How to equip an aquarium for fish


How to equip the first beautiful aquarium

How to equip the first beautiful aquarium


"I am extremely happy that you are taking the first steps into the wonderful WORLD OF AQUARIUM FISH.

I will draw your attention that this article is introductory and basic. I strongly recommend that you familiarize yourself with more informative articles of our site "about the first small steps in the underwater kingdom," which you will find at the end of this article. "

Scientists have shown that even short-term observation of aquarium fish normalizes blood pressure and calms the nervous system. And fish care teaches children to care and attention.

The underwater world is mysterious and still little studied. Therefore, if you decide to create an aquarium world at home, then before that you should be familiar with the rules of underwater life.

Aquariums can be of any shape: round, semicircular, cylindrical, rectangular, etc. They should not be put on the windowsill, as direct sunlight will fall into it, which in turn will lead to "a greening of the aquarium" - uncontrolled growth of algae.

There are also aquariums that are suspended from the ceiling or embedded in furniture or a wall between two rooms. Such aquariums can be watched simultaneously from two rooms.

If you want to do sea fish, then note that the equipment for a marine aquarium will be more expensive than for a freshwater one. In addition, for marine life will need to specifically prepare salt water. Freshwater aquariums are cheaper and easier to care for, but the fish living in fresh water are less exotic.

Imitation of a marine aquarium is a freshwater aquarium of decorations with artificial algae and corals under a marine aquarium with bright freshwater fish.

The smaller the aquarium, the harder it is to care for it. The aquarium in which live plants will be taken should not be very high - no higher than 50 cm. If it is higher, then more powerful or additional lighting will be needed.

Aquarium can be designed yourself. For a homemade aquarium it is necessary to take only high-quality glass. The front glass is better to put imported, it is more expensive, but more transparent and better. All aquarium glass must be professionally cut and polished. Do not save on silicone - it should be solid, proven brands. It is worth noting that a homemade aquarium goes a little cheaper than a shop (and even more expensive if it comes to individual order). In this connection, we can say that the game is not worth the candle.

Quality, in all respects, are aquariums Japanese firm "ADA". They are much more expensive than other brands. Optimum at the price and quality the Kharkov aquariums of firm "Nature". Recomend for everybody.

Planting an aquarium is better with live plants. Stunted should be planted in front, then - medium height, and behind - high. For some species of fish, live plants are simply necessary - they hide there, and some even lay eggs on the leaves of plants.

Living plants are definitely needed. Even if you start a fish that loves to eat them. Just feed it better so that it does not take up the plants. Plants help dispose of the waste products of fish. The more of them, the better.

Plants, first of all, need light. They feed on them. Therefore, there should be good lighting in the aquarium - lamps with a capacity of 0.6 to 1 W per liter of water.

At the initial stage, the aquarium should be highlighted 7-8 hours a day. Then 11-12 hrs., But no more than this, so that your aquarium does not turn into a solid green swamp.

When buying aquarium fish, and also at care of them it is necessary to watch that they well felt. Most healthy fish swim calmly, do not get clogged in a corner. The fish should have a good color "not to be pale", clean body, not bitten fins. The fish must breathe properly - i.e. when the gill covers do not rise, but only the mouth opens. Eyes must be clean and clear, never protrude.

At the bottom of the aquarium ground is needed. The soil in the aquarium is a substrate for plants and for beneficial bacteria. The thicker the soil, the better - at least 5 cm. For living plants, it should be generally like a multi-layered cake with all the necessary substances.

At the bottom of the aquarium, you can put clean sand. In general, it is better to buy soil in the store. It should be remembered that before placing the soil in the aquarium, it should be washed, but rather boiled or at least pour over with hot water.

The temperature regime in the aquarium is supported by specials. heaterwhich is especially needed in winter to control the temperature of the water. After all, fish can die from the cold.

Fish feed mainly dry and frozen feed. It is better to combine a variety of food, so that the fish eat a varied and nutritious food, get enough vitamins, proteins and minerals. Feed the fish once or twice a day with a small amount of feed, which they completely ate in a few minutes. Remember, it is better to feed a small fish than to overfeed.

Fish can be fed live food. Some predatory fish feed chicken or other meat (bullish heart).

The easiest option for a novice aquarist is guppies. They have very beautiful males, females are smaller and not so bright. Guppies are very unpretentious to the conditions of detention. They are viviparous and multiply very quickly. Therefore, over time, they can become very much in your aquarium.

Beautiful and unpretentious neon fish. They are small but bright. If you run them a lot in one aquarium, it will be very beautiful.

Some types of fish are not combined. To live in one aquarium, you need to pick up fish that would not harm each other. There are also "territorial" fish that fight among themselves, conquering territory. Each fish has its own food preferences, as well as its own character.

Large predatory fish should not be placed in the same aquarium with small fish, so that the former do not destroy the latter.

There are very picky fish, for example, discus and butterfly apistogramma. Such fish require special attention and good care.

Cichlids are the brightest and most beautiful fish, but as a rule they are aggressive, territorial and are predators. Predators should be settled only with those fish that they can not eat. Tsikhlovyh fishes can not be combined together with haracin, because the first is much more aggressive than others. In addition, part of the cichlid lives not in an acidic, but in an alkaline environment.

For aquarium fish need aerationwhich saturates water with oxygen. What is achieved with the help of special compressors.

To clean the aquarium water filter put, and also use aquarium activated carbon.

Get an aquarium! Make fish!

Aquarium is great, and caring for it is much easier than for cats and especially for dogs)))

I recommend to read the following articles:

Aquarium for beginners


Aquarium decoration


All about Purchasing Transplant Fish Shipping!

WHAT IS NECESSARY TO THE AQUARIUM: what to consider when choosing an aquarium and which fish to buy?

CHILD AND AQUARIUM! AQUARIUM FOR BABY! AQUARIUM AT SCHOOL! Tips for parents and teachers when choosing an aquarium for children.

Compatibility of aquarium fish: how to choose aquarium fish, which fish to buy?

The most unpretentious aquarium fish, the smallest aquarium fish. Top 10 is not difficult fish!

