Marine Aquarium - we launch a competently photo video step-by-step description.
EQUIPMENT FOR THE MARINE AQUARIUM
The first important purchase will of course be the tank itself. Its shape can be different, most often it is a container with a base in the form of a square, a rectangle, less often forms with a convex front (viewing) wall occur. Displacement matters - it will take at least 200 liters, preferably 400 and more. Do not be tempted by 50 and 100-liters - sea animals in them get sick and die.
Most probably the main purchase will be an external canister filter. Experienced aquarists recommend Eheim 2260 or 2250 and Fluval 403 or 303. Special filler materials will also be needed, such as ceramic chips, coal and sponge.
Purchase a thermostat, a skimmer (a device for removing foam), as well as a pump or pump filter - this is a device for saturating water with oxygen, and in combination with a filter there is also a waste disposal mechanism. Be sure to arrange the grounding of the aquarium: buy a RCD (residual current device) and call an electrician who will correctly bring it out and connect it.
The next purchase is a stock of coal and salt, bacterial preparations, acidity tests, a simple hydrometer (a float that shows how dense the water is) and a siphon for cleaning the bottom.
If funds allow, take another UV lamp with a capacity of 15 watts and a large canister (about 50 liters) to dilute the salt in it. The first month of caring for the aquarium will require significant costs and effort, and then everything will become much easier - daily feeding and about an hour a week for the maintenance of equipment.
marine aquarium photo
Select the desired volume
It goes without saying that the larger the volume of the aquarium, the more expensive its equipment. Although the best volume for the "sea" is considered a capacity of 200 - 250 liters. (it is easiest to maintain a balanced ecosystem), you can start with a smaller displacement aquariums - the best option would be 50 - 80 liters.
A very small aquarium (for example, 20 liters) can also be made “marine” if desired, but it is rather difficult to maintain constant water parameters in it. In this case, the rectangular shape of the container is preferable to the cubic one, and this is due to the possibility of organizing the proper lighting, as well as the placement of stones.
STONES FOR THE SEA AQUARIUM
Such stones are also called living, since they are genuine fragments of coral reefs from the ocean, and numerous colonies of beneficial bacteria live in their cavities. Some specimens have real thickets of polyps (anemones) on their surface, and inside - small crustaceans, crabs and sea worms.
From such guests need to get rid of, moreover, to do it on time. We do not want to frighten you, but in saltwater aquariums, without your control, life can flow like in a real ocean - some eat others, others parasitize everything alive. Learn how to install live rock, namely, how to get rid of carnivorous sea anemones, poisonous snails, cones and murex, crayfish, predatory shrimps and all kinds of worms.
Having brought home the purchased stones, they should be treated - washed under running hot water, be sure to wear durable gloves, as these types of unwanted inhabitants leave painful and dangerous burns and bites. Having installed the stones, observe life in it in the dark time - the hungry and active passengers will soon find themselves. At the stage of dealing with them, use special medications or remove animals with tweezers.
A few words about the second favorite element of the decor - it is seashells in the aquarium. Decorating the seabed, they are absolutely not suitable for our purposes, but beginners often want to use them - it's beautiful! The main reason to abandon the shells is the hardness of the water, which invariably grows due to these sources of calcium carbonate (in fact, chalk). Not all aquarium fish will hurt and die, their possible proximity to the sink depends on the species, but they certainly can not reproduce.
marine aquarium photo
Filtration and water recovery systems
The most important and complex point in equipping a marine aquarium, because the water in it must be perfectly clean and contain a minimum amount of nitrates. If in nature the nature itself takes care of this, and the sea currents constantly bring fresh and clean water, then in an aquarium the problem of water purity can be managed only with the help of special equipment. Samp is a container made of organic glass, divided by partitions into compartments in which various aquarium equipment is installed.
The sump is usually equipped in an aquarium cabinet, but has direct communication with the aquarium. It can be purchased (there is now a large selection of sumps with all the necessary equipment on the market) or it can be made by itself, in this case the aquarist has the opportunity for a unique selection of the aquarium equipment that is most suitable for him. The basic principle of operation of a sump is a closed loop.
