How to run a marine aquarium at home
If you decide to acquire exotic sea fish, and create at home marine underwater reefs, you need to know where to start a marine aquarium. The higher the tank capacity, the more expensive all the necessary devices will cost. The optimum volume of the aquarium is 200-250 liters, in such a capacity it is easier to balance the aquatic ecosystem. You can also choose an 80-100 liter rectangular tank in which it will be easier to maintain lighting and other processes.
The first thing you should pay attention to when buying a water supply is that it must carry water with a high salt concentration. Before buying devices, think about what kind of pets you want to see in the home pond. Consider their size, lifestyle, norms of water parameters for living, and only then go shopping.
Lighting in the marine aquarium
From the exact organization of lighting depends on the correct life cycle of all living organisms. The power and spectral flux of light must be special for each type of plant and animal. The minimum allowable brightness for marine aquarium with soft corals - 0.5 watts per liter of water, with hard corals: 1 watt per liter. The marine aquarium needs good lighting, because zooxanthelles live along with corals, algae that need a bright light. In addition, rich light will give a brighter color to corals.
Animals of the Invertebrates group, who like shady places, should live in a shaded aquarium, which can be with a large number of arches or stones. The light spectrum is also affected by the light spectrum (light temperature). Soft corals need white and bright light, and deep-sea corals like low-power spectra. If you light the aquarium with two white and two blue lamps, they will create comfort for all types of coral.
How to start lighting the tank with sea (salt) water? Lamps with the highest power - from metal and halogen with a power of 150-500 watts. They are suitable for aquariums with high walls, because light can penetrate deeply to the bottom, not scattering around its perimeter. Some varieties of lighting devices have a regulator function of night lighting, creating an imitation of moonlight, which is important for the reproduction of plankton.
In addition to metal halide bulbs, T5 lamps for daylight can be used in an aquarium. They are characterized by compactness and high power. With their help, you can make a night light with blue LED bulbs. One more plus of such bulbs - they imitate a dawn and a sunset during switching on and off.
Nowadays, LED lighting products that are used for a long time, consuming little power, are popular. Some of these lamps can control the light temperature, reproducing the cycle of a sunny day. The number of daylight hours in a marine aquarium is 10-12 hours.
How does salt water filter and update?
The saltwater aquarium should be distinguished by crystal clear water, with the lowest nitrate concentration. Special equipment can provide cleanliness in a closed pond. The first is a samp, which is a reservoir of organic glass, which is divided by partitions into cells (compartments), where different types of aquarium mechanisms are installed.
Watch a video on what a samp is, how it works and works.
Samp communicates directly with the tank and is installed in an aquarium cabinet, which can be constructed independently, or purchased in a store. The mechanism works according to a closed loop scheme: water from the sump flows into the tank, after pumping from the return pump. When it is collected in the right quantity, the water enters the overflow tank, and itself goes back to the sump. A skimmer is placed in the sump - a device that purifies water from organic matter when it has not yet broken up. Small particles of dirt quickly accumulate in the bubbles from the skimmer and concentrate in the prepared cell from which they are removed.
In addition to the sump, the marine aquarium should have a biological filter, which is placed in a separate cell (compartment) of the sump. As a biofilter can be used porous material of natural origin or coral chips. The rate of flow of water through the filter is also important.
Refugium, or algal fish - with the help of algae it is possible to purify water from nitrates, plankton, which is necessary for the food of some fish, can multiply in an algal fish. To make an algae, you need to make a 70–100-watt lamp over one cell of a sump with running water. At the bottom of this compartment you need to put hetamorph algae, which multiply quickly in good light. However, with rapid reproduction, they can take a lot of trace elements from the water, which is detrimental to corals.
Return pump and automatic refill
The return pump must be installed in a special compartment sump that regulates the amount of water. A volumetric compartment is assumed here, because during an emergency power outage, it would be able to pump all the water into it, which can be drained from the reservoir. You need to know about the power of the return pump - it must pump in the event of an emergency tank volume, multiplied by 10, and in just 1 hour. During this time, all undecomposed organic matter will be removed from the water in time.
See how to properly salt the water for the marine aquarium.
Marine aquarium is characterized by rapid evaporation of water. To resume its volume in a short time, the system of automatic topping up (autodivision) is used. It consists of a pump, which is installed in a separate compartment of the sump as indicated in the instructions. In addition to it, in a salt water aquarium there should be special compartments that are made with your own hands, or purchased. In the sump, you can install a water heater that regulates the temperature of the water. All sea home ponds are mini-areas of the warm, "tropical" sea.
Starting a marine aquarium is quite simple:
- Type in the tank 75% of its capacity, infused water;
- Add sea salt of company origin;
- Start the pump and the water heater, wait for the salt to dissolve in the water;
- Adjust the salinity of the water to 30-35 ppm using a refractometer;
- Measure the temperature of the water (allowable temperature - 25 ° C);
- Line the bottom with washed sand at a level of 2 cm. Install treated decorations;
- 24 hours after infusion of water, you can put live stones. Within 7 days the aquatic environment will be formed;
- First, mollusks and arthropods are launched into the tank. After seven days - unpretentious fish. Corals - even after 2 weeks. The biological balance in the marine aquarium will be established in three months.
Clay for aquarium
Aquarium plants need regular fertilizer, like any type of terrestrial flora. Clay in the aquarium is a universal dressing, distinguished by its availability and ease of use. A real storehouse of beneficial microminerals, it will be an excellent feed for plants in the water.
Experienced aquarists combine different types of fertilizers, taking into account the peculiarities of aquatic inhabitants, the main uses and other nuances. There are two types of makeup:
- Solid fertilizer. Tablets, pellets, granules are injected into the soil through which they gradually leak, feeding the entire plant base;
- Feed in liquid form is introduced into the water and absorbed by the leaves of plants. It is convenient to adjust the concentration of nutrients, simply replacing the water fraction.
What clay is used most often
Branded products for the maintenance of aquariums are replacing traditional clay, but there are enthusiasts who create balls from different grades of clay on their own. There are several types of natural minerals:
The mineral composition depends on the color of the mineral. In blue and green clay, the largest number of minerals and mineral components. It is an excellent absorbent, possess antiseptic properties. Blue clay is combined with sand, biopregnation and other fractions.
Laterite is an exotic analogue of domestic fossil.
For aquariums are increasingly using an interesting analogue of the domestic fossil - laterite (duplarit). This is a red soil, taken from the tropics. It is rich in iron oxide. Used to form the bottom layer of the dirt base in the aquarium.
