Aquarium

The acidity of the water in the aquarium

pH in aquarium

So, it was decided to start an aquarium at home. All relevant measures have been completed: soil has been laid, aquatic vegetation has been planted, water has been poured, equipment is turned on, fish are running ... But animals and plants feel uncomfortable. What's the matter? Or maybe such an important indicator as the acid-base balance of water, or pH-level, is not taken into account?

Acid and alkali in water

It is usually denoted by the letters pH (“pe ash”, if in Russian) as an abbreviation of the Latin phrase pondus Hydrogenii - the weight of hydrogen. If you do not go deep into the wilds of molecular chemistry, then this indicator indicates the degree of concentration of hydroxides and hydrogen ions in water. Simply put, sour water, neutral or alkaline.

It would seem, what's the difference? Water is water: we drink it, prepare food, water indoor plants. But it turns out that the acid-base balance plays a significant, if not the main role in the life of ornamental fish and aquatic plants.

This balance, which the Danish chemist Sorensen put into scientific use back in 1909, has a scale from 0 to 14. If its level is 7, then this means that the water is neutral, if less than 7 and to 0 is acidic, and when the scale moves to the right (from 7 to 14 units), this means that water has an alkaline reaction.

The effect of acid-base balance on aquarium vegetation and fish

Under natural conditions, when large volumes of water are constantly mixed, pH-value does not matter much. Indeed, if in one place the water temporarily became more acidic, then the fish can simply swim away and then return when the acid is neutralized. Another thing in a closed space, which is a home aquarium.

Experts say (and this is proven in practice) that almost all ornamental fish and aquarium vegetation can exist if the level of acid-base balance is in the range from 5 to 10 units. At the very insignificant way beyond these limits to one side or another, the death of living creatures is inevitable. However, for a comfortable stay of fish, this range is significantly narrowed - from 6 to 8 units on the Serensen scale.

An aquarium is a whole system where everything is interconnected: fish and plants, soil and lighting, temperature and the work of special equipment. As a result of the processes occurring in this system, the aqueous medium can change its properties most often in the direction of souring. If this process is slow, then fish and vegetation may adapt to minor changes in balance. When changes are dramatic, animal mortality is almost inevitable.

For example, if there are many plants in an aquarium that intensively absorb carbon dioxide, the acid-base balance may move upwards (more alkali). Conversely, when the aquarium is overfilled with fish, they may acidify the water as a result of breathing, emitting CO2.

Consequently, the pH level must be constantly monitored, raising or, conversely, lowering it to normal values.


How to raise the pH in the aquarium?

This can be done quite simply by adding a little ordinary baking soda into the water medium, which absorbs the acid. The normal dose is 5 g of powder per 100 liters. A good way, if you consider that even its overdose does not increase the level of this indicator above 8 units.

You can also add to the aquarium salts of sodium and potassium (phosphate of these substances) in the same proportion.

Pet shops sell special products for pH balancing. For example, TROPIC MARIN Triple-Buffer quickly raises the level to 8 units.

Tetra pH / KH Plus, safe for fish and plants, is also popular. You need to know that adding branded mixtures in water may cause foam. However, it does not pose a danger to living creatures and rather quickly dissolves.

But still experienced aquarists recommend not to bring the situation to the extreme, advise to produce a powerful aeration of aqua (organics oxidizes faster), to make regular water changes and periodically clean the acidifying soil.

How to lower the pH in an aquarium?

There are many ways to do this. The first is the addition of natural sour peat. Quite a common way, but you should know that not every peat is suitable, but only lying at a depth of dark brown color.

Before use, it should be checked in a separate container, filled with water and periodically checking the pH level during the day. If the solution shows an increase in acidity, then peat is suitable.

Before adding to the aquarium, it must be boiled in distilled water at the rate of 5-7 g per 1 liter. After that, in small portions, the resulting solution can be added to the aqueous medium, periodically making balance measurements.

Of course, in commercial networks there are commercial means for lowering the acid-base balance, for example pH-Down. Many such products contain phosphoric acid, which maintains a good level of acidity at around 6.5 units.

It is necessary to take into account, however, that such additives significantly accelerate the growth of aquatic vegetation, so they should not be abused.

There are also products, the main ingredient of which are oak bark or alder blossoms. It is necessary to use firm mixes strictly according to the instruction, periodically carrying out the corresponding measurements.

pH meter for aquarium

We are talking about devices specifically designed for measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions in the aquatic environment. There are quite a lot of proposals for such devices; they differ in the accuracy of measurements, the duration of work and, accordingly, in cost, from 1000 to 10 thousand rubles.

But the principle of operation of all devices is the same: measuring the potential difference between the reference electrode (reference electrode) and the measuring electrode, which is lowered into the measured solution (aquarium water). Simply put, the pH meter is essentially a millivoltmeter.

The most budgetary option is the device pH-meter-pH-009, in appearance resembling a wide electronic thermometer, at the end of which there is an electrode. But the expensive option is a remote electronic unit and a measuring probe that falls into the water.

Ph controller for aquarium

These devices allow not only to measure the level of acidity of the aquarium environment, but also to automatically regulate it, lowering the alkali concentration. Their principle of operation is based on the exact dosage of carbon dioxide in the water. In principle, this unit can successfully replace all the means and methods of lowering the pH level.

Some experts recommend pH Controller Evolution DeLuxe - an easy-to-use and highly reliable device consisting of an electronic unit with a display, a Profi-Line electrode, two calibration solutions and a calibration station. One pressing of the corresponding button, input of one parameter, and the device automatically brings the necessary amount of CO2 into the water.

The German company EHEIM, which has long been producing elite equipment for aquariums, has distinguished itself in this matter. Her product with a carbon dioxide reactor can work around the clock, maintaining the right balance of acid and alkali in hard water. It should be serviced no more than once a month.

Maintaining optimal acid-base balance is a necessary necessity. The life of an ornamental fish depends on it, and there is no exaggeration in this statement.