With the help of a return pump, water flows from the sump to the aquarium, and then, exceeding a certain level, it enters the overflow box and then flows by gravity back to the sump. What should be in the sump? Foam separator (skimmer). With the help of this device organic matter, constantly present there, is removed from the water, even before its disintegration begins. Even invisible to the naked eye, the dirt is quickly collected on the bubbles, which creates a skimmer and accumulates in a special compartment, from which it is then easily removed. Biological filter. For these purposes, a separate sump compartment is usually filled with filter material.
marine aquarium photo
This may be coral chips, as well as special bio-balls or other porous organic material. The larger the surface of the biological filter, the more bacteria are there, and accordingly the quality of biological filtration improves. We must not forget about the required amount of oxygen for the process, as well as the rate of flow of water through the filter. Together, these three factors create the biological stability of the entire system. Algae (refujium).
Algae are capable of very effectively eliminating nitrates from water, and microplankton propagates in the alga, which serves as food for many inhabitants of the marine aquarium. To organize an algae above one of the compartments of the sump with running water, lighting is provided, and the lamp must be sufficiently powerful (70-100 W). Algae (hetamorph) are placed at the bottom of the compartment, which grow well and multiply in conditions of high nitrate content and bright light. Their number must be kept under control, since with excessive growth of algae absorb too many trace elements from the water, and this is harmful for corals.
The flow of water in the alga should be slower than in the entire aquarium. Return pump. It is usually installed in a special compartment of the sump with a variable water level. At the same time, the compartment is made sufficiently bulky so that in the event of an emergency power outage or breakdown of the pump to accommodate the entire volume of water that will merge from the aquarium. To reduce the amount of water that is draining when a similar situation arises, holes are made near the end of the return tube, which is lowered into the aquarium at a distance of 1.5 cm.
When the level falls, air enters the holes and stops draining. We must pay attention to the power of the return pump. The best solution would be a pump that can pump about 10 volumes of an aquarium per hour. In this case, decomposition products will be removed from the aquarium in time, and the water will be sufficiently saturated with oxygen. Avtodoliv. The system of compensation for water evaporated from an aquarium, which makes life easier for its owner, since daily level tracking is quite tedious.
The pump (in specialty stores at the moment their large selection is presented) is installed in a separate sump compartment according to the instructions. Additional compartments. It is recommended to purchase or manufacture your own samp, providing for the availability of spare compartments. Methods of water purification in the marine aquarium are constantly being improved and, perhaps, to install any innovations will require the presence of additional compartments. In addition, a water heater can be installed in the sump, which in this case does not spoil the appearance created by the aquarist of the “sea” landscape.
FISHING FOR THE SEA AQUARIUM To make your home sea enjoy not only bright beauty, but also a peaceful atmosphere, populate the reservoir with small and non-aggressive views. As new species are added, study the literature to find out which ones easily get along and which ones conflict. If you decide on the maintenance of exotic predator fish, you will have to confine yourself to one species in order not to turn your aquarium into a torture chamber.
But do not be embarrassed, the choice of fish without exaggeration is great. Rate the diversity of marine aquarium dwellers: parrot fish; backspins; hedgehog fish (without neighbors); fish soldiers; angels: centropig, diakantus and about 20 subspecies; moray eels (without neighbors); fox fish; a wide family of butterfly fish; zebrasome and other surgeon fish; pseudochromisms; clown fish; grams; dogs (without neighbors); tangerines; argus; bullies and many others.
The life expectancy of all is different, but with good care, successful acclimatization and timely treatment, most species live 3-4 or about 10 years, and angelfish are all twenty. Naturally, from the first days you will need to take care of feeding for the fish, given that different species feed in different ways: there are herbivores, carnivores and omnivores, and some, for example, squirrel fish, eat exclusively living food.
Choose the inhabitants so that it is easier to put together a diet for most or all at once. Do not flatter yourself that you can dig up worms, feed house flies or get along with bread crumbs. For sea fish, branded food is not a whim, but a necessity, so be aware of your responsibility to animals and be ready to constantly buy good food of a certain type.
Organization of the correct flow in the marine aquarium
Current is a vital factor for marine life. It purifies water, brings food and oxygen, and determines all the natural cycles of marine animals. In a marine aquarium, flow is especially important for "live" stones. Only with intensive water movement, they are able to fully perform the function of a biological filter.
