How to soften the water in the aquarium


How to soften the water in the aquarium :: how to make water hard :: Care and education

Tip 1: How to soften the water in the aquarium

Breeding water inhabitants, modern people are faced with one very big problem - water hardness. An increased percentage of alkaline earth metal salts has a detrimental effect on representatives of most species of fish and other aquarium inhabitants. There are several ways to soften the water in aquarium without harming its inhabitants.

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You will need

  • distilled water, elodea or hornpole, ion exchange resins


1. To soften hard tap water in aquarium You will need to do a series of simple actions (comprehensively or individually), listed below. Purchase plants such as elodea or hornpole and plant them in the aquarium soil. The result of their activity reduces the concentration of calcium and magnesium salts, which leads to a significant softening of water in aquarium.

2. Dilute rigid plumbing water soft distilled or rain. Buy soft water can be in pharmacies, pet stores or in the poultry market. Rain water Before adding to the aquarium should be drained and cleaned of debris. It should be diluted depending on the hardness of its water, as a rule, it is 1 liter of hard water per 2 liters of distilled water.

3. Install a reverse osmosis membrane for water treatment on your tank. This device is sold in pet stores. This treatment is able to save (clear) water from all sorts of unnecessary impurities. Also purchase special ion exchange resins at the pet store, which are designed to soften water in aquarium.

4. Boil water and cool it before adding to the aquarium. This will allow to soften to some extent. waterhowever, the degree of mitigation in this case is low. Such a method in the case of highly hard water is hardly suitable. It is usually used in combination with other methods of softening aquarium water.

5. Buy at the pet store necessary to soften the water in aquarium special chemicals. Such drugs in no way affect the healthy healthy life of the fish, but only remove the salt from the water, which makes water tough. The state of minerals in the water when using these chemicals remains the same. The environment purified in a similar way is favorable for life of all aquatic inhabitants.

Tip 2: How to soften hard water

Every housewife probably had more than once deteriorated mood from the constant scum in the kettle. It seems to be laundered well, and cleaned to shine - and it appears and appears. This is the most vivid example of the fact that the water in our taps is hard, that is, there are too many salts in it (calcium and magnesium). They also dry the skin and hair after a shower, and in some cases cause the formation of stones in the bladder.


1. Use special water filters. Retaining impurities and salts on special filter cartridges and cleaning waterthey make it softer, more palatable and more suitable for home appliances.

2. Boil water. Boiling time varies from one hour to one and a half to two, depending on the hardness of the water. Then you need to wait until the water cools and a precipitate falls.

3. Some hostesses water softening trust soda. For 10 liters of water you need to take about 3-4 grams of soda, mix and leave for a while, and only then water can be used, for example, for washing. In the old days, instead of soda, they used ash, especially when they washed their heads, therefore, before each girl had long strong hair.

4. There is also an opinion that water can be softened with ordinary soap. To do this, rubbed soap (about 3 tablespoons) dissolved in half a liter of warm water and leave overnight. In the morning water it will be necessary to carefully pour into another container so that the precipitate that fell during the night does not mix with water.

5. But you can do water softer, even just looking in the refrigerator or cellar. For example, from ancient times, a pickle from cabbage was used to soften water. It is necessary to take it at the rate of one to one. Rich in vitamins, it not only softens water, but also perfectly tones the skin. If the water is not too hard, you can either change the ratio of water and brine, or reduce its concentration. You can also use almond bran - take a spoonful of bran in a glass of water and let it brew.

Soft water is sometimes also called "living water", since the content of salts and minerals in it is beneficial for the body. Such water is energizing. People who drink soft water are less likely to get sick, look younger and always in a good mood.

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Water is an integral part of any living organism. In aquarism, water is an essential element, because it is the quality of life of the aquatic world that depends, not only fish, but also other living organisms that live in aquariums (plants, turtles, etc.).

Helpful advice

In most cases, the above water softening methods should be applied before filling the tank with water.

What is the rigidity of aquarium water, how to reduce it

HARDNESS (hD) - due to the presence of soluble calcium and magnesium salts in water. Their concentration in aquarium water is the GENERAL HARDNESS, which can be divided into TEMPORARY - CARBONATE and PERMANENT - NON-CARBONATE.