Methods of using clay dressing
The simplest method of applying recharge: form balls of fossil and place in the ground. It is advisable to form small roundels that do not provoke an overabundance of minerals in the aquarium water. They can be placed in a special grotto in the aquarium.
Another option: on the bank of the river, they are looking for a place where pure clay goes, and extract several fragments. In the home aquarium under the ground gently enclose a piece of river fossil.
The stores sell blanks that can be used immediately. Different types of clay (in pure form or with impurities) have the optimum amount of essential trace elements. They can also be placed in the grotto.
A small amount of clay impurities can be mixed directly into the soil (no more than 10 - 15% of the total mass). Often fertilizer is injected in the form of powder in the upper layers of soil conglomerates.
Competent selection of fertilizers: the main criteria
What type of clay for the aquarium to choose, how often to feed into the soil, in what quantity and type, each owner of the artificial water area decides on its own. When choosing a fertilizer, consider:
- The number of plants in the water, their age, size;
- The level of carbon dioxide and the degree of illumination of the reservoir (the more gas, the more fertilizer is required);
- Temperature indicators of water.
When to make clay fertilizers
It is better to fertilize the soil in the aquarium immediately after changing the water. If ordinary tap water is used for the water area, it is better to use fertilizer balls after a couple of hours when the harmful gases evaporate.
It should be remembered that a number of conditioners used for aquariums, have a specific property to bind some trace elements. If there are sick fish in the pond, it is better to remove them for a while. The advice is especially relevant if, in addition to clay, other types of impurities are used. Natural minerals will not harm the inhabitants of the artificial water area, but the “store” supplements may behave unexpectedly.
If the plants become slower to grow and look worse (the leaves turn white, turn yellow or die at all), this indicates problems with photosynthesis associated with a lack of iron. An overabundance of this mineral will provoke an excessively violent growth of flora, the "flowering" of water. Potassium can neutralize the action of iron.
Clay in the aquarium will help to normalize the mineral indicators, to stabilize growth, without causing harm to the inhabitants of the piece of water. To feed from any type of clay were even more effective, you should adhere to the following rules:
- Since hard water interferes with the normal uptake of beneficial components by plants, it must be regularly softened. To do this, it is enough to add a little distilled, rainwater or water obtained by reverse osmosis;
- Control over the pH of water (the norm is 6 - 6.5). Acidic soft water can be using carbon dioxide;
- It is worth forgetting about phosphoric acid, as an element for acidification. This mineral has one unpleasant property - it blocks the properties of plants to absorb other trace elements and minerals;
- It is important to always take care of the oxygen balance in the tank;
- It is recommended to use fertilizers that do not contain much aluminum in combination with peat impurities that adversely affect pH values.
DIY Aquarium Lighting - video description
DIY LED Aquarium Lighting
The first way is to make your own illumination of the aquarium with LEDs - the simplest one, where you can additionally equip a lighting cap with special fit lamps. For this purpose, a white LED strip is attached around the perimeter. This will give the optimum spectrum and the most uniform illumination along the upper perimeter of the aquarium. A plastic-filled LED tape based on self-bonding is used, where the protective layer is removed and fastened around the perimeter of the box.
This light is widely used for decorative purposes, but it cannot be an independent source of aquarium lighting. Insulation at the junction of the tape and cord is made of special transparent silicone used for aquariums. It will reliably protect the power cord from water. The output wires are marked in red, this is a plus, and the minus is a black or blue wire. If the polarity is not observed, the LEDs will not work.
The second way is to collect a full-fledged LED lighting aquarium sufficient power without generators and sophisticated equipment. At 200-300 liters, a power of 120 watts is sufficient for an aquarium richly planted with plants. This adds a total of 40 dot LEDs for 270 lumens, 3 watts each. As a result, 10,800 lumens of illumination will be released, which will give a very bright illumination for a given volume. It is important to monitor the balance of the entire ecosystem, and with an excess of light and the development of green microorganisms, it is necessary to reduce the overall intensity.
The cost of such a design can vary greatly, since in Chinese online stores, for example, even more reputable companies can find LEDs and power supplies of the same quality. At the same time prices may vary at times.
For self-installation of the backlight will need:
- LED lamp kit
- 2-2,5 meters of a plastic trench 100 mm wide,
- 12 volt power supply, can be from a computer,
- soft wire 1.5 mm,
- preferably 6 computer coolers at 12 volts,
- 40 connector slots for LEDs
- 48 mm hole cutter.
The length of the aquarium will cut 2 pieces of the gutter, in the bottom of which we drill holes, about 20 pieces per meter, placing them in a checkerboard pattern. LED lamps are inserted into the holes and fasten.
All lamps must be connected to the power supply in parallel to the 12 volt power supply. For proper connection, it is better to contact an electrician, since the connection scheme may seem difficult for people who are not experts in the field of connecting lamps to the connectors. Computer coolers or fans should be installed when large vapors or lids are heated for lighting.
For decorative purposes, sometimes they make additional night lights, such as moonlight. To do this, connect a little blue LED strip, which can be installed behind the rear wall, but so that it was below the bottom of the aquarium. The electric timer can turn it on when the daylight turns off.
Advantages and disadvantages of various aquarium lighting options
Determine what types of aquarium lighting exist about their features:
- Backlight aquarium using incandescent bulbs has already become yesterday. They are very warm, disturbing the heat balance, and shine a little.
- Illumination with the use of fluorescent lamps solves the problem of light intensity, but the required spectrum of illumination does not fully provide.
- Aquarium lighting with the use of modern fitolamp fully provides both the intensity and the required range of lighting. However, such lighting is very expensive and not everyone can afford it.
- LED lighting aquarium - a modern way to supply light, which is most close to natural light.
Advantages of aquarium lighting with LEDs
Aquarium lighting with LEDs is a relatively new offer. LEDs have important characteristics that today make them leaders among lighting fixtures. The use of such lamps has a large number of advantages.
- They are very easy to install, due to the fact that the cartridges fit almost all types of socles.
- LED lamps are not afraid of water, therefore, the likelihood of a short circuit is excluded. However, even in conditions of high humidity, these lighting devices function without interruption.
- LED lamps designed to illuminate the aquarium, fireproof.
- Such lamps do not generate heat during operation, which makes it possible to keep the overall temperature of the aquarium comfortable, even if the lamps work throughout the day.
- Depending on the length of the day, the presence of natural light, you can change the brightness of the aquarium lighting. In addition, it is possible to make a night lighting of the aquarium and observe the life of the fish, admiring amazing underwater pictures.