Under natural habitat conditions, marine animals become accustomed to fairly strong currents, which sometimes give way to calm. Therefore, in the marine aquarium, some pumps can be turned off at night. The minimum volume pumped by the pump per hour for the "sea" should be 10-15 volumes of the aquarium, although the best figure would be 50 volumes. The flow of water should not fall directly on invertebrates.
It is better to direct it to the stones so that they are washed as intensely as possible. For these purposes, usually use two pumps installed opposite each other. In this case, the minimum number of stagnant zones remains in the aquarium, in which the microfloat can die due to the absence of oxygen.
STARTING THE SYSTEM
Before you start such a hobby, it will be correct to read as much literature on this topic as possible, so as to avoid common mistakes at first. Well, the main points of the plan, how to make a marine aquarium yourself, will be provided by our step-by-step guide: assemble the tank, install the main decorative elements, attach the switched off filters, pour the fillers into them, conduct grounding; fill the tank with water from the tap, stand for 24 hours, drain; fill three-quarters of the volume of water from the tap, turn on the filters, heating (25-26 ° C)
and pump, uphold the system for seven days; turn off the apparatuses, clean the carbon filler filter and lay a new portion, add sea salt to the water (37 grams of salt for 1 l of water); turn on the pump so that the salt mixes and dissolves, then turn off; when the water settles, clean the bottom with a siphon - there will be a muddy sediment, it must be removed; lay the soil and make all your algae and decorations (stones, houses, shells);
measure the water density with a hydrometer, bring the indicator to 1'022-1'024 g / l, pouring either fresh water or saline solution, at the same time fill the tank almost to the edges (space from the top edge is 4-5 cm); wait a week for the water to settle, but after about three days turn on the filters, pump, skimmer and heating, add the drug with bacteria or live rocks (reefs); a week passed, the bacteria had time to decompose the dead organics,
and filters cleaned the water; check the test content of ammonium, nitrite and phosphorus, as well as acid-base balance (the rate of the first not more than 0.5 mg per liter, the second - not less than 8.0); if the indices deviate, it means that the decay has not yet ended, to put it simply, something is rotting in the water - this needs to be found and removed (remove and clean all the stones and scenery);
when all indicators are normal, you can run the first settlers - fish, 2-3 small individuals; At this stage, you need to check the indicators daily and make water changes until the bacteria colonize the contents of the aquarium and can not completely process the waste of fish; when the process is established, launch new fish, 1-2 per week, carefully checking the indicators with tests, changing the water; everything gradually enters the rut, and in three months you will have a reliable biosystem!
The usual temperature for a saltwater aquarium is 25-26 degrees. If its lower limit is easily regulated with the help of a water heater, then in case of strong heat very often there is a problem with cooling the water to the desired parameters. An aquarium refrigerator is not a cheap pleasure, but when you consider that in a particularly hot season, all aquarium inhabitants can die due to overheating, installing it is worth it.
VIDEO OF THE MARINE AQUARIUM
GROWTH FOR THE AQUARIUM BY OWN HANDS, FROM A STONE FROM A TREE FROM CLAY FROM COCONUT
EXTERNAL FILTER FOR THE AQUARIUM OWN HANDS
AQUAIUM SPRAYER AND EVERYTHING THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
How to make an aquarium with your own hands?
If you carefully examine any rectangular aquarium, you can understand its simple design. In principle, this is an ordinary container made of pieces of glass. Make such a capacity is quite capable of a person who knows how to handle household tools. There are, however, some rules and subtleties that need to be known before work begins.
Acquisition of a finished aquarium of almost any form does not pose a problem: in pet stores their choice is quite large. At the same time, there are quite a lot of aquarists who independently make containers for ornamental fish at home.
There are various reasons for this. For example, a fish owner lives in a rural area, and transporting a large glass structure from the nearest city pet store can be quite problematic. Someone makes glued houses for aquatic life for sale. But most often the meaning of self-production of this item is the joy of creativity and the desire to save money the family budget.
Materials for work
Making an aquarium with your own hands requires the following tools and materials:
- special silicate glue;
- glue dispenser (so-called gun);
- glass cutter;
- masking tape;
- ruler or roulette;
- rags from natural fabric.
Choosing glass for aquarium
Especially it is necessary to dwell on the issue of quality and thickness of glass. In working condition, the bottom and walls of the banks are under considerable water pressure. Consequently, with increasing capacity, glass thickness should also increase.