Temporary hardness (CN) is the concentration of bicarbonate calcium and magnesium salts, formed from a weak, unstable carbonic acid. Such rigidity can vary during the day. For example, in the daytime, aquarium plants during photosynthesis absorb carbon dioxide that accumulates in the water. If carbon dioxide is not enough for consumption by plants, they will start to produce it from the bicarbonate composition, as a result of which the temporary hardness of the water will decrease.

Permanent hardness (GH) - is the presence of stable calcium and magnesium salts, formed from strong acids - hydrochloric, sulfuric or nitric.

Water hardness is essential for the life of the aquarium world. Firstly, calcium and magnesium salts are used in the construction of the skeleton and have an impact on the construction of the whole fish organism. For different types of aquarium fish, the indicators of water hardness are different and failure to comply with them can lead to a deterioration of the health of the fish, a violation of the function of reproduction and fertilization of eggs.

The total hardness of the aquarium water is measured in German degrees (hD). 1 ° hD is 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water.

Aquarium water with hardness parameters:

from 1 to 4 ° hD - is considered very soft;

from 4 to 8 ° hD - is considered soft;

from 8 to 12 ° hD - average hardness;

from 12 to 30 ° hD - considered to be very tough;

Most aquarium fish feel comfortable with hardness of 3-15 ° hD.

How to change water hardness:

1.) Increase stiffness.

- KH hardness can be reduced by adding 1 tsp of baking soda to 50 liters, which will increase the performance by 4 ° dKH.

- 2 teaspoons of calcium carbonate to 50 liters of water will increase at the same time KH and GH by 4 degrees.

- Another measure for a smooth / gradual increase in water hardness is scattering and decorating the aquarium with seashells.

2.) Reducing stiffness (everything is more complicated here):

- use / add distilled water, which is sold in stores;

- use / add rain, snow, melt water from the refrigerator (must be clean, without turbidity and impurities).

- filter the water through an osmotic filter;

- filter water through peat (peat is added to the filter) or into the tank, where water is settled;

- the rigidity of the VF is reduced by boiling water in an enamel pot for 1 hour, followed by settling for 24 hours;

- natural water softeners are fast-growing plants: elodey, rogolodnik, nayas, valisneria.

HOW TO MEASURE the overall water hardness at home without specials. equipment and preparations (sample titration with soap solution):

The peculiarity of this method is that 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water is neutralized with 0.1 g. clean soap.

1. 60-72% of household soap is taken, crumbled.

2. In a measuring cup (or other measuring vessel), water is poured (distilled, snowy, water melted from the refrigerator) - then distillate.

3. Soap powder (counted in grams) is added to the water so that it is possible to calculate the portion small in the resulting solution.

4. Pour 0.5 liters of the tested aquarium water into another dish and gradually add portions of the soap solution (0.1 gr.), Shake.

At first, gray flakes and quickly disappearing bubbles appear on the surface of the water. Gradually adding portions of the soap solution, we are waiting for all the calcium and magnesium oxide to contact - stable soap bubbles will appear on the surface of the water with a characteristic rainbow overflow.

This experience is over. Now we count the number of consumed soap portions, multiply them by two (the aquarium water was 0.5 liters, not 1 liter.). The resulting number will be the rigidity of the aquarium water in degrees. For example, 5 servings of soap * 2 = 10 ° hD.

With careful experience, the error can be + -1 ° hD.

When obtaining a stiffness result of more than 12 ° hD, the measurement accuracy decreases, it is recommended that the experiment be re-diluted with aquarium water with 50% distillate, double the result.

❶ How to reduce the rigidity in the aquarium :: Equipment and accessories

How to reduce the rigidity in the aquarium

In urban water supply, the hardness indicator of the water is quite high, so often the aquarist needs to lower it. The inhabitants of the aquarium feel good in water with a level of hardness from 3 to 15 degrees. Some species of snails cannot live in soft water, as their shells begin to collapse. Live-bearing fish should be kept in water with stiffness about 10 degrees. For neon fish, the hardness indicator of the water should not exceed 6 degrees. Sagittaria and water fern germinate well in water with stiffness 10-14 degrees, and uviranda dies even at 5 degrees.


