How to make aquarium lighting with LEDs
LED (Light Emitting Diode) lighting is an excellent option for a saltwater or freshwater aquarium. LED lamps do not consume much electricity. Differ in long and rather easy operation. These features allow you to reduce operating costs for a long time. Environmentally friendly LED lighting does not contain harmful chemicals such as mercury or phosphorus, unlike fluorescent lamps. You have the opportunity to install LED lighting aquarium with your own hands, if you use the instructions.
Advantages and disadvantages of LED lighting
- LED aquarium lighting is initially expensive, but standard LED lamps currently work up to 50,000 hours, and are cheaper if you count on their long-term perspective.
- LED lighting also emits less heat, so it does not always require fans and cooling systems (depending on the number of lamps installed).
- Determine what type of LED light will best suit your needs for lighting a fish tank. If you have a salt water aquarium, more powerful LED lights will be required. Large and deep tanks also require strong lighting.
- This is ideal for a tank with relatively small plants. Tanks with lively underwater reefs require more light, and buying LED aquarium lamps with higher power ratings is highly recommended.
- Electricity and water in the interaction form a charge that can be deadly. The human body works as a channel between them, and with improper maintenance of the lamps, injury from electric shock may occur. Turn off all electronics, wiring systems and lighting when installing LED lamps, and drain the water from the aquarium. It will protect your life.
Look at the LED backlit aquarium.
How to install LED aquarium lighting by yourself
The first method, how to make LED lighting aquarium do it yourself is the simplest. Here you can use the cover with a special backlight. It is recommended to attach white LED stripes around the perimeter of the lid, which will provide a variety of spectrum and ensure uniform illumination of the upper perimeter of the tank.
The second method is to make a small "chandelier". Above the tank it is necessary to make a block of square, round or diamond shape, in which you can put all the equipment and LED strip. Lighting capacity of 120 watts is enough for a spacious tank with a capacity of 250-300 liters, where many fish and plants live. Such a "chandelier" may contain about 40 LED lamps with a luminous flux of 270 lm (lumen), 3 watts each. The brightness of the illumination will be more than 10,000 lm, which will provide a bright light spectrum in an aquarium of such a volume. The main thing is to constantly monitor the balance of the ecosystem: an excess of green light promotes the growth of microbes.
How much does it cost to assemble such a lamp? The cost may be different, depending on the seller. It is advisable to buy LED lamps from trusted manufacturers, so that they last for a long time and do not create installation difficulties. Reliable imported LED lamps: Osram, Cree, Philips, Lumileds. Russian manufacturers of LED dump: "Feron", "Camelion", "Jazzway", "Gauss", "Navigator", "Era".
To mount the lighting with such bulbs yourself, you need:
- Buy a lot of LED bulbs, LED strip;
- Plastic trench 10 cm wide and 2 meters long;
- Power supply 12 V, can be carried out from a stationary computer;
- Take the soft wire 1.5 mm;
- Get air conditioning at 6-12 V;
- No LED connectors are needed for the LED strip; 40 lamps are required for the lamps;
- Cutter for holes 48 mm.
See how to make LED lighting for the aquarium with your own hands.
After all materials have been prepared, two grooves should be cut along the plastic construction, and about 20 pieces should be drilled in the lower part. at 1 meter, you can staggered. Then in the holes you need to put the LEDs, and fix them. All lamps must be connected to the power supply. If you do not know how to properly handle the wiring, contact an electrician who can perform the procedure correctly.
The cooler or fan should be placed in the place of evaporation or heating of the lighting coating. For decorative purposes, you can make a night light, which will become an imitation of moonlight. It is needed for tropical sea fish and sea anemones. For night light, you can use a blue LED ribbon, which can be installed on the back wall. An electric lighting timer or automatic switching on / off of the backlight must also be connected in order to regulate the amount of daylight required.
The lighting of the aquarium should come from its upper part - this is how soft and diffused light is formed. It is better to use an ICE lamp with a power of 1 W, however, for different aquariums the appropriate power is chosen. A LED strip of 30-40 light bulbs with a total power of 3 watts may be enough for a 200-liter tank. The main thing that the light was not too bright, and not harm the slaves and plants. The optimal calculation is 0.5 watts per 1 liter of water, but for a deep and spacious aquarium in the formula, all indicators must be multiplied by two.