For example, for a small aquarium with a length of 50 cm and a height of 30 cm, you should choose a glass with a thickness of at least 5 millimeters. And when you need to glue a large jar (1 m to 0.6 m, for example), you need a 10-mm glass.
If organic glass is chosen as the material for the walls, then the same calculations should be followed. However, master aquarists rarely work with Plexiglas, so it quickly becomes cloudy, and when cleaning the walls from algae visible scratches appear on it.
There is a requirement for the grade of glass. In our case, we must choose the material of the highest grade M1, without impurities and microscopic air bubbles inside. Glass of this brand is usually used in shop windows.
When choosing the appropriate adhesive, preference is given to a special silicone sealant for aquariums. You need to make sure that it is harmless to living organisms. Save on silicone should not be. Many aquarists recommend KNAUF 881 German sealant or Soudal Silirub Aquarium.
Making the simplest glue aquarium
Сделать самостоятельно круглый аквариум без специального профессионального оборудования нельзя, а вот прямоугольную банку может изготовить практически каждый домашний мастер.
Подготовка стеклянных деталей
После тщательного измерения вырезаются стекла для дна, лицевой и тыльной сторон, торцевые стенки. Рёбра стёкол шлифовать не нужно для обеспечения лучшего сцепления с герметиком.
Рекомендуется заранее планировать так, чтобы дно аквариума было внутри вертикальных стенок. The fact is that silicone sealant works very well for stretching.
All the glass parts around the places where the gluing will be done are glued on both sides with strips of painting tape, the edge of which should retreat 5-6 mm from the edge of the wall or bottom.
It is necessary that the glass does not get dirty in the process of applying sealant. Future docking sites should be degreased with acetone or white spirit.
Working with glue
Around the perimeter of the bottom glass, you need to put a few drops of silicone, wait 2-3 hours and cut so that the frozen glue was 1-2 millimeters thick. The peculiar beacons that determine the thickness of the glue line are obtained. It is very important that the glass parts do not touch each other in order to avoid breakage under the influence of load and lateral pressure.
Further gluing is performed on a hard surface covered with polyethylene. The front wall is attached and glued. So that it does not collapse, you need to put props on both sides.
Silicone is extruded evenly to the seam turned out the same thickness. Then end glass is attached and sealed. In relation to the front wall, it must be fixed with masking tape. In the same way glued second end glass and rear wall. Remains of excess sealant gently cleaned with a sponge or a damp cloth.
After about 2 hours, it is recommended to put another layer of silicone on the joints to ensure the safety margin. An hour later, the masking tape can be removed, and then the seams should be carefully cleaned with a razor blade.
Before you continue reading, watch the video tutorial, where the ways of gluing aquarium glasses are detailed:
The device of stiffeners will also be useful. They are made of strips of the same glass with a width of 6-10 centimeters and are glued in the upper part of the vertical walls.
The ribs, which should be 4-6 cm shorter than the length of each wall, provide uniform pressure of water on the entire surface. This measure is particularly relevant for large tanks.After a day you can experience glued can under load. If there are no leaks, then the aquarium is ready.
By this principle, you can glue an aquarium of increased volume. Naturally, this will require thicker glass, stiffeners at the top and bottom, as well as a system for fixing vertical walls when gluing with, for example, corner clamps.
How to build aquarium accessories?
Depending on the equipment used (false bottom, external aquarium filter, etc.), you need to cut holes in the side wall or bottom and glue short connections to them in the bottom.
Some craftsmen neatly cut off the necks from glass bottles, insert them into the openings with the edge of the neck out and seal her around the circumference with silicone. Subsequently, these self-made adapters easily fit the hoses of external life support devices.
DIY Aquarium Cover
The material for this important element can serve as plexiglass, simple silicate glass, plastic. It all depends on the size of the tank.
With the advent of new building materials, home craftsmen began to abandon heavy Plexiglas and began to use foamed polyvinyl chloride to create an aquarium cover, or more simply PVC panels.
Making frame cover
If the aquarium is small, the cover can also be made of ordinary building plastic with a thickness of at least 3 mm. In any case, it can not be put on the glass. Therefore, you first need to make the bead of the same plastic, cutting the strip along the length of the walls with a width of 6-10 cm. This will be the height of the bead.
The frame is glued with resin or special glue for plastic. The corner joint is better strengthened with a metal corner (also glued).
