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Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review



SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect. In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.

Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5.
Stiffness dH: to 10 .
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors - discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium. See the article - compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live:
Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum amount of aquarium for scalar

angelfish in the aquarium black and white photo beautiful

From 100 l., In such an aquarium, you can put one, maximum two scalar. Under good conditions, they grow into fish of impressive size, and given their wide fins, it is better to buy an aquarium from 250 liters for them. About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).

Requirements for the care and conditions of the scalar


- scalar necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water.
- it is not necessary to cover the aquarium, the fish are not very mobile and do not jump out of the pond.
- lighting should be moderate. The aquarium is equipped with shaded areas, which is achieved with the help of aquarium vegetation. Fish do not like bright light and shy to turn it on. Vallisneria and other long stem plants are recommended as aquarium plants for scalars. The creation of thickets from such plants imitates the natural habitat of the angelfish.
- Aquarium decoration, at your discretion: stones, grottoes, snags and other decorations. In the aquarium must be provided an open space for swimming. Shelters do not need scalars.

Feeding and diet of scalar

The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia. The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.

The scalar has a peculiarity - they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat - there is nothing wrong with that.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, scalars live in northern South America

in reservoirs with dense reed beds and with standing or slowly flowing water. Actually these natural conditions explain their flattened - disc-shaped body shape, which they need to maneuver among underwater reeds. Kept in nature in groups of 10 individuals.

Description of aquarium angelfish

The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural - the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others. In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived - with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of angelfish

The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as "pteron" - a feather and "phyllon" sheet, and together with a "winged sheet".

Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier. He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name "Blattfische", translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B. Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.

Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called "Angelfishes" or simply "Angel", in Germany "Segelflosser", which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they "dovozilis", but alas, the dead. Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the "aquarium-scalar boom" begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg - I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L. Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy - the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear. Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov - in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater. The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always - at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred. In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.

Types and breeds of Angelfish

So in order to understand the scale of selection work, I’ll give only an incomplete list of other derived forms of an angelfish: half-hearted, smoky, albino, red-smoky, red, chocolate, phantom, two-spotted phantom, blue, white, zebra, lace zebra, cobra, leopard, marble red-gold, red-pearl, pearl, gold-pearl, red-pearl and others.
The latest achievements are scaleless and brilliant scalaries. Therefore, if we talk about the types of angelfish - they are just countless.

Here is a photo of some angelfish - Pterophyllum scalare











But, it is necessary to distinguish species from scalar breeds

The above scalar is a breed of the same species Pterophyllum scalare. But there are other types of scalar - the main ones are:
Pterophyllum altum (pterophyllum altum), Pterophyllum leopoldi (formerly Pterophyllum dumerilli - Pterophyllum Dymerilli), Pterophyllum eimekei
Here is
Photo of Pterophyllum leopoldi (as a separate type of angelfish)

and here is a photo Pterophyllum altum (as a separate type of scalar)

a photo Pterophyllum eimekei (as a separate scalar)

Scalar content
Taking into account the above mentioned breeding experiments for one hundred years, the scalar adapted so much to the aquarium conditions that their content does not pose any problems. Perhaps the main and prerequisite for their maintenance is a large and high aquarium. As previously mentioned, the minimum volume of an aquarium for a scalar should be 100 liters, but its height should be at least 45 centimeters. In this case, the fish is absolutely not important thickness of the aquarium, on the turn, they are accustomed to pour narrow ducts, thickets and crevices. From my personal experience I will say that the angelfish feel great, are angry with densely planted long-stem vegetation, in which they feel at home in South America.
The optimal temperature of water for scalars ranges from 22-27 ° C. However, these fish are distinguished by enviable frost resistance up to 16 ° C and endurance in the heat up to 35 ° C.
They are unpretentious and to other parameters of water can normally exist both in very soft and rather hard water. Optimum dH: up to 10 °, Ph: 6-7,5.
Angelfish love clean water, so the presence of aeration and filtration in the aquarium is necessary. Weekly need to replace the aquarium water to fresh before? parts.
Angelfish are very hierarchical fish. It is best to keep them with a flock, in which their own ranking will be established - large and strong pairs will dominate, and weaker ones will receive cuffs. However, such intraspecific aggression is not very scary, especially if you zoned the aquarium. For example, I have aquarium plants and decor planted and set so that the aquarium can be divided into four "adjacent rooms". Such a method helps to avoid excessive aggression and stalking of the weak.

Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar

Sex differences between male and female scalar are weakly expressed. They can be seen only when the fish cut their mature age at 9-12 months of age. Up to this point, when you buy young animals in the pet store, no one will tell you who you take. When buying juveniles, the angelfish can be recommended to take two large individuals, most likely they are males and two small scalars, most likely they will be girls.
To determine the sex of the scalar need experience and practice. A full-time aquarist will distinguish a male from a female in two accounts, but for a beginner, it will be a bit hard for a beginner. For this you need to watch your scalar.
Below is a list of typical sexual differences between the male and the female scalar. Well, of course the photo!