How to lower ph (acidity of water) in an aquarium?

The acidity of the water in an aquarium is one of the important aspects that you need to constantly monitor and adjust. However, for fans of unpretentious fish (such as barbs or danios), you can not pay attention to it. If you want to have an aquarium with a variety of colorful fish, then you have to learn how to determine the pH level.

The pH level is characterized by positive hydrogen ions. Neutral water contains the same amount of ions, in acidic water the pH is less than 7, and in alkaline water it is more than 7. If the amount is 7, then this medium is neutral.

To determine the pH level in your tank, you can use litmus papers and reagents that change color depending on the environment that prevails in the tank.

The acidity of the water in the aquarium can also be measured by electronic testers: they will help you regularly and easily measure the pH level in the water, and modern models can be connected to a computer. However, their main drawback is the high price and the need to constantly do the calibration, so there should always be a suitable solution for calibration.

If you see a deviation from the norm, then depending on the results you need to lower or increase the level of acidity in the aquarium.

In order to lower the pH level, you can use drinking water that is added to the water in the aquarium. You can also add sodium bicarbonate sludge instead use water from the tap, in which the alkaline level is significantly elevated. There are many ways to lower the pH in an aquarium.

If the pH level needs to be increased, then you can use one of three methods. First, add sodium biphosphate. Secondly, pour a small amount of peat into the aquarium water. Third, use a choice of hydrochloric, acetic, sulfuric or phosphoric acid.

Changing the level of acidity should be very careful; all means should be used in small quantities, otherwise there may be irreparable deterioration. However, if deviations from the norm do not exceed 2 units, then no action is needed.

If the pH level is normal, then everything is fine in the aquarium and the biological balance is not disturbed. As soon as you see the changes - even minor ones - immediately measure the acidity. If there are deviations, then first of all try to improve the situation with the help of water changes.

pH - aquarium water acidity

pH WATER in an aquarium or the ACIDITY of WATER in an aquarium!

Determines the neutral, acidic and alkaline reaction of water at a certain concentration of hydrogen ions.

In chemically pure water, electrolytic dissociation occurs - the decomposition of molecules into hydrogen ions (H +) and hydroxyl (OH-), the number of which in it at 25 ° C is always the same and equals 10-7 g * ion / l. Such water is neutral. The negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions is conventionally used to designate the pH value and in this case is equal to 7. If there are acids in the water (not chemically pure water), the amount of hydrogen ions will be more than hydroxyl - the water becomes acidic with a lower digital pH. Conversely, hydroxyl ions will dominate in alkaline water and the pH will increase.

Aquarium water with pH parameters:

- from 1 to 3 is called / considered strongly acidic;

- from 3-5 sour;

- from 5-6 slightly acidic;

- 7 neutral;

- 7-8 slightly alkaline;

- 10-14 strongly alkaline;

PH parameters can change during the day, due to the variable concentration of carbon dioxide in aquarium water, which in turn is stabilized by constant aeration.

Sharp pH fluctuations are harmful and painful for aquarium fish and plants. Most aquarium fish prefer a pH of 5.5 to 7.5.

HOW TO CHANGE: lower / increase pH acidity of aquarium water:

- If you need to reduce the pH - acidify the water with infusion of peat (well, or special. Preparations from the Pet Shop);

- If you need to increase the pH (strengthen alkalinity) - using baking soda;

MEASURING pH pH of aquarium water:

1. In many pet stores sold - testers (litmus paper with phenolphthalein). Actually following the instructions on the package and on the scale, you can determine the pH parameters.

There are specials. measuring device - PiAshmeter. For home aquariums is not used (expensive, and why not at all). After all, the main thing is not frequent measurement of pH parameters, but conditions of keeping fish and aquarium. In a well-kept, not overcrowded aquarium, not clogged to the top with plants, with aeration - the pH will always be normal and often it is not necessary to measure.


Aquarium water, parameters: hardness, pH and others


AQUARIUM WATER, PARAMETERS

One of the most important components of the aquarium world is water, as the habitat of aquarium fish and plants.

The parameters of the aquarium water, its characteristics directly affect the well-being of your pets and the state of the plants. It is no secret that dirty, muddy water ruins the fish, spoils the appearance of the aquarium, however, the clear water does not always mean that its composition is perfect.

The main parameters and indicators of the quality of aquarium water are:

- Aquarium water hardness (hD);

- Hydrogen indicator of water "Acidity of aquarium water" (pH);

- Redox potential (rH);

AQUARIUM WATER HARDNESS (hD) - due to the presence of soluble calcium and magnesium salts in water. Their concentration in aquarium water is the GENERAL HARDNESS, which can be divided into TEMPORARY - CARBONATE and PERMANENT - NON-CARBONATE.

The temporary hardness of aquarium water (CN) is the concentration of bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium, formed from weak, unstable carbonic acid. Such rigidity can vary during the day. For example, in the daytime, aquarium plants during photosynthesis absorb carbon dioxide that accumulates in the water. If carbon dioxide is not enough for consumption by plants, they will start to produce it from the bicarbonate composition, as a result of which the temporary hardness of the water will decrease.

The constant hardness of aquarium water (GH) is the presence of stable calcium and magnesium salts formed from strong acids — hydrochloric, sulfuric, or nitric.

Water hardness is essential for the life of the aquarium world. Firstly, calcium and magnesium salts are used in the construction of the skeleton and have an impact on the construction of the whole fish organism. For different types of aquarium fish, the indicators of water hardness are different and failure to comply with them can lead to a deterioration of the health of the fish, a violation of the function of reproduction and fertilization of eggs.

The total hardness of the aquarium water is measured in German degrees (hD). 1 ° hD is 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water.

Aquarium water with hardness parameters:

from 1 to 4 ° hD - is considered very soft;

from 4 to 8 ° hD - is considered soft;

from 8 to 12 ° hD - average hardness;

from 12 to 30 ° hD - considered to be very tough;

Most aquarium fish feel comfortable with hardness of 3-15 ° hD.