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10 commandments novice aquarist

What to do to breed fish? Where to begin? How to make the first launch of the aquarium at home? What are the most unpretentious fish? Do I need seashells in the aquarium? What kind of ground to choose? These and many other questions arise for beginning aquarists when they decide to buy a home aquarium and breed fish. Of course, experienced aquarists already know many secrets and nuances in this difficult hobby of fish. And what to do in this case, newcomers? And in today's article we will dwell in detail not only on what aquarium for beginners is, but also on what to do in order to create a real work of art at home.

Rule one - the fish can not overfeed!

After acquiring a new artificial pond for the house, keeping the fish is better to start with its feeding no more than once a day. Of course, then you can feed it more often, but little by little. After all, an aquarium is, first of all, a closed habitat. If there is a lot of food, it is not eaten by fish, then it gets into the ground and begins to rot. From overfeeding the fish start to hurt, and then they completely die. How do you know if the fish are overfed or not? It's simple. Food, after getting into the aquarium should be eaten immediately, and not sink to the bottom. True, there are such fish as catfish. It is they who eat the food that fell to the bottom. Also, the fish need to arrange fasting days, but only once a week.

Rule two - care for aquarium

Aquaria - a very delicate matter. If you buy aquariums for beginners, it is best to focus on their equipment and only then think about starting. After all, everything requires maintenance and care, and the aquarium is no exception to the rules. In the new aquarium, the water needs to be changed not immediately, but only after several months. And the basic rules for the care of an artificial reservoir - is the replacement of water, but partial. You also need to look for algae. Do not forget to change the filter, clean the soil. Do not forget to also check the readings of the thermometer. And remember, you need to disturb the aquatic inhabitants as little as possible. Fish do not like it.

The third rule - conditions for fish: what should they be?

In order for the inhabitants of their future home to always be in order, it is necessary to properly maintain them. First of all, they need to create optimal conditions for their habitat. And for this, before purchasing fish in the pet store, carefully read the information about a particular species of fish. After all, one fish may simply not fit the environment, or the decor, which equipped the vessel.

The fourth condition is the right equipment.

Remember the main rule. First you need:

  1. Aquarium and minimal equipment for it.
  2. Priming.
  3. Plants.

And only after the acquisition of all of the above, you can think about choosing the fish. Artificial pond need to choose not very small. What is necessary from the equipment? So it refers to:

  • filter;
  • thermometer;
  • heater with thermostat;
  • lighting.

And when all this is acquired, you can do the installation of the vessel in your room. It is best to do this on a flat surface, before laying the tourist mat under the bottom of the aquarium. You also need to wash the soil and sand, pour it into the aquarium and fill it with cold tap water. Install a filter and heater (especially important to monitor the temperature of the water in the winter). Because of the cold fish can die.

Next, heat the water to 20 degrees and begin to plant the plants. Planting a home aquarium should be live plants. They are simply necessary. Even if there are fish in the aquarium that like to feed on plants, it is better to simply feed them more. Water will be muddy at first. And it is here that you should not hurry too much. Best of all is to wait about 7 days. And already after the water becomes clear, you can launch fish.

Important! Buying fish, do not forget to clarify whether they will get along together.

The fifth rule - the filter must be washed in the aquarium water

Do not make a fatal mistake. The filter should not be washed under running water, and aquarium. This is necessary in order to preserve the balance that is inside the filter.

The sixth rule - to collect more information about the fish

Do you want to avoid problems that may arise after the launch of the fish in the aquarium? Do not hesitate, ask the seller in the pet store about the fish and their contents, read different information and then everything will be right. After all, all the fish are different. Some are small, others are big. Some calm, others aggressive. And there is, for example, and predatory. Remember that it is on your right choice that both the comfort of the fish and the internal balance in the vessel's ecosystem depend.

What kind of fish can you choose? The most classic is guppies. Their content does not cause difficulties. So, they are unpretentious, viviparous and eat different food. It is very easy to distinguish the female from the male. Swordtails are also viviparous, so there will be no problems with the fry. Swordtails are similar to guppies in behavior and content. Danio rerio are very popular in aquariums. They are elegant, unpretentious and very mobile. Eat all kinds of feed. Another type of fish - the cardinal. They are very small and unpretentious. They need to be properly maintained, and then they can live up to 3 years. When choosing fish, pay attention to their color and color. They should not be pale.

Important! Novice aquarists - do not breed many fish at once!

The seventh rule - the launch of a new fish spend slowly!

As mentioned above, the launch of the fish should be done only when the artificial reservoir is settled at home. Remember that if all the rules are not followed, the water in the aquarium will quickly become cloudy and the fish will die.

Quite often, a situation arises when, after acquiring a fish, many beginners do not know what to do next ... For experienced aquarists, this is not a problem as they have a fish launch on the machine. But beginners may have problems. First you need to put the bag with the fish just in the aquarium. Let it float there. Thus, the fish gets used to the new environment. And the fish that are already in the aquarium in this way will get to know it. Then you need to start lowering the package below, so that the water from the aquarium is filled in the package. Let it still be a little time, and then launch the fish into the aquarium from the package.

Important! The more expensive a fish is, the more bother it is!

Eighth rule - water quality

Whatever fish was purchased, any of them is very sensitive to the chemical composition of water. And filling the aquarium should start with checking the composition of the water. All water composition parameters can be checked using special tests for aquarium water. For this you need to purchase such a test.

Then collect the required amount of water in a clean, well-dried test tube, glass, glass. Add a reagent indicator to the water, shake the tube with water. After 5 minutes, compare the result in the reference card. According to the results you need to take action. If the water was very hard, then it should be softened.

The ninth rule is a good seller.

Now during the computer technology for any question, you can find any answer at home by going to the network. But live chat is better. And if luck and fate will bring with an avid aquarist, then the success of the novice is almost guaranteed to breed fish at home. It would also be nice to make friends with the seller at the pet store, thus obtaining not only an experienced adviser, but also in the future, a reasonable discount and the right to make the first choice of the item you like.

The tenth rule - aquarism is my hobby!

