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Which aquarium is better to choose

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Which aquarium is better to choose and buy


WHAT AQUARIUM IS BETTER?

Indescribably pleased with the fact that you decided to get an aquarium. This is the right choice! An aquarium at home or in the office is not only a design subject. Aquarium and aquarium world is a hobby, passion, relaxation, positive mood, new knowledge and a new world.

What can I say !!! Aquarium is cool!

But here, when there was a desire to purchase an aquarium,

there is another question

WHAT AQUARIUM IS BETTER ???

In this article I will not read you notations, as some do - they say, read the books first, study the essence of the issue, and then make a decision on which aquarium to choose.

Here, I will try to concisely give advice on choosing an aquarium, posting photos of aquariums, tell which aquariums are in general, well, ask people in the comments to tell what their aquarium is.

Recalling the purchase of my first aquarium, I want to say that I did not think at all, which aquarium should I choose. I just "broke the piggy bank and bought some money for it, I bought it." And enough for a panoramic aquarium firm TM "Nature", a volume of 35 liters and with a glass lid, without lighting.

What I mean is that the choice of an aquarium often comes down not to what is better, but to the question of individual capabilities. Therefore, in the first place, you need to decide on a budget, and it must be borne in mind that with the purchase of an aquarium alone, the spending will not end. Initially, at least to the aquarium will need to buy: a filter and aeration, thermostat, soil, and of most fish. Also it would not be bad to buy immediately: decor, plants (live or artificial), aquarium equipment (a net, siphon, glass cleaning magnets, etc.), after all, it would not be very bad to buy drugs to stabilize the aquarium water and biosystem settings, but they are also not cheap.

The second thing you need to take into account is the place where the aquarium will stand! Much depends on the location of the aquarium: its volume, shape, purpose, and other strokes. For example, if you decide to put an aquarium in a corner of a room, then in my opinion it is better to buy a corner aquarium (with three sides). Such an aquarium will fit well into the interior, will not take up much space, moreover it will give a good panoramic view of the aquarium.

Well, perhaps the third very important point that needs to be taken into account when choosing the best aquarium is the need to think in advance: what and who will be in the aquarium. This is due to the fact that the maintenance conditions of the aquarium inhabitants are different. For example, some fish need a large volume aquarium, others need a small volume, but preferably a long one, some need an aquarium cover, others do not, and so on.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE SELECTION OF THE BEST AQUARIUM

Analyzing the statistics on the Internet, as well as from personal experience, we can recommend one of the most popular aquariums:

Volume: 200 to 250 liters.

The form: Rectangular, panorama or convex front glass. TM "NATURE".

Aquarium price: depends on the configuration, without a cap and tube - $ 90-100. C from 200 $.

Who is in the aquarium: the volume of such an aquarium allows you to have virtually any fish, except for particularly large ones.

Other useful information: The parameters of such an aquarium meet the needs of many people, and the price pleases. For example, a similar aquarium company "Aquael" with a lid, but without a stand is worth - $ 340, as they say, feel the difference.

Of course, if funds allow, then you certainly need to take "Aquael", they are much better than Kharkov "Nature". But, I want to note that I have one of the TM "Nature" aquariums already 10 years old and only pleases, there is no global difference between Aquael, except prestige))).

What else should be considered when choosing the best aquarium.

- All aquarists, in one voice, I recommend initially to take a large-volume aquarium (from 100 liters). It is right, because such an aquarium is easier to care for, it is easier and faster to adjust the biobalance, adaptation and living aquarium inhabitants is better. In general, there is less trouble!

However, do not think that small aquariums are worse, no! Just such aquariums need a little more attention. And taking into account the fact that many people do not allow living space to take "oceanariums," there is a reason to start with a small aquarium. In addition, in a small aquarium, you can “practice” and see if you are interested in aquariums in principle or not, “get a hand”, and therefore decide whether to take a large aquarium or not.

- On sale there are aquariums of the round form, various volume. As a rule, Goldfish are planted in such aquariums. So, I hasten to warn you and say that such aquariums are not very convenient to maintain, moreover, their image is distorted by a spherical shape, and the fish in such aquariums are bad. Often, having suffered from such an aquarium, people make a decorative pot of flowers out of it. At this aquarium ends and begins floristry :).

- On sale you can also find high, but not wide aquariums, made as aquarium paintings. Such aquariums are relatively inexpensive, but they are not the best for the title of the best. Firstly, because they are hard to care for, and secondly, aquarium fish will be bad in them, because for them the main length and width of the aquarium, and not height. Height also plays a role, but in combination with length and width.

- The most common form of aquarium is a rectangular, but you can also recommend a panoramic aquarium or aquarium with a convex front glass. Panoramic aquarium consists of 6 faces (walls) - which gives more viewing angles. A tank with a convex front wall gives volume and looks more interesting than an aquarium with straight glass.

- When buying an aquarium, pay attention to its cover. Covers can be plastic, wooden or glass. The main question is the lighting installed in the cover, which, as a rule, is usually not enough for aquarium plants. If your aquarium will have a lot of aquarium plants, the issue of lighting is best resolved immediately. Pay attention to the fluorescent lamps on them: the number, power and characteristics.

The lack of lighting can be solved in two ways: self-adding lighting (add. Lamp or diode tape) or the initial purchase of a glass cover, and to it the "right amount" of lighting.

- When buying an aquarium, you should pay attention and carefully check it for the presence of chips and microcracks. Consider that even the smallest crack under the pressure of water will sooner or later turn into a huge hole. This rule should be especially followed if the aquarium is purchased through an online store. Movers do not really stand on ceremony with the goods delivered. Carefully check everything when delivering the aquarium to your home.

Talk about choosing the best aquarium can be a lot, but as they say it is better to see once than to hear once. Therefore, we proceed below to a visual study of the issue.

Forms of aquariums

a photo

Corner Aquarium Panoramic Corner


Rectangular With convex glass


Panoramic Octahedron
more forms

Now let's visualize

most popular forms of aquariums

RECTANGULAR AQUARIUMS PHOTO



PANORAMIC AQUARIUMS PHOTOS


FROM THE FORWARDED FRONT WALL PHOTO


ANGULAR AQUARIUM PHOTO


ROUND AQUARIUM PHOTO


EXCLUSIVE AQUARIUS OF UNUSUAL FORM PHOTO

Types of aquariums by purpose

All aquariums can be divided according to their purpose. I think this information will be useful for you: it will help to determine the aquarium terminology, and also help you choose the best aquarium based on your needs.