How to change the rigidity of the aquarium water:

1.) Increase stiffness.

- KH hardness can be increased by adding 1 tsp of baking soda to 50 liters, which will increase the performance by 4 ° dKH.

- 2 teaspoons of calcium carbonate to 50 liters of water will increase at the same time KH and GH by 4 degrees.

- Another measure for a smooth / gradual increase in water hardness is scattering and decorating the aquarium with seashells.

2.) Reducing stiffness (everything is more complicated here):

- use / add distilled water, which is sold in stores;

- use / add rain, snow, melt water from the refrigerator (must be clean, without turbidity and impurities).

- filter the water through an osmotic filter;

- filter water through peat (peat is added to the filter) or into the tank, where water is settled;

- the rigidity of the VF is reduced by boiling water in an enamel pot for 1 hour, followed by settling for 24 hours;

- natural water softeners are fast-growing plants: elodey, rogolodnik, nayas, valisneria.

HOW TO MEASURE the overall hardness of aquarium water at home without any specials. equipment and preparations (sample titration with soap solution):

The peculiarity of this method is that 10 mg of calcium oxide in 1 liter of water is neutralized with 0.1 g. clean soap.

1. 60-72% of household soap is taken, crumbled.

2. In a measuring cup (or other measuring vessel), water is poured (distilled, snowy, water melted from the refrigerator) - then distillate.

3. Soap powder (counted in grams) is added to the water so that it is possible to calculate the portion small in the resulting solution.

4. Pour 0.5 liters of the tested aquarium water into another dish and gradually add portions of the soap solution (0.1 gr.), Shake.

At first, gray flakes and quickly disappearing bubbles appear on the surface of the water. Gradually adding portions of the soap solution, we are waiting for all the calcium and magnesium oxide to contact - stable soap bubbles will appear on the surface of the water with a characteristic rainbow overflow.

This experience is over. Now we count the number of consumed soap portions, multiply them by two (the aquarium water was 0.5 liters, not 1 liter.). The resulting number will be the rigidity of the aquarium water in degrees. For example, 5 servings of soap * 2 = 10 ° hD.

With careful experience, the error can be + -1 ° hD.

When obtaining a stiffness result of more than 12 ° hD, the measurement accuracy decreases, it is recommended that the experiment be re-diluted with aquarium water with 50% distillate, double the result.

Hydrogen indicator of water or "aquarium water acidity" (pH of aquarium water).

Determines the neutral, acidic and alkaline reaction of water at a certain concentration of hydrogen ions.

В химически чистой воде происходит электролитическая диссоциация - разложение молекул на ионы водорода (Н+) и гидроксила (ОН-), количество которых в ней при температуре 25°С всегда одинаково и равно 10-7г*ион/л. Такая вода имеет нейтральную реакцию. Отрицательный логарифм концентрации ионов водорода условно применяется для обозначения величины pH и в данном случае равен 7. If there are acids in the water (not chemically pure water), the amount of hydrogen ions will be more than hydroxyl - water becomes acidic with a lower digital pH. Conversely, hydroxyl ions will dominate in alkaline water and the pH will increase.

Aquarium water with pH parameters:

- from 1 to 3 is called / considered strongly acidic;

- from 3-5 sour;

- from 5-6 slightly acidic;

- 7 neutral;

- 7-8 slightly alkaline;

- 10-14 strongly alkaline;

PH parameters can change during the day, due to the variable concentration of carbon dioxide in aquarium water, which in turn is stabilized by constant aeration.

Sharp pH fluctuations are harmful and painful for aquarium fish and plants. Most aquarium fish prefer a pH of 5.5 to 7.5.

HOW TO CHANGE the pH of aquarium water:

- If it is necessary to lower the pH - acidify the water with peat extract (well, or with special preparations from the Pet ShopJ);

- If you need to increase the pH (strengthen alkalinity) - using baking soda;

MEASURING the pH of aquarium water:

1. In many pet stores sold - testers (litmus paper with phenolphthalein). Actually following the instructions on the package and on the scale, you can determine the pH parameters.

2. There are specials. measuring device - PiAshmeter. For home aquariums is not used (expensive, and why not at all). After all, the main thing is not frequent measurement of pH parameters, but conditions of keeping fish and aquarium. In a well-kept, not overcrowded aquarium, not clogged to the top with plants, with aeration - the pH will always be normal and often it is not necessary to measure.

Redox potential (rH of water, ORP of water).

The essence of the redox process in aquarium water is that all substances in it react with each other. In this case, one substance gives up its electrons and charges positively (oxidizes), and the other acquires electrons and charges negatively (being restored). As a result, a difference in electrical potentials arises between different-sized substances. Simply put: oxidation - this is the reaction of nitrite with oxygen, and recovery - on the contrary, the breakdown of nitrites with the release of oxygen.

The maximum oxidative potential of water is 42rH.

Options:

rH 40-42 - maximum oxidation (pure oxygen);

rH 35 - strong oxidation;

rH 30 - slight oxidation;

rH 25 - weak oxidation;

rH 20 - weak recovery;

rH 15 - slight recovery;

rH 10 - strong recovery;

rH 5-0 - maximum reduction (pure hydrogen);

Almost all aquarium fish and plants feel comfortable with rH 25-35. Some species prefer narrower parameters of this value.

Measured by rH special gauges.

Increase the rH of water by regularly changing the water, leaving it to clean the aquarium, as well as purging the air and using ozone.

SO:

We have learned about the basic parameters of aquarium water, the observance of which will be an absolute guarantee of the health of fish and the beauty of plants.

There are other values ​​/ parameters characterizing aquarium water. However, they are not as significant as hD and pH. To maintain a home aquarium to know and follow them is simply not necessary. As Sherlock Holmes said: "... a sensible person carefully selects what he places in his brain loft."