It is also important to take into account the thickness of the bottom - visually the water and all bottom plants should receive enough light in the lower layers of the tank. Bottom fishes and snails require a little light, but the plants will still grow and require more light. In the process of photosynthesis, plants will require a lot of light, because of its deficiency will emit less oxygen. To avoid problems, you need to adjust the amount of daylight, and create a uniform lighting in the pond, which will receive every inhabitant.
DIY Aquarium Lighting - video description
DIY LED Aquarium Lighting
The first way is to make your own illumination of the aquarium with LEDs - the simplest, where you can additionally equip a lighting cap with special fitolamps. For this purpose, a white LED strip is attached around the perimeter. This will give the optimum spectrum and the most uniform illumination along the upper perimeter of the aquarium. A plastic-filled LED tape based on self-bonding is used, where the protective layer is removed and fastened around the perimeter of the box.
This light is widely used for decorative purposes, but it cannot be an independent source of aquarium lighting. Insulation at the junction of the tape and cord is made of special transparent silicone used for aquariums. It will reliably protect the power cord from water. The output wires are marked in red, this is a plus, and the minus is a black or blue wire. If the polarity is not observed, the LEDs will not work.
The second way is to collect a full-fledged LED lighting aquarium sufficient power without generators and sophisticated equipment. At 200-300 liters, a power of 120 watts is sufficient for an aquarium richly planted with plants. This adds a total of 40 dot LEDs for 270 lumens, 3 watts each. As a result, 10,800 lumens of light will come out, which will give a very bright light for a given volume. It is important to monitor the balance of the entire ecosystem, and with an excess of light and the development of green microorganisms, it is necessary to reduce the overall intensity.
The cost of such a design can vary greatly, since in Chinese online stores, for example, even more reputable companies can find LEDs and power supplies of the same quality. At the same time prices may vary at times.
For self-installation of the backlight will need:
- LED lamp kit
- 2-2,5 meters of a plastic trench 100 mm wide,
- 12 volt power supply, can be from a computer,
- soft wire 1.5 mm,
- preferably 6 computer coolers at 12 volts,
- 40 connector slots for LEDs
- 48 mm hole cutter.
The length of the aquarium will cut 2 pieces of the gutter, in the bottom of which we drill holes, about 20 pieces per meter, placing them in a checkerboard pattern. LED lamps are inserted into the holes and fasten.
All lamps must be connected to the power supply in parallel to the 12 volt power supply. For proper connection, it is better to contact an electrician, since the connection scheme may seem difficult for people who are not experts in the field of connecting lamps to the connectors. Computer coolers or fans should be installed when large vapors or lids are heated for lighting.
For decorative purposes, sometimes they make additional night lights, such as moonlight. To do this, connect a little blue LED strip, which can be installed behind the rear wall, but so that it was below the bottom of the aquarium. The electric timer can turn it on when the daylight turns off.
Advantages and disadvantages of various aquarium lighting options
Determine what types of aquarium lighting exist about their features:
- Backlight aquarium using incandescent bulbs has already become yesterday. They are very warm, disturbing the heat balance, and shine a little.
- Illumination with the use of fluorescent lamps solves the problem of light intensity, but the required spectrum of illumination does not fully provide.
- Aquarium lighting with the use of modern fitolamp fully provides both the intensity and the required range of lighting. However, such lighting is very expensive and not everyone can afford it.
- LED lighting aquarium - a modern way to supply light, which is most close to natural light.
Advantages of aquarium lighting with LEDs
Aquarium lighting with LEDs is a relatively new offer. LEDs have important characteristics that today make them leaders among lighting fixtures. The use of such lamps has a large number of advantages.
- They are very easy to install, due to the fact that the cartridges fit almost all types of socles.
- LED lamps are not afraid of water, therefore, the likelihood of a short circuit is excluded. However, even in conditions of high humidity, these lighting devices function without interruption.
- LED lamps designed to illuminate the aquarium, fireproof.
- Such lamps do not generate heat during operation, which makes it possible to keep the overall temperature of the aquarium comfortable, even if the lamps work throughout the day.
- Depending on the length of the day, the presence of natural light, you can change the brightness of the aquarium lighting. In addition, it is possible to make a night lighting of the aquarium and observe the life of the fish, admiring amazing underwater pictures.
