How to breed fish
Reproduction is the most interesting phenomenon of the life cycle of organisms, which provides not only their existence, but also evolution. The life of fish surprises with its diversity and adaptability to the most diverse conditions. And simply answer the question from the title is simply impossible. Breeding can occur at different ages and in various ways. Some fish spawn with or without fertilization, while others give birth to small fish. Let's learn more about fish breeding.
What is parthenogenesis
Parthenogenesis in fish is called this method of sexual reproduction, when the calf of the female does not need fertilization by the male.
This method is considered sexually, since the development of the body comes from the germ cell, albeit without merging the male and female gametes. In fish, it occurs quite rarely and just as rarely leads to the "hatching" of viable young.
Unfertilized roe, which develops in this way, perfectly coexists with fertilized, does not rot and does not destroy the clutch. It may develop to the larval stage, but when the yolk sacs are resorbed, the larvae usually die. However, most often caviar develops only to the stage of crushing.
Parthenogenesis can be found in fish such as herring, sturgeon, carp, salmon.
What is genogenesis
Genogenesis is considered a particular case of parthenogenesis. It occurs without the participation of males of this species. Stimulation of calf to development occurs at the expense of spermatozoa of males of other species of fish close to this one. Sperm penetrates the egg cell, but the fusion of their nuclei does not occur. Among the "newborn" fry there are absolutely no males. Hynogenesis occurs in mollies and silver crucians. Stimulate their eggs to the development of sperm carp, roach, and even some species.
What is hermaphroditism
If the fish simultaneously or consistently present male and female sex characteristics, as well as reproductive organs, then this is hermaphroditism. In other words, such fish can develop both spawn and sperm. However, they are not capable of self-fertilizing eggs, since the maturation of the genital products does not occur simultaneously, but alternately. Some fish can change their sex several times in their lives. The ability to hermaphroditism is in such fish as guppies, sea wrasse, red pagell, herring, carp, salmon, perch.
This type of breeding is most common among fish. He needs a female and a male. Caviar can be fertilized in different ways:
- Internally. Insemination occurs inside the body of the fish. Occurs in the swordtail, guppy, gambusia and others.
- In the outer way. Fertilization of eggs takes place in water. It is found in most species of fish.
The development of caviar is also unequal. And depending on it, the fish are:
- Viviparous In the posterior part of the female oviduct there is a structure similar to the placenta of mammals. Thanks to her mother can provide embryos with necessary substances. Caviar develops from 30 to 50 days. Near the anal fin during this period one can observe a “dark spot of pregnancy”. If the breeder has noticed that the female's belly has become rectangular, then in three days you can expect fry. On the light, they appear already independently floating and able to feed. Viviparous are guppies, swordtails, mollies, formoses, etc.
- Oviviparous. Fertilized calf is attached to the oviduct, more precisely to its posterior part and develops there until fry appear. This happens in most cartilaginous fish.
- Oviparous. Caviar they lay directly in the water. This method is most common.
Scientists also secrete fish that breed monocyclic, that is, once in life (river eel, river lamprey, Pacific salmon and others) and polycyclic, that is, several times throughout life (this is the majority of fish).
There is also a classification depending on which substrate spawns:
- lithophiles with masonry on stony ground;
- psammophils with sand;
- phytophils with planting;
- ostracophiles with masonry in the mollusk cavity of the mollusk;
- pelagophiles with caviar floating in the water column;
- pelophils with clutch in silt.
Some fish species are indifferent to the substrate, others build special nests from plants, air bubbles, etc.
A few words about productivity
By productivity, this refers to the number of offspring that a fish can give. In aquarium specimens, it can be from several tens to several thousand. The number of eggs directly depends on age, heredity, health, nutrition and living conditions. Fish are less prolific - "good parents", that is, those that take care of the offspring, for example, incubate it in the mouth, bear it on the body, etc.
How to determine the readiness of fish for breeding
It's all individually. Some species, such as mosquito fish, are ready to give offspring already 1-2 months after their birth. Others will require 15-30 years to reach puberty. The timing of ripening affects:
- Life cycle. The shorter it is, the earlier the ripening and vice versa.