OPTIMAL PARAMETERS OF AQUAREMOUS WATER (hD of water, pH of water, ORP of water) I ATHERENTLY REACH THE BANAL CARE OF THE AQUARIUM AND FOLLOWING THE RULES OF THE CONTENT OF ITS RESIDENTS: do not make a dormitory out of the aquarium, do not overload it with plants, provide aeration and filtering;


See also:
CHANGE OF WATER IN THE AQUARIUM! WHAT WATER IS NEEDED FOR THE AQUARIUM? How much water should be defended for the aquarium?
Category: Aquarium Articles / EQUIPMENT AND FACILITY AQUARIUM | Views: 23 360 | Date: 5-03-2013, 13:20 | Comments (2) We also recommend reading:
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Water pH for aquarium

If you want to create a beautiful underwater world in your aquarium, you want to breed rare and exclusive breeds of fish, you should learn such a thing as the acidity of water.

Litmus test strips for measuring water

It is measured in chemical units Ph, for this purpose, a special test is used, the instrument or the acid-sensitive strips. If the value does not meet the norm per meter, it can threaten the health and even the life of fish and plants.

What is the acidity of the water in the aquarium

This concept is familiar to us from the school chemistry course. It means the content of positively charged hydrogen ions per meter of water. The optimum Ph value per meter is seven. This means that the tank is filled with "live" fluid, in which optimal conditions are created for the development of plants and fish. A Ph value of more than seven is considered a sign of an acidic environment, less than this figure is alkaline.
Please note that all of these figures are relevant only for wastewater and closed systems, the temperature of which is 25 degrees. If the water is warm and the test or strips show Ph = 7, this does not mean that the liquid medium is neutral.
The value of Ph depends on the presence in the aquarium or plant wastewater. In the daytime, when the tank is well lit and photosynthesis is actively undergoing, the acidity increases. At night, it decreases. Such fluctuations depend on other characteristics of aqua. The higher its rigidity, the less fluctuations your tester will show.
The acidity of wastewater and natural water bodies varies from 3 to 10. In an aquarium system, a value from 5 to 9 is necessary for fish. The final figure is determined by the specific type of plants and fish. Feeling pets is the best "tester", which shows whether the rigidity and Ph. For example, the norm for breeding males: Ph = 7.

Electronic tester

How to determine Ph level

To know what level of Ph in your tank: high or low, you need to measure it. The easiest way to determine the acidity of a living system is to apply a special test, including litmus strips and chemical reagents. It is affordable and sold in pet stores.
The strips change color depending on the content of positive hydrogen ions per meter of aqua or wastewater. Such a "device" is quite accurate: it indicates the level of Ph with an error of no more than 0.1-0.3 per meter. This is a valid scatter of data, because the acidity changes during the day.
Another option, how to measure Ph per meter, is to use an electronic tester. This device will give the most accurate answer to your question and will help control the rigidity and acidity for a long time. In many cases, the device can be connected to a computer and monitor readings online.
The tester has significant drawbacks. The water's ph varies with the temperature of the living biosystem, so it is necessary to purchase another device with it that will allow it to be measured. Another disadvantage is the high price. The test requires constant calibration, therefore, having bought it, stock up with a solution and monitor its freshness.
The tester consists of an electrode, whose service life is one year. The device must be kept moist and cleaned thoroughly before use. If you do not follow these rules, errors are possible. For example, the test will show that the rate in an aquarium with an acidic liquid, due to the fact that the rigidity of the water will be high.

How to lower the Ph of water in a live system

Defining a Ph for which a special test is used is only the first step in caring for the inhabitants of a living biosystem. The second stage is an understanding of whether this is the norm, and the performance of necessary measures.
Many inexperienced aquarists are wondering how to lower the Ph of an aquarium system or wastewater. There are the following effective methods:

  • add sodium bicarbonate to water;
  • aerate the wastewater;
  • boil some of the liquid reserved for plants and fish.

Alkaline preparations, for example, ordinary soda will help to lower the rate. Add it at the rate of 0.5 tsp per 50 liters. If after an hour the tester reflects insufficient changes, add as many more, wait, and again use litmus strips.

How to raise the Ph of a live system

If the test helped to determine that the level of Ph per meter in the living biosystem is not high enough for the normal development of plants and fish, you need to increase it. Use the following recommendations of experts:

  • add sodium biophosphate - it will increase the rigidity;
  • put a small amount of natural peat on the bottom of the tank;
  • Put a couple of droplets of the acid into the system: acetic, phosphoric or hydrochloric.

If the water hardness is at a level, Ph fluctuations associated with the cessation of daytime photosynthesis will become less noticeable. A tester or strips will show that in the water average the norm is the content of positive ions per meter.

Ph value is an important indicator for both wastewater and closed ecosystems. As well as rigidity, it determines how comfortable conditions are created for fish and plants. If the electronic device or strips show that it is raised or lowered, take immediate action. After them, perform the test again at a temperature of 25 degrees.

pH in aquarium - photo video description review.

What is pH?

The pH value is a logarithmic scale of the proportion of H + (hydrogen) and OH- (hydroxyl) ions in the range from 0 to 14, in which 7 is a neutral value. If the concentration of H + ions is high, then the water is considered acidic, and if the concentration of OH is higher, then this is an alkaline medium. In other words, if the concentration of dissolved minerals is high, then the pH is high and vice versa. In addition, the pH depends on various factors, such as:

  • hardness of water;
  • the amount of mineral substances dissolved in water;
  • oxygen levels and more.

The importance of pH for aquarium.

Many believe that even the slightest change in pH is very harmful for aquarium fish, since, for example, water with pH = 6.5 is 10 times acidic, which has a pH = 6.6. Many aquarists are deeply convinced that all fish in nature live in a completely stable and narrow pH range. They believe that fish do not know how to adapt to changes in pH, and if this happens, they immediately die.