Important! The average time of one lamp is five years. Consequently, all this time there will be no need to make replacement parts and do not have to disturb the inhabitants of the aquarium. In addition, it should be said about energy saving (about 70%). For these reasons, most aquarium owners prefer to light them with LED lamps. The same qualities have special LED strip.
Safety and durability
Since the LED lamps do not emit ultraviolet and infrared radiation, they are completely safe for absolutely all the inhabitants of the aquarium. On the contrary, the lighting of the aquarium with LEDs on the coloring and health of the fish has a favorable effect. In addition, due to the spectral composition of the rays, they contribute to the development of aquarium plants. To the aquarium was lit as best as possible, you can combine different types of LED lamps. They can be installed in any conditions and in any premises.
Lighting aquarium energy-saving lamps.
The same fluorescent, but adapted for use with cheap fittings for incandescent lamps. By default, the "launcher" for the lamp is in the electronics of the lamp itself. If you are lucky with the manufacturer and the quality of electronics - the warranty period will last. If not, the lighting of the aquarium with energy-saving lamps will cease to function precisely because of breakdowns in cheap electronics.
- Spectrum lighting aquarium. Regarding the spectrum, manufacturers are forced to install control electronics in each light bulb, so they are trying to save on something else. Most often - on the phosphor.
Its quality is verified simply - on the site of a solid manufacturer the spectrum is ALWAYS present. If it's not there, a regular CD comes to the rescue.
To determine the spectrum of lighting aquarium, just look at the "rainbow" of the light of the lamp being tested, reflected from the disk. If the "rainbow" of individual colors, the phosphor is cheap and in order to make the lighting of the aquarium is not suitable. If the "rainbow" is continuous, then you (and home water) are lucky!
- Ease of use - like incandescent bulbs. Do not touch the flask with your fingers! But with cheapness (the ratio: lighting for an aquarium is a price), things are not going smoothly, especially since lamps with poor spectrum are often offered for substantial money (remember the trick with the rainbow reflected from the CD?)
- Accessibility is great! Thanks to the accessories from incandescent bulbs and aggressive advertising of "economical" lamps.
- In terms of electricity consumption, aquarium lighting with energy-saving lamps is 2–3 times more economical and more profitable than incandescent lamps. But the service life - not always. It is better to prefer expensive products of well-known manufacturers with a guarantee.
How to calculate the lighting for the aquarium? The power of fluorescent lamps for the aquarium is also calculated "from liters".
One liter of water is preferably about half a watt of lamp power. That is, an aquarium of one hundred liters will need fifty watts of fluorescent lighting (or a set of two or three energy-saving lamps of the same total power).
Lighting aquarium fluorescent lamps.
Today, aquarium fluorescent lighting is the unofficial standard for home oceans. In any case, the vast majority of purchased aquariums are sold with luminous lighting.
Such aquarium lighting uses an electrical discharge in a flask filled with mercury vapor. As a result, the aquarium is illuminated with ultraviolet light, affecting a layer of a special phosphor substance. Here it is, depending on the composition, and emits a "day" light with a small admixture of ultraviolet radiation. And if you use a special quartz glass for the bulb of a fluorescent lamp - you’ll get a tanning lamp
- On the market there are two types of "day" lamps - the so-called "cold" and "warm." Products marked D (LD, LDC, etc.) are poorly suited for lighting the aquarium, as they have almost no red color in the spectrum. They are more used in production "state" premises. But the lamps with marking B (LB, LTP, etc.) are similar to daylight in the spectrum and are well suited for aquarium lighting, both for fish and for aquarium lighting for plants.
- High-quality fluorescent lamps are more expensive than incandescent lamps - both the accessories and the lamps themselves. It is better not to be greedy and buy lighting aquarium with a reliable launcher. The fact is that in trying to conquer the market, manufacturers have developed low-cost lighting fixtures for aquarium lighting, in which cheap lamps with built-in launchers are used. But miracles do not happen and you have to pay twice for "saving" - such lamps do not last long, and, first of all, just the electronics, made of cheap components, deteriorate. So soon the repair of the aquarium lighting will be provided.
- The choice is big - both cheap and expensive solutions.
- Fluorescent lamps are almost not heated - they recycle most of the electrical energy into light and ultraviolet.