The first sign is behavior. Boys behave like boys, girls like girls. This is especially noticeable when the angelfish are broken into pairs. The pair immediately see who the male and who is the female.
The second sign is the structure of the body. The male angelfish has a 100% distinctive feature - this is a fatty knob on the forehead - a hump. Females do not have it. The forehead of the male is convex, on the contrary vice versa in the female. In addition, the body of the male scalar is more powerful, their back has a fin longer and there are stripes on it (on the back).
The third sign is manifested during the spawning period. The male has a narrow and sharp seed tube, while the female scalar forms a wide and short ovipositor.

Here is a good photo of a male and female angelfish

(male on the left and female on the right). Having received a review of this article from a fish breeding expert. Vitaly ChernyavskyI consider it necessary to supplement this part of the article with his answer, here it is:
"The article on the scalars looked. As for signs of differences between males and females - not quite right.
1) Behavior is not a criterion. Every now and then 2 females without a male completely even (and in turn) imitate the male's sexual behavior. Only if you look closely, you can see that the "male" and the female will then change places - and the roe (naturally unfertilized) will be put off by BOTH fish.
2) There are males without a forehead and females with a forehead.
3) The only clear criterion for sex differences in adult fish is line of the back and abdomen. In the male: the line of the back and dorsal fin form an ANGLE, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost the DIRECT line. And in the female, on the contrary: the line of the back and the dorsal fin form an almost DIRECT line, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost a direct ANGLE. "
Taking into account the expert's opinion, I add this drawing that will help determine the sex of the scalar, based on the angle of its fins.
!!!PAYING ATTENTION!!!
The fact that on the Internet this figure of an angelfish is everywhere spread with false information - the male and the female are confused. This drawing is taken from Ilyin's book Aquarium Fish Breeding. So there the fish were entangled by the artist.
Well, on the Internet, those who sculpt this picture on their websites ... they do not chop themselves, where the female is, where the male is, thereby misleading everyone.
!!! This picture is all right !!! With good and comfortable content angelfish spawning happens right in the general aquarium. The impetus for spawning is the replacement of aquarium water with fresh water and an increase in temperature of 2-4 degrees. A very important role in this process is played by the substrate for laying. Angelfish often prefer to lay eggs on a broadleaf plant, but they may like other places: filter tube, glass, grotto wall, etc.
The place chosen by the producers is thoroughly cleaned of any dirt, and then spawning itself follows. Over time, the female can sweep about 500 eggs, large and even more up to 1000.

Photos of scalar roe



The incubation period for caviar is 2 days; during this period, parents intensively fan the caviar with fins and clean it from litters, remove the whitened - dead caviar. After the larvae hatch from the calf, the parents transfer them to another leaf in their mouth. This is done for greater purity and the elimination of the possibility of catching the infection from the rotting shell of the calf.

Photos of angelfish larvae



Over the next 7 days, the larvae, under the watchful supervision of parents, hang on a piece of paper. When the larvae run out of nutrients from the yolk sac, they turn into fry. From now on, they should start feeding.
Starter feed for young scalar should be of high quality, alive and well washed. Can advise - nauplii, nematodes. It is not desirable, but it is possible to feed the fry with any frayed dry food (the number of dead fry will increase with such feeding). It is also recommended to clean the spawning tank from food residue and other dirt twice a day.

Photo fry, young scalar


The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too. Of course, this does not lead to anything good. There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring. This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders. Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and the angelfish,
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar



Recommended literature and books about scalars

A. N. Gurzhiy "Skalyarii" 2009Kochetov Sergey "Skalyarii" 2005

Beautiful video with scalars









A selection of beautiful photos with scalars
















Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review



SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect. In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.

Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
"Acidity" Ph: 6-7,5.
Stiffness dH: to 10 .
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors - discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium. See the article - compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live:
Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!

The minimum amount of aquarium for scalar

angelfish in the aquarium black and white photo beautiful

From 100 l., In such an aquarium, you can put one, maximum two scalar. Under good conditions, they grow into fish of impressive size, and given their wide fins, it is better to buy an aquarium from 250 liters for them. About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).

Requirements for the care and conditions of the scalar


- scalar necessarily need aeration and filtration, weekly replacement of up to 1/4 of the volume of aquarium water.
- it is not necessary to cover the aquarium, the fish are not very mobile and do not jump out of the pond.
- lighting should be moderate. The aquarium is equipped with shaded areas, which is achieved with the help of aquarium vegetation. Fish do not like bright light and shy to turn it on. Vallisneria and other long stem plants are recommended as aquarium plants for scalars. The creation of thickets from such plants imitates the natural habitat of the angelfish.
- Aquarium decoration, at your discretion: stones, grottoes, snags and other decorations. In the aquarium must be provided an open space for swimming. Shelters do not need scalars.

Feeding and diet of scalar

The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia. The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.

The scalar has a peculiarity - they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat - there is nothing wrong with that.

Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.

In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.

Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company "Tetra" - the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.

It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.

In nature, scalars live in northern South America

in reservoirs with dense reed beds and with standing or slowly flowing water. Actually these natural conditions explain their flattened - disc-shaped body shape, which they need to maneuver among underwater reeds. Kept in nature in groups of 10 individuals.