What really happens?
Many aquarists think that the pH level is always stable in the wild, but in reality this is not the case - it often fluctuates significantly. In Indian waters, daytime pH is much higher than during the night. In addition, the pH is lower in autumn and higher in spring. In the fall, for example, the leaves fall and rot, releasing acids into the water (for example, tannin) that acidify the water. In the spring, there is a large amount of monsoon rains that supply oxygen to the water, thus raising the pH.

How to lower the ph of water

pH is an indicator of the acidity of the solution, characterizing the concentration of hydrogen ions. The pH of the "neutral" solution, that is, where the concentration of hydrogen ions H + and hydroxyl ions OH- is almost the same and "balances" each other, is 7.0. Typically, the pH of drinking water is close to the neutral index, that is, to 7.0. But sometimes there is a situation when it should be lowered. For example, in everyday life this may be necessary if the fish in an aquarium need a more “sour” environment. How can I lower the pH of the water?You will need
  • - strips of indicator paper;
  • - acidified water;
  • - buffer soil;
  • - carbon dioxide;
  • - a piece of wood.
Instruction1First of all, try to find out exactly what level of pH your pet needs for normal well-being and vital activity. It depends primarily on the type of aquarium inhabitants. You can use special literature for aquarists, search for information on the Internet, or ask a specialist for a question (for example, at a pet store) .2 Acquire indicator paper strips from specialized stores. Of course, they give only a "rough", very approximate estimate of the pH value, therefore it is better to measure its level using a special device - a pH meter. Such devices are in almost any laboratory. 3 You can lower the pH of the aquarium waterby adding to it exactly the calculated amount water with a lower pH (acidified). Orthophosphoric acid is commonly used as an acidulant reagent. It is better to add such water in small portions, mix thoroughly and make control measurements of the resulting pH level. Otherwise, it is easy to lower the pH to values ​​that are harmful to fish. In some pet stores there is a special buffer soil on sale. When it is placed in water, the pH level gradually decreases. It also requires constant monitoring. A good way is to introduce carbon dioxide into the aquarium water. This can be done with the help of special devices or cartridges where carbon dioxide is under pressure.6 Sometimes a simple but effective method will help. In the aquarium after pre-treatment, put a piece of wood. What kind of tree is suitable for this, what processing it will require - find out from a specialist. You will immediately solve two problems: lower the pH water, and your aquarium will acquire a new decoration.

What influences the acidity of aquarium water? What determines the pH in an aquarium?

  • Aeration of 20 liters of water in just 4 hours can change the pH of the tap water from 7.8 to 8.6.
  • The soil used in the aquarium also plays an important role in the pH value. Any decor, for example, corals or fossils, can increase the hardness of the water, and, consequently, change the pH in the aquarium.
  • Ornaments such as snags can quickly lower the pH.
  • A high nitrate content lowers the pH. But in any case, do not use a high content of nitrates, as a means to reduce the pH. High levels of nitrates in the water is very harmful for fish.
  • Water that is contained at a higher temperature also tends to be acidic.
  • You may also observe some pH fluctuations during changes in the level (volume) of water in the aquarium.
  • If there are plants in the aquarium, then during the day and night you can observe significant fluctuations in the pH of the water. When the light of the plants occurs photosynthesis, in which carbon dioxide is absorbed and oxygen is released. This process raises the pH level in the aquarium. At night, plants breathe, absorbing oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. This lowers the pH.
  • Artificial flow of carbon dioxide into the aquarium (CO2), which is carried out to improve plant growth, also lowers the pH of the water.

Some aquarists quite successfully contain discus, angels, apistograms and tetras in hard water aquariums, the pH of which is about 8.3-8.6. And although all sources claim that these fish need a more acidic environment, they still feel great in fairly hard, alkaline water (pH above 8).

How to raise the pH in the aquarium?

This can be done quite simply by adding a little ordinary baking soda into the water medium, which absorbs the acid. The normal dose is 5 g of powder per 100 liters. A good way, if you consider that even its overdose does not increase the level of this indicator above 8 units.

You can also add to the aquarium salts of sodium and potassium (phosphate of these substances) in the same proportion.

Pet shops sell special products for pH balancing. For example, TROPIC MARIN Triple-Buffer quickly raises the level to 8 units.

Tetra pH / KH Plus, safe for fish and plants, is also popular.

You need to know that adding branded mixtures in water may cause foam. However, it does not pose a danger to living creatures and rather quickly dissolves.

But still experienced aquarists recommend not to bring the situation to the extreme, advise to produce a powerful aeration of aqua (organics oxidizes faster), to make regular water changes and periodically clean the acidifying soil.

pH meter for aquarium

We are talking about devices specifically designed for measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions in the aquatic environment. There are quite a lot of proposals for such devices; they differ in the accuracy of measurements, the duration of work and, accordingly, in cost, from 1000 to 10 thousand rubles.

But the principle of operation of all devices is the same: measuring the potential difference between the reference electrode (reference electrode) and the measuring electrode, which is lowered into the measured solution (aquarium water). Simply put, the pH meter is essentially a millivoltmeter.

The most budgetary option is the device pH-meter-pH-009, in appearance resembling a wide electronic thermometer, at the end of which there is an electrode. But the expensive option is a remote electronic unit and a measuring probe that falls into the water.

Ph controller for aquarium

These devices allow not only to measure the level of acidity of the aquarium environment, but also to automatically regulate it, lowering the alkali concentration. Their principle of operation is based on the exact dosage of carbon dioxide in the water. In principle, this unit can successfully replace all the means and methods of lowering the pH level.

Some experts recommend pH Controller Evolution DeLuxe - an easy-to-use and highly reliable device consisting of an electronic unit with a display, a Profi-Line electrode, two calibration solutions and a calibration station. One pressing of the corresponding button, input of one parameter, and the device automatically brings the necessary amount of CO2 into the water.

The German company EHEIM, which has long been producing elite equipment for aquariums, has distinguished itself in this matter.Her product with a carbon dioxide reactor can work around the clock, maintaining the right balance of acid and alkali in hard water. It should be serviced no more than once a month.