- Species affiliation.
- Habitat and climate.
If the fish appeared "marriage outfit", then it means it is ready to give offspring. This may be a bright color, pigment spots, growth of the skin, etc.
Here are some more interesting facts:
- Males reach puberty earlier than females.
- In young fish, the first few spawns are unproductive.
Our article has come to an end. Here we got acquainted briefly with the main ways of breeding fish. I hope the information was interesting and useful.
Video about the development of fish: from the egg to the adult:
One of the most important moments in the life of any aquarium is the reproduction of fish, which must be approached responsibly and very seriously. This process will largely depend on which fish inhabit the aquarium - viviparous or sleeping ones, since they require different spawning conditions and different care in this unusual period for them.
Viviparsing aquarium fish
The viviparous fishes are unpretentious both in their content and in reproduction, which is explained by their high adaptability. Their eggs are fertilized right in the female's body itself, so that already formed fry are born, ready to eat. To create optimal conditions for the reproduction of fish of this type, you need to provide them with a large space, a separate content from other fish species and a water temperature of + 20 ... 24 ° C. All owners of aquariums need to know the peculiarities of the birth of fry in these fish:
- the period of development of calf in the body of the female is on average from 30 to 50 days;
- near the anal fin in viviparous fishes there is clearly a dark spot (the so-called stain of pregnancy);
- 3 days before the birth of fry, the belly of the fish becomes rectangular;
- the number of newborns will depend on the type of fish;
- when breeding aquarium fish of this type, their fry will need to be provided with small cyclops, daphnia and young Artemia.
In order for breeding of such fish to be successful, and the process of “giving birth” does not cause complications, it is recommended that the female 3-4 days before this event be put into a separate container, where there are many small-leaved plants. For the breeding of aquarium fish of this type, you should acquire guppies, swordtails, beaches, and girardinus, mollies, formoses.
Fledgling aquarium fish
Aquarium fledgling fish can bear their own eggs in different ways, which must be taken into account when breeding them. They:
- they scatter it or scatter it in the water among plants and stones, not caring what will happen next;
- keep it in the mouth, protecting it from danger, which contributes to the successful breeding of fish;
- they lay it in a nest of bubbles, on stones or on leaves;
- the reproduction of aquarium fish of this type can occur even inside other organisms where they place their eggs;
- fix it on your own skin.
Before spawning, fry fish are recommended to be placed in a special spawning area, where the light day is increased and the water temperature is increased. As a rule, breeding aquarium fish of this type can take from 12 hours to several months - during such an incubation time the larvae hatch from the eggs. Only a few days later the larvae turn into full-fledged fry, which need to be provided with good nutrition. Those who are engaged in breeding fish laying eggs, know that the fry in the first weeks of life should be fed with infusoria, rotifers, living dust, Artemia. Barbusses, gourami, scalar, catfish, macropods - these are the fish, whose reproduction takes place with the help of caviar.
Stimulation of breeding aquarium fish
In order for the reproduction of fish in the aquarium to occur more actively, it is necessary to bring the conditions of detention to the natural, natural ones as close as possible. You can stimulate in the following ways:
- provide the fish with abundant live food for 2 weeks before spawning;
- breeding fish assumes the presence of fresh, oxygen-enriched water in an aquarium;
- increase the temperature in the aquarium by 2-3 ° C: those who are engaged in breeding aquarium fish know that this contributes to the maturation of their genital products.
For successful breeding of aquarium fish, additional care is needed for females during the breeding season and newly born fry.
Which aquarium fish breed with caviar :: cockerel aquarium fish breeding :: Aquarium fish
What aquarium fish breed caviar
Creating an ecosystem in your aquarium that is as close as possible to its natural habitat, you can induce fish to spawn. It is not easy to breed fish, but it is very exciting and even profitable.
The question "opened a pet shop. Business is not going. What to do?" - 2 answers
It is easy enough to breed some species of viviparous fish. It is much more difficult to wait for the spawning of fish that spawn, and get a brood of fry from eggs. Very many species of aquarium fish lay eggs to get offspring. Fish can scatter eggs from algae, on the ground or stones, bury it in silt or build foam nests and store eggs in them. Fish that take care of their offspring belong to the group of "parental short ones". Among them are fish that are in the mouth of their fry.