Description of aquarium angelfish

The body is round and very flattened at the sides. It has a very elongated back and anal fin, which gives the fish the shape of a crescent. Natural - the natural color of the scalar is silver with black transverse stripes; however, as a result of successful selection, various color scales were obtained, for example, a marble scalar, a two-color, red, black, zebra scalar and others. In addition, the veil form of the scalar is derived - with even longer fins. Angelfish are large, sweeping fish, can reach up to 15 cm in length, and even more than 25 cm in height in the forest.
Story of angelfish

The Latin name Pterophyllum was given by the famous Austrian zoologist I.Ya. Heckel in 1840 and it translates as "pteron" - a feather and "phyllon" sheet, and together with a "winged sheet".

Before Heckel gave the name Pterophyllum, this fish was already repeatedly described in 1823. Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, who gave her the name Zeus scalaris. And in 1931, the fish was described by Baron Jord Léopold Frederik Bagobert Cuvier. He called it Platax scalaris. It was the scalar and the market name "Blattfische", translated as leaf fish. This name was given by G. B. Sagratski, who first managed to bring these fish from Rio Negru to Germany.

Actually, under this name, for the first time, they found themselves in Europe, however, such a name did not eventually stick. Abroad, the angelfish is called "Angelfishes" or simply "Angel", in Germany "Segelflosser", which translates as a sail.
In some sources, it is said that for the first time the scalars appeared in Europe in 1909, but this is not the case. From this year, they "dovozilis", but alas, the dead. Only in October 1911 was it possible to bring a living scalar. And only from this moment on in Europe did the "aquarium-scalar boom" begin: description, disputes, articles in journals, attempts at breeding, etc.
The first successful breeding of scalar in artificial conditions occurred in 1914 at the aquarist from Hamburg - I. Quancar. His success was repeated only a year later by an aquarist from the USA, U.L. Polynn. It is worth noting that at that time the secret of reproduction was kept in the strictest secrecy - the scalar was very valuable. However, everything is secret when it becomes clear. Since 1920, breeding scalar gains mass.
In Russia, the scalars multiplied for the first time in 1928. This happened at our aquarist, Mr. A. Smironov - in the evening he went to the theater, and at home in the aquarium he had a hot water heater. The temperature of the water in the aquarium rose to 32 ° C and the scalar spontaneously began spontaneously. As a note of humor, I would like to say that the Russians are as always - at random and anyhow.
But, aquarists did not stop at the successful artificial breeding of scalar. The second half of the twentieth century was marked by inexorable breeding work on scalars. In 1956, a veil scalar was bred. In 1957, a spectacular black scalar was introduced in the USA. In 1969, again by the American Charles Hashem, a marble scalar was obtained.

Types and breeds of Angelfish

So in order to understand the scale of selection work, I’ll give only an incomplete list of other derived forms of an angelfish: half-hearted, smoky, albino, red-smoky, red, chocolate, phantom, two-spotted phantom, blue, white, zebra, lace zebra, cobra, leopard, marble red-gold, red-pearl, pearl, gold-pearl, red-pearl and others.
The latest achievements are scaleless and brilliant scalaries. Therefore, if we talk about the types of angelfish - they are just countless.

Here is a photo of some angelfish - Pterophyllum scalare











But, it is necessary to distinguish species from scalar breeds

The above scalar is a breed of the same species Pterophyllum scalare. But there are other types of scalar - the main ones are:
Pterophyllum altum (pterophyllum altum), Pterophyllum leopoldi (formerly Pterophyllum dumerilli - Pterophyllum Dymerilli), Pterophyllum eimekei
Here is
Photo of Pterophyllum leopoldi (as a separate type of angelfish)

and here is a photo Pterophyllum altum (as a separate type of scalar)

a photo Pterophyllum eimekei (as a separate scalar)

Scalar content
Taking into account the above mentioned breeding experiments for one hundred years, the scalar adapted so much to the aquarium conditions that their content does not pose any problems. Perhaps the main and prerequisite for their maintenance is a large and high aquarium. As previously mentioned, the minimum volume of an aquarium for a scalar should be 100 liters, but its height should be at least 45 centimeters. In this case, the fish is absolutely not important thickness of the aquarium, on the turn, they are accustomed to pour narrow ducts, thickets and crevices. From my personal experience I will say that the angelfish feel great, are angry with densely planted long-stem vegetation, in which they feel at home in South America.
The optimal temperature of water for scalars ranges from 22-27 ° C. However, these fish are distinguished by enviable frost resistance up to 16 ° C and endurance in the heat up to 35 ° C.
They are unpretentious and to other parameters of water can normally exist both in very soft and rather hard water. Optimum dH: up to 10 °, Ph: 6-7,5.
Angelfish love clean water, so the presence of aeration and filtration in the aquarium is necessary. Weekly need to replace the aquarium water to fresh before? parts.
Angelfish are very hierarchical fish. It is best to keep them with a flock, in which their own ranking will be established - large and strong pairs will dominate, and weaker ones will receive cuffs. However, such intraspecific aggression is not very scary, especially if you zoned the aquarium. For example, I have aquarium plants and decor planted and set so that the aquarium can be divided into four "adjacent rooms". Such a method helps to avoid excessive aggression and stalking of the weak.

Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar

Sex differences between male and female scalar are weakly expressed. They can be seen only when the fish cut their mature age at 9-12 months of age. Up to this point, when you buy young animals in the pet store, no one will tell you who you take. When buying juveniles, the angelfish can be recommended to take two large individuals, most likely they are males and two small scalars, most likely they will be girls.
To determine the sex of the scalar need experience and practice. A full-time aquarist will distinguish a male from a female in two accounts, but for a beginner, it will be a bit hard for a beginner. For this you need to watch your scalar.
Below is a list of typical sexual differences between the male and the female scalar. Well, of course the photo!

The first sign is behavior. Boys behave like boys, girls like girls. This is especially noticeable when the angelfish are broken into pairs. The pair immediately see who the male and who is the female.
The second sign is the structure of the body. The male angelfish has a 100% distinctive feature - this is a fatty knob on the forehead - a hump. Females do not have it. The forehead of the male is convex, on the contrary vice versa in the female. In addition, the body of the male scalar is more powerful, their back has a fin longer and there are stripes on it (on the back).
The third sign is manifested during the spawning period. The male has a narrow and sharp seed tube, while the female scalar forms a wide and short ovipositor.

Here is a good photo of a male and female angelfish

(male on the left and female on the right). Having received a review of this article from a fish breeding expert. Vitaly ChernyavskyI consider it necessary to supplement this part of the article with his answer, here it is:
"The article on the scalars looked. As for signs of differences between males and females - not quite right.
1) Behavior is not a criterion. Every now and then 2 females without a male completely even (and in turn) imitate the male's sexual behavior. Only if you look closely, you can see that the "male" and the female will then change places - and the roe (naturally unfertilized) will be put off by BOTH fish.
2) There are males without a forehead and females with a forehead.
3) The only clear criterion for sex differences in adult fish is line of the back and abdomen. In the male: the line of the back and dorsal fin form an ANGLE, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost the DIRECT line. And in the female, on the contrary: the line of the back and the dorsal fin form an almost DIRECT line, and the abdomen and anal fin are almost a direct ANGLE. "
Taking into account the expert's opinion, I add this drawing that will help determine the sex of the scalar, based on the angle of its fins.
!!!PAYING ATTENTION!!!
The fact that on the Internet this figure of an angelfish is everywhere spread with false information - the male and the female are confused. This drawing is taken from Ilyin's book Aquarium Fish Breeding. So there the fish were entangled by the artist.
Well, on the Internet, those who sculpt this picture on their websites ... they do not chop themselves, where the female is, where the male is, thereby misleading everyone.
!!! This picture is all right !!! With good and comfortable content angelfish spawning happens right in the general aquarium. The impetus for spawning is the replacement of aquarium water with fresh water and an increase in temperature of 2-4 degrees. A very important role in this process is played by the substrate for laying. Angelfish often prefer to lay eggs on a broadleaf plant, but they may like other places: filter tube, glass, grotto wall, etc.
The place chosen by the producers is thoroughly cleaned of any dirt, and then spawning itself follows. Over time, the female can sweep about 500 eggs, large and even more up to 1000.

Photos of scalar roe



The incubation period for caviar is 2 days; during this period, parents intensively fan the caviar with fins and clean it from litters, remove the whitened - dead caviar. After the larvae hatch from the calf, the parents transfer them to another leaf in their mouth. This is done for greater purity and the elimination of the possibility of catching the infection from the rotting shell of the calf.

Photos of angelfish larvae



Over the next 7 days, the larvae, under the watchful supervision of parents, hang on a piece of paper. When the larvae run out of nutrients from the yolk sac, they turn into fry. From now on, they should start feeding.
Starter feed for young scalar should be of high quality, alive and well washed. Can advise - nauplii, nematodes. It is not desirable, but it is possible to feed the fry with any frayed dry food (the number of dead fry will increase with such feeding). It is also recommended to clean the spawning tank from food residue and other dirt twice a day.

Photo fry, young scalar


The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too. Of course, this does not lead to anything good. There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring. This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders. Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and the angelfish,
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar



Recommended literature and books about scalars

A. N. Gurzhiy "Skalyarii" 2009 Kochetov Sergey "Skalyarii" 2005

Beautiful video with scalars









A selection of beautiful photos with scalars
















Angelfish care and maintenance spawning breeding description

  • Angelfish maintenance and care

    These fishes liked many aquarist lovers for a long time. They contain and breed scalar fish in aquariums for a long time, so these fish managed to adapt and get used to any conditions. What allows you to call them unpretentious fish. Scalyarium is suitable as soft water, and water with medium hardness.

  • The optimum temperature for a comfortable fish is 23-26 degrees Celsius. They can withstand the gradual cooling of water to 16 degrees. If necessary, fish can and transfer the temperature rise to 38 degrees. Scalarfish grow large, especially males, and therefore for their favorable maintenance you will need an aquarium that will be high and in volume from 120 liters.

  • And the width of the aquarium can be any. These fish prefer fresh and clean water, so you will need to regularly change the water in the aquarium. Angelfish love when calm and peaceful fish in the neighborhood. Not a single fish of prey can resist its long fins, an irresistible desire to bite and pull will appear.

  • Therefore, for these fish, the best neighbors will be guppies, gourami, neons. But you should follow the rules, hook the fish about the same size. After all, an angelfish like any other large fish will be happy to eat fry of swordtails or neons.