Fastening the cover to the aquarium
An interesting way to fasten the sides to the top of the can was invented by craftsmen: using PVC cable channel.
On both sides of the cable channel has grooves, which are inserted into the walls of the aquarium, and segments of the bead, so it should immediately be chosen under the appropriate thickness of glass. All joints should be smeared with silicone.
Hinges are attached to the tailgate to lift the lid. They can either be glued or bolted together. In the plastic surface of the roof is a square slot for its capture and lifting. Fish feed is also fed through this hole.If the plastic bends, then from the inside along the entire length it should be reinforced with a light aluminum corner. This corner will be at the same time fastening for lamps.
So that the wires and hoses go inside the aquarium space, at the stage of gluing the frame, holes are carefully cut in the side of the board. This can be done with a wide drill in wood. Some owners of ornamental fish drill the same holes in the opposite side, which contributes to better ventilation of aqua.
We build in lighting
Each aquarist chooses lamps to his own taste, but many craftsmen advise purchasing fluorescent lamps with a light transmission coefficient of at least 60 Ra. The presence of this technical indicator should be clarified in the store.
If desired, the outer part of the cover can be decorated to your taste with a self-adhesive film. The cover for the aquarium is ready.
Why do I need to make an aquarium myself, if it can be freely purchased at a pet store or in a bird market? Creative people can precisely answer this question, the pride of which are hand-made things. In addition, the cash costs of self-manufacturing glass containers for fish is almost half the cost of the finished product.
Video with instructions on how to make an aquarium with your own hands:
Samp for aquarium
Mechanical engineers probably know the English word sump, which in Russian means an engine pan or lower crankcase. But it turns out that experienced aquarists also know this term very well. The fact is that the word "samp" means a very specific device.
What it is?
First of all, it should be noted that in aquarism the word is used without translation. When they say "samp", experts immediately understand that we are talking about a separate tank, which is located under the main aquarium. Connected to it by highways for draining and supplying water, this tank acts as a biofilter. Thus, the purification of aquarium water is not carried out mainly, but in the lower aquarium, where all the relevant technical devices are located.
- In one compartment there is a filtering material (sponge, synthetic winterizer, etc.).
- In the second - expanded clay substrate (as a rule).
- In the third compartment, a heater is installed to continuously heat the aquarium water.
Inside the tank, the water from the compartment to the compartment flows independently due to the different height of the partitions. A pump that pumps water from the lower to the upper aquarium is installed as close as possible to the sump.
It should be noted that such a scheme is not a dogma, and there are various options for the location of filter elements and equipment.
For example, one of the levels of biofiltration can be a tank with algae, which actively neutralize nitrites, can be compartments with calcium reactors, with phytoplankton or an ultraviolet sterilizer, etc.
There are quite a few varieties of sampons, and in this question there is a huge field for creative activity.
Why do we need sump?
A natural question arises: why is all this necessary? Is it really impossible to use the traditional layout of equipment inside the aquarium?
Indeed, it is possible. But if its capacity exceeds 300 liters, many experts recommend using a samp-system, thanks to the work of which
- the aquatic environment is well mixed
- a stable flow is created,
- the probability of formation of a superficial film is excluded.
In some cases, the use of a large canister filter is impossible or undesirable, and sometimes the owner of the aquarium does not want to fill the main tank with various tubes, technical devices and fixtures. For example, even a thermometer can be placed in the bottom "jar".
In some sources, when describing a sampa, the expression “technical aquarium” is encountered. Perhaps this is the most accurate definition of this integrated device.
Samp: principle of operation
Already from the brief description of this system it is clear how it works.
- From the aquarium, the water from above flows into the first compartment of the samp system, where mechanical water filtration is performed.
- Further downstream, the water flows into the second zone, which is filled with a filtering substrate for biological treatment.
- From the second zone through the upper edge of the partition into the third compartment with a nitrite neutralizer or with activated carbon.
- The fourth compartment is usually the place to install a water heater.
- The fifth is placed a powerful return pump, which raises the water in the upper aquarium.
- When the level in it reaches the set maximum mark, the water through the overflow column enters by gravity into the technical "bank".
This is a brief schematic diagram of the functioning of the sump. Of course, the number of compartments for filtering water may be different depending on the capacity of the main aquarium and the required degree of cleaning.