Easy breeding fish
Macropods. Very simple in the care and breeding fish. This is the first breed that began to contain and propagate in the aquarium, which speaks of its undemanding and extreme adaptability. For breeding, the pair is separated in the spawning area, volume 5-10l, which is abundantly planted with plants. The temperature of the water increases by just one degree. A couple is fed only live food. Soon the male begins to build a nest of bubbles and algae on the surface of the water. When the female spawns, the male lays it in the nest. Then the female and the male are removed for security purposes. Two days later, fry appear from the eggs.
Speckled catfish. An interesting, peaceful and unpretentious breed of aquarium fish - speckled catfish or speckled corridor. They can be propagated in the general aquarium, but it is better to deposit them in a special breeding ground with clean aerated water, with a temperature of 18-20 ° C. For spawning take one female and two - three males. Individuals are fed calories. Spawning place in a darkened and quiet place. The next morning, the female sticks fertilized eggs to the stones and the walls of the aquarium. Parents must be immediately deposited. Eggs develop independently, in 7-10 days fry hatch from them.
Angelfish. Like all members of the cichlid family, scalarians are demanding on the purity and temperature of aquarium water. Given their complex body shape and considerable size, aquariums should be large volumes. The same applies to the spawning grounds. Before spawning, the temperature of the water is raised to 30 ° С, distillate is added. As a spawning substrate, a piece of ceramic tile or artificial leaves is placed in the aquarium. From the school of fish, the pair, ready to spawn, are separated, independently choosing each other. The pair is transplanted to the spawning area, fed with live food, but without overfeeding. Two days later, the female lays her calf, crawling on her belly. The male, following her, fertilizes the spawn. For two days, a couple vents the eggs with fins and eats unfertilized eggs. Then the substrate with caviar must be transferred to the nursery aquarium. In this case, adults are not touched, they do not tolerate frequent transplantation. After 6-8 days fry appear. At first, larvae hatch from the eggs, which cannot be fed, and only when the small fish begin to swim independently, they are called fry, and they can already be fed.
Neon. Reproduction of blue neon is hard work, and even experienced aquarists sometimes cannot take out young neon of red neon. For the spawning grounds choose a container made of whole glass, disinfect it, put the substrate of javanese moss or nylon mudroot at the bottom, pour distilled water. Be sure to use an aerator. The couple is seated separately at a low temperature of 22 ° C and richly fed. The spawning grounds are shaded with paper from all sides, they heat water up to 25-26 ° С. Stiffness should be 6.0 pH. Run a couple. After spawning, the roe is deposited under the substrate, and the fish are deposited, and the substrate is carefully removed. Fry hatch on the fifth day. And growing them is an even more complicated procedure.
Also, caviar is deposited by such common types of aquarium fish as cockerels, barbs, danios, antsistrusy, gourami and many others.
How breed aquarium cockerels?
Siamese fighting fish cockerels breed at home, if you create all the necessary conditions for this. During one spawning, the female lays 500-600 eggs, and if most of them hatch, turning into a full-fledged fish, you will need a lot of space and time to look after them. You must realize in advance that this is a big responsibility, not a hobby.
Set a goal: do you breed roosters in order to prolong your life, or do you want to gain experience in breeding? Maybe you are planning to participate in exhibitions, to sell young animals to pet stores? In any case, it will take a lot of time, as well as financial expenses. You will need to establish a spawning aquarium with a stable biological environment, find two or more producers, and a temporary "dwelling" for fry.
The first steps to spawn fish
If aquarium cockerels live in a common tank with a partition - this is a big advantage. Fish probably already accustomed to each other, and not averse to producing offspring. Males perfectly spawn at a young age. If you do not have a pair of cockerels, buy a pair from your experienced razvodchika, but do not run the fish immediately. We need quarantine, time for the fish to get used to the new environment - it will take several months. The male and female cockerel should be the same size. If the pair does not converge, you will have to abandon the venture, or buy another copy.