Such aquarium lighting is on average 2-3 times more economical than incandescent bulbs.
Aquarium lighting with halogen lamps.
An improved version of the incandescent lamp. Iodine or bromine is added to the flask, which allows you to raise the temperature of the filament and prolongs the life of the lamp:
- The spectrum of lamps is also shifted to the red area, although it is smaller than that of ordinary incandescent lamps. These lights adore photographers for almost perfect color reproduction. This aquarium light radiates more ultraviolet light.
- Halogen lamps are somewhat more expensive than their predecessors. Ease of use - at the level of incandescent bulbs.
- Accessibility for aquarium lighting is ideal.
- Halogen lamps “recycle” more energy into the light, but they still differ in their overly “hot” temper and are not perfect as lights for aquarium lighting.
Aquarium lighting with incandescent bulbs.
The oldest source of electric lighting. Let us analyze this type of lighting in more detail:
- The spectrum of incandescent bulbs is shifted to the red area. That is why such aquarium lighting is especially advantageous for red fish. But the inhabitants of the aquarium of other colors will look faded and distorted. Не лучший вариант для аквариумных растений - ультрафиолета в спектре лампы накаливания немного. Освещение аквариума для растений такими лампами не очень подходит.
- С простотой использования всё понятно - старейший вид электрического освещения давным-давно в избытке оброс кучей "прибамбасов" на все случаи жизни, доступных в любом специализированном магазине. С простотой использования тоже всё замечательно. Although to illuminate the aquarium, the option is more complicated than the banal "on-off". For example, the dimmer and turn-on delay mode dramatically increases lamp life and allows you to smoothly adjust the illumination.
- Accessibility is perfect.
- Efficiency is the worst possible. Most of the energy goes into heat, which is not always useful for aquarium dwellers and decently "shakes" the counter.
Proper Aquarium Lighting
As soon as lovers imbued with the beauty of tropical fish. hedgehogs. starfish and live corals. then the first problem that they have to solve is the problem of correct lighting. After all, the light is needed and fish, and the inhabitants of the reefs. And for the latter, it is more important many times. In order to choose the right lighting for the aquarium, most often use fluorescent lamps in combination with actinic and metal halide lamps. But first things first.
The lighting in the aquarium has its own nuances. How much light is needed in a marine aquarium? This is influenced by many factors. The main ones are # 8212 reservoir volume, as well as its height. How are the dimensions of the reservoir and the power of the lamps?
How to choose the right lamps
How to make lighting aquarium with your own hands? Quite often, fluorescent lamps are used in domestic water bodies. To ensure the required spectrum, they are supplemented by metal halides, but the latter convert a considerable part of the light radiation into heat. Therefore, they significantly increase the temperature of the water and heat the lid of the aquarium (if it is or is the built-in part of the tank under the aquarium). For the inhabitants of the underwater world is not very good. Apply also actinics (blue lamps), separately adding the blue part of the spectrum. Usually, the calculation of the lighting of the aquarium is quite simple. Takes 1-1.5 W of power per liter of water, if the reflectors are good, or 2 W per liter, if they are weak. You should know: if the lighting is not enough, then plants and corals will slow down growth.
For example, brown scurf may appear on algae. consisting of microbacteria, and this leads to fish diseases and changes in water quality. Proper lighting will solve this problem if artificial and sunlight combines well.
What kind of lamp for the aquarium better
Metal halide luminaire with integrated blue lamps
Many sources point out that the best option is to use fluorescent lights. They shine well, quite economical. They are connected via an electronic ballast, as well as a special device - a choke.
Nowadays, most lovers prefer special fluorescent lamps in combination with metal halides. At the same time they are placed on the front wall of the reservoir.
In addition, special fluorescent aquarium lamps of different power with warm or daylight white light are also used. Installation is carried out complete with special reflectors. With properly tuned lighting, the fish will demonstrate the diversity of all their color, while corals will develop excellently.
Fluorescent lamps are economical, provide excellent lighting, last long enough. As a disadvantage, it can be noted that they need to be connected using a special device # 8212 of electronic ballast or choke.
The choice of lighting
Fluorescent lamps T5 do well with the lighting in the aquarium. In this case, special attention should be paid to their main indicators: color and power. Power can vary in the range of 8–56 W, but the length is 20–120 cm. It is important to know the following: 0.5 W of power should fall on 1 liter (at least) 1 cm in length - approximately 1 W of power corresponds.
