What kind of water to pour into the aquarium for fish
Water is required for marine and freshwater fish. Under natural conditions, the main requirement is purity, because harmful impurities do not allow the inhabitants to successfully multiply and develop. However, how is the situation at home? In fact, the question “what kind of water to pour into the aquarium” is really important, because you need to remember the quality of aquarium water. For example, if you use untreated water taken from the tap, pets will have to face serious harm. For this reason, you need to remember useful recommendations.
What water is required for an aquarium?
The most important rule is the lack of fresh water. Otherwise it will be extremely difficult for aquarium inhabitants to exist in their house.
At the same time, one should not allow the presence of chemical compounds that prove to be destructive. The greatest risk is chlorine. Given this aspect, water is best defended.
The optimal duration of water settling
It takes from one to two weeks of preparation to eliminate harmful substances. It is advisable to use for settling a bucket or basin of large size.
When buying an aquarium, it is recommended to treat the water in a new house for fish. In addition, a similar move will allow you to check whether the design is complete.
If necessary, you can buy special drugs that can neutralize chemicals in the water. Professionals recommend to defend water from the tap, even if such drugs are used.
Optimum characteristics of aquarium water
In the aquarium is best to pour, trying to achieve certain indicators.
- Room temperature is the best option for aquarium residents. For this reason, a decent indicator is from +23 to +26 degrees. For this reason, in the cold season it is undesirable to take the aquarium to the balcony or put a house for fish next to a heater or a radiator.
- Water hardness largely determines the life expectancy of aquarium dwellers. Taking into account this nuance, it is desirable to control the composition of the water used. Calcium, magnesium always lead to increased rigidity. The range of hardness pleases with its variety. Fish can live in water of any hardness, but at the same time magnesium and calcium become useful only with certain quantitative indicators. In the aquarium, you can allow the fact that the hardness will change on an ongoing basis, because the inhabitants will absorb the salt. Taking into account the regular changes of an important indicator, it is recommended to update the water in the aquarium.
- Water purification involves a complete change of water in the aquarium. However, this task is not always necessary. Modern technologies allow the use of special filters for cleaning, operating on activated carbon.
Aeration of water in the aquarium
This parameter depends on the temperature, plants and fish. Aeration allows you to control oxygen in the house of marine or freshwater inhabitants who fall into the conditions of the apartment. Manufacturers offer special devices, pleasing efficiency with respect to the flow of oxygen into the aquarium.
In addition, cleaning filters with pre-installed compressors can be used. Being engaged in the full control of water, there is an opportunity to guarantee the successful livelihoods of fish. Without fail, any indicator related to water should change gradually and without abrupt changes. Responsible approach and taking into account the numerous nuances allows you to bring the conditions in the aquarium to the natural environment.
What water is suitable for an aquarium?
Is it possible to use ordinary tap water? What water should be used for the aquarium, taking care of the fish?
- It is best to use soft water with neutral indicators. Such water flows in water pipes, but it should not be connected to artesian wells. To mitigate it is recommended to use distilled or rainy water, as well as melt water.
- Plain tap water cannot be used. It is imperative to defend typed liquid, eliminating it from excess gases.
- Chlorine treatment in the aquarium is a mandatory requirement. If the chlorine index exceeds 0.1 milligram, the larvae and young fish will die in a couple of hours, 0.05 milligram will be dangerous for fish eggs.
- The pH should be monitored with increased responsibility. To achieve optimal performance, air blowing and batch delivery of the liquid to the house for fish is recommended. The minimum pH should be 7 units.
Features aquarium water change
Each owner of the aquarium understands the need to change the water in the house for fish.
Old water should be drained from the aquarium using a hose. It is recommended to use a tank located below the main aquarium. It is best to place the fish and snails in the bottle for a while, where the separated water will be.
During the event it is advisable to wash the aquarium algae using cold water. Some plants will have to throw out, causing such an act adverse changes in the state.
Decorative details, including pebbles and shells, aquarium sculptures, you need to rinse with hot water from a tap, but the cleaning products can not be used. If necessary, pebbles are allowed to process boiled water.
To remove dirt from aquarium glasses, a special brush is traditionally used.