  • These beautiful angelfish are usually kept in groups of 4-6 individuals. During the life of the fish themselves are divided into pairs. In such groups, the principle of hierarchy prevails. The largest pair takes the best place in the aquarium. Those fish that were left without pairs become an object that everyone else is chasing. The latest single scalar get access to feed. In order to avoid actively chasing groups in the aquarium, it should be planted abundantly with plants or even fish should be planted.

    Fishes love to eat bloodworms, pipemakers, gamarus. Fry love to eat daphnia. In the diet need to introduce granulated feed and flakes. You should take into account the fact that with such a discoid body shape, the angelfish is difficult to lift the food from the bottom, so the fish should be fed in small portions, in different parts of the aquarium. Sometimes fish may refuse to feed, but this is temporary and completely normal. Content angelfish will require good aeration.

Aquarium fish angelfish. Description of angelfish

Scalyarius fish belonging to the family of cichlids. Their homeland is South America, its central part. In reservoirs dense with plants, they acquired their form. Its name is translated as winged sheet.

She looks like a leaf. And in Europe she was given the name angel fish. The flat body allows it to move easily with the plants. Aquarium angelfish grow up to 15 cm in an ordinary aquarium. If the goal of an aquarist is to grow only them, and all the necessary conditions are created for them, then their value can reach 26 cm.

How many live angelfish in an aquarium? Well, somewhere around 10 years, although there have been cases when this period was increased almost 2 times. This allows the choice of the inhabitants of the aquarium to give her preference.

Because if the inhabitants of the aquarium do not live long, and you get used to them, then the death from old age of those who have a life span of just over 2 years very sad aquarist.

SPREAD OR BREEDING SCALARIES

if you want to get a baby angelfish, you need a ready to spawn couple. How to get it? Consider that the scalars themselves choose their partner, so make sure that they have someone to choose from.

It is better to acquire several individuals fry and grow them. The number of individuals should be about six, and this is not a far-fetched figure. Some fry may die in the process of growth, since the scalar is very sensitive to changes in water parameters; Another option is that the fry you grow may not grow to normal size, the reason for this is frequent intraspecific crossing.

You can choose a fry in a store or on the market as follows: keep an eye on the two biggest fry (these must be males), take them; choose the two smallest (most likely females), and take two fry at random, this time of medium size. This method of selection does not guarantee you one hundred percent success, but the chances of success are quite large. You can say for sure that a pair has formed in you, when two fishes determine some territory for themselves and start protecting it from alien invasion.

The sexual maturities of the scalar reach ten to twelve months. If by this time both partners have reached approximately equal sizes and are large enough, you will be able to count on the pair’s spawning soon. You may have some difficulties with determining the sex of your fish, but believe me, the fish will not have such problems, so let them choose their own partner - they will not be mistaken.

A tall aquarium of about 80-100 liters for an spawning angelfish pair is what you need. It is desirable to have plants, koryag, but we should not forget about the place in the center of the aquarium, which must be left free for swimming. Scalarium eggs can be laid on the bottom, or on a wide flat leaf of a plant. Sometimes, not finding a convenient place for laying, the angelfish lay eggs on the filter and on the thermometer.

It is better that this does not happen, so it is possible that you yourself will put a flat stone (for example, slate) on the aquarium, on which the angelfish will lay eggs, after having cleaned it (note that these cichlids prefer to lay eggs on the top of the aquarium) . The day before the spawning of the female, the egg-deposit is visible, and the male has a narrow seed wire.

The female, when the time comes, lays its eggs on the chosen place in even rows, followed by the male, fertilizing the eggs. This action takes about an hour. Spawning takes place in several stages. The total number of eggs ranges from 100 to 500, possibly more.

Caviar can do differently. If you have a separate aquarium specifically for the spawning angelfish pair - this is good. Especially if it is large enough. If you plan to give parents their own care for caviar and fry, a couple and a brood of 200-250 fry should have plenty of room for swimming (and in a large aquarium, the couple will not have a sense of danger for the offspring, in a rush of which they can eat caviar and fry).

If you do not have the opportunity to deposit spawning angelfish from the common aquarium, it is better to take the delayed caviar from the pair. The potential danger posed to scalar parents by every fish in an aquarium, and even by a partner, will cause restless parents to eat offspring.

To avoid this, remove the plant or stone with caviar and place it in a special incubator, not forgetting caviar aeration, temperature inside the incubator, and general water parameters. It is recommended to add antifungal medication to the incubator so that non-fertilized eggs will not harm the fertilized ones.

The larvae hatch in about a day or two after fertilization, if the temperature is optimal. About a week from now, they feed on the shell of the egg they were in, so they do not need feeding. Then dry, frozen food and substitutes will make up the diet of your growing fry.

MOLLINESIA CONTENTS FEEDING COMPATIBILITY SPREADS CARE DESCRIPTION

Angelfish VIDEO

Angelfish - the most popular aquarium fish

The first scalar were found in waters with a middle course in South America. It also becomes not a rare guest in the tributaries of the Orinoco and the Amazon. There she prefers dark transparent water and not strong current. If we consider scalar in its natural environment, then this small silver fish has only four vertical stripes, differing in dark shades, which can be clearly seen in the photo.