The most important thing in aquarism is to fish with great enthusiasm, but without forcing yourself. Make it so that it brings pleasure and enjoyment. After all, this is a real vacation at home. Near the artificial reservoir can spend a lot of time watching the behavior of fish.

In addition, scientists have proven that running and monitoring fish leads to normal blood pressure and calms the nervous system. And if there are small children at home, then this is also a very good educational moment. After all, since childhood, caring for fish will teach them to care and attention. After all, probably, few people would like to see the first experience with the aquarium turn out to be bitter and end with the death of the fish. After all, it often happens that novice aquarists, who have not coped with the problems, put an end to their dream.

Do not leave immediately, and after a while there will come a period when an experienced aquarist grows from an inexperienced beginner who will help the same beginners, like him, who buy aquariums for beginners himself just a few weeks or months ago. Believe it is not difficult!

How to equip and whom to settle in a tank of 40 liters

Sometimes there is a situation when going to visit friends, or just going into the room, the first thing that catches your eye is a magnificent aquarium and beautiful fish swimming in it. It is not surprising that practically everyone has a desire to create such a work of art at home.But what if the money is only enough for an aquarium with a capacity of 40 liters? Is it a lot or a little? And what fish to inhabit it? And this is not to mention the subtleties associated with its arrangement. We will dwell on these nuances in more detail.

The first steps

To begin to make your dream a reality, first of all we buy not only an aquarium of 40 liters, but also assistive devices without which it will be very difficult to ensure the comfortable existence of its future residents. So, to such equipment include:

  1. Filter.
  2. Compressor.
  3. Thermometer.

Consider each of them separately.


This device is considered to be one of the most important in terms of maintaining an ideal and stable state of the entire ecosystem in the aquarium. In addition, thanks to the continuous filtration of water, you can not worry about the appearance in it of various dangerous microorganisms, dust or residual food. But, despite the seeming simplicity in the operation of the aquarium filter, there are certain safety rules that just need to be strictly followed. So, they include:

  1. Avoid long-term device off. If this happens, then before turning it on it is necessary to thoroughly wipe the entire device.
  2. Connecting the device only if all its parts are completely submerged in water. In case of non-compliance with this rule, there is a high probability of serious malfunctions that will fundamentally disrupt the operation of the filter.
  3. Thorough washing out of the purchased device before its first immersion in the aquarium.
  4. Compliance with the minimum distance from the bottom to the attached device is not less than 30-40 mm.

Remember that even the slightest negligence can seriously affect the entire microclimate in an aquarium. And this is not to mention the serious danger faced by the fish living in it.


This device in some cases can be called the "heart" of any vessel. This device performs one of the most important functions for maintaining the life of not only fish, but also vegetation. The compressor is needed to saturate the water with oxygen. It is installed, as a rule, in the outer part of the aquarium both on the side and on its back. After that, it is necessary to connect a special hose to it, which subsequently sinks to the bottom and connects to the sprayer. Compressors can be of several types. Depending on the installation location: internal and external. If we talk about power then: using batteries or working on the network.

One of the most common mistakes inexperienced aquarists include night shutdown of the compressor. It is this act, which seemingly seems quite logical, can lead to irreparable consequences, since it is at night that oxygen consumption increases significantly. Also, due to the suspension of photosynthesis, many plants begin to use carbon dioxide.

Also, this device is necessary for high-quality filter operation. It is worth emphasizing that even the presence of a large amount of vegetation in an aquarium does not lead to complete oxygenation of all the inhabitants of the underwater world. And this is especially manifested when not only fish but also shrimps or even crayfish act as inhabitants of a vessel. Also, many experienced aquarists advise before starting to install the compressor to check its operation on the tank with vegetation.

Important! It is necessary to constantly make sure that such a phenomenon as supersaturation with oxygen does not occur.

Heater and Thermometer

Another important attribute in maintaining the normal functioning of any aquarium is the constant maintenance of the required temperature conditions. It is very difficult to overestimate the importance of a stable temperature in the vessel, since any sharp change in it can make a serious imbalance in the measured life of its inhabitants. As a rule, values ​​in the range of 22-26 degrees are considered ideal indicators. If tropical fishes are planned as residents of the aquarium, it is better to slightly raise the temperature to 28-29 degrees. But it is worth emphasizing that in order to better control any temperature changes, it is recommended to purchase a thermometer together with a heater.


The quality and level of light is quite serious for maintaining a comfortable life support in an aquarium. Therefore, it is not surprising that for the proper flow of all the vital processes in an artificial reservoir, you need to worry about the presence of artificial and high-quality light. So, in his favor says the reduction of the day, depending on the seasons.

And if in the summer season there can still be enough natural light, after only a couple of months the need for auxiliary lighting devices will completely disappear. In addition, it should be noted that the intensity and brightness of light directly affects both the growth of the fish and their well-being. And this is not to mention the fact that the appearance of what is happening in the aquarium will be almost equal to 0.

How to put the aquarium

It would seem that there is difficult. We buy an aquarium and put it on a place prepared in advance, but you should not be surprised if then suddenly there will be various unpleasant situations. And all due to the fact that during its installation were not observed simple safety rules. So they include:

  1. Installation only on a flat surface.
  2. The presence of nearby outlets. Although the aquarium of 40 liters can not boast of serious dimensions, but do not neglect its placement in an uncomfortable place, thereby complicating access to it.
  3. Use as a soil for various nutrient substrates. And the very thickness of the soil to keep in the range of 20-70 mm.

When fish are settled

It would seem that having established an aquarium it is already possible to begin its settling, but here it is not necessary to hurry. The first step is to place the plants in it in order to balance the water balance and create all the necessary conditions for its future inhabitants. As soon as the plants are planted, some time must be spent for them to release new shoots and graft.

It should be emphasized that during this period new microorganisms appear in the water. Therefore, do not be afraid of a sharp change in the color of water on milk. As soon as the water becomes transparent again, it becomes a signal that the plants have taken root and the microflora of the artificial reservoir is ready to receive new inhabitants. Once the fish are running, it is absolutely not recommended even to change the location of vegetation even in the slightest way, or to touch the soil with your hand.