Look at the breeding of Siamese fighting fish.
Male males are ready to spawn at the age of one year. If the aquarium conditions are favorable for their health, the fish will “wake up” and will want to spawn. It is necessary that the female and the male are accustomed to each other, then they can create a pair. Breeding should be scheduled for a period of time when you have plenty of free time to look after your pets. You can choose a summer vacation, when nothing will limit you.
Reproduction will not occur unless a spawning tank is installed. Spawning can be a volume of 40-50 liters, and have a partition for 2 places: male and female. In the tank there should be aquarium shelters, floating plants, a sponge filter with a flow rate regulator, equipment for heating water (set to 27 ° C). At the bottom of the spawning ground for labyrinth fish, it is impossible to spread the substrate in the form of gravel or stones - sensitive eggs will get lost in it and will be damaged. Fill spawning water to a level of 12-15 cm, and put it in a quiet place.
Two weeks before the start of breeding aquarium fish should eat live food. For this, bloodworms and artemia, other types of worms, crickets, cockroaches and other insects in a chopped form will do. To prevent feed from entering the water, buy it from a trusted supplier, or serve food frozen.
It will be correct to prepare feed for fry in advance. Cockerel fish fry are very small and feed on live food. The process of growing will take 1-2 weeks. Ciliates, acetic acne, micro-worm, Artemia nauplii can serve as food. However, one should be careful with artemia - it should be added in small portions and only with other food, otherwise the fry will form a labyrinth organ.
If male and female cockerels have an interest in each other, they will be in an excited state, demonstrating their appearance. Самец расправит плавники и жаберные крышки. Самка окрасится в яркие света, на её брюшке появятся полоски. Аквариумные рыбы петушки могут проявлять агрессию друг к другу, периодически общипывая, атакуя партнера даже через перегородку. Если агрессия усиливается, сажайте их в нерестовик позже, или выберите другу пару.
Посмотрите на нерест петушков.
In labyrinth fishes, the male viet nest from foam and fragments of aquatic plants. When you notice that the nest is ready, add a female to the male, and look at their behavior. The first reaction of the male: plucking the fins of the female, chasing her, intimidation. This is a normal reaction, but in order for the female not to be very afraid, she must have a shelter. The male can take care of his partner from 2-3 hours to several days, until she agrees to his invitation to visit the nest. Spawning occurs several hours: the male presses the female's body, helping her to release the eggs. Then he fertilizes them, picks them up and fixes them in the nest.
After spawning, the female can be removed from the spawn, otherwise the male will begin to show aggression towards her. The parent must remain in the spawning aquarium until the fry hatch. 3 days after breeding, they will hatch, and will be in a fixed state. The filter should still be turned off so that the fry are not affected by the flow of water. The light can be turned on day and night - LB lamp 0.4 watts.
In 2-4 days the fish fry will swim. Now the male can be transplanted into the general aquarium. As starting feed, the fry will be treated with infusoria. At 3-40 days of life they can submit a microhard. Artemia nauplii can be diluted at home. Portions of feed should be small.
Future aquarium cockerel fishes should live at a temperature of 27-28 ° C. In the tank, the lid should be slightly ajar so that the labyrinth organ is formed correctly in the fry. When the fry become adults, they must be transplanted into a spacious aquarium. If the fry die a lot, pay attention to the parameters of water, and the content of chemical impurities in it. When the fry are 2 weeks old, they need to replace 10% of the water every few days. Do not forget to clean up uneaten food. At night, the light can already be turned off.
When and how do zebrafish breed
Wild Danio species breed during the rainy season when the water in the freshwater reservoir becomes warm and soft. However, females of wild specimens, caught in winter, had a belly filled with caviar. This means that the reproduction interval is influenced not only by the season, but also by abundant food. Therefore, breeding of zebrafish and other species of fish of the Danio genus is possible at home throughout the year.
Mature Danio: Description
Pink danios and danios rerio become sexually mature, reaching maximum body size. When the water temperature is above 25 ° C, the rate of growth is accelerated. At home, the fish become ready to breed at 75-80 days of life, when the length of the body of the females becomes 25 mm, and the males - 23 mm.