The first, for breeding fish in captivity, it was chosen by European aquarists at the very beginning of the XX century. The main advantages for this were the grace and beauty of the scalar. Surprisingly, after a few centuries, its popularity has not diminished, but on the contrary continues to gain popularity among beginners and professionals. The photo shows that the modern inhabitants of the aquarium are significantly different from wild ancestors. Breeders brought new breeds with significant differences in the appearance of the fish. The scalar koi is the brightest representative.

Appearance Description

Looking at the photo it can be noted that it is somewhat different from the distant Amazonian ancestor. Its small body is flattened on both sides, the fins located on the back and near the anus are greatly elongated, so the fish can be compared to a crescent. The fins on the abdominal cavity are more like threads. On the tail fin, the upper and lower rays look the longest.

If we talk about coloring, it is perfectly presented in a variety of pictures of koi scalar. The color of many aquarists associated with decorative carp koi Japanese selection. Undoubtedly, koi are very colorful. The main color is yellow, with scattered spots of various colors scattered around. The upper ridge has a reddish-orange hue, which makes the fish even more decorative. Unlike most fishes, it is possible to distinguish a male from a female by external signs without much difficulty. The male is much larger than the female and has a wide convex forehead. The stakes in this plan are close to the cyclides, on the forehead of which a fatty bump is formed. Females are more rounded. Aquarium representatives can grow with proper care up to 15-17 cm in length and about 24-25 in height.

Maintenance and care

Even a beginner can handle the content of scalar. They are unpretentious and perfectly survive in critical situations. The only prerequisite is a spacious aquarium, without it the fish will feel uncomfortable, which will certainly affect its appearance. One pair requires at least 70 liters, if you decide to start a flock, the minimum volume of the reservoir is 100 liters. Novice aquarists breathe a sigh of relief when they learn that tap water is suitable for these inhabitants. It is advisable to track the rigidity from time to time. It is important that it does not reach maximum performance. Most of all these fish love neutral or slightly acidic water.

Water requirements:

  • Temperature 24-28 degrees;
  • Clear water;
  • Mandatory round-the-clock aeration;
  • The filter does not create a strong flow;
  • A huge amount of greenery;
  • Swimming place.

A distinctive feature of the scalar koi is its fearfulness. She will feel more confident if you plant a part of the aquarium with shelter plants.

This fish does not tolerate loneliness, so most often in the photo next to it there is another individual. They are usually kept in pairs or flocks. It is important that the number of females is equal to the number of males. Surprisingly, these fish themselves are divided from the flock into pairs. You can start them only for those who are confident in their constancy, since the minimum number of years lived with normal care is about 10.

As feed is better to choose live food. They are happy to feed on live food and eat fry, because they belong to predators. Avoid getting stale feed and tubers in the tank. It is believed that this food can be “spiced up” with viruses that do not tolerate scalar. In addition to live food, you can give frozen, combined or dry food. It can only be used as an exception. It is important to correctly calculate the dose, otherwise, the voracious fish easily ruin their digestive organs.

Suitable feed:

  • Bloodworm,
  • Coretra,
  • Great daphnia,
  • Artemia

Compatibility of fish with other inhabitants

Like all cichlids, they behave calmly and do not attack their neighbors. However, this is no reason to sit down to them all in a row.

Ideal neighbors:

  • The best neighbors will be their own kind. The schooling fish perfectly carry such a neighborhood and get along easily.
  • Due to the fact that the scalars rarely sink to the bottom, they are not disturbed by the inhabitants of the lower layer. With bottom fish there are practically no conflict situations.
  • Gourami are also suitable for sharing with scalar. This happens because of a similar way of life. If you look closely at the photo, you can see some similarities in the structure of the body. This idyll is complemented by the same behavior, similarity of requirements, size and speed.

Small fish and fry are not suitable for the neighborhood. They are perceived as food, so in the coming days, they will be completely exterminated. Aggressive African cyclides will not be the best neighbors. Such fish can kick up calm koi.

Breeding and care for fry

To get the offspring you need to carefully understand this issue. Despite its ease of care, breeding is not given just for fun.

Actions for offspring:

  • Creation of spawning from 70 to 100 liters;
  • Stiffness 7 degrees;
  • Sour reaction;
  • Temperature about 28 degrees;
  • Active aeration;
  • Filling with plants with horizontal leaves.

Choose from all already formed a pair and transplant it into a prepared spawning. Raise the temperature by 2 degrees (up to 30) and watch. If you look at the photo of caviar, it can be noted that it is located on a horizontal sheet. Before you start throwing steam, it clears the leaf. A mature female can bite almost 500 eggs, only 100 young. Note that the fish take care of the roe before the appearance of the fry, so you can’t remove the parents in any way. Disturbing fish is also not desirable. Try to watch them from afar and not make loud, harsh sounds. You can keep your parents in a spawning aquarium until the parents lose interest in their offspring. It is not possible to determine the time, so it remains only to carefully observe the family.

As feed for fry, use live food chopped into a crumb. Artemia larvae are very popular. In 4 teaspoons of salt, add 1 teaspoon of water and place the eggs there, when the larvae appear - feed them to the fry. From three months it is allowed to give the cut bloodworm and combined feed. With age, the frequency of feeding decreases, reaching two times a day. By the year they reach sexual maturity, although in the photo, the half year fish is not inferior in size to the ordinary.