Important! Making the transfer of fish from one vessel to another, it is necessary to ensure that there is no strong temperature difference in the new aquarium.

We clean the soil

Regular cleaning of the soil - is one of the main parts of maintaining comfortable living conditions for the inhabitants of the aquarium. It produced not only in time to significantly improve the optimal state of the microclimate in the vessel, but also help to avoid irreparable harm to it. For this procedure, you can use a hose with a siphon, and put its free part in an empty container. Next, using a pear, remove the water from the aquarium and begin to siphon on those areas where the accumulated dirt. After completion of the procedure, fill the missing water.

What fish are settled?

First of all, populating the new inhabitants in the vessel, it should be borne in mind that they need free space for a comfortable existence in it. That is why it is so important to avoid even the slightest hint of overpopulation, which can lead to the fact that the ecosystem built with such care cannot simply cope with the functions assigned to it.

Therefore, it is recommended to take into account certain nuances that will help to avoid difficulties with maintaining the life of the aquarium in the future. So, planning to buy small fish (neons, cardinals), then the ideal option would be to use 1.5 liters of water for 1 individual. This proportion refers to a vessel without a filter. With it, you can also reduce the ratio to 1 l. Larger fish, such as guppies, cockerels, are populated with a ratio of 5 liters to 1 fish without a filter, and with it 4 liters to 1.

Finally, very large fish settle in the ratio of 15 liters 1 individual with a filter. Without it, you can reduce the proportions to 13 liters to 1.

Does fish growth depend on the size of an artificial reservoir?

There is a theory that claims that the size of a fish directly depends on the size of the vessel. And to be frank, there is a grain of truth in it. If you take, for example, roomy aquariums, then the fish that inhabit it grow up much faster and grow in size. If you put the same fish in a small aquarium, the process of its growth will not stop, but the rate of maturation will decrease significantly. But It is worth noting that, even being in a small container, but with proper care, you can get incredibly colorful and fascinating appearance of the inhabitants of the underwater world.

But do not forget that if large aquariums do not require frequent maintenance, then a smaller vessel is needed more often. Therefore, it should be several times a week not only to add water, but also to regularly clean it.

Fish tank - where to start?

When installing the aquarium, you need to follow some rules. If you are new to the aquarium business, it is necessary to study in detail all the features of the correct settlement of fish. It is important to understand what size of the aquarium is needed, what plants will harmoniously look in the aquascape, and what parameters of the aquatic environment are suitable for all residents of the reservoir. A full life of the fish and plants will also ensure proper care and compatibility.

Space for tank and equipment

The first rule - prepare a place where you can put the tank. Choose a corner away from windows and doors, as well as heating appliances. Due to direct sunlight in the water, it begins to bloom, which is detrimental to aquatic plants and fish. It is impossible for the aquarium to stand in a draft. Put the container in a darkened corner of the room, in which there are few extraneous movements.

Also, for the convenience of servicing a home pond, there should be an outlet or several sockets next to it. They are needed to connect the filter, heater and lighting. The smaller the volume of the aquarium, the heavier its maintenance. The biological system in it is easy to break due to small changes in water parameters.

If you are the first time to get fish, it is better to purchase a tank with a volume of 50-100 liters. For him, you need to buy a filter that will clean the reservoir, pump air. For an aquarium of 100 liters or more, a compressor may be needed that will provide water with dissolved oxygen.

For the aquarium you need to buy a thermostat. It is required to regulate the constant temperature of the water in the tank. Many ornamental fish hail from tropical latitudes, so the water temperature below 22 degrees Celsius can be destructive for them. To be aware of the aquarium temperature, it is better to buy a water thermometer that is mounted on the inner wall.

Watch the video, which tells how to choose a heater with a thermostat.

In modern aquariums, special lighting is supposed to provide all living things with the right amount of light. Often used fluorescent, LED and metal halide lamps. Lack of light affects plant growth and fish health, as well as its overabundance. The allowable amount of daylight hours is 8-12 hours. Incandescent bulbs overheat, can burn the plants. To regulate the daylight, you can buy a timer and automatic switch and switch.

Primer and plants

In the aquarium for fish must be a primer. It will serve as a substrate for plants. Some species of fish love to plow it, looking for remnants of food. Common types of aquarium soil - sand, pebbles and gravel fraction of up to 8 mm. For some aquariums use sand or gravel of a large fraction (3-4 cm). It is not recommended to spread shells and limestone into the ground, they will change the parameters of the water, which will make you feel worse.

Plants - an important component of the home pond. It is necessary to choose unpretentious and hardy species of plants. Living plants are very useful for a closed environment - they emit oxygen, and in case of shutdown of the compressor, they will provide the fish with the necessary portion of O2. In the absence of feeding the fish (while the host leaves), plants can become temporary food for them.

Before buying plants, make sure that they fit your fish. If you want to install artificial plants in the tank, treat them with running water and boiling water. But they will serve only as decorations, and will not help to saturate water with oxygen.

Watch the video about unpretentious aquarium plants.

How to equip a home pond correctly

When you purchased a glass container and all the instruments, found a place where you put the tank, you can begin to equip it. Before installing the aquarium, put a rubber lining under it, which will give the surface the necessary friction and remove any irregularities. The bottom of the aquarium is under constant pressure, in the event of damage, a body of water can split the tank. After that you need to carry out such measures:

  1. Wash the glass container with baking soda by rinsing its walls several times under running water. Do not use detergents and chemicals. Thermostat, filter and water thermometer can be wiped with a weak solution of potassium permanganate (devices must be disconnected from the network).
  2. Before laying the bottom of the aquarium with primer, it should be rinsed under running water and boiled.
  3. The water in which the fish and plants will live must be clean and infused. Do not pour water directly from the tap. She must insist 3-4 days to evaporate chlorine. Measure the water parameters with indicators, measure its temperature. Everything must meet the necessary standards. After that, the water can be poured.
  4. Before planting, they need to be processed in a weak solution of the drug bicillin-5, or in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Dip the seedlings in the solution for 10-20 minutes. Then they need to be washed, planted in the ground. Very long roots can be cut.