Ovulation of females living in the general aquarium largely depends on the effects of male hormones, which are released from gonopodium. The males pour out into the water the fraction of gonads and the testes homogenate, which contain steroid compounds of glucuronic acid. They also cause ovulation in females.
If males are present in the aquarium for 8 hours, reproduction will begin in the morning. Females that are in isolation for 5 days will not produce eggs. Mature eggs are produced during a single spawning cycle. With a comfortable content of heterosexuals in the tank, in any case, they will begin to multiply, and the spacing between spawns can be one week. The water temperature, which stimulates the process - 22-27 degrees Celsius.
See how to prepare an aquarium for danios.
Have you noticed that adult fish can't spawn in a common aquarium? Pay attention to their content. The reasons for the absence of spawning may be the following factors:
- Diseases of fish of fungal or bacterial origin;
- The absence of males in the pond;
- Insufficient fish live feed;
- Old age fish, or their young age;
- Calf freezing in female's abdomen.
Now it is necessary to understand how to distinguish between mature individuals, male and female. All types of danios (rerio, pink, malabar, pearl and others) have practical identical characteristics that determine gender. The differences between them are:
- Females are larger than males, they have a rounded belly;
- On the body of females, horizontal stripes are faded, as is the common color of scales;
- During the spawning period, females are calm, slow, and males are active and playful;
- With the advent of spawning, the color of the male body becomes brighter, the stripes become saturated with color.
How does the process of reproduction in pink danios
Pink danios is a fish that is easy to breed, but it also needs special preparation for breeding. The first step is to determine the sex of all the fish, and deposit them for 2 weeks in separate containers with infused water. The second step is the abundant feeding of future producers with live feeds (bloodworm, artemia, daphnia, koretra, tubule).
If the fish begin breeding in the walls of the common aquarium, immediately deposit them in the spawning. Otherwise, producers and other adult fish will eat caviar. In the otsadnik males and females will continue to spawn.
Pink danios spawns in a separate tank. It will not be difficult to prepare it: choose a glass container with a volume of 40-50 liters, pour clean and pre-infused tap water in it with an acidity of 7.0 pH and hardness up to 15 °. A spacious tank will not hamper the movement of fish, which at this time and so very fussy. Water aeration is allowed.
It is not recommended to install in the spawning scenery in the form of soil, stones, wooden snags or caves. The only substrate for spawning can be plants: Javanese or Thai moss, perististotnik, Canadian elodea. To prevent the plants from floating up, they can be pressed to the bottom with small stones (clean and pebbles treated with boiling water). To save the roe, place a fine-mesh separator net on the level 2 cm from the bottom. It will protect caviar from adult fish.
First, in the spawning aquarium they launch a female, which is fed live food for 2 days. When her belly is maximally rounded, you can run 2-3 males, and turn off the light at night. You can put two females and 4-5 males.
In the morning reproduction will begin. Fish can mate for several hours. During this time, the female will be fussy and mobile, leaving behind a lot of caviar (1000-2000 pieces). All of them will sink to the bottom, passing through the grid. Young females can sweep less eggs - from 100 pieces and more.
Upon completion of spawning, producers need to be transplanted into a common aquarium. The mesh from the bottom can be removed, and if the caviar is stuck between the lines, it should be slightly shaken off. In 24-72 hours, the first larvae can hatch. In three days the fry will swim independently. Starter feed - ciliates, live dust, branded feed for zebrafish.
How is spawning in Danio rerio
Zebrafish also breed easily in a spawning aquarium, like pink zebrafish. It is important to provide a good feed with live feed before spawning. What you need to do to spawn danio rerio turned out successful:
- Pour into a spawning aquarium clean and pre-infused water from the tap. Gradually bring it to a temperature of 26 ° C. Place the plants in the tank at the level of 2-6 cm from the bottom level.
See how to breed danio rerio at home.
- Install the spawning in a well-lit place, or illuminate it with 0.5 W fluorescent lamps. Launch into it females, and then males. At night, turn off the light.