In addition, aquarium lamps t5 have such important characteristics as brightness and color range. Properly chosen spectrum will allow corals to grow and develop properly. In general, there are 2 light absorption maxima. One is located from the red-orange, the other - from the violet-blue end of the spectrum. In this case, the first one and a half times more efficiently than the second.
Thus, it is clear that the blue spectrum should be expressed more. Based on the fact that photosynthesis does not affect fish in any way, they don't care what kind of light you choose.
From the manufacturers' point of view, lamps from such recognized names as Aqua Medic, Hailea, Reef Octopus, BLV are now on the market.
Spectrum and types of fixtures
metal halide lamps
As mentioned earlier, the spectrum is of paramount importance in lighting a marine aquarium. Usually used fluorescent and metal halide lamps of high power, having a light temperature of 10-20 thousand Kelvin. Unfortunately, they emit quite a lot of heat and do not fit well into small reservoirs without cooling equipment. Since the increased temperature is not very useful to the inhabitants of your underwater world, it is sometimes more rational to get fluorescent lighting. In addition, fluorescent light is much more similar to solar. With him, the fish will look more colorful.
The more they can be built into the cover of the aquarium # 8212 the better, because a lot of light does not happen. If you do not want to take metal-halide lamps, it will somewhat limit your choice of reef inhabitants, but for most animals lamps like T5 are quite suitable.
Spectrum of T5 fluorescent lamps
Note that the length of daylight hours of the sea should be 10-12 hours. It is also desirable to provide an 8-10 hour shading period. This is necessary so that many inhabitants of the sea eat only darkness, therefore they will simply remain hungry. The easiest way is to connect the lighting system to the timer, thereby ensuring the timely change of the time of day. Remember that luminaires with their control gear should not heat the water as much as possible.
In addition to the T5 series, T8 lamps are also available. What do these designations mean? T5 and T8 characterize the type of basement. The differences are in length and power standards. In this case, there are 2 types: economical (HE) and powerful (HO). The latter have a high brightness and small length. In aquariums it is often HO that are used, because they are compact and powerful. Another difference between t5 and t8 lamps is the temperature at which the luminous flux is attained.
The maximum luminous flux at T5 is obtained at a temperature of +35 Celsius, and +25 degrees. # 8212 at T8. It is also worth noting that the service time of the T5 is longer than that of the T8. It is 5 years with a loss of luminous flux of 20%. In T8, the light flux is halved in a year.
The general conclusion is that the LED lamps T5 are more durable, more powerful, they do not lose their luminous flux for a long time. T8 - thicker, cheaper and less heated.
Blue light in the aquarium
Pay special attention to the lighting of the reservoir at night when there is no natural sunlight. It is precisely to solve this issue and you can use blue fluorescent lamps, allowing you to create the necessary level of illumination with a specific spectrum. It is very important that the blue color in the spectrum penetrates deep enough into the water. Only invertebrates could adapt to limited coverage as a result of evolutionary selection. that inhabit the reefs.
Spectrum of blue lamps T5 aktinikov
Blue light is optimal, it does not affect the fluorescent dyes of these animals. Blue, blue and moonlight in the aquarium allow you to create blue fluorescent lamps, they are actinics. Blue and blue light can enhance the blue color of fish, corals and other invertebrates. Intense radiation in the blue region of the spectrum favorably affects photosynthesis, as well as invertebrate animals and deep-water corals.
Duration of daylight hours
In a pond where only fish live, they recommend a proportion of 3 watts of 4.5-liter lamps. If you have herbs, then the lighting can be enhanced. If you live tropical or subtropical fish, then it is worth making light day for 12 hours all year. For fish living far from the equator, it is necessary to lengthen the summer day, and to make the winter one shorter. To facilitate this procedure, purchase a timer that will turn your lights on and off.
Plants and corals with aquarium lighting
The intensity of lighting in the aquarium with corals depends on their species that you live. Therefore, it is very important to know the needs of plants for lighting up to the time when you decide to start them. There are many easy-to-care plants and animals that can live in an aquarium, even without artificial light. But there are also quite demanding corals, which require special lighting, because in order to grow successfully, they need intense fluorescent light. In general, often for solving such issues order professional maintenance of aquariums.