Important! The average time of one lamp is five years. Consequently, all this time there will be no need to make replacement parts and do not have to disturb the inhabitants of the aquarium. Кроме того, нужно сказать и об экономии энергии (примерно на 70%). По этим причинам большинство владельцев аквариумов предпочитают осуществлять их освещение с помощью светодиодных ламп. Такие же качества имеют специальные светодиодные ленты.
Безопасность и долговечность
Так как светодиодными лампами не выделяются ультрафиолетовые и инфракрасные излучения, они совершенно безопасны для абсолютно всех обитателей аквариума. Напротив, освещение аквариума светодиодами на окраску и здоровье рыб влияет благоприятно. In addition, due to the spectral composition of the rays, they contribute to the development of aquarium plants. To the aquarium was lit as best as possible, you can combine different types of LED lamps. They can be installed in any conditions and in any premises.
Lighting aquarium energy-saving lamps.
The same fluorescent, but adapted for use with cheap fittings for incandescent lamps. By default, the "launcher" for the lamp is in the electronics of the lamp itself. If you are lucky with the manufacturer and the quality of electronics - the warranty period will last. If not, the lighting of the aquarium with energy-saving lamps will cease to function precisely because of breakdowns in cheap electronics.
- Spectrum lighting aquarium. Regarding the spectrum, manufacturers are forced to install control electronics in each light bulb, so they are trying to save on something else. Most often - on the phosphor.
Its quality is verified simply - on the site of a solid manufacturer the spectrum is ALWAYS present. If it's not there, a regular CD comes to the rescue.
To determine the spectrum of lighting aquarium, just look at the "rainbow" of the light of the lamp being tested, reflected from the disk. If the "rainbow" of individual colors, the phosphor is cheap and in order to make the lighting of the aquarium is not suitable. If the "rainbow" is continuous, then you (and home water) are lucky!
- Ease of use - like incandescent bulbs. Do not touch the flask with your fingers! But with cheapness (the ratio: lighting for an aquarium is a price), things are not going smoothly, especially since lamps with poor spectrum are often offered for substantial money (remember the trick with the rainbow reflected from the CD?)
- Accessibility is great! Thanks to the accessories from incandescent bulbs and aggressive advertising of "economical" lamps.
- In terms of electricity consumption, aquarium lighting with energy-saving lamps is 2–3 times more economical and more profitable than incandescent lamps. But the service life - not always. It is better to prefer expensive products of well-known manufacturers with a guarantee.
How to calculate the lighting for the aquarium? The power of fluorescent lamps for the aquarium is also calculated "from liters".
One liter of water is preferably about half a watt of lamp power. That is, an aquarium of one hundred liters will need fifty watts of fluorescent lighting (or a set of two or three energy-saving lamps of the same total power).
Lighting aquarium fluorescent lamps.
Today, aquarium fluorescent lighting is the unofficial standard for home oceans. In any case, the vast majority of purchased aquariums are sold with luminous lighting.
Such aquarium lighting uses an electrical discharge in a flask filled with mercury vapor. As a result, the aquarium is illuminated with ultraviolet light, affecting a layer of a special phosphor substance. Here it is, depending on the composition, and emits a "day" light with a small admixture of ultraviolet radiation. And if you use a special quartz glass for the bulb of a fluorescent lamp - you’ll get a tanning lamp
- On the market there are two types of "day" lamps - the so-called "cold" and "warm." Products marked D (LD, LDC, etc.) are poorly suited for lighting the aquarium, as they have almost no red color in the spectrum. They are more used in production "state" premises. But the lamps with marking B (LB, LTP, etc.) are similar to daylight in the spectrum and are well suited for aquarium lighting, both for fish and for aquarium lighting for plants.
- High-quality fluorescent lamps are more expensive than incandescent lamps - both the accessories and the lamps themselves. It is better not to be greedy and buy lighting aquarium with a reliable launcher. The fact is that in trying to conquer the market, manufacturers have developed low-cost lighting fixtures for aquarium lighting, in which cheap lamps with built-in launchers are used. But miracles do not happen and you have to pay twice for "saving" - such lamps do not last long, and, first of all, just the electronics, made of cheap components, deteriorate. So soon the repair of the aquarium lighting will be provided.
- The choice is big - both cheap and expensive solutions.
- Fluorescent lamps are almost not heated - they recycle most of the electrical energy into light and ultraviolet.
Such aquarium lighting is on average 2-3 times more economical than incandescent bulbs.
Aquarium lighting with halogen lamps.
An improved version of the incandescent lamp. Iodine or bromine is added to the flask, which allows you to raise the temperature of the filament and prolongs the life of the lamp:
- The spectrum of lamps is also shifted to the red area, although it is smaller than that of ordinary incandescent lamps. These lights adore photographers for almost perfect color reproduction. This aquarium light radiates more ultraviolet light.
- Halogen lamps are somewhat more expensive than their predecessors. Ease of use - at the level of incandescent bulbs.
- Accessibility for aquarium lighting is ideal.
- Halogen lamps “recycle” more energy into the light, but they still differ in their overly “hot” temper and are not perfect as lights for aquarium lighting.
Aquarium lighting with incandescent bulbs.
The oldest source of electric lighting. Let us analyze this type of lighting in more detail:
- The spectrum of incandescent bulbs is shifted to the red area. That is why such aquarium lighting is especially advantageous for red fish. But the inhabitants of the aquarium of other colors will look faded and distorted. Not the best option for aquarium plants - ultraviolet in the spectrum of the incandescent lamp a bit. Lighting aquarium for plants with such lamps is not very suitable.
- With ease of use, everything is clear - the oldest type of electric lighting long ago was overgrown with a bunch of "bells and whistles" for all occasions that are available in any specialized store. Everything is great with ease of use. Although to illuminate the aquarium, the option is more complicated than the banal "on-off". For example, the dimmer and turn-on delay mode dramatically increases lamp life and allows you to smoothly adjust the illumination.
- Accessibility is perfect.
- Efficiency is the worst possible. Most of the energy goes into heat, which is not always useful for aquarium dwellers and decently "shakes" the counter.
Proper Aquarium Lighting
As soon as lovers imbued with the beauty of tropical fish. hedgehogs. starfish and live corals. then the first problem that they have to solve is the problem of correct lighting. After all, the light is needed and fish, and the inhabitants of the reefs. And for the latter, it is more important many times. In order to choose the right lighting for the aquarium, most often use fluorescent lamps in combination with actinic and metal halide lamps. But first things first.
The lighting in the aquarium has its own nuances. How much light is needed in a marine aquarium? This is influenced by many factors. The main ones are # 8212 reservoir volume, as well as its height. How are the dimensions of the reservoir and the power of the lamps?