General aquarium - it is intended for keeping fish of various types. As a rule, in such an aquarium fish are selected according to the principle of compatibility. Most aquariums are just common aquariums.

Species Aquarium - an aquarium in which fish of only one species are contained. A characteristic example is an aquarium with discus. DISCUSSIONS They are called kings of the aquarium and as a rule they are kept separately because they are expensive, large and fastidious to the conditions of detention.

Photos of species aquarium with scalars

Spawning aquarium - it is intended for cultivation of fishes, spawning, incubation of caviar and cultivation of fry. As a rule, such aquariums do not have a large volume and in such aquariums they create special conditions (temperature, lighting) and certain water parameters (dH, pH), which contribute to the spawning of certain fish. Spawning aquarium can also be divided into incubator - it is intended for cultivation of caviar, fish larvae, nursery aquarium - it is intended for cultivation of the grown up juvenile fry.

In terms of shape and function, a spawning aquarium is no different from other aquariums, it is needed exclusively as a separate body of water.

Thus, if you want to breed fish, in addition to the general or specific aquarium, you must also buy a spawning.

Quarantine aquarium or medical - as well as spawning is a separate reservoir, but intended to check the newly purchased fish and treat sick fish.

In such an aquarium, a quarantine for new fish is arranged in order not to infect the common main aquarium. The need for quarantine is due to the fact that even if you bought a seemingly healthy fish, signs of illness may appear in a week. During this period, the fish in the quarantine of the aquarium are checked "for lice", and, moreover, adaptation measures are taken - they gradually add water from the main aquarium to the quarantine. Adaptation is needed because Some fish do not tolerate abrupt changes in the parameters of the aquarium water, from which die a week later.

Quarantine aquarium is especially needed if you purchase fish in the Bird market, as a rule, in such markets there are many contagious and sick fish. In pet stores, this risk is less, but still it is.

In addition, quarantine aquarium can be used as an aquarium for the treatment of diseased fish. The treatment can be carried out in the general aquarium, but firstly, you will unnecessarily poison the healthy - non-diseased fish with chemistry, secondly, aquarium plants may react badly to chemistry and medications, and in general the biobalance and microflora of aquarium water will be disturbed, besides remain the risk of indiscriminate disease of all fish.

Therefore, it is always recommended to remove the diseased fish in a quarantine tank and conduct individual treatment there until full recovery.

Aquariums can also be divided into:

Biotope - in it imitate separately taken underwater landscape (lake, stream).

Biotope Aquarium Photos

Dutch - Aquarium designed for aquarium plants, it is also called "herbalist".

Photos of the Dutch aquarium

Geographical - in such an aquarium contain fish from one region.

Freshwater, saltwater, marine aquarium - Most aquariums are freshwater bodies of water, but there are aquariums that contain saline or marine fish.

Photos of marine aquarium

For general development, it can also be said that the structure can be divided into: frame, frameless, asbestos cement, Plexiglas.

And of course, there is still
shrimps, aquariums for turtles, newts, frogs and others.


I recommend also to get acquainted with the following articles:

Aquarium for beginners
Aquarium decoration

Restart AquariumLAUNCH OF AQUARIUM

I WANT TO LEAD AQUARIUM, WHERE TO BEGIN!

In this article you will learn the order and the main nuances of installing an aquarium. This is a step by step instruction!

All about Purchasing Transplant Fish Shipping!

An article about the rules of choice, transportation and proper transfer of fish. It will help you to do everything right when buying the first fish.

AQUARIUM FOR CHILDREN, CHILD AND BABY!

Here highlights the main points related to the acquisition of an aquarium for children. The article describes the pros and cons of an aquarium designed for a child.

ALL about AQUARIUM FISHES

The basic article about aquarium fish, it lists the types of aquarium fish (with photos), tells how to care, what to feed, what they get sick, etc.

How many fish can aquarium 100 liters.

Here you will learn how many fish you can plant - keep in an aquarium. At the bottom of the article are links to aquariums of all volumes from 10 to 150 liters.

How much are the fish or the price of aquarium fish!

The pricing policy for aquarium fish is covered.

BOTTOM AND GROUND OF THE AQUARIUM.

Good article. It will help you to decide on the choice and design of the aquarium bottom.

Aquarium from a can, keeping aquarium fish in a can.

Covered the question of the budget version of the content of fish.

AQUARIUM FAILURES: Do we really need these fish?

Article warning, it highlights the disadvantages of the aquarium case.

Additional articles:

WHAT IS NECESSARY TO THE AQUARIUM: what to consider when choosing an aquarium and which fish to buy?

I WANT TO GO TO FISH: how to equip the first beautiful aquarium.

FIRST AQUARIUM DAYS: Start the creation of the aquarium world of fish!


Video that will help determine the choice of the best aquarium

Category: Aquarium Articles / EQUIPMENT AND FACILITY AQUARIUM | Views: 5 008 | Date: 29-08-2013, 15:02 | Comments (3) We also recommend reading:
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Aquaria for beginners: important tips

A beautiful aquarium in the house brings joy to our lives during the contemplation of fish and perfectly affects the psychological component. Each novice aquarist unwittingly wonders where to start, to get everything right for the aquarium, run it right the first time and prevent the fish from dying.

Choosing a home aquarium

Before acquiring a tank for fish, it is necessary to carefully consider its design and shape so that it fits into the interior of the room as naturally as possible, does not interfere with its basic purpose and is located in a place convenient for viewing.

By design, aquariums are on a stand, on legs, suspended, angled, frame and frameless. In form, they are represented by more than a wide choice, the main of which are:

  • spherical (round);
  • cubic (square);
  • parallelepipedal (rectangular);
  • parallelepipedal with convex viewing glass (panoramic);
  • prismoidal (with a regular polygon of the bottom, as a rule, high, for a floor installation);
  • pyromidoidal (triangular, for closed-type aquariums).

The main parameters for choosing a tank for keeping fish in a novice aquarist are the following factors:

  • correct installation, which should allow various manipulations during operation (removal or installation of the cover and backlight, feeding fish, planting plants, cleaning the filter, bottom siphon, etc.);
  • the exclusion of direct sunlight on its surface;
  • the number and size of the aquarium population (the required volume of the aquarium depends on this. If there is no certainty for specific fish, then take at least 1 liter of water per 1 cm of adult fish, i.e. if you want to contain 10 fish 8 cm long, you need an aquarium more than 80 liters, it will avoid overcrowding and allow it to develop well and feel comfortable for its inhabitants).