With species that grow near the surface of the water, and even in clean tropical waters, be especially careful. In addition, algae, releasing red leaves, very bright light will not like it.
For those lovers who hold corals, a powerful luminous flux is required, even not all fluorescent lights are able to cope with this. This task is successfully performed by metal halides.
There are also corals living in the middle depths. They do not need a bright light. Usually choose corals living near the surface of the water in the bright tropical sun, because they are colorful and picturesque. In addition, these corals live in symbiosis with green algae, carrying out the process of photosynthesis.
However, as a rule, in domestic water bodies there is almost always a lack of lighting compared to the natural environment, so amateurs try to ensure maximum light in order to get closer to the level of illumination of the ocean reef.
Night is the time of the natural activity of many animals. As a rule, nightly species of fish begin to hunt when darkness comes. For better observation of their life will require night lighting aquarium. To solve this problem it is recommended to use blue light lamps of weak power. They will illuminate the underwater inner world, perfectly imitating the natural light of the moon. Such a spectrum will allow your pets to create optimal hunting conditions. In addition, a blue lamp for an aquarium will provide an opportunity to stimulate reproduction in some fish that are having difficulty breeding in captivity.
Lighting aquarium led strip do it yourself.
Lighting an aquarium with LED tape is one of the most energy-saving and, importantly, safe ways to light an aquarium. Of all types of LED lighting for the aquarium, the best is the lighting of the aquarium with LED tape.
The advantages of such lighting:
- LED tape is energy efficient, aquarium lighting with LED tape is the most economical type of lighting.
- Such aquarium lighting is safe. The voltage of the power supply unit supplying the LED strip for the aquarium is 12 Volt, such voltage is safe not only for people but also for the flora and fauna of your aquarium.
- Adjusting the luminous flux. You can always add or remove the brightness of the lighting, so you can adjust any ice lighting for the aquarium.
- Can be used as additional lighting. An aquarium with plants often requires additional lighting of the aquarium. From the LED strip you get an excellent LED lighting aquarium with plants with your own hands, as the main and additional.
- Diode lighting aquarium in various colors. Although it is recommended to use white LED strips for lighting an aquarium, this does not negate the fact that there are different colors and types of LED strips in nature.
- Simplified installation. It is very easy to mount the LED tape on the aquarium due to the adhesive tape base.
- An opportunity to mount a LED tape as lighting of an aquarium under water, at the expense of tightness and a class of protection IP65.
To make lighting aquarium LED tape with your own hands, but you will need a power supply of 12 Volts, 5 meters of LED tape (1 reel) power consumption of the tape 9.5 Watts per meter.
Total about $ 50 cost our lighting for the aquarium, the price of one reel of tape, protection class IP65, is $ 25, power supply - $ 20. Our aquarium took 2.2 meters of light tape.
We isolated the place of cutting and connecting the LED strip to the power supply unit using a transparent sealant, and glued it to the aquarium lid so that there was no contact with water and the filtration system. As a result, we have an enviable aquarium with filter and lighting.
The rest of the tape stock we used to highlight the computer system unit
STONES FOR THE AQUARIUM TYPES DESCRIPTION PHOTO REGISTRATION DESIGN VIDEO.
ROUND AQUARIUM - DESIGNING CARE DESIGN PHOTO VIDEO.
WHAT IS AN AQUARIUM AND DOES IT WORTH TO FACT?
A SMALL AQUARIUM AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
How to make crystal clear water in an aquarium?
To make the water in the aquarium crystal clear, as in a public or store pond for fish, you must achieve a certain level of transparency in various ways. Very clean, almost blue water is a liquid without turbidity, dirt and harmful impurities. In such an environment, any decorative pet will feel safe, demonstrating health and beautiful appearance. New aquarium, or old - it does not matter, it is better to wash it thoroughly and clean the water. There are conditions, the maintenance of which will make the aquarium water crystal clear.
To get clear water, you need to clean the tank with table salt - it will neutralize bacteria, the glass walls will gain luster. After washing, rinse the container with tap water, using a hose.