- The breeding of zebrafish in the aquarium will begin in the morning. If the spawning does not take place, feed the producers with live food over the next day.
- After spawning, plant males and females into a common reservoir. Replace 10% of the water in the spawn with water of the same temperature. Connect aeration.
- Finished zebrafish fry will swim in search of food in 4-6 days, depending on water temperature. They are also fed ciliates and chopped feed. You can serve them hard-boiled chicken yolk. It needs to be powdered and diluted with water free of chlorine.
How guppies breed :: where guppies lay off :: Aquarium fish
How Guppies Breed
How well, after returning home after a hard day, get settled in front of the aquarium and with affection to watch the water inhabitants. But not always there is a lot of time to provide proper care for pets, so many people try not to get pedigreed fish, and limited to unpretentious, but bright, colorful, with gorgeous tails of guppies. In addition, breeding them - is not difficult.
The question "opened a pet shop. Business is not going. What to do?" - 2 answers
Guppies can be kept in any conditions provided to them. But still, if you want to see healthy and colorful fish, and also dream of breeding and selecting guppies, you need to take care that the volume of water in the aquarium is 2 liters for each male and 4 liters for the female.
Lighting should be 12 hours a day, water filtration is desirable. The preferred water temperature is 24-26 ° C. Guppies are peace-loving fish, so their neighbors may be the same small, calm species. The aquarium should contain open areas for swimming fish and nooks for breeding and rearing fry. In the water where the guppy fish live, to prevent infectious diseases, you can add cooking or sea salt at the rate of 5 grams per 10 liters of water.
Representatives of guppies are viviparous fish, they give birth to fry. For breeding, guppies select the best fry and grow them to puberty in a spacious container, providing rational feeding. When the fry reach three weeks of age, they are seated in different aquariums, taking into account the signs of sex. During this period, males lengthen the first rays of the anal fin, while females appear dark spots on the back of the abdomen.
Guppy puberty occurs in 4-6 months. Fish begin to replant for breeding in a separate aquarium. Two males are taken for one female. At the mating site, they spend about 10 days. Spawning is stimulated by regularly changing the water and raising its temperature by 2-3 ° C. The male fertilizes the female with a modified anal fin. Then the males go to the general aquarium, and the female begins to bear the fry. Pregnancy females lasts 3-4 weeks. The number of fry depends on the age of the female mother. Primiparous female brings up to 20 fry, an adult large female, which is more than a year old, can give birth to 150 fishes.
The appearance of fry
The spawning ground where the pregnant female guppy is located should be planted with small-leaved plants so that after birth the fry can hide there. Before giving birth, the female's abdomen increases and becomes square. Spawning can last about a day. Fry fall to the bottom of the aquarium, and then rise to the surface. After the birth of fry, the female must be removed to the general aquarium. Young animals are fed with various feeds, live daphnia, given the size. Fry grow slowly, and males, when they reach puberty, stop growing. The temperature of water influences their quicker maturation; the higher, the better.
An aquarium with guppies does not cause much trouble. Minimal care, your care, good nutrition fry will give you a lot of positive emotions, a sense of responsibility for your favorite pets. Breeding guppies will develop the aesthetic taste of you and your children.
Neon Fish - Breeding
For almost a hundred years, neon fish are popular all over the world. They are unpretentious, eat any food and can live in any water. But despite the fact that the maintenance of neon fish does not cause problems even for beginning aquarists, breeding them is more difficult than other fish. For spawning, they require special conditions.
How do neon fish breed?
These fish reach sexual maturity in 6-9 months. The spawning period usually lasts from October to January, but can occur at any other time. Large females with a belly filled with caviar and active males are selected. For successful breeding of fish neon you need to properly maintain them: it is desirable to feed them with live food and maintain a not very high temperature in the aquarium. Before spawning, somewhere in two weeks, you need to keep the males and females separately and feed them intensely. After that, they need to be transplanted into a specially prepared small aquarium, preferably in the afternoon. At this time, it is better not to feed them.
What should be an aquarium for spawning neon?