Maintaining optimal acid-base balance is a necessary necessity. The life of an ornamental fish depends on it, and there is no exaggeration in this statement.

What pH should be in the aquarium?

When considering the issue of pH, you need to know what pH level you will need to maintain in the aquarium. For example, discus likes to live at a pH of 7.0. In general, this is the optimum pH level. Almost all fish develop at a constant level, somewhere between 6.6 and 7.4. For dilution, the level should be pH 6-6.5. But for example, a stable pH of 6.6 is better than a pH value that varies between 6.6 and 7.0, even for fish that prefer 7.0.

What should be the pH level in an aquarium?

How to check tap water pH?

Many aquarists immediately test tap water for pH. However, this is not entirely accurate reading. To properly measure the pH of the tap water, you need to pour water from the tap into the container and place a spray bottle there in order to mix it for 24 hours. After that, you can take measurements. It would be nice to spend the second measurement in 48 hours to see if there are any additional changes. These values, measured after 24-48 hours, are an accurate indicator of the pH of the tap water. The sprayer is installed tap water in order to mix it and cause gas exchange on the surface of the water. This exchange reduces the amount of carbon dioxide in your water and causes the pH to rise. This pH will actually be the one you will measure in your tank.

Tip: At the beginning of, calibrate your pH - meter

Many newcomers to aquarism often make the mistake of buying a pH test and measuring right away. If you bought a controller or electronic pH meter - do not rush, calibrate it before use. If the calibration powders or solutions do not come in the configuration, you must buy them. Remember, the first step is to research the test case that you are using to see if it is accurate or not.

Most drop tests have a life of their own (usually 6 months). If your test kit is older than the expiration date, it may provide inaccurate results.

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How to lower the ph in the aquarium :: aquarium water ph :: Aquarium fish

Tip 1: How to lower the ph in the aquarium

We decided to make fish, the water in the aquarium was settled for a week, the soil was boiled, and the plants were planted. The compressor is connected, and everything is done according to the instructions, but ... the fish, snails, shrimps do not survive. The reason for this may be inappropriate pH level of water. Tap water that has settled down for 1-2 weeks should be softened by lowering its pH by oxidation.

The question "opened a pet shop. Business is not going. What to do?" - 2 answers

Instruction

1. Provide your pet with balanced water, making it as close as possible to the one in which they live in nature. Information on the required pH level for them can be obtained in specialized stores or in reference books. Measure the composition of water pH tester or other device.

2. Filter the aquarium water with a peat filter. Such filtration saturates water with humic acids, which lower the pH to the neutral point (7.0). Peat also reduces the carbonate hardness of water and prevents bacteria that injure fish from reproducing. Do not forget to replace such a filter - it is washed off with time.

3. Put a snag into the water. The snag will act not only as a decorative element - it also contributes to lowering the pH of the water, although insignificantly, but sometimes to the right level. Of course, not any snag is suitable, and it requires preliminary heat treatment with salt water and long soaking. However, snags can become indispensable for some species of fish.

4. Enter carbon dioxide CO2 into the aquarium. To do this, use special cans with gas, certain devices, or even a bottle of yeast. This will not only lower the pH level to the one needed for fish by oxidizing water, but will also accelerate the growth of aquarium plants.

5. Use acid buffer. The buffer can be considered a soil of special granules, commercially available. Buffering is provided by ions of bicarbonate (bicarbonate) and carbonate (ions of carbonate salts). Insufficiently buffered water is more susceptible to abrupt changes in pH, as opposed to well-buffered.

6. Replace a part of water with softer water (it can be boiled or acidified with phosphoric acid) or water with reverse osmosis (purified). The addition of water, the pH of which should be below 7.0, should be made in small portions in order to avoid sudden changes in the acid-base balance. You need to constantly monitor changes in the pH level in order to be aware of what is happening in your tank and respond in time.

Tip 2: How to lower the ph of water

pH is an indicator of the acidity of the solution, characterizing the concentration of hydrogen ions. The pH of the "neutral" solution, that is, where the concentration of hydrogen ions H + and hydroxyl ions OH- is almost the same and "balances" each other, is 7.0. Typically, the pH of drinking water is close to the neutral index, that is, to 7.0. But sometimes there is a situation when it should be lowered. For example, in everyday life this may be necessary if the fish in an aquarium need a more “sour” environment. How can I lower the pH of the water?

You will need

  • - strips of indicator paper;
  • - acidified water;
  • - buffer soil;
  • - carbon dioxide;
  • - a piece of wood.

Instruction

1. First of all, try to find out exactly what level of pH your pet needs for normal well-being and vital activity. It depends primarily on the type of aquarium inhabitants. You can use special literature for aquarists, search for information on the Internet or ask a specialist to ask a question (for example, in a pet store).

2. Purchase strips of indicator paper in specialized stores. Of course, they give only a "rough", very approximate estimate of the pH value, therefore it is better to measure its level using a special device - a pH meter. Such devices are practically in any laboratory.

3. You can lower the pH of the aquarium waterby adding to it exactly the calculated amount water with a lower pH (acidified). Orthophosphoric acid is commonly used as an acidulant reagent. It is better to add such water in small portions, mix thoroughly and make control measurements of the resulting pH level. Otherwise, it is easy to lower the pH to values ​​harmful to the fish.

4. In some pet stores there is a special buffer soil on sale. When it is placed in water, the pH level gradually decreases. It also requires constant monitoring.

5. A good way is to introduce carbon dioxide into the aquarium water. This can be done with the help of special devices or cartridges where carbon dioxide is under pressure.

6. Sometimes a simple but effective method will help. In the aquarium after pre-treatment, put a piece of wood. What kind of tree is suitable for this, what processing it will require - find out from a specialist. You will immediately solve two problems: lower the pH water, and your aquarium will acquire a new decoration.