Put in the aquarium a dark ground of a large size - it perfectly emphasizes the color of the fish, as opposed to light soil. Since poor-quality sand and stones can cause water pollution, the soil should be sorted out, removing organic impurities from it. Then rinse the sand until the water is clear. And the last step - boil it and rinse it again under running water. This applies to river sand, and not purchased in the store. Store sand is already cleared of pollution. It should be laid in a layer of 4-5 cm.
- Do not fertilize the soil with peat, clay, silt, chernozem and other fertilizers! It will pollute the pond.
How to plant plants correctly
For water transparency, it is desirable to plant simple-to-maintain plants that do not pollute the water space and take root in the new soil. Among them:
- Fern ceratopteris;
See how to plant aquarium plants.
Plants are recommended to plant bushes of the same variety - so they grow better. Vallisneria can not be planted next to other species. In order to avoid water turbidity, first plant the plants, and then add water to the tank. Seedlings should be placed in the recess, dropping the roots into the ground, and filling them with sand.
About the scenery
The purity of the decorations in the aquarium also affects the quality of the water. The rules that are best to follow when installing jewelry in a container:
- All decorations (grottoes, caverns, coconuts, snags, castles, labyrinths) should be treated from dirt and parasites in infused water (leave them for 3-4 days).
- If you decorate the bottom with stones, let them be red or black. However, the stones must be washed carefully, it is desirable to boil them. Calcium and magnesium in the stone which increase the hardness of the water spoil the parameters of the reservoir.
- Put the stones in the poured water so that they "got accustomed" there.
- Cover the aquarium - as long as the fish do not live in it, it will be saved from dust and insects, and a film of cyanobacteria will not form on it.
- After installing the decorations, run the fish in 2-3 days until the water in the aquarium settles, establishing biological balance.
Read more: Coconut in an aquarium - what you can do with your own hands.
See how to prepare a snag for an aquarium.
The secret of the purity of "residential" water
Many novice aquarists make a mistake when, after the first days of launching the reservoir, they begin to worry about the formation of mud and foam in it. It appeared bacteria that got into the aquatic environment from the air. Then the owners of the aquarium begin to change the water and do other procedures with it. It is better to wait 5-6 days, and the clouding will disappear. Otherwise, there really is something wrong with water.
Having been patient and waiting for 6 days, you will find clear and slightly yellowish water in the tank, which in professional circles is called “living”: infusoria and organic substances appeared in it, but there are almost no bacteria, neutralized ciliates.
Such water is a guarantee of health in an aquarium; it can be completely not changed for several years. If this water is renewed by more than half, bacteria will appear in it, causing turbidity.
Water Purifying Filters
Known so-called "live" and "inanimate" filters that help clean the water from pollution and bring it into a beautiful view. For aquariums install mechanical filters with a cassette and a sponge. However, once in the store where the fish are sold, you noticed that they swim in an ordinary tank, where there is no filter. Оказывается, поддерживать идеальную чистоту можно и без механических устройств, иногда их постоянное применение приносит вред. Если в аквариуме нет такого фильтра, значит, в нем есть биологический фильтр.
Биологический, то есть, живой фильтр - это растения, которые посажены в освещенном месте. В них хорошо развиваются инфузориии и микрочерви, питающиеся бактериями. Также заросли удерживают грязь и помутнения в аквариуме своими стеблями и листьями.
Excellent "filters" are bottom fish (catfish) and snails that eat carrion. Based on the observations, the cochlea is able to make the water absolutely clean in a matter of days. This is probably the most affordable "filter" for a tank of water. Just be careful - some species of fish and amphibians are not averse to eat it.
One more representatives of the underwater world who are able to clean the environment in an aquarium are clam clams. Pea and sharovka love warm water, and toothless and perlovitsa - cold. Unfortunately, like snails, these mollusks can be eaten, so before putting them into the tank for "cleaning", it is better to evict the rest of the pets from it. Also, the larvae of toothless and perlovitsy parasitize on fish. Most likely, after cleaning the reservoir, you will have to quarantine the aquarium.
Spur frog - vertebrate amphibian, which will bring the aquarium to transparency. She can constantly live in the nursery with small fish, in parallel helping the water to be updated. The frog always lives in the water, but if it brings in fry - and there are a lot of them, the aquarium "jungle" will not rest. Carefully monitor the parameters of the water in the aquarium: regularly update the water, plant the correct plants, settle the “orderlies” into it, then it will get a wonderful appearance and healthy balance.