For breeding aquarium fish neon need to follow certain rules:
- The tank should be slightly elongated, at least 40 centimeters in length. It is desirable to disinfect it.
- He must darken at least two walls, the sun's rays should not fall on him, as the eggs from them die.
- Water must be defended, and for successful fertilization of eggs, it must be soft and not colder than 24 degrees. It is necessary to pour it a little - no more than 20 centimeters.
- Soil in such an aquarium is not needed. Put javan moss or synthetic sponge on the bottom. Allowed plants such as fern or kriptorina. It is advisable to put a net on the bottom so that the fish do not eat their eggs.
If you put the fish in the spawning in the evening, then in the morning they usually spawn. The female can sweep about 200 non-sticky eggs. After that, the producers need to be transplanted into the general aquarium, and the spawn should be darkened. Usually the fry hatch in a day. And they begin to swim in 4-5 days. With all these conditions, the breeding of neon fish is not so difficult.
How do fish breed?
Almost all fishes of our rivers and lakes breed with caviar. The bulk of the fish spawn in the spring. Only trout makes it in late autumn and burbot, which spawn in the middle of winter.
In early April, as soon as the water gets warmer, a pike begins to spawn on the spills. How much it perishes at this time, it is difficult to even imagine! There are birds, a beast, and a poacher!
Perch spawns behind pike. But this usually reckless predator does not go aground. He spawns on underwater tree junk, on bushes, writhing, far from shore. His caviar, similar to white laces, ribbons hanging on the flooded bushes. It is curious to note that predators, starting spawning before the rest of the fish, as if prepare themselves for the time when it will be possible to seize the belle that is stuck out from spawning - roach and those who spawn caviar after it. And here predators begin life, as in a sanatorium.
Most fish for spawning go to special places (migrate), and this is similar to seasonal migratory birds. Fish migrations are short, like in our roach or bleak, from lakes to small rivers. But in migratory fish — those that live in the seas and only spawn in rivers — the roads to the spawning grounds are very far.
After spawning, the fish seeks to return to the places of its permanent habitat. Here, for her temporary appearance in the river, she is called the checkpoint.
Separately, you can note the spawning of eel.
The eel, having lived all its life (10-15 years) in fresh waters, matured for spawning, goes to the Baltic Sea, where, gathering in mass, it goes against the warm Gulf Stream. And along it, as if on a highway, it arrives at the Sargasso Sea, where at kilometer depths it spawns and dies from exhaustion. Caviar warm waters carry to the surface, it is picked up by the same Gulf Stream, and in the third year of the journey is not caviar, and vitreous larvae swim to the shores of Europe. Then they turn into tiny eels and begin to move into the rivers in order to grow and repeat the path of their parents.
Juveniles of all other fish hatched from caviar, roll down from their spawning grounds to lakes, rivers and the sea.
In the process of spawning nature is surprisingly wasteful. Many species of female fish simultaneously sweep out several hundreds of thousands and millions of eggs. And from this mass of caviar eventually live to the maturity of a loner. All the others die from diseases or become prey to predators, insect larvae, beetles, and even frogs.
People protect valuable species of fish. On the spawning grounds they began to catch mature females and males and receive from them caviar and milt. Artificially fertilized eggs are placed in special devices, and the fry obtained in this way are fed until they are so strong that they can get food for themselves.
So man increases the output of fish and corrects nature.
Especially irrational nature arrived with Far Eastern salmon. After spawning, they all perish from exhaustion. And here the person makes the amendments. Fish breeding plants hatch larvae and release millions of future valuable fish. The same is done with sturgeon caviar. And eel larvae are caught and transported to ponds, where they grow.
How to breed fish "scalar"
Angelfish - frenzy. In order to get offspring from this fish, you need to properly prepare a pair. At the age of 1.5 - 2 years, a couple is separated, which secures a certain territory. Reproduction occurs by laying eggs on a leaf of a plant or simply on aquarium glass. In the general aquarium, it will not be possible to grow the fry, because as they stand afloat they will easily become prey for other inhabitants of the aquarium.