  5. The first time (7-8 days) aquarium water will be muddy. It still can not run the fish. While in the water established biological environment. In a few more days, the water will become clear. When the biobalance is established in the water (14 days or more), the fish can be launched.

Fish and plants should be kept carefully, providing them with the necessary care in a timely manner. The main rule of the settlement is that everyone should have enough space for free swimming. Small fish need 10-20 liters per individual, medium - 30-50 liters, large - 100 liters or more.

It is necessary to take into account the compatibility of fish - according to the way of feeding there are herbivorous, predatory and omnivorous species. You can not settle large and small fish together, fish with different eating habits. An aquarium is a closed space, so weak fish cannot swim far from predators. Beginners can make danios, guppies, mollies, catfish corridors, gourami, labo, cockerels, goldfish. There are schooling fish, and there are loners, so you need to take into account the peculiarities of behavior during settlement.


Run the aquarium correctly - The first task of the aquarist Many reference books and manuals tell you how to run an aquarium. But in order to apply this knowledge gained in practice, it is not enough to increase the number of all the components necessary for the livelihood of an aquarium in proportion to its size, area and the number of its future inhabitants. And even, at first glance, a successful launch can turn into frustration and death of the inhabitants of the aquarium.

This happens because the created aqua-system is not supported properly and its initial parameters are lost. To avoid this, the aquarist should understand the processes of this small ecosystem. It is worth noting that the larger the ecosystem, the easier it is to maintain balance in it. Of course, the number of fish and other organisms living in it plays an important role in its sustainability, but often for the sake of diversity it is necessary to manage to maintain rather fragile ecosystems.

What you need to do before launch?

Even before the launch procedure, it is necessary to solve a number of critical issues and take some necessary steps:

  1. Decide what kind of fish or aquatic animals you want to have. Find out what conditions they need. Be sure to find out if they are compatible with each other!
  2. Depending on the decisions on the first item, choose the volume and model of the aquarium, as well as a list of necessary equipment and design items. Based on the species and number of future inhabitants, decide whether you need a heater with a thermostat, for example, how powerful the filter should be, whether an additional compressor is needed, how to decorate an aquarium: stones or driftwood, which plants to plant and so on.
  3. Выбрать место для аквариума - не на сквозняке и не на солнце. Важно также, чтобы доступ к аквариуму был удобным, а рядом находилось достаточное количество розеток.
  4. Купить и установить аквариум (обязательно на ровную поверхность, так, чтобы края его не свешивались с полки или тумбы даже на сантиметр). Предварительно аквариум промывают без использования химических моющих средств.
  5. Place the equipment in the aquarium: filter, compressor, heater and thermometer, lighting. Fill the soil with a layer of 3-4 cm. Depending on the type of soil and its source of origin, it may be necessary to pre-heat it, boil it, or wash it. The same applies to stones and snags.Ground and scenery.
    As a rule, the entire future ecosystem of your aquarium depends on the purity of the soil and scenery. Therefore, it is necessary to treat its processing especially carefully: rinse well with soda or sea salt, boil the soil, and ruthlessly refuse it, if the water suddenly becomes colored - this can further harm the fish. The most optimal soil size -3-5-8 mm.
  6. All that is smaller - caking and sour very quickly, larger - it is harder to clean and rinse. Yes, and plants on coarse soil will be a little more difficult to root. As a rule, if live plants are planned in your aquarium, it is advisable to place a nutrient composition for future vegetation under the ground, and the ground itself should be dispersed on a slope from the back wall to the front.
  7. This is done taking into account certain optical properties of aquarium glasses, because through the thickness of glass and water the aquarium landscape looks somewhat different. When decorating and setting up housing for your future pets, do not get carried away with sea shells and pieces of limestone - the entire chemical composition will gradually be washed out and excessively alkaline the water, which also may not well affect the health of future fish. When the soil is laid, snags, large stones and other decoration elements are installed,
    it's time to fill your pond with water. If an aquarium is planned to be in the form of an air wall in the aquarium, it is also worthwhile to think in advance whether it will lie on the ground, or whether it should be fixed under the ground at the bottom. Water is poured in a small trickle, so as not to destroy the landscape that you conceived. For example, you can put a small tank in an aquarium into which water will flow, and it will merge gradually over the edge. Plants.
    A few days later, when the water settles, it's time to plant the plants. Of course, if you are in a hurry, water can be prepared with the help of special tools, now there is an excellent choice and variety in pet stores. But it is quite possible to do without chemistry, allowing the ecosystem to develop naturally and independently. But then it will take time. Before planting, all new plants that you have brought from the store or another aquarium should be sanitized. To do this, it is enough to hold the plants for 10-15 minutes in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature. Tall plants, densely growing, are best planted closer to the rear window of the aquarium, and in the future they will partially hide the equipment. Small plants are planted near the front glass so that they do not obscure the view. Not all plants root well. Some of them, in order not to emerge, have to be weighed down with special "weights", or they must be fastened with fishing line on snags.

    It is not necessary to load your future aqua-system with a large amount of equipment, but the main points must still be observed:
    Filter pump. Its main function is the purification of water from dirt, turbidity and all that floats in water. The filter can be internal, as a very primitive, consisting of a piece of sponge, and more complex - with carbon filtration, and external - with a complex multi-stage water purification system. The main thing is that it should be correctly selected for the volume of your aquarium, and cope with the task of cleaning.
    Initially, the water is always quite turbid. This is a normal process, and if the filter is chosen correctly in terms of volume, it will cope with this within a few hours.
    But soon after planting in your tank, complex biological processes will begin, and the water will again lose transparency: bacteria will begin to develop on the dying parts of the plants, ciliates will follow them ... In general, as in Cosmos, Life will begin to originate in the aquarium. That is why experienced aquarists are not in a hurry to start running the fish right away - biological balance must be established in the water. The rapid growth of microorganisms will stop, and the water will again become transparent.
    Sometimes experienced aquarists are advised to take some water from old aquariums, or "squeeze" out of their filters. But even if the old aquarium fish are not sick, it does not mean that the water is free from pathogens. Most likely in this system everything is already settled, and the fish have developed a certain stability. But in the new conditions, pathogens can start to develop very actively. Therefore, do not do this.
    Aerator, or compressor. His task is to saturate the water with oxygen. In essence, a compressor is a pump that pumps air and delivers it to the water through the nozzles. But at the same time, it also has a decorative function. Therefore, it is decided in advance whether it will be a thin stream of bubbles, decorated additionally or a whole air curtain. The choice of sprayers and compressors is now huge!
    Lighting will depend on which direction of the aquarium you have chosen. If you plan to fish with artificial plants - the quantity and quality of light is not important, everything will depend on your taste. If you have live plants, there is no way to do without additional lighting. Most often, aquariums are already sold with fluorescent lamps when sold, but for plants the most optimal will be lamps with a pink spectrum.
    As a rule, if there is enough light, the plants quickly take root and actively start growing.
    If the light is not enough, the glass and the ground are covered with brown bloom, if there is an excess of light, the water turns green.
    You can put the lighting with a timer. Then you won’t have a headache - did you remember to turn the lights on or off ...

