quickly preventing the growth of algae.
Creates optimal conditions for the maintenance and reproduction of fish from habitats with black water. The two components of the filler for immediate and long-lasting action, thus, the granules are a prophylactic against the growth of algae in fresh water.

600 grams of filler reduces carbonate hardness in an aquarium of 200 liters by 5-7 dKH. The filler is recommended to be replaced every 3-6 months.

Peat Sera super peat - black granulated peat.

- creates ideal conditions in the aquatic environment of an aquarium for ornamental fish who prefer “soft” water with a low level of acidity such as, for example, discus, characteristicis, catfish, barbs and labyrinth fishes;

- lowers the level of acidity and carbonate hardness of water;

- interferes with the growth of fungus, bacteria and microscopic algae;

- ideal for the aquatic environment intended for breeding fish;

- naturally enriches the aquatic environment with all the beneficial substances that are contained in the "black" tropical water;

- thanks to the special form of the filtering material in the form of granules, it releases humic acids and trace elements gradually in the necessary quantities for a long time.

The use of peat “Super Peat” at the rate of 250 g per 200 l of water:

- at the level of carbonate hardness of water of about 50 dkH, the level of acidity decreases from 7.4 to 6.7 in 24 hours;

- when the level of carbonate hardness of water is about 30 dkH, the level of acidity decreases from 7.2 to 6.4 in 24 hours.

Due to the fact that peat “Super Peat” sharply reduces the level of acidity and carbonate hardness, it is recommended to daily check the level of acidity using the “pH test” and the level of carbonate hardness using the “kH test”.

In conclusion, it should be noted that peat can serve as a substrate for spawning many aquarium fish. To use peat in this capacity, it is boiled for 10-15 minutes, and then washed under running water until the water is clear. After that, the peat can be placed in the spawning tank.

Also, peat is used as an additive to the soil or as an intermediate layer. To prevent peat from mixing up water, use a top layer - the main soil. Peat has the ability to soften water, reducing its hardness. Due to its increased acidity, peat helps to create an increased concentration of iron available to plants in the soil.

Aquarium water, parameters: hardness, pH and others


AQUARIUM WATER, PARAMETERS

One of the most important components of the aquarium world is water, as the habitat of aquarium fish and plants.

The parameters of the aquarium water, its characteristics directly affect the well-being of your pets and the state of the plants. It is no secret that dirty, muddy water ruins the fish, spoils the appearance of the aquarium, however, the clear water does not always mean that its composition is perfect.

The main parameters and indicators of the quality of aquarium water are:

- Aquarium water hardness (hD);

- Hydrogen indicator of water "Acidity of aquarium water" (pH);

- Redox potential (rH);

AQUARIUM WATER HARDNESS (hD) - due to the presence of soluble calcium and magnesium salts in water. Their concentration in aquarium water is the GENERAL HARDNESS, which can be divided into TEMPORARY - CARBONATE and PERMANENT - NON-CARBONATE.

The temporary hardness of aquarium water (CN) is the concentration of bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium, formed from weak, unstable carbonic acid. Such rigidity can vary during the day. For example, in the daytime, aquarium plants during photosynthesis absorb carbon dioxide that accumulates in the water. If carbon dioxide is not enough for consumption by plants, they will start to produce it from the bicarbonate composition, as a result of which the temporary hardness of the water will decrease.

The constant hardness of aquarium water (GH) is the presence of stable calcium and magnesium salts formed from strong acids — hydrochloric, sulfuric, or nitric.

Water hardness is essential for the life of the aquarium world. Firstly, calcium and magnesium salts are used in the construction of the skeleton and have an impact on the construction of the whole fish organism. For different types of aquarium fish, the indicators of water hardness are different and failure to comply with them can lead to a deterioration of the health of the fish, a violation of the function of reproduction and fertilization of eggs.

The total hardness of the aquarium water is measured in German degrees (hD). 1 ° hD is 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water.

Aquarium water with hardness parameters:

from 1 to 4 ° hD - is considered very soft;

from 4 to 8 ° hD - is considered soft;

from 8 to 12 ° hD - average hardness;

from 12 to 30 ° hD - considered to be very tough;

Most aquarium fish feel comfortable with hardness of 3-15 ° hD.

How to change the rigidity of the aquarium water:

1.) Increase stiffness.

- KH hardness can be increased by adding 1 tsp of baking soda to 50 liters, which will increase the performance by 4 ° dKH.

- 2 teaspoons of calcium carbonate to 50 liters of water will increase at the same time KH and GH by 4 degrees.

- Another measure for a smooth / gradual increase in water hardness is scattering and decorating the aquarium with seashells.

2.) Reducing stiffness (everything is more complicated here):

- use / add distilled water, which is sold in stores;

- use / add rain, snow, melt water from the refrigerator (must be clean, without turbidity and impurities).

- filter the water through an osmotic filter;

- filter water through peat (peat is added to the filter) or into the tank, where water is settled;

- the rigidity of the VF is reduced by boiling water in an enamel pot for 1 hour, followed by settling for 24 hours;

- natural water softeners are fast-growing plants: elodey, rogolodnik, nayas, valisneria.

HOW TO MEASURE the overall hardness of aquarium water at home without any specials. equipment and preparations (sample titration with soap solution):

The peculiarity of this method is that 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water is neutralized with 0.1 g. clean soap.

1. 60-72% of household soap is taken, crumbled.