After a similar procedure, shells and stones can be placed in the aquarium. At the next stage, it is allowed to plant algae. After this, you can fill the aquarium with water, but you should not overdo it with the thickness of the stream. After the new water is added, it is recommended to install aquarium equipment to monitor the life of the inhabitants. It is recommended to run the fish only after all the procedures have been successfully carried out.
How often should water be replaced? Partial volume is recommended for weekly execution, because the water can evaporate. For this reason, once a week it is best to add water to the aquarium. Full cleaning should be done once a month. If the fish died due to substandard water from the tap or other adverse factors, it is advisable to replace the aquarium water, thereby securing other marine or freshwater inhabitants.
Full control over the living conditions of the aquarium dwellers guarantees the opportunity to enjoy beautiful and healthy fish.
How to run the aquarium for the first time?
It is decided that we will have an aquarium! He has already been selected and purchased, the equipment is waiting for the coolest next to him in beautiful boxes, the bottom is already filled with bright red brilliant, terribly spectacular soil, and there is a ceramic crocodile on it that will blow bubbles. Now we pour water and, while she stands up for an hour or two, let's go to the pet shop and buy the best fish there - those with long fins, and other yellow ones with red dots (whatever they are called? However, it doesn't matter, the main thing is beautiful) ...
Stop! No matter how commendable is the desire to join the fascinating world of aquarism, this process should not be forced, otherwise the first experience may be so deplorable that one does not want to continue. Let's tolerate a little more and see what should happen to a glass jar full of water in order for it to become an aquarium.
Aquarium is a balanced biological system in which many living organisms coexist. These are not only fish and plants planted by the host, but also self-inhabited small invertebrates, protozoa, algae, bacteria. And in order for the aquarium to be beautiful and comfortable for life, the whole system must be in balance. Substances entering it from the outside should be processed without deteriorating the vital indicators of water and not causing death or, on the contrary, uncontrolled outbreak of the number of any inhabitants, and then removed from the system during water changes and cleaning the aquarium.
What you need to do before launch?
Even before the launch procedure, it is necessary to solve a number of critical issues and take some necessary steps:
- Decide what kind of fish or aquatic animals you want to have. Find out what conditions they need. Be sure to find out if they are compatible with each other!
- Depending on the decisions on the first item, choose the volume and model of the aquarium, as well as a list of necessary equipment and design items. Based on the species and number of future inhabitants, decide whether you need a heater with a thermostat, for example, how powerful the filter should be, whether an additional compressor is needed, how to decorate an aquarium: stones or driftwood, which plants to plant, and so on.
- Choose a place for the aquarium - not in the draft and not in the sun. It is also important that access to the aquarium was convenient, and there were a sufficient number of outlets nearby.
- Buy and install an aquarium (necessarily on a flat surface, so that its edges do not hang from the shelf or pedestal even per centimeter). Pre-aquarium washed without the use of chemical detergents.
- Place the equipment in the aquarium: filter, compressor, heater and thermometer, lighting. Fill the soil with a layer of 3-4 cm. Depending on the type of soil and its source of origin, it may be necessary to pre-heat it, boil it or rinse it. The same applies to stones and snags.
Now the aquarium is ready to fill up with water and start running. But before we give a step-by-step start-up instruction, let’s try to figure out what this notorious launch is for and what the running aquarium is different from the one that is not running.
Quite a bit of theory
As we already wrote above, the aquarium is an open-loop system, where various substances come outside. This is mainly fish food, which the fish eat, while releasing waste. In chemical terms, ammonia is the most significant and toxic part of this waste; even in low concentrations, it can cause poisoning and subsequent death of fish and other aquatic animals. However, in nature there are bacteria (they are called nitrifying) that consume ammonia, oxidizing it to nitrite. Nitrite for fish is not much better than ammonia, but there are other types of nitrifying bacteria, which in turn bind them, turning them into relatively harmless nitrates.
This whole system of bacterial colonies, which makes water with nitrates from poisonous ammonia water, quite suitable for fish, is called a biofilter. Since the efficiency of the biofilter directly depends on the number of its constituent bacteria in the aquarium (it is clear that two or three microscopic nitrosomonas cannot convert ammonia, selected by a dozen large goldfish, into safe compounds), these bacteria must be allowed to multiply to the desired number. For this they need three things:
- nutrition (ammonia and nitrite);
- substrate (surface to which they can attach);
- and for some time, as bacteria multiply rapidly, but still not lightning.