Aquarium accessories

Together with the aquarium offer covers with integrated lighting and cabinets for them. If there is no specific place to install the aquarium, then you can use this offer. A lid for a backlit aquarium will prevent many species of fish from jumping out, reduce evaporation of water into the atmosphere of the room, and also provide artificial lighting for the plant and allow you to control the length of the day in a pond. The cabinet is suitable for storing all sorts of accessories (a net, tubes, suckers, feeders, literature, etc.), feed and other things related to the aquarium.


Aquarium equipment

There is a standard set of equipment for aquariums:

  • Illumination (the choice of lamp power and the duration of illumination during the day depends on the inhabitants and plants);
  • water heater (it is better to choose with automatic temperature control);
  • Aerator and water filter can be both combined and separate (power depends on the volume of the aquarium).

The selection of soil and scenery depends on the inhabitants, but small fractional rounded gravel without sharp edges is considered universal. The thickness of the soil at the bottom should be from 5 to 7 cm, this will allow plants to root well and grow. You can use locks, sunken ships, etc. to decorate and create a unique interior.

The choice of inhabitants and vegetation

Practically all viviparous fishes are suitable for beginner aquarists: mollies, swordtails, petilles and gupias. They are beautiful, elegant, not difficult to maintain and hardy. The content and reproduction of these species will allow you to learn the basics of aquarism while investing minimal financial and time costs.

You can run a few small catfish to the viviparous fish. They differ in coloring, body shape and behavior. Somiki will add refinement to the aquarium and will eat the remnants of food and clean the plants. Antsitrus catfish suckers are perfect.

From low-priced low-priced plants, you can use elodea, valisneria, cryptocarin, and from superficial plants, ichie or duckweed. You can also add lumps of moss to a kladofor or javanese moss.

Running aquarium

Before releasing beautiful fish in the aquarium, it takes about two weeks. One day can be done:

  • laying soil, planting plants, installation of lighting decorations, heating, filter aerator;
  • filling the aquarium with tap water;
  • turning on the heater and filter aerator.

After that, you need to wait a week for chlorine to evaporate from the water during this time. It is allowed to add various normalizers to the water, which improve the water parameters. Before using them, you should consult with competent aquarists or sellers who know the parameters of tap water in your area.

After a week, you can run the first, most enduring inhabitants - snails ampoules, tritons, frogs or shrimp. Often the first are ampulyarii. They have a positive effect on the formation of an ecosystem in an aquarium. Water in a room pond is gaining stability in the order of a month and may become cloudy. Over time, it will clear and be transparent. And only depending on the state of water and well-being of ampoules, after about a week you can run inexpensive fish. More information about the first launch of the aquarium can be found here.

From practical experience

There are some general tips on keeping and breeding fish, but it all depends on the specific inhabitants of your aquarium.

  1. It is better to buy a rectangular aquarium without panoramic glass, while its length should be greater than the height and width less than the height.
  2. The volume of the aquarium of about 100 liters will allow you to contain a closed ecosystem (the state of water in the temperature, chemical and biological ranges will be less subject to drastic changes, which will affect the health of the fish), and will also require lower maintenance costs.
  3. Maintaining a constant temperature will save the fish from many diseases.
  4. Overfeeding fish can not be, and better to feed once a day. Food should be varied - live, frozen, dry (if you feed constantly alive, the fish begin to get fat and it becomes difficult for them to multiply).
  5. Change the water in the aquarium weekly with the replacement of up to 30% of the total. Cleaning and siphon bottom in the first month after launch do not need. Depending on the number of fish, pollution of the bottom or chemical indicators of water, these activities should be carried out approximately once every two to four weeks.
  6. The water filter and aerator in the aquarium should work around the clock.
  7. Lighting needs to be controlled, otherwise excessive growth of algae or plants will begin. The duration of coverage per day is in the range from 8 to 12 hours.

How to choose an aquarium will tell experts of the program "Cheap and Angry" (Channel One):

Aquarium for beginners: care, content, useful video


AQUARIUM FOR BEGINNERS
Problems faced by beginners when you first start an aquarium

The motivation for writing this article was the frequent appeal of newcomers to aquarism at FORUM FanFishka.ru. Almost every day, newly minted owners of the aquarium world ask their questions to which they either do not know the answers, or need advice, or have problems after the first launch of the aquarium.

All who asked for help on the forum, did not go unheeded! Even if the newcomer had gross or absurd mistakes, I never scolded him, and tried to explain what was what planned.

But, at some stage, I realized that I would not be enough for everyone and that I needed methodological material for beginners!

Looking at the materials already written on the site FanFishka.ru, I saw a sufficient number of articles - “about the first steps into the aquarium kingdom”. But, all of them were scattered and only mutually complementary. After analyzing further similar materials on the Internet, my desire to write a decent, systematic material, only intensified!

For constructive conversation, let's break down the article into sections:

1. AQUARIUM FOR BEGINNERS: arrangement, launch, frequent questions, problems.

2. FISHING AND PLANTS FOR BEGINNERS: what are the issues that are necessary, problems.

3. NUANS OF YOUNG AQUARIUM: rules that will help to avoid problems with the aquarium.

AQUARIUM FOR BEGINNERS

arrangement, launch, frequent questions, problems

To create an aquarium world, you need not only the aquarium itself, but also related products. Many beginners make the mistake of buying only the minimum part of the necessary equipment. And then they begin to run in a hurry in search of a product.

Remember, as Captain Vrungel said: "How do you call a ship, so it will sail." The first launch of the aquarium should be perfect - and this will be the key to the joy and pleasure from aquarium contemplation, eliminates possible problems and difficulties, and most importantly will give you invaluable experience. In the future, you can miss something, lazy ... but not now!

Below are links to articles in this section, in bold, priority articles are highlighted:

Running Aquarium from A to Z

An example of an aquarium design 100 liters

Aquarium decoration

Which aquarium is better

WHAT NEED TO AQUARIUM

I WANT TO GO TO FISH: how to equip the first aquarium.

AQUARIUM BEGINNING: the basics of the aquarium, the basics of aquarium

FIRST AQUARIUM DAYS: Start the creation of the aquarium world of fish!