1. Do not forget to take into account that the level of water hardness varies depending on the season. Many people know that boiling well reduces this level, but this applies only to the temporal component of rigidity. In steady seasons - by the end of summer and by the end of winter - it increases, and the rains and floods lead to water softening. Therefore, in spring, fish are prepared for spawning and plants begin to grow.

2. Perfectly soften water plants such as elodea, algae hara, hornomy. Their leaves and stems are usually covered with a crust, which is a precipitate of calcium salts. Plants do not absorb carbon dioxide at night, and in the process of breathing living beings in a reservoir it accumulates in aquariumas a result, the water hardness increases. If there are sharp fluctuations in the level of hardness at night and during the day due to the presence of a large number of these plants, it can kill all animals in just one night: they will simply suffocate. That is why the "blooming" of water is a very unpleasant and dangerous phenomenon in aquarium. Remember that this can start in brightly lit aquariums with rotting food residues. Adding distilled water will help reduce the constant component of water hardness.

3. Besides the usual boiling, there is another method of obtaining water with stiffnesswhose level is close to zero. To do this, it is necessary to fix a glass plate in front of the nose of the boiling kettle. At its bottom edge, install a container to collect the condensed vapors. The water obtained in the tank in this way will have a hardness close to zero.

4. Water hardness can be reduced by simple freezing. Pour 3/4 of water into an empty polyethylene bottle, close and place in the freezer. When about half of the water freezes, remove the container from the refrigerator. After that, carefully cut the bottle and remove the frozen part of the water. This piece of ice, melted, will become water with a very low level of hardness.

Peat for aquarium


use, use and cautions

The topic of peat use in aquariums is well studied in RuNet. Nevertheless, information about its use is scattered or compressed - scattered, crumpled up in various resources. In this connection, we decided to put everything together.

So, what is peat and why is it needed in an aquarium? Peat is a mixture of partially decomposed organic fossil materials of plant origin. It is very rich in organics and humic acids, which give it a brown color, resins, wax, salts and other substances. In an aquarium, peat lowers and stabilizes the pH value in a weakly acidic area while reducing water hardness, promotes good plant growth, especially the formation of roots, and prevents the active reproduction of fungi and bacteria.

From the definition we can deduce the key points for what it is necessary to use peat in an aquarium:

1. Acidification of water - lowering the pH value.

2. Mitigate aquarium water - lowering the kH and dH values.

3. Water enrichment with useful elements, the main of which are humic acids and tannins.

4. It has easy bactericidal and fungicidal properties.

Knowing the unlimited zeal of novice aquarists to use and test everything in their new aquarium, let's make a reservation right away:

1. Peat aquarium water should occur with the mind. It can not be used, say, as aquarium coal - fell asleep in the filter and rejoice.

2. Before using peat you need to know the parameters of the aquarium water. Peat can not be used with low acidity and hardness.

3. Peat is undesirable to use in aquariums, where alkaline fish live - they will not like it.

4. Peat tints the water, giving it a tea color. What some aquarists, out of aesthetic motives do not like.

After voiced precautions, let's more specifically designate what makes peat with aquarium water. It can be said that peat “ages” aquarium water, makes it natural, natural for some (soft water and acid-water) aquatic habitats - the predominant habitat of which is South America (Amazon) and South Asia. For example, these are the scalars, neons, discus, arovana, the Arnold chapel, a family of labyrinth fish, aquarium plants and shrimps.

It can also be said that peat is a substitute for natural processes in an aquarium.

Amazon river

Here is an example: somewhere far away, among the Amazonian lawns, forest edges, tree roots, a trickle flows, its water flows through fallen and dead tree leaves, dead leaves, flows through fallen wood, mosses, creeks and thereby absorbs the decay products of plant organic matter , in particular humic acid. Humic acids themselves are complex molecular compounds that are poorly understood by humans and cannot be chemically reproduced in the laboratory.

And so, at the end of its route, the trickle flows into the lake, thereby introducing into it, enriching it with useful organic matter.