Run (instructions for beginners)
So, we will analyze the points, how to run the aquarium correctly:
- The run starts with water pouring. Water must be poured plumbing, pre-defend it is not necessary. After pouring water turn on the filter with aeration. If the filter does not have an aerator, then the compressor must additionally work, since nitrifying bacteria require a lot of oxygen and a heater (set at 24-25 °). In this form, with the lights off, the aquarium is left for 5-7 days. All these days they spend only monitoring the operation of the equipment: check whether oxygen is supplied, measure the temperature of the water.
- After 5-7 days, unpretentious fast-growing plants are planted, after which they turn on the lighting for 4-5 hours a day.
- After 1-2 days you can start the first aquarium animals. This may be small unpretentious fish (viviparous or, for example, danios), but it is better to use snail ampoules or hymeno-viruses that are more resistant to water quality. There should be few animals. Feed them once a day in very small portions. It is necessary to constantly monitor their behavior and appetite. Ampulyaria, for example, are excellent indicators of water quality: in clean, good water, they rush around the aquarium at cruising speed, straightening antennae and looking for food. At this stage, the light is turned on for the whole day (8--12 hours), you can add special bacterial cultures to the aquarium to start (they are available from different companies, for example Sera Nitrivek).
- After a week, the remaining plants are planted and begin in parts (at intervals of 1-2 days) to launch the main fish population. For each released party you need to carefully monitor, feed moderately.
That is, in fact, all science. True, nothing complicated?
Of course, the equilibrium in the aquarium is still unstable, and some time after the launch such unpleasant phenomena can occur, such as outbreaks of diatoms. But if the launch was carried out correctly, these problems are usually not catastrophic, do not lead to a massive freezing of fish and are solved in working order. To combat these diatomies, for example, a small charming catfish otozinclus is successfully used.
How to facilitate the process of starting the aquarium?
Above, we wrote that for the reproduction of beneficial bacteria need nutrition and substrate. And, of course, the initial number of the bacterial colony matters. Thus, in order to accelerate the maturation of the biofilter and, accordingly, the launch of the aquarium, you can immediately add a significant amount of bacteria to the artificial reservoir and prepare a large area substrate for them (there is enough nutrition for bacteria in the starting aquarium).
Bacteria are introduced with the help of industrial starter culture (we also mentioned about them above) or with water, soil, filter filler from the existing, safe aquarium. To ensure a sufficient area of the substrate for bacteria, it is recommended to use filters with fillers made of porous ceramics or filters of considerable volume with other fillers, plant plants with narrow, feathery leaves, and use fine gravel of even size as the soil. All these surfaces will inhabit nitrifying bacteria.
Startup control of the aquarium greatly facilitates the use of tests for aquarium water for ammonia and nitrite. These tests are produced by different manufacturers and are not uncommon in pet stores. With their help, you can track the level of these toxic compounds in the water and adjust the population of fish in the running aquarium.
As you can see, the correct launch of the aquarium takes not so much time - it is quite possible to suffer two or three weeks. It does not require a colossal amount of strength and special academic knowledge. But it helps to avoid many problems in the future, preserves the life and health of the fish, and therefore, the nerves and good mood to their owner.
Water change in the aquarium, what kind of water is needed for the aquarium?
CHANGE OF WATER IN THE AQUARIUM! WHAT WATER IS NEEDED FOR THE AQUARIUM?
How much water should be defended for the aquarium?
(water preparation)Let's talk about the questions asked in order:
In order for chlorine to evaporate and a 24-hour excess of dissolved oxygen will be enough to keep the tap water. The maximum water for the aquarium defend 14 days. This should be done in a bowl with a wide neck.
I note that in pet stores sold a large number of specials. preparations for adaptation of tap water (for example, AquaSafe from the Tetra series, etc.). In addition, these drugs have additional additives that improve the quality of aquarium water. I strongly recommend using them.
Frequently asked questions: About changing aquarium water, for example, is it possible to replace aquarium water (1/4 volume) with undisturbed tap water?
- You can do nothing terrible (one thing, but: it should be about the same temperature as in the aquarium, do not pour ice water from the tap). But still, if you are a caring owner or fish are expensive ... Do not be lazy to defend the water.