INVENTORY FOR AQUARIUM AND DEVICES

BOTTOM AND GROUND OF THE AQUARIUM

CHANGE OF WATER IN THE AQUARIUM! WHAT WATER IS NEEDED FOR THE AQUARIUM?

Boiled thawed or distilled water for aquarium

Seashells in the aquarium

SMALL AQUARIUM merits and demerits!

LACK OF THE AQUARIUM, but are these fish really necessary?

AQUARIUM FOR CHILDREN

Other questions on the forum ...

Here's another, for convenience, as a reminder - I give a list of what ponabitsya for a novice aquarist:

- aquarium;

- aeration, filtration;

- ground;

- heat heater, thermometer;

- lighting, if not included;

- aquatic organisms: fish, plants, mollusks, etc .;

- food for prospective fish;

- inventory: net, siphon, aquarium silicone, sponges, buckets. Secondary - hoses, valves, windshield wipers, other;

Plus, I recommend to all beginners to buy immediately a means to stabilize the aquarium water. It is called the water stabilizer. Different brands have different names, here are some of them: Tetra Aqua Safe, Sera aquatan, Sera bio nitrivec ... others. Read about them here AQUARIUM CHEMISTRY.

The above articles fully disclose all the nuances of buying, installing and running an aquarium. Below are the blitz answers to the most frequent questions of novice aquarists.

1. Question: Is it possible to put the aquarium on the furniture? In the kitchen? Bath and so on?

Answer: Can. It is important that the surface of the furniture was solid and withstand the weight of the aquarium with water, soil and decorations. The aquarium can be placed anywhere, as long as direct sunlight does not fall on it. Cooking, bathing does not interfere with the life of the fish.

2. Question: After the launch of the aquarium, the water turned cloudy - became whitish!?

Answer: Nothing wrong with that. When you first fill the aquarium with water for the first time, the reservoir's biobalance is not yet tuned, because This is a long process. Primary adaptation processes of aquarium water occur. The whiteness of the water will pass itself in 3-7 days.

3. Question: What kind of water to pour into the aquarium? How often should it be changed?

Answer: You need to pour water at least 24 hours a day. Otherwise, you can run into trouble, for example, gas embolus. Yes ... you can fill the aquarium with tap water - but, counting on it at random.

The substitution of aquarium water is purely individual and depends on the size of the aquarium, the number of fish and plants, and other factors. In general, it is customary to replace water once a week. But, as the poll on our site shows, this is not a dogma.

"How often do you change aquarium water to fresh water?"

4. Question: Is it possible to decorate an aquarium with statuettes, shells, beads, etc.

Answer: Can. But, you must make sure that the material from which the decor is made is not soluble in water. The same shells undergo a gradual dissolution in aquarium water, which increases, albeit slightly, the rigidity of aquarium water. Painted, plastic items are best not to use. Metal - are prohibited.

FISHING AND PLANTS FOR BEGINNERS

what is necessary, issues issues

Giving advice on choosing fish for a novice aquarist, you can immediately get rid of him with the phrase: "Choose unpretentious in the content, small fish, for example, from the family of petsilia - guppies, swordtails, radishes, etc.".

But who thought it up that it is impossible to immediately start large, beautiful fish - the same tsikhlazom: severum, diamond or black-striped? If you properly care for them, then there will be no problems. And if you do not follow the aquarium and let everything go to chance, then the guppies will die in a week.

Perhaps the main qualification when choosing aquarium fish are your abilities and desires.

The opposite situation is with aquarium plants. It's not so simple. The success of plant maintenance is LIGHT + SUPPLY + CO2. Their deficiency leads to the death or poor health of plants.

Unfortunately, in the aquarium covers that come with, as a rule, there are 15-18 watt light bulbs, the power of which is insufficient for the normal existence of aquarium plants. Therefore, before you start a plant you need to study everything and prepare in advance.

The initial way out of this situation may be unpretentious, resistant aquarium plants that are not pretentious to the conditions of detention.

Below are the articles that fully and comprehensively disclose this section.

Compatibility of aquarium fish

COMPATIBILITY OF GOLDEN FISHES

ALL about AQUARIUM FISHES

TOP: The most beautiful aquarium fish and fish!

The most unpretentious little aquarium fish

WHAT FISHES LIVE WITHOUT OXYGEN

What fish live in an aquarium. What kind of fish to get?

AQUARIUM FISHING OF ALL FLOWERS

Purchasing Transplant Fish Transportation

AQUARIUM PLANTS: let's talk about the benefits of plants for your aquarium!

CO2 for aquarium

The benefits and dangers of CO2 in an aquarium

Why in the aquarium ...

YOU CAN AQUARIUM: all the answers

Fish and snails: enemies or friends!

How much are the fish or the price of aquarium fish!

How much can the fish in the aquarium

Perhaps the most important thing when choosing fish is to take into account their compatibility and the volume of "living space". Do not chase the quantity!

Frequently asked questions by novice aquarists in this section:

1. Question: Did the fishes get covered with white dots, bumps?

Answer: This ichthyophthyriosis or "semolina" fish. It is treated with Tetra Contral or Sera Kostapur. Read more here:

Ichthyotiria how to treat semolina in aquarium fish

AQUARIUM CHEMISTRY

Discussion on the forum

2. Question: Fish die, why, what to do?

Answer: Here

Why die fish or the sad fate of goldfish!

The first symptoms of fish disease

WHAT TO DO IF FISHES ARE DISEASE OR SUSTAINABLE

We also recommend you to look at the colorful brochure "Popular types of aquarium fish". This brochure contains all popular types of fish, with a description of their conditions of maintenance, compatibility, feeding + photos.

(to view or download, click on the image)

NUANS OF YOUNG AQUARIUM

rules that will help to avoid problems with the aquarium

DON'T BELIEVE SELLERS.

Unfortunately, they have such a job - to smell you as much as possible. Often the sellers' advice is wrong and aimed only at one greedy enrichment at your expense.

READ, LEARN, ASK QUESTIONS.

Actually this rule follows from the previous one - it is your weapon in the fight against lies. Your own opinion based on what you read is the key to success not only in aquarism. Read several materials on the topic of interest, for comparison and analysis.

DO NOT HURRY, AND THEN SUCCEED.

Do not rush, do everything thoroughly. It is impossible to get ahead of time - everything that was done in a hurry will collapse soon.