Amazon Biotope

Such a mechanism, invented by Nature to maintain the ecosystem - the dead gives life to the new!

Ways to make peat in the aquarium:

- peat broths;

- peat extracts;

- falling asleep peat in the filter compartment;

- Laying peat layer in the aquarium soil;

Peat broth

Peat is boiled preferably in distilled water (at the rate of 5 g. Peat per 1 liter of water) for half an hour until the water becomes dark brown in color, then water is passed through a sieve to remove impurities. The resulting broth is poured in small portions into the aquarium, making sure that it is distributed evenly, and constantly check the pH value. The recommended lower limit of pH 6.

Peat extracts

Probably the most popular is peat extract. TetraToruMin - it is a liquid conditioner, creating the effect of the so-called "black water"typical of the South American basin, which is common for haracin, soft water cichlids, etc.
Created on the basis of peat extract, contains tannins, humic acids and hormones. A beneficial effect on the natural behavior of fish and their color, improves plant growth. The conditioner facilitates care of especially valuable, capricious breeds of fishes and creates conditions for their successful reproduction. With regular use of ToruMin, the light transmission of water decreases slightly, which stops the growth of algae. Water acquires increased transparency and light brownish tint.
In addition, ToruMin has a moderate antibacterial and antifungal effects.

Granulated peat

(for filters and primer)

Peat water in the aquarium can be using a filter filled with peat (approximately 1 liter of peat per 100 liters of aquarium water). At the same time, peat should be moderately compacted, since with strong compaction it is poorly permeable to water, and if it is too loose, there is a strong flow of water and it does not have time to enrich it with substances from peat. During filtration, the pH and CN values ​​in the aquarium are regularly monitored.

JBL Tormec activ - a filler in the form of granules from a two-component peat of different acidity for the gradual softening of water. Эффективно и надежно уменьшает карбонатную жесткость и рН в аквариумной воде.The special structure of the filler ensures a long lasting effect, quickly preventing the growth of algae.
Creates optimal conditions for the maintenance and reproduction of fish from habitats with black water. The two components of the filler for immediate and long-lasting action, thus, the granules are a prophylactic against the growth of algae in fresh water.

600 grams of filler reduces carbonate hardness in an aquarium of 200 liters by 5-7 dKH. The filler is recommended to be replaced every 3-6 months.

Peat Sera super peat - black granulated peat.

- creates ideal conditions in the aquatic environment of an aquarium for ornamental fish who prefer “soft” water with a low level of acidity such as, for example, discus, characteristicis, catfish, barbs and labyrinth fishes;

- lowers the level of acidity and carbonate hardness of water;

- interferes with the growth of fungus, bacteria and microscopic algae;

- ideal for the aquatic environment intended for breeding fish;

- naturally enriches the aquatic environment with all the beneficial substances that are contained in the "black" tropical water;

- thanks to the special form of the filtering material in the form of granules, it releases humic acids and trace elements gradually in the necessary quantities for a long time.

The use of peat “Super Peat” at the rate of 250 g per 200 l of water:

- at the level of carbonate hardness of water of about 50 dkH, the level of acidity decreases from 7.4 to 6.7 in 24 hours;

- when the level of carbonate hardness of water is about 30 dkH, the level of acidity decreases from 7.2 to 6.4 in 24 hours.

Due to the fact that peat “Super Peat” sharply reduces the level of acidity and carbonate hardness, it is recommended to daily check the level of acidity using the “pH test” and the level of carbonate hardness using the “kH test”.

In conclusion, it should be noted that peat can serve as a substrate for spawning many aquarium fish. To use peat in this capacity, it is boiled for 10-15 minutes, and then washed under running water until the water is clear. After that, the peat can be placed in the spawning tank.

Also, peat is used as an additive to the soil or as an intermediate layer. To prevent peat from mixing up water, use a top layer - the main soil. Peat has the ability to soften water, reducing its hardness. Due to its increased acidity, peat helps to create an increased concentration of iron available to plants in the soil.

❶ How to soften the water :: Natural Sciences

How to soften the water

The role of water in the life of every modern person is difficult to exaggerate. Our health, well-being and appearance depend on its quality. The more salts of hardness in water, the greater the harmful effects of these compounds on our body. So how to make water softer and healthier?