Samp for marine aquarium
Samps can be used in both freshwater and saltwater aquariums. But in the "sea" their use is most justified. This is due to the fact that with the help of a sampa it is possible to maintain the desired artificial biotope constantly, at any time of the year and day, even when the lighting of the demonstration aquarium is off.
- Kalkquasser. In addition, if there is a reef aquarium, then placing in a separate compartment in the sampan with a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide allows you to stimulate growth and maintain the life of corals.
In principle, the scheme of a marine samp is almost the same as a typical one, but there are a number of features.
About kalkwasser (calcium solution Ca (OH) 2) has already been said. The skimmer is also an indispensable device - a device for removing dirty organic matter by foaming. Sometimes such a device is called a flotation cell, foam separator, or simply pennic.
- Skimmer It is a compartment of a technical aquarium, where the seawater flowing into it foams with the incoming air pressure that pumps the compressor. The rising foam is collected in another container and turns into a darkish slush.
This is the smallest organic garbage in the type and likeness of ordinary sea foam. If an artificial marine aquatic system is large (from 400 liters or more), then such pennics may be 2 or 3.
- Carbon filter placed immediately after the skimmer for chemical cleaning.
- Scraber. In addition to conventional biofilters, the original method of controlling phosphates and ammonia compounds in seawater is a scrubber.
This device is also installed in one of the compartments of the sump; it is in its essence an ordinary lattice, on the surface of which water flows. The grid is constantly illuminated by a separate lamp, so that algae begins to grow on it, which perfectly absorb harmful chemical compounds.
- Refugium will help solve a similar problem. In this compartment, floating algae not only purify water, but also saturate it with air, and also maintain the desired pH balance.
For the growth and life of algae also used constant lighting.
Samp DIY for aquarium
Technical aquariums are on sale, they are also made to order. But many home craftsmen make their own. This is probably due to the fact that the homemade samp allows you to experiment with a water purification system, to use different filter elements and substrates. In addition, such an open filter complex is easy to maintain.
But to make it yourself is not so easy. In this case, do not need to rush. First of all, it is necessary to develop a project taking into account the planned compartments and equipment. The design should take into account the following features:
- the samp must correspond to the size of the aquarium table;
- access to all its compartments should be provided;
- all the water flowing from the main aquarium should fit into the sump in the event of a power outage.
On the Internet there are quite a few examples of homemade sampov, as well as drawings and detailed descriptions of their manufacture. However, it makes sense to focus on some of the features.
- When gluing the case of the technical "can", you need to use only special silicone, and the glass thickness should be at least 5 mm.
- The width of the 1st compartment should be at least 10 cm; this is necessary for better mechanical cleaning (the area of the filtering material increases).
- Installation of compartment partitions cannot be performed without prior testing of the container for tightness.
- Partitions 1 and 3 should be glued together so that their lower cut is 1.5-2 cm above the bottom (for the passage of water). And in general, the partitions should be glued sequentially: each subsequent one is mounted after the seams of the previous wall harden.
- Drain and filler holes can be located both on the bottom and in the side walls of the main container. But in any case, a special overflow shaft should be made in the aquarium, fenced off from the rest of the aquatic environment with a comb or brush. It is necessary to prevent algae or living organisms from entering the overflow device (through which water flows by gravity to the sump).
By the way, you can avoid the process of drilling glass: the option of placing a samp filter above the main aquarium is known. However, this is hardly convenient in terms of maintenance and control of its condition.
- Electrical equipment (heater, lamps, pump) should be in waterproof enclosures, the wiring should be closed sealed cable channel.
After starting the sampa, it is not necessary to expect an instant result of biofiltration. It will take about 3-4 weeks until the colonies of bacteria start to work effectively.
For many years now, sampas have successfully performed their functions in complex purification of large volumes of aquarium water. Available in use, invisible in their normal working position, these devices reliably take care of the health of the inhabitants of aquariums.
How to make aquarium lighting with LEDs
LED (Light Emitting Diode) lighting is an excellent option for a saltwater or freshwater aquarium. LED lamps do not consume much electricity. Differ in long and rather easy operation. These features allow you to reduce operating costs for a long time. Environmentally friendly LED lighting does not contain harmful chemicals such as mercury or phosphorus, unlike fluorescent lamps. You have the opportunity to install LED lighting aquarium with your own hands, if you use the instructions.