DO NOT OVERDO IT.

Feed the fish once a day, "do not rub" the aquarium daily, do not fill the aquarium with fish and plants. In fact: aeration, filtration, normal water temperature and feed - these are the basic living conditions of the fish.

STUDY AND USE AQUARIUM CHEMISTRY.

This will give you the opportunity to quickly adjust the bio balance of the aquarium, to keep it clean, and in the case of illness of pets - to take action on time.


BONUS: VIDEO FOR BEGINNERS AQUARIUS

Which soil for the aquarium is better to choose?



BOTTOM AND GROUND AQUARIUM

And let's discuss with you such an important question as the arrangement of the aquarium bottom.

Such a question arises only at the initial stage of arrangement of the aquarium world - with the purchase of an aquarium. In the future, this topic becomes irrelevant and falls. But, often, at the beginning of time, mistakes made at the very beginning make themselves felt, as a result of which everything has to be corrected.

The purpose of this article will be to draw the reader’s attention to the main accents and nuances of the selection, acquisition, preparation and placement of aquarium soil, as well as decorating the bottom of the underwater world.

CHOICE OF AQUARIUM GROUND

Both the foundation for the house and the aquarium soil play a crucial role in the life of the aquarium!

Novice aquarists very often pay attention only to the decorative properties of the soil and miss its most important function. Aquarian soil is a unique biological filter, powerful and irreplaceable by nothing else.

The fact is that after the launch of the aquarium in the ground colonies of beneficial bacteria settle, which process the waste products (hereinafter - PJ) of aquatic organisms (aquatic organisms - marine and freshwater organisms constantly living in aquatic environments) into harmless substances. This process is also called the ammonia cycle - the cycle of transition of PJ into ammonia and then to its decomposition products - nitrites, nitrates.

In addition to biological filtration, the soil performs mechanical filtration. In addition, the soil is a substrate for rooting and feeding plants through the root system, the place of life of many microorganisms and some fish. The soil is even able to change the parameters of water in the right direction. That is why the choice of aquarium soil is of paramount importance! Quality, properly selected soil - is the key to a long and successful life of the aquarium!

Now imagine this situation. A novice, following stereotypes, takes a white, dyed, coarse-grained soil and puts it into the aquarium a couple of centimeters thick. Scatters seashells from above for beauty. What problems? Everyone has their own tastes and preferences. We do not in any way impose our position, but here are just some of the disadvantages of this situation:

1. Painted soil is not a porous material, that is, it has a minimum amount of usable area for colonization of beneficial bacteria. As a result, minimization of biological filtration in the soil and the accumulation of PJ in water.

2. The soil is laid in a thin layer, which also reduces its effectiveness.

3. Everyone knows that white color is very easily soiled. Over time, your ground will become light coffee, and if there is a surplus of algae in the aquarium, then green shades on the ground are not excluded. In addition, many drugs for the treatment of fish are synthetic dyes - methylene blue, malachite green. After applying them, the white primer is painted in the appropriate color. That is, the original aesthetic goal pursued by an aquarist is lost.

4. White colored primer is neutral in most cases, which is not the case for shells laid for beauty. They increase the hardness of the water, and this quality badly affects the life of aquarium plants and "soft-water" aquarium fish.

5. If the white soil is of natural origin, then, as a rule, it is rounded marble, and marble comes from limestone, which is perfectly soluble with organic acids, thereby increasing the rigidity of the aquarium water. Therefore, this soil can only be used for "hard water" fish.

So, from the above, a novice aquarist needs to draw the following conclusions:

- carefully, to the smallest detail, think about how you want to see your aquarium,

- to collect and analyze information on hydrobionts that you plan to inhabit,

- carefully consider the design.

And only after that, proceed to the selection and purchase of soil under the relevant requests. The benefit of the aquarium market now offers a wide range.

The key to a successful selection of aquarium soil and arrangement of the bottom of the aquarium is a clear view of the goals, objectives of the aquarium, as well as a common vision of the underwater kingdom.

In order to navigate, answer the following questions:

- Who will live in the aquarium, what fish, what crustaceans?

- Will there be live plants in your tank?

- What colors will your aquarium (lighting, background, general decor)?

- In the end, calculate the volume of aquarium soil needed for the whole of the bottom of the aquarium zastilaniya?

Answers to these questions will help you make the right choice.

Selection of ground flooring for aquarium fish

It should be understood that aquarium soil for fish and for living plants are two different things. But, since most of the aquariums are being set up specifically for fish, apart from the “Dutch aquarium”, we will start with them.

Choosing aquarium soil for fish, you must take into account their characteristics and habits. Here in this small article is a couple of examples of the relationship of Goldfish and Cichlids to aquarium soil. GROUND IN THE AQUARIUM: what kind of soil is better for an aquarium! In general, it can be said that small fish can be laid fine-grained soil, and large large or mixed. But there are exceptions !!! For example, the aforementioned goldfish, even in the period of "youth" - when they are small, they dig very much and dig at the bottom.And if they lay sand or small pebbles, the aquarium will always be muddy, not to mention the fact that fish will swallow such a soil, from which they can die. As an example, the importance of taking into account the characteristics of fish can also give an example of the characteristics of loach fish, for example, Acantoftalmus. These fish are the bottom inhabitants of the aquarium and love to dig into the ground. If you lay a coarse-grained soil in the aquarium, then the aquantophthalmos will be “hollowed about like a wall”. Of course, they will certainly not be killed, but they will not feel exactly comfortable, because you have deprived them of natural conditions and disturbed their lifestyle.

If you do not know the habits of the fish that you want to take - consult with the seller of the pet store beforehand, but rather read books or fish information on the Internet site.

The color scheme of the bottom for the fish.I think in this matter you decide. Analyzing data from the Internet, I would like to say that many recommend taking a dark ground, supposedly fish on it can be seen better. I do not know, did not check, I originally had a bed of dark blue soil. But it seems to me that the pink ground for pink fish is overkill. There must be a contrast.

The thickness of the layer of soil for fishdoes not play a special role.

Selection of bottom flooring - soil for aquarium plants As already mentioned, there is a significant difference between the soil for fish and the soil for aquarium plants. Aquarium plants use the bottom and bottom of the aquarium as a substrate for rooting and feeding. Thus, the soil for plants should perform not only decorative functions, but also the above.