How to choose the right lamps
How to make lighting aquarium with your own hands? Quite often, fluorescent lamps are used in domestic water bodies. To ensure the required spectrum, they are supplemented by metal halides, but the latter convert a considerable part of the light radiation into heat. Therefore, they significantly increase the temperature of the water and heat the lid of the aquarium (if it is or is the built-in part of the tank under the aquarium). For the inhabitants of the underwater world is not very good. Apply also actinics (blue lamps), separately adding the blue part of the spectrum. Usually, the calculation of the lighting of the aquarium is quite simple. Takes 1-1.5 W of power per liter of water, if the reflectors are good, or 2 W per liter, if they are weak. You should know: if the lighting is not enough, then plants and corals will slow down growth.
For example, brown scurf may appear on algae. consisting of microbacteria, and this leads to fish diseases and changes in water quality. Proper lighting will solve this problem if artificial and sunlight combines well.
What kind of lamp for the aquarium better
Metal halide luminaire with integrated blue lamps
Many sources point out that the best option is to use fluorescent lights. They shine well, quite economical. They are connected via an electronic ballast, as well as a special device - a choke.
Nowadays, most lovers prefer special fluorescent lamps in combination with metal halides. At the same time they are placed on the front wall of the reservoir.
In addition, special fluorescent aquarium lamps of different power with warm or daylight white light are also used. Installation is carried out complete with special reflectors. With properly tuned lighting, the fish will demonstrate the diversity of all their color, while corals will develop excellently.
Fluorescent lamps are economical, provide excellent lighting, last long enough. As a disadvantage, it can be noted that they need to be connected using a special device # 8212 of electronic ballast or choke.
The choice of lighting
Fluorescent lamps T5 do well with the lighting in the aquarium. In this case, special attention should be paid to their main indicators: color and power. Power can vary in the range of 8–56 W, but the length is 20–120 cm. It is important to know the following: 0.5 W of power should fall by 1 liter (at least) 1 cm in length - corresponds to approximately 1 W of power.
In addition, aquarium lamps t5 have such important characteristics as brightness and color range. Properly chosen spectrum will allow corals to grow and develop properly. In general, there are 2 light absorption maxima. One is located from the red-orange, the other - from the violet-blue end of the spectrum. In this case, the first one and a half times more efficiently than the second.
Thus, it is clear that the blue spectrum should be expressed more. Based on the fact that photosynthesis does not affect fish in any way, they don't care what kind of light you choose.
From the manufacturers' point of view, lamps from such recognized names as Aqua Medic, Hailea, Reef Octopus, BLV are now on the market.
Spectrum and types of fixtures
metal halide lamps
As mentioned earlier, the spectrum is of paramount importance in lighting a marine aquarium. Usually used fluorescent and metal halide lamps of high power, having a light temperature of 10-20 thousand Kelvin. Unfortunately, they emit quite a lot of heat and do not fit well into small reservoirs without cooling equipment. Since the increased temperature is not very useful to the inhabitants of your underwater world, it is sometimes more rational to get fluorescent lighting. In addition, fluorescent light is much more similar to solar. With him, the fish will look more colorful.
The more they can be built into the cover of the aquarium # 8212 the better, because a lot of light does not happen. If you do not want to take metal-halide lamps, it will somewhat limit your choice of reef inhabitants, but for most animals lamps like T5 are quite suitable.
Spectrum of T5 fluorescent lamps
Note that the length of daylight hours of the sea should be 10-12 hours. It is also desirable to provide an 8-10 hour shading period. This is necessary so that many inhabitants of the sea eat only darkness, therefore they will simply remain hungry. The easiest way is to connect the lighting system to the timer, thereby ensuring the timely change of the time of day. Remember that luminaires with their control gear should not heat the water as much as possible.
In addition to the T5 series, T8 lamps are also available. What do these designations mean? T5 and T8 characterize the type of basement. The differences are in length and power standards. In this case, there are 2 types: economical (HE) and powerful (HO). The latter have a high brightness and small length. In aquariums it is often HO that are used, because they are compact and powerful. Another difference between t5 and t8 lamps is the temperature at which the luminous flux is attained.
The maximum luminous flux at T5 is obtained at a temperature of +35 Celsius, and +25 degrees. # 8212 at T8. It is also worth noting that the service time of the T5 is longer than that of the T8. It is 5 years with a loss of luminous flux of 20%. In T8, the light flux is halved in a year.
The general conclusion is that the LED lamps T5 are more durable, more powerful, they do not lose their luminous flux for a long time. T8 - thicker, cheaper and less heated.
Blue light in the aquarium
Pay special attention to the lighting of the reservoir at night when there is no natural sunlight. It is precisely to solve this issue and you can use blue fluorescent lamps, allowing you to create the necessary level of illumination with a specific spectrum. It is very important that the blue color in the spectrum penetrates deep enough into the water. Only invertebrates could adapt to limited coverage as a result of evolutionary selection. that inhabit the reefs.
Spectrum of blue lamps T5 aktinikov
Blue light is optimal, it does not affect the fluorescent dyes of these animals. Blue, blue and moonlight in the aquarium allow you to create blue fluorescent lamps, they are actinics. Blue and blue light can enhance the blue color of fish, corals and other invertebrates. Intense radiation in the blue region of the spectrum favorably affects photosynthesis, as well as invertebrate animals and deep-water corals.
Duration of daylight hours
In a pond where only fish live, they recommend a proportion of 3 watts of 4.5-liter lamps. If you have herbs, then the lighting can be enhanced. If you live tropical or subtropical fish, then it is worth making light day for 12 hours all year. For fish living far from the equator, it is necessary to lengthen the summer day, and to make the winter one shorter. To facilitate this procedure, purchase a timer that will turn your lights on and off.
Plants and corals with aquarium lighting
The intensity of lighting in the aquarium with corals depends on their species that you live. Therefore, it is very important to know the needs of plants for lighting up to the time when you decide to start them. There are many easy-to-care plants and animals that can live in an aquarium, even without artificial light. But there are also quite demanding corals, which require special lighting, because in order to grow successfully, they need intense fluorescent light. In general, often for solving such issues order professional maintenance of aquariums.
With species that grow near the surface of the water, and even in clean tropical waters, be especially careful. In addition, algae, releasing red leaves, very bright light will not like it.
For those lovers who hold corals, a powerful luminous flux is required, even not all fluorescent lights are able to cope with this. This task is successfully performed by metal halides.