    Heater with thermostat. As a rule, aquarium fish, like other aquarium animals, live in nature in warm lands, and are not adapted to the climate of our (not always well heated) apartments. The optimum temperature is mostly 22-24 degrees, and in some species and higher. Therefore, a heater with a thermostat is very convenient - just set the required temperature.
    Without a heater is still not enough if the fish suddenly fall ill. With an increase in temperature in the aquarium to 28-30 degrees, treatment with drugs is faster and more efficient, and in a shorter time.

    The aquarium is equipped, the plants are planted and are actively growing, the water has settled in a week and has become clear ... It's time to think about the fish.
    But first check the water.
    Water hardness test. Different groups of fish prefer different hardness. Based on the test results, you can pick up fish that you will feel comfortable with, or vice versa, change the water hardness for those fish that you have chosen.
    There are also other tests. All of them are important in order to find your way in time, what is the state of water in your tank, and what needs to be changed to make the fish feel good.

    With the parameters of the water coped, finally you can run the first batch of fish. Initially, they should not be many: 3-5 fish, depending on the size of the aquarium. Each new portion of fish necessarily breaks the existing balance, and the aquarium, as a complete biosystem, is easier to cope with the arrival of a small number of residents than to rebuild under a big surge of guests. But between the launch of the next portion of fish should take at least a week. So, with intervals between batches, we gradually settle the aquarium, without forgetting
    before release the fish adapt.
    How to properly adapt?
    Many people advise you to put a tank with new fish “swim” in your aquarium so that the temperature and pressure level up, and gradually the water mixes with the aquarium. Yes, for fish so stress is reduced to a minimum, but then you risk on a package with beginners to bring pathogenic bacteria into your tank. Much more correct, although it will be somewhat longer in time if you place a tank with a new fish near your aquarium. Having installed the compressor, within two hours it is necessary to add 20% of water from your aquarium into it every 10-15 minutes. So the water will gradually be completely replaced by the desired composition. After that, it will be enough just to transplant fish with a net.
    Finally, the planned number of fish settled, the balance of water restored, life enters a quiet course. Do not forget to make them fasting days, as the plants are not yet ready to fully process organic food residues. And in the future, such discharge once a week will only benefit. It is always better to underfeed than to overfeed.
    Water changes are advisable to do regularly, every week about 20% of the total.

    So, if your fish is active, the color does not become paler, and the appetite does not suffer - it means you did everything right. We congratulate you! You have created a piece of nature with your own hands and patience, which will give you a lot of pleasant moments, give beauty, comfort and peace.

    Quite a bit of theory

    The aquarium is an open-loop system, where various substances come in from the outside. This is mainly fish food, which the fish eat, while releasing waste. In chemical terms, ammonia is the most significant and toxic part of this waste; even in low concentrations, it can cause poisoning and subsequent death of fish and other aquatic animals. However, in nature there are bacteria (they are called nitrifying) that consume ammonia, oxidizing it to nitrite. Nitrite for fish is not much better than ammonia, but there are other types of nitrifying bacteria, which in turn bind them, turning them into relatively harmless nitrates.

    This whole system of bacterial colonies, which makes water with nitrates from poisonous ammonia water, quite suitable for fish, is called a biofilter. Since the efficiency of the biofilter directly depends on the number of its constituent bacteria in the aquarium (it is clear that two or three microscopic nitrosomonas cannot convert ammonia, selected by a dozen large goldfish, into safe compounds), these bacteria must be allowed to multiply to the desired number. For this they need three things:

    • nutrition (ammonia and nitrite);
    • substrate (surface to which they can attach);
    • and for some time, as bacteria multiply rapidly, but still not lightning
    • Nitrogen cycle The decomposition products of fish and other macro-organisms living in an aquarium, when decomposed, are converted into ammonia, which is dangerous for them at even low concentrations. This is such a toxic compound that its concentration at the level of 0.2-0.5 mg / l is fatal for the inhabitants of the reservoir, and when the content of ammonia in the water in a proportion of 0.01-0.02 mg / l in fish, immunity is significantly reduced. As a result, they become very vulnerable to all sorts of diseases and parasites. Proper start-up of the aquarium is aimed at ensuring that microorganisms inhabiting the water could process the entire volume of ammonia. Then it practically will not be in the aquarium, which can be verified with the help of special tests.
    • The role of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle The preparation of the aquarium for start-up must be carried out primarily because in the new aquarium the volume of ammonia grows very quickly and the fish, getting into such conditions in most cases either die immediately or start to hurt. In this case, only the restart of the aquarium can help. The process of reproduction of beneficial bacteria can be accelerated in several ways. Traditional: add water and dirt from the old one to the new aquarium. Along with them will be made a significant number of bacteria, which then inhabit all of its volume. If there is no other aquarium, the bacteria can be bought at a regular pet store. The process of their reproduction is accompanied by the appearance of the effect of turbid water. Launching a new aquarium for the first time, at this time you can make a big mistake: change the water. This is not necessary. The water will become clear again in a couple of days. The initial stage of the aquarium start-up cycle averages two weeks, during which the number of bacteria increases, but not as rapidly as in the first days. The overgrown population of bacteria successfully processes ammonia into nitrites, which are also toxic, but to a much lesser extent. Other beneficial bacteria recycle nitrites and they are converted to nitrates, which are also toxic. Both nitrites and nitrates can reach a critical volume when they adversely affect fish. To avoid further restarting the aquarium, which is also associated with significant inconveniences, it is better to carry out a slow launch of the aquarium from the first time and not rush to populate it with fish
    • .The role of filters in the nitrogen cycle filter for cleaning External and internal filters are installed in aquariums. They are divided into those that carry out mechanical purification of water from protein suspensions, and there are biofilters. The main function performed by biofilters is to create conditions for the successful reproduction of bacteria, which should always be in water in large quantities.
    • They populate the filling filter, as a rule, porous materials. Together with water, they receive oxygen and food in the form of protein deposits. The launch of a new aquarium is accompanied by another event: the connection of the biofilter. When you turn on the filter in the first few weeks (up to a month) the amount of nitrite and nitrate in the water increases. This factor during the first start of the aquarium in inexperienced aquarists often causes the death of fish, which is simply poisoned by toxic substances.