As a general rule, the soil for aquarium plants should be fine-grained or medium-grained (up to 5 mm). In any case, in this matter you should start from the power of the root system of aquarium plants, which will be in your aquarium. An underdeveloped horse system requires fine-grained soil; for a strong root system, a medium or even coarse-grained fraction can be used.

The color scheme of soil for aquarium plants. It is said that for aquarium plants the ground should be dark, saying that the plants like warm ground, and the dark color of the bottom contributes to its warming. I do not know, I do not know, it seems to me that this factor is so insignificant that you should not pay attention to it. Moreover, the total heating of the aquarium for plants is enough.

The thickness of the aquarium soil for plants. It should be from 5 to 7 cm. More. Again, proceed from the size of the plant root system. The above bottom thickness is suitable for most aquarium plants.

One of the most important factors of soil for plants is its nutritional value. Most aquarium plants get nutrients from the ground. Therefore, it must be enriched by them. You can put peat, lumps of clay in the soil, as well as introduce special preparations that are sold in the pet store. You can read more about all this in this article. AQUARIUM PLANTS: let's talk about the benefits of plants for your aquarium! and Soil for aquarium plants!

Additional recommendations when choosing a soil

Choosing a primer in a pet store, pay attention to what it is made of. The best soil is a natural, natural soil, unpainted with nothing.

For example, this color primer is not very good.

Preparation of aquarium soil Before you fill the aquarium bottom with soil, you need to prepare it. If you use the soil collected "on the street" it must be washed and boiled, so that every infection does not get into the aquarium. The soil purchased at the pet store is also washed or doused with boiling water.

A big mistake for novice aquarists is to wash the aquarium soil with soap or domesticostos. This is not worth doing, as it is very difficult to wash the chemistry out of the soil, as much as redder, it will take a lot of time and effort.

After the procedures, the soil, without waiting until it dries, can be poured to the bottom of the aquarium.

PLACEMENT OF THE AQUARIUM GROUND

As a rule, the soil in the aquarium is placed evenly. But you can distribute it so that it rises from the front wall of the aquarium to the back. This option of the bottom of the bogie will add volume and will look more impressive.

Many novice aquarists, sometimes spread out of the soil of different colors of the drawings at the bottom of the aquarium (tracks, sun and other compositions). Such drawings are not durable - the soil is gradually mixed and as a result there is nothing left of the "sun". There is nothing bad in this, of course. However, in the end, you can get a soil of a brownish color, which can spoil the overall appearance of the aquarium.

After the distribution of the soil, I install the decor, fill the aquarium, plant the plants and feed.

Other recommendations:

- If you decide not to buy the soil in the pet store, but to make it "do it yourself", you should consider that in such cases it is better to use gray sand or dark-colored gravel, which is taken from an environmentally friendly source (you should not take sand from the public beach) . Also for decorating the bottom, you can use volcanic gravel, crushed basalt. It is strictly forbidden to use river sand having a red or yellow color. This sand contains iron oxide, which is harmful to fish.

- As a general rule, it is undesirable to use soluble materials as soil, for example, limestone (hisses - increases water hardness).

- Its "silting" depends on the size of the soil grain.

- As a plant, a ground cover plant, you can use, for example, echinodorus tender, also known as rubra. The unpretentious plant, with which the beginner will cope.

- A full change of aquarium soil or washing is carried out about once every 5 years. Depends on the number of fish and plants.

- care for the aquarium bottom and the ground is in its periodic cleaning - siphon (siphons are sold in stores, you can do it yourself). Siphon is the simplest device (essentially a hose) in which a vacuum is created and due to which all the dirt from the bottom of the aquarium is sucked out along with the water. The frequency of cleaning depends on the degree of contamination of the aquarium bottom (all in different ways). The soil in the "freshly laid" aquarium can not be cleaned even for a year, and if there are aquarium plants, then in the ground, on the contrary, at first, they feed and feed fertilizers.

- Aquarium can be without soil. In this case, if you need plants they are planted in pots.

Summing up, we can say that the most correct, the best soil for the aquarium bottom will be the one that was cleverly chosen or made.
In the photo examples of the design of the aquarium bottom









Video on the design of the aquarium soil, examples of bottom design and cleaning the soil

The best filter for aquarium: types of filtering, photo-video review



Good filter for the aquarium Which is better to choose?

As a rule, such a question arises from a conscious aquarist before purchasing and choosing a filtration system for your water body. Of course, it is possible to let everything take its course, as many do - go and buy a filter in the pet store, which is available and offered by the sellers. But, only then do not have to complain about the sellers and regret their wasted money. Sellers have such a job - to sell the product and it doesn’t matter your fate and the fate of your filter.

Glad you looked at this page! This means that you approach this issue correctly - first read, learn, and then make a decision. After all, this approach to the business level almost all the risks of acquiring a not-good aquarium filter.

In this article, we will not tell you in detail and boringly the details of the various aquarium water filtration processes, but try to focus on the quality characteristics of the filter and the nuances of its choice, to give advice. To the same readers who are looking for where to buy a good filter for an aquarium, at a reasonable price, we recommend you pay attention to the time-tested aquarium shop ReefTime.ruthere is just a huge selection of filters. From recommendations we suggest to pay attention to a line of filters from Hydordetails of which are written here!

So, before choosing a filter, you must understand, and which filter is good for your aquarium ?! For this you need to think about what fish, what plants will live in your pond, how many will be. If the aquarium is large, there will be a large number of large fish swimming in it, there will be a lot of plants, then the filter should cope with this and most effectively remove all "sewage" from the aquarium water. But, if it is a small aquarium, and you are not going to breed “sharks” in it, then I personally do not see the point of taking a powerful filter filter, you can get by with a “standard” filter and thus save a considerable amount of money.

I think everything is clear here, so let's move on to the next question.

Before buying an aquarium filter, you need to find out what filtering mechanism is used in it.

There are four MAIN TYPES OF AQUARIUM WATER FILTRATION:

- MECHANICAL FILTRATION;

- CHEMICAL FILTRATION;

- BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION;

- COMBINED FILTRATION;

Let's briefly review the principles of each filter with a specific type of water filtration.

Mechanical filters and aquarium filtration

- These are the simplest and at the same time effective filters for an aquarium. Some "old fashioned" call them "glasses." The essence of their work is very simple - the filter has a pump (motor) and an absorbent sponge. The pump pumps the aquarium water, which passes through the sponge, is cleaned. Such filtration effectively copes with the removal of large contaminants: food residues, fish excreta, residues of dead organisms, etc.