Advantages and disadvantages of LED lighting
- LED aquarium lighting is initially expensive, but standard LED lamps currently work up to 50,000 hours, and are cheaper if you count on their long-term perspective.
- LED lighting also emits less heat, so it does not always require fans and cooling systems (depending on the number of lamps installed).
- Determine what type of LED light will best suit your needs for lighting a fish tank. If you have a salt water aquarium, more powerful LED lights will be required. Large and deep tanks also require strong lighting.
- This is ideal for a tank with relatively small plants. Tanks with lively underwater reefs require more light, and buying LED aquarium lamps with higher power ratings is highly recommended.
- Electricity and water in the interaction form a charge that can be deadly. The human body works as a channel between them, and with improper maintenance of the lamps, injury from electric shock may occur. Turn off all electronics, wiring systems and lighting when installing LED lamps, and drain the water from the aquarium. It will protect your life.
Look at the LED backlit aquarium.
How to install LED aquarium lighting by yourself
The first method, how to make LED lighting aquarium do it yourself is the simplest. Here you can use the cover with a special backlight. It is recommended to attach white LED stripes around the perimeter of the lid, which will provide a variety of spectrum and ensure uniform illumination of the upper perimeter of the tank.
The second method is to make a small "chandelier". Above the tank it is necessary to make a block of square, round or diamond shape, in which you can put all the equipment and LED strip. Освещения мощностью 120 Вт хватит на просторный резервуар ёмкостью 250-300 литров, где живет много рыбок и растений. Подобная "люстра" может содержать коло 40 LED ламп со световым потоком 270 lm (люмен), по 3 Вт каждая. Получится яркость освещения более 10000 lm, что обеспечит яркий световой спектр в аквариуме такого объема. Главное - постоянный контроль баланса экосистемы: избыток зеленого света способствует размножению микробов.
How much does it cost to assemble such a lamp? The cost may be different, depending on the seller. It is advisable to buy LED lamps from trusted manufacturers, so that they last for a long time and do not create installation difficulties. Reliable imported LED lamps: Osram, Cree, Philips, Lumileds. Russian manufacturers of LED dump: "Feron", "Camelion", "Jazzway", "Gauss", "Navigator", "Era".
To mount the lighting with such bulbs yourself, you need:
- Buy a lot of LED bulbs, LED strip;
- Plastic trench 10 cm wide and 2 meters long;
- Power supply 12 V, can be carried out from a stationary computer;
- Take the soft wire 1.5 mm;
- Get air conditioning at 6-12 V;
- No LED connectors are needed for the LED strip; 40 lamps are required for the lamps;
- Cutter for holes 48 mm.
See how to make LED lighting for the aquarium with your own hands.
After all materials have been prepared, two grooves should be cut along the plastic construction, and about 20 pieces should be drilled in the lower part. at 1 meter, you can staggered. Then in the holes you need to put the LEDs, and fix them. All lamps must be connected to the power supply. If you do not know how to properly handle the wiring, contact an electrician who can perform the procedure correctly.
The cooler or fan should be placed in the place of evaporation or heating of the lighting coating. For decorative purposes, you can make a night light, which will become an imitation of moonlight. It is needed for tropical sea fish and sea anemones. For night light, you can use a blue LED ribbon, which can be installed on the back wall. An electric lighting timer or automatic switching on / off of the backlight must also be connected in order to regulate the amount of daylight required.
The lighting of the aquarium should come from its upper part - this is how soft and diffused light is formed. It is better to use an ICE lamp with a power of 1 W, however, for different aquariums the appropriate power is chosen. A LED strip of 30-40 light bulbs with a total power of 3 watts may be enough for a 200-liter tank. The main thing that the light was not too bright, and not harm the slaves and plants. The optimal calculation is 0.5 watts per 1 liter of water, but for a deep and spacious aquarium in the formula, all indicators must be multiplied by two.
It is also important to take into account the thickness of the bottom - visually the water and all bottom plants should receive enough light in the lower layers of the tank. Bottom fishes and snails require a little light, but the plants will still grow and require more light. In the process of photosynthesis, plants will require a lot of light, because of its deficiency will emit less oxygen. To avoid problems, you need to adjust the amount of daylight, and create a uniform lighting in the pond, which will receive every inhabitant.