2. In a measuring cup (or other measuring vessel), water is poured (distilled, snowy, water melted from the refrigerator) - then distillate.

3. Soap powder (counted in grams) is added to the water so that it is possible to calculate the portion small in the resulting solution.

4. Pour 0.5 liters of the tested aquarium water into another dish and gradually add portions of the soap solution (0.1 gr.), Shake.

At first, gray flakes and quickly disappearing bubbles appear on the surface of the water. Gradually adding portions of the soap solution, we are waiting for all the calcium and magnesium oxide to contact - stable soap bubbles will appear on the surface of the water with a characteristic rainbow overflow.

This experience is over. Now we count the number of consumed soap portions, multiply them by two (the aquarium water was 0.5 liters, not 1 liter.). The resulting number will be the rigidity of the aquarium water in degrees. For example, 5 servings of soap * 2 = 10 ° hD.

With careful experience, the error can be + -1 ° hD.

When obtaining a stiffness result of more than 12 ° hD, the measurement accuracy decreases, it is recommended that the experiment be re-diluted with aquarium water with 50% distillate, double the result.

Hydrogen indicator of water or "aquarium water acidity" (pH of aquarium water).

Determines the neutral, acidic and alkaline reaction of water at a certain concentration of hydrogen ions.

In chemically pure water, electrolytic dissociation occurs - the decomposition of molecules into hydrogen ions (H +) and hydroxyl (OH-), the number of which in it at 25 ° C is always the same and equals 10-7 g * ion / l. Such water is neutral. The negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions is conventionally used to designate the pH value and in this case is equal to 7. If there are acids in the water (not chemically pure water), the amount of hydrogen ions will be more than hydroxyl - the water becomes acidic with a lower digital pH. Conversely, hydroxyl ions will dominate in alkaline water and the pH will increase.

Aquarium water with pH parameters:

- from 1 to 3 is called / considered strongly acidic;

- from 3-5 sour;

- from 5-6 slightly acidic;

- 7 neutral;

- 7-8 slightly alkaline;

- 10-14 strongly alkaline;

PH parameters can change during the day, due to the variable concentration of carbon dioxide in aquarium water, which in turn is stabilized by constant aeration.

Sharp pH fluctuations are harmful and painful for aquarium fish and plants. Most aquarium fish prefer a pH of 5.5 to 7.5.

HOW TO CHANGE the pH of aquarium water:

- If it is necessary to lower the pH - acidify the water with peat extract (well, or with special preparations from the Pet ShopJ);

- If you need to increase the pH (strengthen alkalinity) - using baking soda;

MEASURING the pH of aquarium water:

1. In many pet stores sold - testers (litmus paper with phenolphthalein). Actually following the instructions on the package and on the scale, you can determine the pH parameters.

2. There are specials. measuring device - PiAshmeter. For home aquariums is not used (expensive, and why not at all). After all, the main thing is not frequent measurement of pH parameters, but conditions of keeping fish and aquarium. In a well-kept, not overcrowded aquarium, not clogged to the top with plants, with aeration - the pH will always be normal and often it is not necessary to measure.

Redox potential (rH of water, ORP of water).

The essence of the redox process in aquarium water is that all substances in it react with each other. In this case, one substance gives up its electrons and charges positively (oxidizes), and the other acquires electrons and charges negatively (being restored). As a result, a difference in electrical potentials arises between different-sized substances. Simply put: oxidation - this is the reaction of nitrite with oxygen, and recovery - on the contrary, the breakdown of nitrites with the release of oxygen.

The maximum oxidative potential of water is 42rH.

Options:

rH 40-42 - maximum oxidation (pure oxygen);

rH 35 - strong oxidation;

rH 30 - slight oxidation;

rH 25 - weak oxidation;

rH 20 - weak recovery;

rH 15 - slight recovery;

rH 10 - strong recovery;

rH 5-0 - maximum reduction (pure hydrogen);

Almost all aquarium fish and plants feel comfortable with rH 25-35. Some species prefer narrower parameters of this value.

Measured by rH special gauges.

Increase the rH of water by regularly changing the water, leaving it to clean the aquarium, as well as purging the air and using ozone.

SO:

We have learned about the basic parameters of aquarium water, the observance of which will be an absolute guarantee of the health of fish and the beauty of plants.

Существуют и другие значения/параметры характеризующие аквариумную воду. Однако, они не столь значимы, как hD и pH. Для содержания домашнего аквариума знать и следить за ними просто нет необходимости. Как говорил Шерлок Холмс: "… человек толковый тщательно отбирает то, что он поместит в свой мозговой чердак".

ОПТИМАЛЬНЫЕ ПАРАМЕТРЫ АКВАРИМНОЙ ВОДЫ (hD воды, pH воды, ОВП воды) I ATHERENTLY REACH THE BANAL CARE OF THE AQUARIUM AND FOLLOWING THE RULES OF THE CONTENT OF ITS RESIDENTS: do not make a dormitory out of the aquarium, do not overload it with plants, provide aeration and filtering;


See also:
CHANGE OF WATER IN THE AQUARIUM! WHAT WATER IS NEEDED FOR THE AQUARIUM? How much water should be defended for the aquarium?
Category: Aquarium Articles / EQUIPMENT AND FACILITY AQUARIUM | Views: 23 348 | Date: 5-03-2013, 13:20 | Comments (2) We also recommend reading:
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The secret of soft water. Lowering KH at home.

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