If you have a small aquarium and not very large fish swim in it, such a mechanical filter will be quite enough.

Chemical Filters and Aquarium Filtration

- These are filters that provide filtering through various absorbents. The most common absorbent is aquarium coal. Also in the aquarium used and other absorbents - ion exchange resins, for example, zeolite. Filters that provide for the possibility of such filtering are more practical than mechanical ones. Since the pores of absorbent materials are able to absorb smaller particles of pollution of aquarium water, and ion exchange resins can effectively fight even the most harmful poisons - ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, which are formed and gradually accumulate in the aquarium.

Biofilters filters and aquarium biological filtration

- Perhaps this is the most valuable filtering for the aquarium. Its essence lies in the presence of a special compartment in the filter for breeding a colony of "beneficial" bacteria, which multiply on a special substrate, for example, ceramics. These bacteria are important and very useful hydrobionts of any aquarium. They are involved in the denitrification process, to put it simply - they feed and decompose ammonia, nitrites and nitrates to a gaseous state. And, as many people know, NO2NO3 are the worst enemies of the aquarium inhabitants, in most cases they are the root cause of the fish disease.

Combined filters and aquarium filtration

- These are filters that combine the possibility of using various types of filtration of aquarium water. Some filters have all three of the above filtering types. But it is worth noting that even the simplest mechanical filter can be used as a combined one. That is, use in it and absorbent sponge, and for example aquarium coal.

photo mechanical aquarium filter

left and right

photo biofilter aquarium combined


So let's summarize the above. If you have a small pond and not very big fish, then your choice is a mechanical filter. Such filters are not expensive, easy to operate and clean. But, if you have a large aquarium, large fish or just a lot of them, then our recommendation for you is to choose a combined filter with the presence of biofiltration. Such a filter is more expensive, more difficult to clean, but it will serve you well.

For those who still want to do mathematics or want to make an aquarium filter on their own, here is the formula for calculating the power of the aquarium filter

Buying a good aquarium filter, you should also pay attention to its technical characteristics. In a word on power. The power of the filter is determined by its ability to pass a certain amount of water for a certain period of time. Usually 300l./hour is written on the filter pack, 1000l./hour - pay attention to this.

If you do not want to bother with the calculation of the required filter bandwidth, then you can simply look at the recommended aquarium volumes for this filter, which are written by the manufacturers on the packaging, for example, "designed for a volume of 150l.". However, this figure is not always true.

Therefore, we advise you to take the filter with the mark "recommended volume" much higher.

A rather important technical characteristic of the filter is its "noise". Good aquarium filters are noisy, but quiet. Agree, I would not like to hear the roar of the engine from the aquarium at night, as if "a flock of night bikers travels around your bed." If possible, do not take Chinese aquarium filters or filters of unclear brands. Trademarks that have proven themselves in the market, try to make their products high-quality and silent, but such filters are much more expensive than Chinese. It is very difficult to recommend you a particular firm - there are many of them, and they are not always “branded”. But, based on my own experience, I dare to draw your attention to the TM "AquaEL" - a combination of price and quality.

There is still a small aspect of the technical part of the aquarium filter - this is its assembly and disassembly and accessories. Some filters, even mechanical ones, are equipped with two containers, some with one, some are equipped with additional nozzles for aeration and other gadgets, others are not. Some are easy to disassemble and clean, others are difficult. Therefore, choosing the best aquarium filter in the store, at least turn it in your hands, look at the accessories, think about whether you need them or not.

Now let's consider the issue of choosing an aquarium filter based on its location.

ALL POPULAR AQUARIUM FILTERS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO:

- INTERNAL FILTERS;

- EXTERNAL FILTERS;

- HINGED;

Internal aquarium filters

- fasten and work inside the aquarium. They can be of all types of filtration, that is, mechanical, chemical, biological and combined.

Perhaps these are the most popular and best-selling filters. Their price is much cheaper than external filters, easy to operate and clean. As a drawback, some aquarists point out that they occupy space in the aquarium - thereby eating up precious volumes. However, this is a controversial point, because the filter does not occupy 1/3 of the aquarium. Well, yes, it takes 2-3 liters of volume, hanging quietly in the corner. It seems to me that this is not a very significant drawback, especially for medium and large aquariums.

External aquarium filters

- these are filters that are located and installed outside the aquarium, only the tubes are lowered into the aquarium. It is difficult to give a positive or negative assessment of such a filter - someone is happy with it, some is not. Therefore, I will simply list the advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages:

- a large amount of filter materials, thereby achieving maximum water purification;

- combined filtration with purity levels;

Disadvantages:

- high price;

- This is a huge "bucket" near the aquarium;

- there is always the likelihood of a flood (as a rule, when improperly assembled);

Mounted aquarium filters

- This is a compromise between the internal and external filter. The hybrid of both is "hanging from the outside, but working inside." These filters are not so popular among aquarists, because they work according to the principle “not yours is not yours,” perhaps its only distinguishing advantage is compactness and space preservation both in and under the aquarium.


So, summing up the above, we can recommend internal filters for small, medium and not very large aquariums (up to 200 liters). For large aquariums, external aquarium filters will be good. Of course, this statement is relative, because no one has yet canceled individual aspects and wishes.

Concluding this article, I would like to note that there are other methods, mechanisms for filtering aquarium water, such as the bottom filter or "false". Such methods are less popular and have a number of advantages and disadvantages. In the future, if necessary, you can make them yourself.

I want to believe that this article has helped you determine the choice of the best aquarium filter. But, remember that no even the coolest filter will not replace the banal weekly replacement of aquarium water.