There are also corals living in the middle depths. They do not need a bright light. Usually choose corals living near the surface of the water in the bright tropical sun, because they are colorful and picturesque. In addition, these corals live in symbiosis with green algae, carrying out the process of photosynthesis.
However, as a rule, in domestic water bodies there is almost always a lack of lighting compared to the natural environment, so amateurs try to ensure maximum light in order to get closer to the light level of the ocean reef.
Night is the time of the natural activity of many animals. As a rule, nightly species of fish begin to hunt when darkness comes. For better observation of their life will require night lighting aquarium. To solve this problem it is recommended to use blue light lamps of weak power. They will illuminate the underwater inner world, perfectly imitating the natural light of the moon. Such a spectrum will allow your pets to create optimal hunting conditions. In addition, a blue lamp for an aquarium will provide an opportunity to stimulate reproduction in some fish that are having difficulty breeding in captivity.
Lighting aquarium DIY led tape.
Lighting an aquarium with LED tape is one of the most energy-saving and, importantly, safe ways to light an aquarium. Of all types of LED lighting for the aquarium, the best is the lighting of the aquarium with LED tape.
The advantages of such lighting:
- LED tape is energy efficient, aquarium lighting with LED tape is the most economical type of lighting.
- Such aquarium lighting is safe. The voltage of the power supply unit supplying the LED strip for the aquarium is 12 Volt, such voltage is safe not only for people but also for the flora and fauna of your aquarium.
- Adjusting the luminous flux. You can always add or remove the brightness of the lighting, so you can adjust any ice lighting for the aquarium.
- Can be used as additional lighting. An aquarium with plants often requires additional lighting of the aquarium. From the LED strip you get an excellent LED lighting aquarium with plants with your own hands, as the main and additional.
- Diode lighting aquarium in various colors. Although it is recommended to use white LED strips for lighting an aquarium, this does not negate the fact that there are different colors and types of LED strips in nature.
- Simplified installation. It is very easy to mount the LED tape on the aquarium due to the adhesive tape base.
- An opportunity to mount a LED tape as lighting of an aquarium under water, at the expense of tightness and a class of protection IP65.
To make lighting aquarium LED tape with your own hands, but you will need a power supply of 12 Volts, 5 meters of LED tape (1 reel) power consumption of the tape 9.5 Watts per meter.
Total about $ 50 cost our lighting for the aquarium, the price of one reel of tape, protection class IP65, is $ 25, power supply - $ 20. Our aquarium took 2.2 meters of light tape.
We isolated the place of cutting and connecting the LED strip to the power supply unit using a transparent sealant, and glued it to the aquarium lid so that there was no contact with water and the filtration system. As a result, we have an enviable aquarium with filter and lighting.
The rest of the tape stock we used to highlight the computer system unit
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A SMALL AQUARIUM AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
Why does the water in the aquarium smell like a swamp?
With the help of an aquarium your home will be filled with beauty, comfort and warmth of exotic reservoirs. Aquarium is a great place to observe beautiful fish and calm meditation. However, a damaged tank can ruin both your mood and the health of its inhabitants. Sometimes the water goes out and it stinks like a swamp. Muddy water spoils the impression, and makes the nursery unfit for further use. The problem requires an immediate solution, which involves finding out the cause and its immediate elimination.
If the water in the aquarium began to spawn - the reasons
The main reasons why the water from the aquarium smells unpleasant, are indicated below:
- Irregular cleaning of the tank or poor cleaning (filtration);
- Improper aeration, due to which the water is not saturated with sufficient oxygen;
- Unsuitable aquarium plants;
- Nursery overpopulation - little water is allocated to one adult animal;
- Overfeeding fish, reptiles or amphibians;
- Feeding pets low-quality food;
- The sudden death of the inhabitants of the reservoir, the body goes dead and decomposes;
- The appearance of sludge in the soil and water.
Muddy water that smells like a swamp - what to do?
If the aquarium fluid has become rotten, which has strongly started to smell, and even smells like a swamp, it is possible to establish the causes of the imbalance of the aquatic environment through practice and observation. In the course of the research, it will be possible to determine the method by which turbid water, which goes dead and smells unpleasant, will be neutralized. To solve the problem should be phased actions.
- Decide whether you chose the right fish food. To do this, change the water, buy another, better food and test it in a few days. After a day, a turbid liquid that smells like a swamp has disappeared and is clean, odorless, which means the cause of the problem was unsuitable food. In the case where the action did not lead to a result, other reasons should be sought.
- It so happens that you feed the fish and other animals with high-quality feed, but the aquatic environment is still muddy and "gives" the swamp. Probably, you overfeed the inhabitants of the nursery, and they do not have time to eat all the granules. Not all fish eat a lot, so arrange unloading diets for them and add less feed to the water. After a few days, smell the tank - if the unpleasant smell has disappeared. If yes, then you have found the reason. The uneaten food is mixed with the soil, decomposing.
Watch a video on how to feed the fish properly.
- If you are a beginner aquarist and for the first time launched an aquarium, due to lack of experience you could create the wrong neighborhood in the nursery. It turns out that not all types of fish, snails, amphibians and reptiles get along together. Some will disturb others, and because of close space, someone will fall ill and die, quietly sinking to the bottom. Due to severe stress, insufficient shelters and swimming places, the inhabitants of the reservoir excrete feces with a characteristic aroma. After a day or two, muddy water will appear with a stench. What to do - get a spacious tank, pour water into it with suitable parameters, and populate compatible pets there. Or buy two aquariums at once, if many species are incompatible within the same space. Also carefully inspect the bottom - maybe one of the fish died, and the body is still not removed.
- Wrong decorations can "decorate" the aquarium with an unpleasant smell. This is not a perfume, but a living growth, it has its own life. In this case, contact a specialist (a seller in a store or a botanist), and ask whether the purchased plant is able to secrete flavored vapors. Specify the size of the tank capacity, type of soil and water parameters. Replant the plant in the right environment - it may need a larger or smaller aquarium.
- When the fish behave excessively actively, they try to lie to the bottom - the reason for the incorrect supply of oxygen, impaired work of aeration. To fix the equipment, you must:
- install a compressor with high power;
- replace the filter with a new one, with a forced circulation system;
- Ask a specialist how to adjust the oxygen supply to an acceptable level.
See how to replace the water and clean the soil in the aquarium.
In the aquarium, the liquid is rotting and the marsh stinks - how to clean the water?