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note

The use of the drug chloramine-T for the treatment of aquarium fish during quarantine with a decrease in pH is not desirable - it becomes more toxic in an acidic environment. To use it, the pH should be at least 7.0.

Helpful advice

Be guided by picking up fish in your tank so that they all feel good with the same pH of the water.

❶ How to acidify the water :: Fish aquarium

How to acidify the water

Any aquarist knows that certain types of fish require special conditions, in particular a suitable level of water acidity. If the water is too hard, it must be acidified with chemicals. How to do it?

The question "opened a pet shop. Business is not going. What to do?" - 2 answers

Instruction

1. The normal pH level suitable for breeding most species of aquarium fish is approximately from 6 to 9. Salts that determine the hardness of water make it more alkaline, and the organic excretion of fish is softer and more acidic.

2. If the water is too hard, acidify it usually with the introduction of the necessary amount of acid solution: acetic, phosphoric and others. First you need to prepare a solution of any suitable acid, adding a drop of acid in water (not vice versa). Then, using a pipette, the acid is added to water, following the change in pH using indicators. For this operation, it is better to take a few liters of water from the aquarium, add acid, make the necessary measurements of the level of acidity, and then, if everything is done correctly, return the water to the aquarium. This should be done in order not to damage the fish if the water is too acidic.

3. To increase the acidity of water by adding sodium NaH2PO4 or potassium KH2PO4 solution of sodium dihydrophosphate. These salts cause an acidic reaction to occur due to the start of the hydrolysis process. Enough 20-30 grams of any of these salts per 100 liters of water to get slightly acidic water with a pH of 5.8-6.5.

4. If the water is distilled or there is very little salt in it, you can try acidifying it with a decoction of peat. Boil 10-20 g of peat in a liter of distilled water for 30 minutes. Then filter the broth and store it in the refrigerator. To increase the acidity, add the broth to the water until it becomes golden in color.

5. If on the contrary you want to reduce the acidity of water, add to it substances having an alkaline reaction, for example, sodium bicarbonate - baking soda. To get water with weak alkaline reaction, it is enough to add from 3 to 8 grams of the substance per 100-liter aquarium.

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Water hardness in the aquarium

Very often, having decided to engage in aquarism, lovers carefully choose a tank for a home pond, think through where to place it, what fish and plants to fill. However, they completely forget about the main and most important component of this whole system - water. As a rule, aquariums are filled with the most readily available water, most often tap water. Very few people think about its parameters. And if it thinks, it is only about whether it is suitable for fish. However, plants are no less demanding of water, although they respond more slowly to its quality.

In this article we will touch on one of the important parameters - rigidity. After all, not least it depends on it, whether the aquarium will become as it is conceived or not.

What is water hardness in an aquarium?

It is considered the second most important parameter of water after acidity. It depends on the possibility of keeping and breeding fish and plants. It affects the remaining properties of water.

This parameter is determined by the presence of certain minerals that are dissolved in water. The overall rigidity consists of two parts:

Permanent (GH). It is paramount, as it determines the softness or hardness of the water and the degree of its suitability for the inhabitants of the aquarium. GH determines the concentration of Ca ++ and Mg ++ ions in water. Boiling leads to the destruction of bicarbonates and precipitation of calcium and magnesium. Stiffness, which persists after boiling, is called constant. It is measured in degrees of hardness. And all the tests are issued in them.

Variable or carbonate (KH). It is determined by the concentration of carbonates CO3- and bicarbonate HCO3- in water.

Aquarium water hardness is normal

The value of water hardness in the life of the inhabitants of the home reservoir is great

  • magnesium and calcium salts are involved in building the skeleton and bone system of fish;
  • in mollusks and crustaceans, they provide the hardness of the shell or shell;
  • stiffness contributes to the normal functioning and development of the genital organs;
  • it affects the success of the growth and development of plants, etc.

Hardness can be of varying degrees of intensity: 0-4 - very soft, 5-8 - soft, 9-16 - medium hardness, 17-32 - hard, 33 or more - very hard. Tap water, as a rule, has a hardness of not more than 20.

The hardness of the water in the aquarium should be within certain limits, usually this range is 3-15 degrees. It is better if for each specific species the indicators will be close to the natural conditions of the native water bodies.

For example,

  • the snails require hard water, since they sink their shells in soft water;
  • viviparous fish will feel good at 10,
  • neon at 6,
  • Sagittarius and fern at 10-14 degrees, etc. This information can be obtained from the recommendations for the care of one or another species.

You also need to take into account that the inhabitants of the aquarium absorb calcium, so its amount in the water will gradually decrease. Maintaining stiffness at the same level is easier if the soil is pebble or coarse sand. And, of course, regular measurements will be required.


How to determine the hardness of water in an aquarium?

The main methods are:

Chemical reagent Trilon "B"

This is a very accurate method, but its lack of excessive complexity for people who are not very interested in chemistry, and not everyone wants to acquire additional chemical equipment at home.

TDS meter

He is a conductometer, he is a salimeter. The method is very simple. However, this electronic device measures not the hardness itself, but the electrical conductivity of water, from which it is only indirectly possible to judge hardness.

Test strips

They have been specifically designed to measure the hardness of water in aquariums. Simple and easy to use. There is an option where a reagent is added to a specified volume of water and is judged on the hardness by the changed color. All calculations are made according to the instructions included in the package. The disadvantage of this method is one - it is difficult to buy such kits, as they are rarely on sale.

Laundry soap

This is the most affordable, cheap and accurate method at home. It is based on the property of soap: it is difficult to dissolve in hard water and gives foam with an excess of calcium and magnesium salts.

How research is conducted:

1. Chop soap (1 gram) and gently pour in a small amount of heated distilled water (sold in car shops).

2. Pour the obtained solution into a glass and add distillate so that it reaches a height of 6 cm for 60% and 7 cm for 72% soap. Each centimeter of this solution contains as much soap as is required to bind salts, the amount of which is 1 ° dH in 1 liter of water.