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You will need

  • Teapot
  • Soda
  • Almond Bran
  • The juice
  • Filter


1. One way to soften water is to boil it. To do this, pour water into the kettle, boil for 45 minutes, and then stand for a few hours until sedimentation occurs. True, this way
water is not purified from compounds of iron, calcium and magnesium.

2. The next mode of mitigation is with alkali. For example borax, baking soda, ammonia.
Affordable and safest in this case is baking soda. The dosage of water softening soda - 1 teaspoon to 1 cup of water.

3. A method similar to the previous one - mixing almond bran. It also softens the water. To do this, mix 1 glass of water and a tablespoon of almond bran and insist.

4. Also water can be softened with various juices of vegetables and fruits. This solution not only softens the water, but also tones our body due to the vitamins and trace elements it contains. But you need to be careful, with the long-term use of juice-containing liquids, allergic reactions are possible. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor well-being.

5. If the water is so hard that it is not possible to soften it by any of the methods listed above, then the installation of a special water filter can help out. It is best to select the brand and model of the filter in specialized stores.

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Helpful advice

When selecting a filter to soften the water, it is better to pre-conduct a laboratory analysis of your water.

How to soften the water in the aquarium?

Eared Nyan

You will need: distilled water, elodea or hornpole, ion exchange resins.
1 / To mitigate hard tap water in an aquarium, you will need to follow a series of simple steps (in a complex or individually), as indicated below. Purchase plants such as elodea or hornpole and plant them in the aquarium soil. The result of their activity reduces the concentration of calcium and magnesium salts, which leads to a significant softening of the water in the aquarium.
2 / Dilute hard tap water with soft distilled or rainwater. You can buy soft water in pharmacies, pet stores or in the poultry market. Rain water before adding to the aquarium should be drained and cleaned of debris. It should be diluted depending on the hardness of its water, as a rule, it is 1 liter of hard water per 2 liters of distilled water.
3 / Install a reverse osmosis membrane for water treatment in your tank. This device is sold in pet stores. This treatment is able to rid (purify) water of all kinds of unnecessary impurities. Get also in the pet store special ion exchange resins, which are designed to soften the water in the aquarium.
4 / Boil the water and cool it before adding to the aquarium. This will allow to soften the water to a certain degree, but the degree of mitigation in this case is not high. Such a method in the case of highly hard water is hardly suitable. It is usually used in combination with other methods of softening aquarium water.
5 / Buy special chemicals at the pet store to soften the water in the aquarium. Such drugs in no way affect the healthy healthy life of the fish, but only remove salt from the water, which makes the water hard. The state of minerals in the water when using these chemicals remains the same. The environment purified in a similar way is favorable for life of all aquatic inhabitants.

How to make water soft? I heard that you can add citric sour, but I do not know proportioned. can someone tell