Did you find out why the aquarium stinks, but you are not exactly sure what to do? Proper cleaning of the fish nursery is your main assistant! When all the above tips have not led to the expected result, you will have to make a new plan to save the reservoir and its inhabitants. It consists in the correct cleaning of the container from harmful impurities and parasites, which are the main causes of an unpleasant smell. Before capital cleaning prepare such tools:
- at least 5-10 liter jars with infused water of appropriate parameters for the temporary settlement of fish;
- net, scraper and sponge;
- big bucket;
- special liquid to remove contamination from aquarium glass (available in stores);
- aquarium pump;
- pH adjuster.
Remove all animals from the nursery with a net by placing them in a jar of water. Disconnect the tank from the supply of current, light, turn off the filter and aerator. Rinse and clean the sponge. Use a scraper and a sponge to clean the windows, removing plaque, algae and other droppings from them. Take the pump, lower one end into the bucket, the second into the tank with dirty water, then pump out from 20 to 50% of all the water, depending on when it was last changed. Put gauze on the pump, and run it along the bottom of the ground, the air will make the bottom siphon. After cleaning, remove all decorations.
The scenery should be pulled out and processed, leaving them in a separate container with a little salted water (1 teaspoon per 20 liters) or scalding them with boiling water. If plaque forms on them, scrape it with an unnecessary toothbrush or gauze. After processing, place the decorations on a clean cloth to dry, then reinstall in the aquarium.
Pour into the aquarium a new, clean water of the same parameters that fish and plants used to (temperature, pH, hardness). Infused water should be three days for chlorine to evaporate from it. Polish the outer glass of the tank (liquid for aquarium glass), and then reconnect all the devices. After the procedure, gradually run the fish. Cleaning can be done in a few hours, the main thing - to adhere to accuracy.
Experienced breeders strongly advise settling in the nursery of the “orderlies” of the reservoir - freshwater snails, speckled catfish, mollies, antsistrusov, gyrinoheyls, labo, Japanese pond shrimps. The fishes living in the lower layers do an excellent job with the uneaten food that fell to the bottom, the snails eat carrion, and the shrimps and other fish mentioned above do an excellent job with algae. When settling, you should consider compatibility with each other, then your aquarium will resemble a natural biotope, with crystal clear water and beautiful living creatures.
Soil and nutritional substrate for aquarium plants: selection, preparation, laying
Soil for aquarium plants: selection, preparation, laying
What begins any hardscape? Of course, from the base: from the selection, preparation and laying of aquarium soil.
In this article I would like to elaborate in detail about the features of the use of a particular aquarium soil, the order and specifics of laying the substrate for aquarium plants.In principle, most of the points that will be discussed in this article are applicable to other types of aquarium, but still the emphasis will be placed on a herbalist, a Dutch, Amman aquarium.
The choice of aquarium soil for plants
I think that for many aquarists it will not be a secret that in addition to quartz and granite chips, there are special grounds for different aquariums - with plants, with shrimps, etc.
Why all? Because the substrate of the aquarium plays the most important role in his life. The future of the running aquarium depends on its properties and characteristics. Soil is not only a biofilter from NO2 NO3, it is also a certain composition, certain properties that allow you to comfortably live and develop specifically taken aquatic organisms.
Therefore, the choice of aquarium soil should be approached especially carefully and do not regret money for high-quality substrates!
At the same time, you can use ordinary, inexpensive soils ... as they say, this question is purely individual. In any case, you initially have to decide what you want to see in your aquarium — soil-growing plants (hemianthus, elioharissa, glossygosmma, etc.) or mosses, or huge burdock plants (echinodorus, cryptocoryne, etc.).
If you are not going to arrange a garden in the aquarium (1/2, 2/3 of the aquarium), if the plants you are going to plant are not very pretentious to the substrate, then you can safely choose the usual (preferably unpainted) soil corresponding to fractions.
However, not all conventional soils are suitable for aquarium plants and they need to be checked for solubility or in other words for increased stiffness.
How to do it? It's very simple, put aquarium soil in a bowl and pour 9% vinegar there. If the ground began to hiss (bubbles and a characteristic hiss went, as when opening a soda), then this soil is not suitable for (most) aquarium plants. If you have the opportunity (for example, in a pet store, the soils are sold by weight), then the above-described manipulation is best done with a purchase, dripping a little vinegar on the soil you like.
Why it is impossible to use hissing aquarium soil?
Hissing of the soil, says that it increases the rigidity - increases DH, KH and PH. Most aquarium plants love and even require "soft water", their content in "hard water", in "hard ground" is difficult.
In addition, the soil sizzling (calcera-containing, for example, marble chips) not only affects the hardness of the water ... this is not the main problem for plants. A serious problem is that most of the micro and macro elements that absorb the roots of aquarium plants are absorbed by them in the form of humic acids. In neutral soil is established weakly acidic environment, which contributes to plant nutrition, through the roots. And, here if !!! the soil gives out excess calcium, this does not happen and the plants have a problem with feeding through the root system.
You may have a question - why do they sell such “hissing” primer in stores? Why not sell neutral? The answer is very simple. First, neutral soil is more expensive, and secondly, “hissing” soil is suitable and even useful for keeping most African cichlids that prefer hard water.
Special soils for aquarium plants
The choice of special groats for aquarium plants is diverse. In fact, every major brand has its own line of substrates for aquarium plants.
All of them meet the needs of aquarium plants - they are light and porous, which contributes to the absence of oxygen-free zones and favorable growth of colonies of beneficial bacteria in the soil. They are neutral and contain the necessary macro elements for plants.
All the variety of such substrates can be divided by small strokes, brand and price tag. Below is an example of the soil that I use - a kind of combination of price and quality.
Aquael Aqua Grunt and / or Aquael Aqua Floran - specialized substrate for aquarium plants with a large number of minerals. It contains many necessary and useful elements (iron, magnesium, aluminum and silicon), which enrich the water in the aquarium with useful minerals and trace elements. Aquael Aqua Grunt promotes fast and lush plant growth in an aquarium. Aqua aqua soil consists of light porous granules, does not contain nitrogen compounds and phosphates. The porous structure of the soil prevents the appearance of an anaerobic zone in the deeper parts of the soil and is an ideal substrate for the development of beneficial bacteria to facilitate the rooting of newly planted plants. The substrate remains active for many years and does not require an additive. It is recommended to lay a layer of washed gravel under a layer of 1.5-2 cm under 3 cm. One package with a capacity of 3 liters is enough to fill a standard 60 cm long aquarium.
- ensure the circulation of water in the substrate;
- prevent the appearance of anaerobic zones;
- ideal substrates for beneficial bacteria;
- facilitate rooting of plants;
- active for many years and do not require supplementation;
- completely harmless to fish;
- do not cause a change in water color or transparency;
- do not contain nitrogen compounds and phosphates;
- do not require washing before use;
- contains minerals;
- promotes rooting;
Packaging 3 liters per 60 cm length of the aquarium.