AQUARIUM WATER SUBSTITUTE IS THE BEST FILTRATION



fanfishka.ru

What size aquarium is best for a beginner

Elena Gabrielyan

LAUNCH OF THE AQUARIUM for beginners.
The most optimal volume of aquarium for a beginner from 50 liters and above. It is easiest to establish a biological equilibrium. Often, beginners make the first and most huge mistake - they flood the water, plant the plants, and launch the fish. And after 2 days, the time of disappointment comes — muddy, stinky water, badly feeling fish, and a tantrum of the host. Why all? The aquarium was not running properly. Consider the basic rules and principles of this, to some extent also entertaining process.
Let's start from the beginning. You bought an aquarium.Together with the aquarium, the necessary inventory of the nets, a siphon for cleaning the soil, a thermometer, a heating pad with a thermostat, a filter with aeration are taken. It should be noted that the filter is selected for performance depending on the volume of the aquarium from the consideration that the filter must pump at least 4 volumes of the aquarium per hour. An example of an aquas 100l - filter we take a capacity of 600 - 700 l / h. The capacity of the heating pad is also determined by the volume of aquas 1W per 1 liter. Soil and decorative elements can also be bought immediately. Install the aquarium on the cabinet, aligned to the level. Between the table top and the bottom of the aquarium it is necessary to put a soft gasket - it can be a tourist mat or foam sheet thickness of about 5 -8mm. Use soft damp cloth to wipe the glass inside from dust and litter. Fill the aquarium a third with water - check the tightness of the seams, making sure that everything is normal to add water until it is completely filled. We are waiting for the day - if nothing has burst, has not cracked, has not flowed out and has not fallen off, then everything will be fine.
While the aquarium passes the test drive, prepare the ground:
1. If the soil is artificial or natural bought in a pet store. Carefully wash, as they say, until blue in the face, changing the water until it remains clear when “rinsing” the ground.
2. If the soil is natural. Preliminary disinfection is required for at least 1 hour at a temperature of about 90 ° C. Make sure that there are no metal inclusions, that the soil is neutral (with acetic acid).
The aquarium stood for a day without comment - you can fall asleep ground. By the way, the thickness of the soil layer depends on what the aquarium will be - with plants (about 5 cm thick) or without (3 cm will suffice). Water, if necessary, can be completely changed to filtered and settled, if the initially filled water completely suits you mono leave it too.
Covered with soil. Arranged the elements of decor. Install equipment:
1. We hang a heating pad (water heater). The value of the thermostat is set to 24 - 26 degrees. Turn on.
2. Install the filter before washing all its components in warm water. It should be noted that the filter should work around the clock, it is impossible to interrupt its operation for more than 3 hours. Turning off the filter for the night is a bug for newbies, then a little boom boom boom happens, in Russian, the release of organic matter and kapets to everyone. At this stage, you can plant plants.
4. Lighting about 6 - 9 hours a day.
In this state, the aquarium should be at least 2 weeks. During this period, turbidity of water can be observed - the result of the process of reproduction and death of bacteria, the beginning of the establishment of a bio-balance. After, we launch the first inhabitant of an inexpensive and tenacious one - for example, catfish Ancistrus. We are waiting for another two weeks, Somic can be given a small pinch of food. Testing the water and making sure that the parameters within the normal range, you can run the fish.
The start-up process can be accelerated by forcibly placing bacteria in a colony of bacteria in an aquarium to fill part of the water from an established aquarium, or by using specialized preparations. Side effects: after the launch of the aquarium, “uninvited guests” appear - algae. In established aquariums, problems with algae arise either because of a lack of (or excess) light, or because of overfeeding and as a result of a large amount of organic matter. In freshly launched aquariums, such flashes end with the final establishment of microflora (for about 3 months).

Which aquarium is better to buy - the basics of choosing acarium

I choose an aquarium. Which manufacturers are bad?

Fronder

When buying 100-120 liters, look at the presence of stiffeners on the upper ends, the glass thickness should not be less than 5-6mm
There are not bad firms, but poor quality of aquarium manufacture (marriage). This can happen in any company, except the most expensive.
There are handicraft firms (ours and Chinese) - these are, indeed, often bad firms. In their aquariums, the glass ends are processed by hand, the uneven edges of the walls, the seams of the sausage, the rough finish of the lid (if any) are visible, and the aquarium often swings. But such aquariums can not leak, and burst only due to the unevenness of gluing the bottom with the walls
If it does not swing, it may not last and last for a long time.
Such aquariums sometimes look unattractive externally due to coarse finishes. But cheap (often miser pays twice)
When buying an aquarium in the first place you need to look at the evenness of the bottom. If the aquarium is small, then you can put it on any glass or ideally flat surface right in the store and shake it at the corners. If he sways a little, then this is a bad indicator. When pouring water the bottom will crack. This is better not to buy.
If a large aquarium is on the bollard, then you can also sway it to the side and see what happens. Inspect all seams. If there are non-glued thin strips in the entire width of the seam - across the seam, then such an aquarium can flow. If there are small bubbles in a small amount, then this usually does not affect the quality. If there are large bubbles at the seams, especially at the edges of the seams, then it is better not to take such an aquarium. This is a marriage. Even if the seams seem to be flattened. Unreliable gluing.
Good firms like Jebo produce quality aquariums, but the prices are exorbitant.
Often sell our domestic aquariums with lids and without lids and they are not inferior to the quality of imported ones. Some aquariums have smooth seams, and some have sausage-shaped seams (sealant applied but not leveled). This most often does not affect the quality of the aquarium.
There are not bad firms, but poor quality of aquarium manufacture (marriage). This can happen in any company.
Before buying an aquarium, it’s best to check with the store whether it will be taken back in case of a leak. Take and save the receipt to the aquarium so that you can quickly return it, as a marriage, indicating the location of the leak. They will have to take it back. Therefore, in the markets without a check is better not to buy them.
If you bought an aquarium (provided that it stably stands on a stand or a flat surface), then immediately pour water into it (gradually, letting the glass and the seams get used to the pressure of water), you will first place cans of water there (see photo). If the aquarium has not leaked for several hours, then it will not flow anymore, unless you systematically clean and injure the silicone seams in the ends and corners.
I had a sad experience in buying the very first small aquarium. I didn’t check it out right in the store, but when I brought it home, I saw that it was swinging awesomely and the lid was treated roughly, even the chips were not removed and the uneven raw edges. It’s good that I was taken back to the store with a check.
Now I have 5 aquariums and 1 aquaterrarium. Three of them are made to order in the glass master. Of these, in the purchased aquaterrarium and in one purchased corner aquarium, the stitches are sausage (not leveled). No aquarium swings and flows. Especially chose. And they are, tfu-pah, for 4 years already. Aquariums all frameless.
I myself recently made a new homemade aquaterrarium. Glue sealant for aquariums. It turned out great. Not even leaking. See photo
So leaks and collapse of aquariums are a matter of chance.
Fortunately you buy a leaking aquarium! !
Check your glued aquaterrarium for leaks using water in it and cans with water (less water will leak out in case of leakage)

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