In a spawning aquarium of 70 liters without plants with a water level of 40 cm, there must be a certain temperature and chemical composition of water; otherwise, after spawning, the caviar will be covered with fungus and will disappear. или родители ее просто съедят Мальков выкармливают или живой пылью ( коловратка) , а через 2 недели м - мелкая дафния и нематоды.
При разведении температура воды обычно 28-30 градусов, но возможна и 24 градуса. При разведении скалярий, так же как и при содержании, химический состав воды существенной роли не играет, пригодна свежая водопроводная вода, отстоявшаяся в течении суток. The main problem in breeding scalar fish is the selection of producers. It is best to provide the selection of the fish themselves. When the joint content of 6-10 fish, they are divided into pairs, which should later be placed in this combination to spawn. The danger of displacement of pairs is eliminated, as the fish indicate by their behavior a partner. Experienced aquarists can easily distinguish the sex of fully formed fish by a more prominent forehead and wide body in the male.
Amazonian bushes, cryptocrines or aspidistra leaves are used as a substrate for spawning. Recently used green organic glass, made in the form of a sheet or plate. If an aquarist takes care of the offspring and subsequently transfers the substrate with caviar to a glass jar, then one leaf of the plant is sufficient. If, however, the progeny are taken care of by the producers, then it is necessary to place two sheets located in different parts of the aquarium, as the fish transfer the hatched larvae from one place to another. In this case, the leaves should be located in such a way that the distance from their apex to the surface of the water was about 3/4 of the body of scalar.
A few days before spawning, fish clear the surface of the leaf from their mouths with dirt. At this time they have anal bumps swelling. During spawning time, an average of 400-500 eggs spawn, in some cases up to 1000. Light on eggs and fry does not have a harmful effect. When breeding an angelfish requires additional blowing water with air. After about two days, larvae hatch from deferred calf, and soon parents transfer them to another leaf. On the seventh day, the larvae turn into fry, begin to swim and feed. It is best to use cyclops nauplius and young Daphnia as feed, in the winter you can feed the fry for the first days with washed nematodes. Fry grow very quickly and in 4-5 days go on feeding on small crustaceans. In the first feeding period, it is necessary to clean the bottom of food residue and excrement regularly 1-2 times a day.
Scalpel (Pterophyllum scalare)
The size of the scalar usually does not exceed 15 cm. The sex differences of the scalar are mild. There are many color variations of the simple and veil-shaped scalar.
Angelfish are contained in aquariums densely planted with plants, along with smaller and comparable in size, but non-aggressive fish species. Scalaries feed like cichlids.
When growing growers, it is desirable to keep the scalar in a group of at least 5-6 pieces. Upon reaching puberty, couples appear among the scalars, swimming constantly together and driving the rest away from themselves. Such couples should be planted and kept in the aquarium no more than one or two, as they usually quarrel with each other.
Breeding is possible both in the general aquarium and in the spawning area, with a volume of at least 50-70 liters per pair. Angelfish spawn eggs on the leaves of plants, the walls of the aquarium or on the imitation of leaves, which is made of Plexiglas 15x5 cm and set at an angle of 45 ° on the wall of the aquarium. Angelfish parents actively care for their offspring. After two days the larvae emerge from the calf, and after 5 days the fry begin to swim and look for food. Starter feed - rotifers or cyclops nauplii. The spawn can be taken from the parents along with the leaf. In this case, it is desirable to transfer the eggs to a clean aquarium for 30-40 liters with water of the same composition and temperature (it is better to just pour out from the spawning aquarium). Next to the caviar set spray. As soon as the scalar fry began to swim, it is necessary to install a light bulb of low power for night lighting, except for daylight. Otherwise, at night, the fry will stray into corners and perish en masse.
Fry and scalar larvae are sensitive to a decrease in pH, so you should control this value and add baking soda if the pH drops to 6.5. Fry grow very quickly. The female lays from 500 to 1000 eggs. The sexual maturities of the scalar reach 10-12 months.
Conditions for content:
The composition of the water does not matter;
t not lower than 24 ° C, optimally 25-26.
Conditions for breeding:
GH up to 10 °;
t 28-30 ° C.