When changing aquarium water, always remember that old water is always better than fresh water. In many sources, they talk about the need to replace the weekly aquarium water to fresh. Personally, I disagree with that. Since the older the aquarium water, the better it is configured biological balance. I replace the aquarium water in my aquariums about once a month and I think that this is quite enough. For ten years aquarium management "complaints" from aquarium fish on this issue have been reported.
Making conclusions and summing up, I emphasize:
- Frequent change of aquarium water is not needed!
- The frequency of changing the aquarium water to fresh depends on the volume of your aquarium. The larger the aquarium, the less need to replace the aquarium water.
- The change of aquarium water can be carried out with non-settled water (up to 1/5 parts).But not desirable !!! )))
- The turbidity of the aquarium water after the replacement with fresh - direct evidence of a violation of the biological balance in the aquarium. (clouding will pass by itself, in 3-5 days).
- Answering the question what kind of water is needed for an aquarium and fish? I will say, the "old" is better than the "new". If the water is green, dirty or muddy - use aquarium coal and other specials. drugs. In addition, consider the specifics of your fish. For example, discus - very picky to the conditions of detention and require frequent replacement of the new "super quality water" and high temperature.
- When carrying out a complete change of aquarium water (restarting the aquarium), pour into the container and leave at least 1/3 of the old water. Exception, disease and quarantine aquarium!
- Changing the aquarium water should follow the "cleaning of the aquarium", and not vice versa.
I recommend also to read the article. AQUARIUM WATER from which you will learn about the qualitative components of aquarium water and methods for balancing them in the home.Video about changing the water in the aquarium:
Aquarium for beginnersAquarium water temperature
Boiled thawed or distilled water for aquarium. Category: Aquarium Articles / EQUIPMENT AND FACILITY AQUARIUM | Views: 34 632 | Date: 5-03-2013, 10:11 | Comments (2) We also recommend reading:
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What water should be poured into a new aquarium?
The water in the aquarium is poured from the water supply and only. From a pond, river, lake, well, boil, bottled, filtered, etc. - DO NOT. wash the soil and fill it up, pour a third of the water, plant the plants (longer length), add water to full. Not bad percent 10% of water to add from a healthy aquarium. After going through the biological process, you can run the fish.
11 quick tips for a novice aquarist
If you have recently taken a great interest in aquariums and decided to create a small piece of wildlife in your home and put your first aquarium - this article is for you. In it, I tried to give a few basic tips that you will need when starting your first aquarium.
1) Do not immediately buy a small aquarium, take at least 60-80 liter, if, of course, at home there is a place for it. Larger aquariums are more resistant to temperature and chemical changes. Recently, the trend is for nano aquariums (aquariums up to 20 liters), but it is better to start with a larger aquarium.
2) Wash the filtering elements of your filter only in aquarium water (not in the aquarium itself), for example, in a bucket or basin, this will allow you to save those bacterial colonies that in turn help you in the fight against ammonia and nitrite. Tap water can kill them, which for some time will disrupt the biological work of your filter.
3) Do not forget and do not be lazy to replace every week 20-25% of water, this will allow you to fight with nitrates in your aquarium. And remember that you should not, as 80% of people in our country thought, pour out all the water once a year and boil the soil, it’s enough to replace 20-25% of the water with fresh water, which will ensure a long and happy life of your aquarium.
4) Do not overfeed fish, it is very important. Firstly, overfeeding harms the fish itself (here you can look at people, overeating was not good for anyone), and secondly, the food that was not eaten starts to rot in the aquarium (the smell of the swamp), which significantly spoils the water quality.
5) Always check the compatibility of the purchased fish. You must admit that nobody saw an open-air cage with wolves, penguins and rabbits living together in a zoo. In the aquarium just as well.
6) Do not release a new fish from the bag or bottle directly into the aquarium, first place this bag in the water to even out the temperature, then add 50-100 ml of water from the aquarium into the bag, the bottle - this is done in order to level the parameters water. It is better to do this alignment within 20-30 minutes, no less.
7) Before buying fish, inspect it very carefully for damage, cloudiness, sores and other abnormal condition.
8) Use the quarantine aquarium for newly arrived fish, this will help to keep the fish that you already have. The question is especially acute when the fish is not cheap, and in any case, the fish after some time become full members of the family and we, aquarists, need to take care of their health. So just in case keep a quarantine aquarium where you can watch a new fish for a couple of weeks for its health.