What you need to buy for an aquarium?

For a person who decides to start an aquarium for the first time, the question arises - what is needed for a home aquarium? What equipment? In the article you will learn what equipment for the aquarium happens, what types of filters, heaters, etc., and how do they differ? Heaters, filters, and lighting are important parts of a modern tropical aquarium and are now a large selection of different equipment. Choosing the right way without knowing anything about him is quite difficult, and it’s not cheap and should work long and efficiently.

Some types of aquariums immediately contain everything you need, including a lamp, a filter, etc., but they are quite expensive.

And besides filters and other large equipment there are a lot of necessary trifles - nets, cables for cleaning the filter hoses, glass cleaners and various trifles. However, it is the filter, the lamp and the heater that are the most expensive and important parts of the equipment. So, what equipment do you need for an aquarium?

What is the filter for?

All filters operate on three basic principles: mechanical, biological, and chemical filtration. Mechanical filtration purifies water from visible particles and allows it to be clean and transparent. As a rule, biological filtering is performed in the filter by pumping water through a sponge or sponge, filtering debris. The sponge is removed and just washed. Some filters use a whole chain of sponges, with varying degrees of density, purifying water from particles of various sizes. Mechanical filtration first of all gives visual purity to water, but the transparency of water is usually indifferent to fish, because in nature it lives in different waters.

The sponge used in the filter gives a more important effect - biological filtration. On the surface of the sponge develop beneficial bacteria that help decompose hazardous compounds in water, such as ammonia.

Leftovers are not eaten, and fish waste creates ammonia, which is very toxic to fish, and must be removed from the water. In a biological filter, ammonia decomposes into nitrites, which are less toxic. Another group of bacteria, nitrites, processes into nitrates, which are toxic only in high concentrations. In order to process toxins, you need a large number of bacteria. Therefore, the greater the surface of the biological filter, the better.

The third type of filtration is chemical, it uses special means to remove toxins from water. Chemical filtration is not mandatory in the aquarium, but it is necessary in the treatment of fish, or disturbances in the balance and is very useful.

What are the filters for the aquarium?

There are three main types of filters for an aquarium - bottom, internal and external. The bottom filter passes water through the soil and then pours it back into the water.

The movement of the water controls the pump. Soil serves as a mechanical and biological filter, holding debris and creating an environment for bacteria. Although it is easy to care for the bottom filter, it is difficult to modernize and is not very suitable for aquariums with plants. Plants do not like the flow of water and oxygen near the roots. The cost of the bottom filter is approximately equal to the cost of the internal filter, but all the internal filters are not inferior at this time, and often exceed the bottom filters, and therefore the popularity of bottom filters is declining.

Internal filter

Usually internal filter consists of filter material and housing. Внутри корпуса расположена губка, выполняющая биологическую и механическую фильтрацию. Помпа прокачивает воду сквозь губку, убирается мусор и бактерии перерабатывают аммиак и нитриты в нитраты. Некоторые внутренние фильтры имеют специальные отсеки, в которые можно добавить материалы для химической фильтрации. Внутренний фильтр, это наиболее популярный выбор для начинающего аквариумиста. За ним легко ухаживать, он хорошо выполняет свои функции.

Internal filter

Внешний фильтр

This is a large copy of the internal filter that works outside the aquarium. The water passes through the hoses into the canister, where it is filtered with various materials and transferred back to the aquarium. Due to the large size, the filtration efficiency increases. Because external filter is located outside the aquarium, it is usually hidden in the cabinet, in addition, it frees up space inside the jar itself. In aquariums densely planted with fish or where the fish is large, the external filter is the best solution.

Choosing a heater for the aquarium

There are many different brands with very little difference between them. More expensive heaters are slightly more reliable and are suitable for large aquariums. Cheap - have a smaller warranty period, which does not affect the efficiency. The heater consists of a heating element and a thermostat, which are located inside a sealed tube and are designed for use under water.

The thermostat is set to the desired value, and is turned on only if the temperature drops below the mark. Most heaters maintain temperature with an accuracy of + - degree. For larger aquariums, more powerful heaters are needed. As a rule, the difference in price between a more and less powerful heater is small. But here it is important not to make a mistake with the power; a more powerful one can overheat the water, and a low-power one will not heat it to the required temperature. Determining the power you need is very simple - the box indicates which displacement of the heater is calculated.

The lamp for the aquarium

Although there are many different types of fixtures, fluorescent lighting is the best choice for beginners. Fluorescent lamps in an aquarium are not at all the same as in a house. They are specially designed to make the lighting as close as possible to the sun.

Lamp consists of a starter or ballast to start the lamps and the lamps themselves. The lamps are waterproof and the water from the aquarium will not close.

The advantage of fluorescent lamps for the aquarium is that they heat up significantly less. For example, 90cm lamp consumes 25 watts, while the usual about 60.