Tatyana Pavlyushchik

Hard water contains Ca2 + and Mg2 + ions; they participate in the hydrolysis reaction — interactions with water dissociation products.
As a result, an excess hydrogen ion appears in the solution and hard water is “acidified”, the pH (the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration) decreases compared to neutral and becomes less than 7. The higher the total water hardness, the lower the pH value. Carbonic acid is a weakly dissociating acid. Water with carbonate hardness contains HCO3- and CO32- ions, and they participate in the hydrolysis reaction — interactions with the products of water dissociation.
As a result, an excess hydroxyl ion appears in the solution and water with carbonate hardness becomes “alkaline,” while the pH rises compared to neutral and becomes greater than 7. The higher the QL of water, the higher the pH value. Usually in water, total and carbonate hardness occur simultaneously, but are not always equal to each other. As a consequence, the pH of such water will be higher or lower than 7, depending on the ratio of carbonate and total hardness.
In this way, citric acid will soften only alkaline water, that is, carbonate hardness prevails.
Ways of water softening in the industry:
1. By heating (thermal). Indeed, heating up to 120–200 ° C very hard water, for example, with a total hardness of 17 mgeq / l, and causing calcium carbonate to precipitate, it is possible to reduce both carbonate and total hardness by 620-3700 times.
2. Chemical method. At the CHP, the water filling the heating mains and being the coolant is softened to a hardness salt content of 1.1-1.5 mgeq / l. Two methods of chemical softening are most commonly used: lime and lime-soda. Apply milk of lime
3. Deep mitigation by ion exchange. The ion exchange sorbents, already widely used 40-50 years ago — ion exchangers — are solid, insoluble, and partially swelling substances in water. The basis of these ion-exchange materials is a frame (matrix), carrying a positive or negative charge, and a mobile counterion, the charge of which compensates for the charge of the frame. This mobile counter-ion is just able to extract an ion of the same charge from the solution and exchange it with it. By the sign of the charge of the exchanging ions, ion exchangers are divided into cation exchangers, anion exchangers and ampholytes. According to the chemical nature of the frame - on inorganic, organic and mineral-organic. Ionites can be natural (for example, zeolites, cellulose, wood, peat) and synthetic (silica gel, alumina, sulfonated coal).
4. Filtration or reverse osmosis
The use of osmosis or filtering through a porous septum with a size of the order of the molecule for water purification began in the 60s of the 20th century.
Especially promising for water treatment was reverse osmosis. However, the use of this technology in everyday life became possible relatively recently due to the improvement of the process, the design of the devices and a sharp decrease in the cost of reverse osmosis membranes. Tens of thousands of such systems are installed annually in the world, and there is no alternative yet. The quality of the purified water by the reverse osmosis method is simply amazing - free chlorine, mechanical particles, tastes and odors, toxic organic substances, heavy metals, single-celled microorganisms are removed by 96-100%.
The only claim to reverse osmosis as one of the methods for softening drinking water is too deep purification from carbonate and total alkalinity.
At home, water can be softened by boiling, using filters with ion exchange resins (these are always in the cartridges of household filters) or installing more expensive filters based on osmosis.
During my distant childhood, when I did not use shampoos, my head was washed with soap and boiled water and distilled water (a pinch of soda was added when boiling), and rinsed with water with citric acid (three liters of water - a teaspoon without top of citric acid).

Alexander Palanevich

The information is not correct. Citric acid is used to soften (dissolve) calcium and magnesium salts, which make water hard (total hardness is calcium and magnesium salts in water). Calcium and magnesium salts cause deposits on the heating surfaces of various heating elements - irons, kettles, washing machines, etc. With the help of citric acid it is possible to soften these deposits, which are quite hard.
Water just so you do not make soft. If you need a small amount of water, it is better to buy either distilled water (its hardness is approximately equal to zero) or special drinking purified water. The question is how much water do you need and for what.
If you soften water for drinking (household) purposes, now they use special reverse osmosis plants, these plants are quite expensive (at least 10-15 thousand rubles). Either special filters, which also have a sufficiently large cost - shaved filters, etc., do not soften water.

Elena Happy

For plants, you need to add just a little bit ...
Pre-standing water for 1 to 3 days ...
Please tell me how to acidify the soil. I know that it is possible with the help of citric acid, but I have never used it. What are the proportions and what is better to squeeze a lemon, or use dry citric acid from the store?
In general, it is possible and with dry acid to 3-4 granules per liter of water, and lemon juice, and extracts from peat, but the point? Sharp pH fluctuations with a greater guarantee will kill the plant than the "wrong" acidity, in which it somehow lives.


Soft water You can make water softer in different ways:
1. Boiling, which removes some soluble salts.
2. By adding rain water. Roofs, gutters and downpipes should be as clean as possible; Cemented roofs should be avoided, as cement contains lime. Water collected near industrial areas may be polluted. Collect water only during heavy rains, but before you begin, wait a few minutes for dust and debris to be washed away. It is also desirable to pass water through a fabric filter to get rid of foreign objects. Rainwater can be polluted, as well as tap water.
3. Mixing with artificially softened water. It may be:
a) distilled water; b) water passed through ion exchange resins (use only resins intended for aquariums). This can affect the pH, and also, since calcium ions usually change to sodium ions, water, although it becomes soft, is saturated with mineral salts and is not suitable for fish that need water with poor mineral composition;
c) water treated in a special device on the principle of reverse osmosis.