Good proven soil))), Polish! For garden pochvokvki can be used without the main soil.
Substrates, nutritious soil for aquarium plantsNo less important substrate for plants are nutrient soils. Their variety is also very large.
Substrates for aquarium plants should be distinguished from Aquael Grunt soils, as these are not granules, but nutrient substrates consisting mainly of: clay and peat, as well as other components. Substrates can be applied both with ordinary soil and with Aquael Aqua Soil type substrates.
Nutritious substrate for aquarium plants - this is the storage of nutrients in the soil. It fits under the bottom of the ground, makes it possible to achieve effective growth of aquatic plants with relatively small financial investments. When choosing a substrate, it is worth paying attention to the composition of nutrients that will come with it to the aquarium. With some manufacturers you can get a set of trace elements and iron, while others feed with nitrates, phosphates and other useful substances.
Nutrient grounds - provide nutrition of aquatic plants through the roots and support their growth, also stabilizes the aquatic environment, normalizes the water parameters. Aquarium plants are able to absorb nutrients, both through the leaves and through the root system. Many species of plants in an aquarium in their natural habitat live in dry weather for months as marsh and at this time they develop an extensive root system in the ground through which they receive water and nutrients. Usually, such aquatic plants are strong absorbers of nutrients and require good soil in aquarium for good growth. And therefore, the consumption of nutrients only through the leaves is not enough for them. Liquid fertilizers can be used in an aquarium only as an addition to nutrition, but in no way replace a rich nutrient soil. Therefore, it is very important to choose the right nutrient soils and substrates for your aquarium!
It should be noted that in spite of the usefulness of such substrates, they should not be used in an aquarium, where there will be two - three spreads. Such substrates need good herbalists. In addition, nutrient soils require stronger filtration, otherwise the water may turn sour.
Below is a description of the substrate that I use.
JBL AquaBasis plus - This is a ready-made mixture of nutrients for aquarium plants. Used when launching new aquariums. Provides asthenia with all nutrients for healthy and fast growth. D & B Aqua Basis contains iron, trace elements and minerals that all aquatic plants need. Favorable fast, healthy and strong development of the root system of plants. The clay in the mixture acts as a storage pantry for nutrients, which binds nutrients when they are oversupplied and releases in case of shortages. Provides long-term and complete nutrition of aquarium plants. Does not contain phosphates and nitrates, causing the growth of unwanted algae. Validity 3 years!
Application: Contents 5 kg. a package is enough for an aquarium of 100-200 liters. It is laid on the bottom of the aquarium with a uniform layer about 2 cm high. A layer of the main soil about 4 cm high with a fraction of 2-3 mm is laid on top. Do not use coarse gravel!
Video about JBL AquaBasis plus
Additives and feedings for aquarium plantsThere are also separate additives and dressings for plants that fit into the ground. Their compositions are different.
In my opinion, the best supplements are thermal-containing feedings. As an additional feeding in my herbalist, I used clean, crushed tourmaline, which I bought as a stone and ground it into powder. Read more here!
Laying aquarium soil for plants
So, as you understand, the substrate for aquarium plants is a layer cake, which plays an important role in the life of plants.
Once again, the underlining that the use of special substrates for aquarium plants is needed only in "dense herbalists".
Sometimes, an aquarium design with live aquarium plants is planned so that the plants are in a certain part of the aquarium, for example, in the corner. The rest of the aquarium is free and other decorations are placed on it - stones, snags, etc. In this case, nutrient substrates should be placed only in the part of the aquarium where the plants will be. At the same time for the delimitation of the zone, you can use ordinary cardboard partitions. How, for example, does it Takashi Amano at the Moscow seminar.
Below, I will give the scheme by which I laid the soil in
your "dense" herbalist
1. At the bottom of the aquarium, two capsules of a dry biostrater were scattered to speed up the adjustment of the biobalance and the development of a colony of beneficial bacteria in the soil. And also, two tablespoons (without a hill) of tourmaline powder are evenly scattered.
2. JBL Aqua Basis plus is laid in a layer of 2 cm.
3. Part of the AquaEl Aqua Grunt package. Scattered for easy mixing with JBL Aqua Basis plus and creating a smooth mass heterogeneity.
4. The basic, usual soil is laid (a crumb of 2-3 ml.).
5. The remaining parts of the AquaEl Aqua Grunt package. It was scattered to the very top, since predominantly the herbalist consists of the cube chemionus and the elioharis, which, it is extremely dreary to plant, due to its small size. To lighter soil, these plants are easier to take root.
6. And at the end another spoon was spilled, another tourmaline. And also, while thinking about the cube, the powder from the Tetra PlantaStart tablet, which contains hormones for quicker and better rooting of plants, is scattered.
Here is such a solid layer turned out!
The above scheme is naturally not a dogma, but serves as only one example of laying aquarium soil for plants.
The use of soil in the aquascape
and tools for working with aquarium soilAny design of the aquarium begins with the ground. It is very important to imagine in advance how the soil will look in your aquarium, how it will be distributed over the entire area of the aquarium: exactly, hills, slides, with a rise to the back wall of the aquarium, etc.
The layering of the substrate for aquarium plants often does not allow all to alter or produce global manipulation. Well, you will not separate the substrate from the main ground, if you do not like something!? Alas, it will not bring anything good. At least there will be a suspension in the water, and as a maximum, the substrate will all pop up. It is necessary to have a plan of laying the ground in advance!
Using a non-standard (uneven) landscape gives the aquarium a volume and perspective. The elementary raising of the soil to the back wall of the aquarium already gives volume, what can we say about the hills with stones and the Amman tracks ... they look gorgeous!
Conversely, illiterate soil distribution leads to fatal errors! For example, raising the ground to the front wall of the aquarium spoils everything and looks ugly.
In aquascape, there are special paddles, rulers and brushes for working with the ground.
They cost a little, and I don’t want to buy them for one, two times. Therefore, it is possible and even necessary to use an ordinary brush for painting walls and, for example, a rubber spatula for rubbing the joints between tiles. It is worth a penny.
I wish you success in creating your aquarium masterpiece!
How and when to change the water in the aquarium
Water for aquarium fish should be maintained in a constant composition, which will regulate the amount of organic impurities in it. Biological equilibrium can be achieved through filtration and regular water renewal. Proper renewal of water in an aquarium with fish is the key to their health and good life, because this procedure preserves the mini-ecosystem of the home nursery.