9) Run the aquarium consistently, so as not to overload the filtration system. The filtration system as a human body, if it is trained gradually, it will give a greater result than if you immediately give a greater load. Colonies of bacteria develop gradually with increasing load, so do not immediately run all the fish that you have identified yourself.
10) Do not believe the rule of 1 cm fish = 1 liter of water, who invented it and when, but this rule is not entirely correct.
11) Do not get carried away using chemicals, especially if you do not fully understand their effects and the consequences of their use.
It is worth remembering that the path to success in aquariums lies in drawing new and new information through books, magazines, forums and aquarium portals,
which help to go to success in our with you hobby.
Be sure to fill the "old" water. and how much it depends on how many liters of the aquarium. I had a tank of 300 liters, I filled 50l. "old" water, i.e. that water in which the fish and plants already lived. then we add the settled water and we wait for several days, then it is possible to start small fishes.
if before the launch of the fish there are 3-4 days, then you can tap water in the aquarium. defend it in order to release chlorine gas (but it depends on what kind of cleaning system the water in your city is taking at the water intake) and the temperature regime is established. if you are not sure about the quality of the water, then you can defend it in another container with the addition of anti-vapor, blue (not synthetic) or another drug.
and the fish can die even when transplanted into an aquarium, even with settled water (there are rules for transplanting + it depends on which fish)
(about boiled water in the special literature, something not met with special instructions, apparently, is allowed)
Sera Nitrivec Bio 50ml Contains a concentrate of filtering bacteria that purify water and process harmful substances contained in it, ammonia compounds, nitrites.
In the new aquarium fish can be run after 24 hours.
Consumption 50 ml per 500 liters.
Pour out of the tap, let it warm up and go off with excess gases, then fill up the soil and plant the plants, wait out the bacterial outbreak and you can run the fish. If the aquarium is small, the water can be heated to 50-70 degrees, then cool and fill. Boil is not necessary.
Take water from the tap for pouring into the new accident, but first you need to thoroughly rinse the soil (if it is purchased), boil it (if you recruited it yourself), then fill the aquarium with water, install the equipment and turn it on at least a week, then you plant Live Plants (or put artificial ones), and again do not touch the aquarium for 7-10 days and only after this time when good bacteria settle on the filter element and the aquarium will begin to live its life and normal function You can buy and run the fish. Remember that aquaria does not like to rush - hurry at best dim or bloom water, at worst, put the fish.
What water should be poured into the aquarium?
In an aquarium, we do not contain aquatic animals and plants, but aquatic habitats, and the main task of an aquarist is to maintain an equilibrium, healthy state of this particular environment, and not its individual inhabitants, because if the environment is healthy, then the inhabitants of this environment will be well . Recently, many new species of fish have appeared in our aquariums, and their well-being largely depends on the content of harmful substances in the water. It was found with sufficient certainty that for many well-known long-time residents of our aquariums, regular replacement of water with fresh water is very desirable, and for some of them (for example, for discus) it is simply necessary. It is also known what species of fish, how much and how often need to replace the "old" aquarium water to fresh. These requirements for different types of fish, of course, are different. But on average, approximately 25% of the volume of water in an aquarium should be regularly replaced every two weeks, and in overpopulated aquariums 30% every week. With partial replacement of water, its positive properties are preserved, and biological balance is not disturbed. The meaning of the usually recommended partial water change is that fresh water comes in regularly and in small quantities in the aquarium, and thus there is no sharp difference between it and old water.
Currently, there are several filtration technologies that allow to obtain denitrification in the filter, giving a zero level of ammonium, nitrates and phosphates, even at the highest density of fish landing, but they are applicable only to the "fish" aquarium without plants. Thanks to such technologies, water changes can be reduced to the minimum - 10% once a month or two. An aquarium with plants needs a source of nitrogen — nitrates and ammonium; in case of slower plant growth, fertilizers should not accumulate indefinitely, a much higher light intensity and the availability of all nutrition for algae do not allow to keep much dissolved organic matter that is difficult to decompose water is indispensable. It also has a very positive effect on plants and the entire aquarium. Water changes activate photosynthesis of plants.
1. from under the tap to collect in a bucket / can / any other ware, to defend 2-3 days, to fill in in an aquarium.