Choosing Aquarium Neighbors for Angelfish

Angelfish are peaceful aquarium fish, which in some countries are called "angel fish". As representatives of the Cichlid family, they still possess the predator instinct. Is scalar compatibility with other fish possible? This is a controversial issue, since even schematically acceptable compatibility can end in disrepair for any aquarium fish. If you grow an angelfish with other fish, starting at a young age, they will get along in the future.

The main rule is not to settle them with predatory, fast and aggressive fish and those smaller in size. Who fits in the mouth, those scalar will eat. The compatibility of these aquatic organisms with: catfish, pseudotrophy, danios, petillia, labo and tetras has been proven. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the species compatibility table, which does not guarantee a peaceful settlement in one aquarium, but gives an idea of ​​who the scalars usually get along with.

Also the maintenance of this fish is permissible with those who will ignore its bright appearance, not to wag the fins. The first time after the launch of the fish in the tank, follow their behavior. If there are quarrels, fights, other forms of rivalry, immediately settle the roommates. Consider buying an additional tank.

Compatibility table: scalar and other types

What species do these pets live in peacefully? In order to avoid mistakes in the settlement, should be considered their compatibility with other fish. As a rule, they are livable with many peaceful species, however there are exceptions to the rules.

Look at the common aquarium with scalar.

Barbusses are small fish that strive to pinch the beautiful fins of any neighbors, be it scalaries or other beauties. Sometimes they live peacefully, but Sumatra barbs, cherry barbs, tiger barbs can constantly wipe beautiful cichlid angels. They demonstrate their superiority, and play catch-up, or hide-and-seek, which leads to stress. No shelter or relocation is indispensable. Barbus even though pretty creatures, but too annoying. In addition to them, even gourami, guppies or labo can become strongly unbelted.

Cichlids from Africa and South America - although they are close relatives of the angelfish, they can show territorial aggression and predatory behavior. Cichlids are single fish, or "family men," not many breeders manage to keep them in peace and harmony with other aquatic creatures. The scalar is uncomfortable with them, so the settlement is possible only with individual compatibility, which is checked at a young age.

The cockerels are good neighbors for small cichlids. Can live by themselves. Male males often conflict with each other than with other fish. One caveat - during spawning, the female and male scalar are aggressive to cockerels, if there is no place to move everyone, arrange additional shelters in the tank.

Somiki corridor - almost all of them live without conflicts and claims, the scalar is also no exception. Somiki live in the lower layers of water, scalars - in the middle. Each other can be ignored without interfering with living and eating.

Danio - if the fish grew together, very well. If danios are settled as new neighbors, they will be taken for food.It will not be possible to eat everyone, they will arrange unpleasant endurance tests, proving their superiority. Danio swims in the upper layers of the water, and the scalar well they get. You can install a lot of undergrowth, shelters, a spacious tank so that everyone hides. For small fish, constant stress is extremely harmful, so take a look at how cichlids react.

Goldfish - so luxurious fish can be maintained with a commensurate Karpov. And with the scalar content is unlikely to be successful. Goldfish live in cool water, and cichlids live in warm water. In addition, goldfish and scalar are incompatible in nature - a more active cichlid will tear off the fins of such a neighbor. And another important factor is that goldfish quickly pollute the water, while cichlids love cleanliness.

Guppies are small ornamental fish. Get used to scalars from a young age. But when matured, cichlids can harm guppies. In adults, the predator instincts wake up, which is extremely unpleasant for guppies - it is small, bright and beautiful. If the question arises - where are the guppies gone? The answer is obvious - they were eaten by scalar.

Can I keep in an aquarium with gourami? Quite, gourami are non-conflict fishes that can stand up for themselves. Rarely, territorial disputes arise between gouras and these cichlids, but they can be avoided if there is space for swimming and shelter for all fish.

Look at the confrontation of gourami and scalar.

Mollies are viviparous fishes of colorful color. Content with cichlids of this species will be successful if they grow together. Sometimes mollies gnaw the scalar fins. Over time, they get used to each other, but in case of prolonged conflicts it is better to keep them separate.

Thorns are small omnivorous fish. Naturally, the scalars will be perceived ambiguously, or rather, as food. According to the conditions of detention each other fit, they eat almost the same food. But terration may be physically affected by the harassment of cichlids. Compatibility can be called relative, because for sure there have been cases where ternation and scalar have gotten along. However, terntions are small hydrobionts, large neighbors are dangerous to them.

Discus - these aquarium fish can be good companions for cichlids. The scalar and discus have similar conditions and diet. Even their body shape is a bit identical - and discus and it is difficult for scalars to collect food from the bottom due to disc-shaped symmetry. Therefore, they and others will be able to eat with a special feeder. The differences between them are discus fish flocks, they feel comfortable in a flock of 5-6 individuals, and the scalars swim in a pair, they love a wide space. Having a large tank for both types will be a big plus.

Compatible with mollusks and crustaceans

Snails are not indifferent to the environment clams. Eat everything they see. This does not apply to fish that attack them themselves. However, due to carelessness, the snails launched into the reservoir ate fish eggs. If there is one, the snail needs to be relocated, at least for a while.