In such lamps, the important part is the spectrum, that is, the difference in it, some are suitable for saltwater aquariums, others for herbalists, and others well emphasize the color of the fish. You can make your choice by asking the seller. Or take the most simple, with time you will understand what you really need.

Luminaire with fluorescent lamps


The fish in your tank need oxygen for breathing. Oxygen enters the water through the surface, and carbonic acid evaporates from the water. The rate of exchange depends on the size of the surface of the water and the flow. A large mirror of water accelerates gas exchange, which is useful for fish.

Aquarium Compressor

The main function of the compressor is to supply oxygen to water through air bubbles that rise to the surface. Oxygen in bubbles dissolves in water, in addition, they create the movement of water and accelerate gas exchange.

For most aquariums, the compressor itself is not needed, as the filter performs the same function, mixing water. In addition, many filters have an aerator that adds air bubbles to the water flow.

Compressor It can only be useful if there is oxygen starvation in the water, for example, when treating fish in an aquarium.

It is also a decorative function, many people like the bubbles rising to the surface.

But still - for most aquariums, the compressor itself is not needed.

How to choose and equip an aquarium - SHORTLY ABOUT IMPORTANT!

Quote Post Galina_Bikmulina Read your entire quote book or community!

How to choose and equip an aquarium

Maybe you want to have aquarium fish, but do not know where to start? Meanwhile, the creation of the unique beauty of the underwater world is accessible to everyone, you just have to follow the necessary rules, which we will talk about today in the form of answers to your intended questions.

Which aquarium to choose: glass or plastic?

Categorically state which one is better, probably not. Professionals successfully exploit both. Their main difference from each other is that the glass aquarium is easy to clean and does not scratch with a scraper, and the plastic easily scratches and quickly loses an attractive appearance, but plastic, unlike glass, does not break and is in this respect a safer material.

Round or rectangular?

For fish a rectangular aquarium is more convenient. Its easier to equip. But to equip a round aquarium, you need a little ingenuity. By the way, all the frivolous fishes in a round aquarium, as a rule, do not breed. In such a reservoir it is better to place guppies, swordtails, pecels, molines and other viviparous fishes.

Small or big?

It all depends on the area of ​​your apartment and on your desire. But, in general, a maximum of 50 liters per 1 m2 of usable area is recommended. Those. in a room of 20 m2 you can afford an aquarium with a capacity of 1000 liters. And it also depends on the fish you keep. It is recommended to colonize the home water reservoir at the rate of: 1 l of water for 1 cm of the length of each fish. If you want to keep big fish, respectively, pick up a large glass house for them.
What inventory is needed for aquarium equipment?

You will need a lamp, an electric heater, a thermometer, a compressor, a net, a filter or a pump, a feeder.

How to choose a heater?

Water temperature is of great importance for the life of fish and aquarium plants. And in the winter in our apartments without a heater in the aquarium is not enough.

How to choose it correctly? To maintain the temperature one degree above the surrounding water for each liter of water, the following power is required: for a 25-liter aquarium — 0.2 W, 50-liter — 0.13 W, 100-liter — 0.1 W and 200-liter 0.07 watts. Recall that this is only one degree per one liter. This figure must be multiplied by the number of liters of your tank and the desired number of degrees. For example, if you have a 100-liter aquarium and you want to increase the temperature by 6 degrees, you need a 60-watt heater (0.1 W x 100 L x 6 degrees = 60 W).

What is the lighting in the aquarium?

In addition to purely decorative function, the lighting performs a very important - physiological. Constant content in the dark causes prolonged stress in animals. Light is necessary for all the inhabitants of the aquarium. But here, as, indeed, everywhere, you need to know when to stop. Little light in the aquarium - the plants will grow poorly and be covered with brown bloom. A lot is also bad: the water will turn green and “bloom”.

How to perform lighting?

Experts recommend counting the lighting from the ratio of 1 W to 1 liter of water. So, for a 50-liter aquarium, you need a light bulb with a power of approximately 50 watts. The classic option is front-top lighting, when the light from the front upper edge of the aquarium is directed to the rear window. Sometimes internal light is also used when a hermetically sealed cartridge with a lamp is installed at the bottom of the aquarium. The internal light also has a heating function.

The light day of the inhabitants of the aquarium should be at least 10-16 hours.

Do I need soil in the aquarium?

Of course! This is not only a beautiful decoration, but also a natural filter. And one more interesting detail: if there is no ground, then the fish will be afraid of the mirror surface of an empty day. Many types of fish like to rummage in the ground, for them it is physiologically necessary. And fry of catfish after a meal must necessarily rub on it with the abdomen for normal digestion.

As the soil is best to use coarse river sand or pebbles of at least 5-8 mm in size. It is not recommended to use fine sand: it caking faster and, thus, the soil gas exchange is disturbed, as a result of which the activity of beneficial microorganisms stops and the soil rots.

Rinse the soil thoroughly before putting it into the aquarium until the water is clear. And then it must be boiled for 15 minutes in order to destroy harmful microorganisms. Laying it on the bottom is preferably a layer of 4 to 7 cm, distributing at the rear wall is higher than the front.

Do I need aeration in the aquarium?

Needed Round-the-clock aeration saturates water with oxygen, equalizes the temperature in all layers of water, stabilizes the redox potential of water. In addition, a stream of air bubbles sets water in motion, and in flowing water the fish grow and reproduce better. The aerator should be set up so that there are as many small bubbles as possible. It can be disguised at the bottom under a pile of stones or hidden behind a bark - from under it it will effectively beat a stream of air.

What plants are better, artificial or live?

For decorative purposes in minimal quantities suitable and artificial. They are convenient because they require almost no care, and sometimes look better than real ones. But this, living vegetation, they will not replace. After all, aquatic plants provide a biological balance in the reservoir, and many types of fish simply need plant food. For example, a fish such as Molinosia, without live grass can die. It should also be remembered that any live grass produces oxygen, which is necessary for the life of fish. But for spawning many fish, it is better to use artificial vegetation: it is easier to keep caviar on it.

A SOURCE: Magazine "Ksyusha. For lovers of needlework. Skilful hands"


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