2. type in the filter water of the desired temperature, wait until it is filtered, pour into the aquarium.
3. You can not defend, and buy in the pet store antichloride, add to the water according to the instructions, mix, pour into the aquarium.
Aquarium. what water should be poured ??? filtered ???
Git + a
In aquarium practice, one usually has to use tap or well water, which is very diverse in its properties. Water is hydrogen oxide (H2O) and consists of two parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen. Many substances are dissolved in water (oxygen 21%, nitrogen 76%, carbon dioxide 0.3%).
Water coming into contact with soil, plants, fish, rotting products and alkaline-earth elements, acquires new qualities. The water in the aquarium should first of all be free from impurities of any metals, should not contain a large amount of salts of magnesium, calcium and no other components that are harmful to the inhabitants of the aquarium.
In rural areas, it is often necessary to use well, river and lake water. Before pouring water into the aquarium, it must be heated to a temperature of 70 ° C, thereby partially freeing water from unwanted microorganisms.
Drinking water is also suitable for an aquarium, unless, of course, it is not mineral water. At home, tap water is most suitable for filling the aquarium, which in most geographic areas of our country has an average hardness with seasonal fluctuations in the range of 8 - 12 '. Excess chlorine in it can be removed by defending water in non-metallic vessels for 1–2 days (until the disappearing bubbles disappear), active aeration (10 -12 hours), filtration through activated carbon, adding hyposulphite (thiosulphite) to it sodium (1 g / 10 l) or boiling for 10 minutes. In the latter method, water loses oxygen and must be aerated.
The use of water from the pond is not recommended, and rainwater and snow near the city is also not suitable for an aquarium, as it contains a large amount of harmful substances in solid, liquid and gaseous state. In rural areas, the use of such water is possible, but it must be filtered from dust and other substances.
Before using water from natural sources, it is necessary to keep inexpensive fish for some time and to monitor their well-being.
After pouring water into a new aquarium, complex processes begin to occur in it. The rotting of plant particles that have fallen off during planting begins, a large number of microorganisms develop, and the water may become whitish-transparent from whitish. After some time, most of them die due to lack of food and the water becomes clear again. To accelerate the emergence of a favorable environment for the life of fish and plants, it is useful to add a little water and soil from a long-established, prosperous aquarium in which there is already a ready-made complex of microorganisms.
If you lean over a normally functioning aquarium, you can feel the slight smell of freshly mown hay. Any other odor, such as ammonia or hydrogen sulfide, indicates a problem of the processes taking place in the aquarium. In this case, you need to make a thorough cleaning of the soil and change of water, as well as analyze the correctness of the content of fish and plants and the observance of the rules of care for the aquarium.
* Clean, transparent water containing dH 5-20, KH 2-15 ", pH 6.5-7.5, containing all microelements necessary for plant life is suitable for an aquarium.
What kind of water to pour into the aquarium: boiled, or from the cold tap, and then stop? Or immediately from the tap warm?
When you start the aquarium, I pour cold. I install the heater, after heating the water I turn on the filters. Well, where to defend 250 liters? Then I never change the water. When moving unless. Substitute and topping up. It is possible from under the tap, but I have several bottles of 8 liters per battery, topped up after siphoning and as it evaporates.
Water from the tap is suitable for the life of fish and plants, but it must be defended for 3 days in plastic, glass or enamelled dishes with a wide neck. During this time, chlorine and other gases will evaporate, which disinfect tap water. Each time, changing the water in the aquarium, fresh water must be defended.
What water is needed for a water turtle?
Water should be clean, fresh, separated, temperature 25-30 ° C, preferably hard or weak hard, with an active reaction (pH) close to neutral. When changing a small amount of water, you can use warm tap water. With a complete change of water, it should be the same temperature and free of chlorine.
Generally advised to defend the water at least a day. I'm my own (I have two red-eared) poured from the tap. Nothing, live eight years and enjoy life. :)
Unlike aquarium fishes, red-eared turtles can be either in settled water or directly from a tap. The main thing here is different, the water should be warm not lower than 20 degrees, preferably 23-26 grams. and the depth of the water should be in the aquarium so that the turtle standing at the bottom could lift its head to breathe freely! Many make the gravest mistake of launching a turtle into a deep aquarium. She won't live like that for a long time, because she breathes not with gills, but with lungs!