As for crustaceans - crustaceans and shrimps, they and tsikhlovye may well cohabit, phlegmatically ignoring each other. Shrimps and crustaceans will not touch the angelfish, because it is a big fish. But the shrimp themselves are not harmless, they are natural predators. Amano shrimp and Macrobenchium tsikhlidki can not offend, but still watch for a start, what they live together. Also, Amano and Macrobenchium shrimps should be settled with scalars in a common aquarium from a young age. Young tsikhlovy fishes are more livable, than adults.

Aquarium shrimp can attack a sick angelfish - they feel weak, so wounds, scratches on the body of scaly are formed through the fault of a small creature. There were precedents that a large shrimp finished off and actually ate the weakened fish. Therefore, watch out for all pets carefully, so that everyone will stay alive and healthy.

If you like scalar, look at the scalp Leopold.

Angelfish: content in an aquarium

The floating crescent, winged leaf, or angelfish rightly takes the place of one of the favorite fish of many breeders, perhaps due to its unusual body shape and soft, but diverse and beautiful colors, and possibly due to its active behavior and livable character. This fish is quite capricious and demanding to the conditions of detention, especially with regard to the purity of the water and the quality of food. Therefore, if you decide to settle it in your pond, then you need to thoroughly prepare for it.

Scalar in nature

In their natural habitat, small rivers in South America were chosen for life with a weak current and abundant plants, quiet reed-covered bays, coastal waters, tributaries of the Amazon and Orinoco.

What does a scalar look like?

These cichlids have a high (up to 26 cm) and short (up to 15 cm) disk-like body. The dorsal and anal fins are very elongated, so that the body of the fish resembles a crescent. Pectoral fins filiform. They, like the tail ones, are sharpened to the ends. Males are less fat than females and have a large forehead.

The traditional coloring scalar silver with black vertical stripes. As a rule, there are four of them: the first passes through the eye, the last through the caudal stem, and the two intermediate ones pass through the body. The spine is darker than the belly. Due to intensive breeding work, the color of the fish can not only vary from greenish-gray to silvery-olive, but also be black, marble, golden, smoky, green, two- and even three-colored. The voile forms of these perciformes are popular.

Modern crescents have three main varieties:

  1. Pterophyllum scalare.
  2. Pterophyllum altum is a large (up to 20 cm) and high (up to 40 cm) fish.
  3. Pterophyllum leopoldi, or humpbacked scalar. Its length in captivity does not exceed 10 cm.

Character

Angelfish are gregarious fish, they cannot stand loneliness at all and are distinguished by their loyalty to their partner. Therefore, it is better to keep them in small groups of 4-6 pieces. In the group there is a strict hierarchy: the best angle goes to the largest pair, a smaller pair - the conditions are worse, single fish are exiles and access to the feed is received last. And if such a renegade is to be resettled, then another individual or even the weakest pair will instantly take his place. To solve the problem, you need to increase either the aquarium or the number of the pack.

Another feature of the angelfish is fearfulness. If you unexpectedly knock or suddenly turn on the light, the fish may experience a strong fright or even a loss of color.

How to create perfect conditions?

Aquarium. Since some individuals can grow quite large, then the aquarium will need a lot. For example, for two pairs of medium-sized fish, it is better to take a 60-liter container, no less. Moreover, the width of the vessel does not play a big role, but the height of the aquarium should not be less than 45 cm.

Temperature. Some sources indicate that scalar can live successfully in the temperature range from 16 to 35 degrees. However, we would not advise you to experiment like this, it is a big risk to undermine the health of your pets. The optimum temperature is 23-26 ° C. Acidity should be maintained at 6.5-7.4, and the rigidity - 18.

Water. Prerequisite - clean water. To ensure it, you need to install a good (bottom or canister) filter, replace a fifth of the water weekly and wash the aquarium itself at least once every 2 months. We add that the filter should be without a violent ejection of water, as the angelfish do not like a strong flow.

Lighting should be bright, but without a sharp change of day and night.

Vegetation. It is recommended to plant aquarium densely with plants, providing space for swimming. Superficial plants can also be used. They will dim excessive lighting and create a sense of security in fish.

Priming. As the soil is good to use coarse sand, fine gravel. Angelfish do not have the habit of digging it up.

Registration. Housing can be decorated with snags, decorative rocks and stone gorges. Caves and shaded areas will serve as shelters. The main principle of selection is safety. There should be no sharp corners.

What to feed the scalar?

There are no special requirements here, as long as the food is of high quality. These cichlids eagerly eat live bloodworms, cortex, and daphnia. You can give dry, granulated feed and flakes. They love to eat algae and pieces of leaves of underwater plants. The menu can be diversified due to minced seafood, ground mussels and shrimp.

It is advisable to equip the feeding place with a special feeder, since, due to the shape of the body, the scalar cannot take food from the bottom.

These fish are prone to overeating, so you need to control portion sizes. Here is the rule: it is better to underfeed than to feed. Sometimes you can observe a gratuitous refusal of food, but you should not worry. After a maximum of a week, everything will return to normal.

In general, the angelfish are amazing fish in both appearance and behavior. And the one who decides to start this beautiful crescent should know: the main thing is to prepare for this event, and then the content of the fish will not disappoint you!

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