Types of replacement in an artificial reservoir
Replacing water in an aquarium is an indispensable component of its content. There are 2 types of water changes - partial change and full change.
- Partial replacement in a freshwater aquarium maintains the biological balance of the aquatic environment, despite the often changing composition of the fluid. Before changing the water, from the moment of its first launch, you need to wait two months. Correctly update the water 1-2 times a week, no more than 20-30% of the total. It is often dangerous to change water - it usually leads to deterioration of water quality and neutralization of beneficial microflora.
See how to make a partial replacement of water in the aquarium.
- Complete replacement of water is needed as a last resort - when all the aquarium fish are sick. One fish can be quarantined, in the case of disease of all residents of the nursery you want to change all the liquid. There are a number of drugs that help cure ailment, but they contain chemicals that pollute water, after which it will be unsuitable for life. In this case, a complete replacement of water is often a necessary measure, since even drugs cannot completely destroy the pathogenic microbes. Change all the water you need with a special device - aquarium hose, which is on the shelves of pet stores. When completely replacing the hose with a hose, siphon the bottom, cleaning it from contamination, and the glass container is washed with a special liquid to remove plaque. If you need to fight the disease - you will have to bring all the details back to normal, all the water updates are not enough.
A complete water change is required during a scheduled restart.
Aquarium water: how to defend?
How many checks are needed to normalize the water in the aquarium? It rarely happens that tap water does not contain chlorine and phosphate compounds, and if so, then this is a lot of luck. You can purchase litmus paper at the pet store, using it to measure the acidity and hardness of water from the tap. Water in a small aquarium is easier to put in order than in a large one. Special components that increase or decrease water hardness can be found in stores or in your own home. In aquariums with a volume of more than 150 liters, you can replace 20% of the water yourself, without prior preparation.
How much time to defend the water? Everything depends on the type of fish that will settle in the reservoir, on their requirements, on the whimsical nature of aquatic plants - after all, the fish often live with plants, and they are almost indispensable. If it does not meet the pH level of 7.0, then it can be defended for 3-4 days until the chlorine and phosphate compounds evaporate.
Aquarium water: what you need to know about the big replacement?
A large water change is the renewal of a significant amount of fluid that occurs in stages over a period of 5-7 days. It is necessary to change such water when there is a need to lower the level of compounds accumulated in the water. Often after a big replacement, the fish become healthy and active. However, changing the contents of the reservoir is not recommended very often.
In a 100-liter aquarium with a small amount of vegetation, you can make the following replacement:
Drain 80 liters of old and add 40 liters of new water, add another 40 liters in a day. But this option is unacceptable for reservoirs where there is a lot of vegetation and fish. In this case, it is better to update 60% of the volume once.
Recommendations for replacing in saltwater aquariums
Sometimes you need to change the water in an aquarium with sea water, if it is in the house. Replacement should occur at elevated concentrations of nitrates and nitrites. Updating a saltwater aquarium does not go as it does in a freshwater aquarium. Properly used with distilled salt water or distilled through reverse osmosis liquid.
Whimsical hydrobionts and sea fish will not be able to live in tap water. Without prior, multi-phase filtering, it only hurts sentient beings. Replacing water 1 time per month (10-20%) of the total volume of the reservoir is not particularly effective with heavy pollution. In saltwater aquariums, it is better to replace a large amount of water.
See how to run a saltwater aquarium.
How to know that it is time to update the aquatic environment in a salt water tank?
How much time must pass to have to renew the aquatic environment in the marine tank again? The first is to check periodically observations and tests using reagents. The pure water dissolves salts that contain: MgSO4x7H20, sodium chloride, potassium bromide, MgCl2x6H2O, SrCl2x7H20, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, boric acid, sodium hydrosulfite (acid salt), sodium fluoride. These components are part of the artificial sea salt, which must be added over 3 days gradually, one after the other. But this option is very difficult for beginners. In order not to harm the fish and plants, there is a second way - to monitor the quality of the tank (whether there are greens in the water, foam, haze, droppings), its purity and smell.
Also make sure that the quality of the filter has not changed (both mechanical and biological). High-quality filtration prevents severe contamination, so there will be no need to completely change the fluid in the pond. A good filter restores the biological balance of the nursery, making it suitable for further use.
How to make the water in the aquarium clear?
no more than once a week should be changed in an aquarium any more than one third of the volume of the aquarium. the first three to four days, water can become color like unhealthy milk. This is normal !!! It is not necessary to do anything in this case, this is a normal biological process (bacteria develop). The main reason for the turbidity of the water - it perekorm. Currently, the temperature in the aquarium (and not only there) is high and the food decomposes very quickly. I recommend feeding the discus feed in the summer (Tetra Diskus, Tetra Diskus Energy Food), as it is less decomposed in warm water. As a means for instant water purification from cloudiness of any kind, I suggest using TetraAuqva CrystalWaterr - this is just super cp
Alexander de Gurko
Sometimes it happens after substitution by separated water, the water becomes cloudy, perhaps this is due to the fact that it is very hot now and ciliates reproduce very well. Therefore, recently I have been replacing water directly from the water supply system (up to 20% is not terrible) + I add 1 hour spoonful of salt to 10 liters, by the way, swordtails and gups love salted water. I also advise you to check the filter, perhaps it would be time to clean or replace it, set it to the maximum flow, adjust it in depth, the deeper the flow the smaller and filtered according. less water. If the dregs remain can be added directly to the aquarium buvalno at the tip of the knife, a few grains of potassium permanganate helps, fish and plants will have nothing, you can still drop iodine 1-2 drops no more! ! Everything is checked personally, none of the fish was hurt, the water is clean as a tear)
The water in the aquarium should not be changed more than once a week, not more than one third of the volume of the aquarium. the first three to four days, water can become color like unhealthy milk. This is normal !!! It is not necessary to do anything in this case, this is a normal biological process (bacteria develop). The main reason for the turbidity of the water - it perekorm. Currently, the temperature in the aquarium (and not only there) is high and the food decomposes very quickly. I recommend feeding the discus feed in the summer (Tetra Diskus, Tetra Diskus Energy Food), as it is less decomposed in warm water. As a means for instant water purification from cloudiness of any kind, I suggest using TetraAuqva CrystalWaterr - this is just a super tool !!! Not expensive, there is almost every store.
First of all, do not touch the aquarium unnecessarily, pick up the filter correctly (it should pump 5-10 volumes per hour) until it is completely clogged, feed the fish less and give just enough to feed them completely within 1-2 minutes and once a week arrange small fish fasting day.