3. A 1 liter jar half filled with water from an aquarium.

4. Pour the prepared solution into it a little, stirring constantly. First, flakes appear on the surface, and then a steady lather, which indicates that all the salts in the water are bound.

Score result. Count how many centimeters of the solution was poured into water. 1 cm bound in 0, 5 l of water 2 ° dH of salts. That is, if 4 cm is poured, then the rigidity is 8 degrees, etc. If the entire solution is poured, but there is no foam, then the rigidity is higher than 12 degrees. Then dilute the water for the study with distillate twice, repeat the analysis, multiplying the results by two.

The results may have an error of 1-2 degrees, but this is not critical and will not lead to disease or death of the inhabitants of the aquarium.

If the hardness of the water available to the aquarist does not correspond to that which he needs to maintain aquatic inhabitants, then it can be changed. But it should be done smoothly, so as not to cause stress or other problems in pets.

How to increase the water hardness in the aquarium?

1. Mix the aquarium water with tougher.

2. Boil water for about an hour. It is better to take the enameled ware. Next, cool it and carefully drain the two upper parts of the volume. The lower third, rich in calcium salts, should be poured into the aquarium in portions, controlling the rigidity by measurements.

3. Place in the aquarium pieces of seashells, marble or limestone rocks to increase the overall rigidity by 2-4 degrees. The disadvantage of this method is the inability to control the level of rigidity. It is more preferable to filter the water in the aquarium through a layer of crushed marble, reducing or increasing the amount of water passing through the filter.

4. Add baking soda in the amount of 1 tsp. 50 liters of water to increase variable stiffness (KH) by 4 degrees.

5. Add calcium carbonate at the rate of 2 tsp. 50 liters of water to increase the constant (GH) and variable (KH) hardness by 4 degrees.

6. Add a ten percent solution of Ca chloride (available at the pharmacy) and magnesium sulfate (prepare yourself: dissolve 50 g of the bitter salt, obtaining 750 ml of solution) in the same proportions (1 ml each) in water. Stiffness will increase by about 4 degrees.

7. Pour in magnesia in 25% solution (1 ml per 1 liter of water). This will raise the stiffness by 4 degrees.

How to reduce the water hardness in the aquarium?

It is much more difficult to do. The methods are as follows:

1. Add distilled, thawed or clear rainwater.

2. Boil water, cool it without stirring, and drain from the surface 2 3. Add this top water to the aquarium.

3. Perform freezing. Pour water into a low bowl, for example, in a basin. Put in the cold. After half freezing, punch the ice, pour the unfrozen water, melt the ice. Add the resulting water to the aquarium.

4. Run water through special filters (osmotic and deionization).

5. Filter the water through peat added to an external or internal filter or placed in a bag in a tank with settled water. Pre-peat for the soil is required to boil.In some spawning peat is used as a soil. The yellow tint of water that it gives can be removed by filtration through activated carbon.

6. You can add a decoction of alder cones. But its hardness decreases slightly and the composition of the water can change, which is not good in all cases.

7. Use Trilon-B and EDTA according to the instructions.

8. Plant elodeyu, egolipu and rogolnik.

Now you know what the hardness of water in an aquarium is, how important it is for its inhabitants, you have an idea how to measure and change it. We hope that this information will help you in creating your dream aquarium. Good luck!

How to determine the ph of water in an aquarium?

Dangerous

Aquarium water. Aquarium water
Water is a living space for fish and plants, just as air is a living space for humans. Depending on the properties of water contributes to the development of life processes or inhibits them. Water contains substances that give it properties such as color, clarity, odor, as well as hardness values ​​dH and pH. For an aquarium, clean, transparent water containing all the trace elements necessary for plants with dH 5–20%, KH 2–15 degrees, pH 6.5–7.5 is suitable. But such water contains excessive amounts of air and chlorine. Therefore, it should settle for 3-4 days. Sometimes the question arises where to get water to people living without running water, for example, in rural areas. Answer: water in such areas can be taken from clean streams, springs, wells. In addition, there should not be harmful compounds: sulfuric hydrogen, mineral salts, iron oxide. After pouring new water into the aquarium, various processes take place in the water. Because of this, the water may become whitish-muddy, but soon it becomes transparent again. If you lean over a normally functioning aquarium, you can smell the light smell of plants. Any other smell indicates the problems of the processes taking place in the aquarium. In this case, you need to carry out a thorough cleaning of the soil and part of the water. Good water is oxygen-rich water, free from organic waste, free from gas and chlorine bubbles, filtered from impurities and turbidity.
Aquarium water. Acidity of water (pH).
Such a parameter as the acidity of water has a great influence on biochemical and biological processes and is important in the life of fish. Depending on the acidity, water is classified as follows: pH = 1-3 strongly acidic water 3-5 acidic water 5-6 weakly acidic water 7 neutral water 7-8 very weakly alkaline water 8-9 weakly alkaline water 9-10 alkaline water 10-14 strong alkaline water. The acidity of tap water is about 7pH. Many fish tolerate deviations from the neutral index quite smoothly (7). This is due to the fact that the body has a number of systems that smooth out sharp fluctuations in pH. In the processes of photosynthesis occurring in the light, plants consume carbon dioxide, which increases the pH level, and decreases at night, which is associated not only with the lack of photosynthesis, but also with the release of CO2 during the breathing of the plants. In general, in aquariums, biological oxidation processes prevail over recovery processes; therefore, the acidity of water decreases with time. Strongly acidic, acidic, alkaline and strongly alkaline water is not suitable for keeping aquarium fish. Water should be subacidic, neutral, very alkaline. A sharp change in the acidity of water can cause the death of fish. To avoid this, you should change the water in small portions and pour the water in small portions. Transfer of fish from the aquarium to the aquarium should also be careful. Increase pH (make it more alkaline). It is possible to raise the level with the help of drinking water, i.e. add drinking water to the water. You can also add a little sodium bicarbonate or mix it with alkaline tap water. To raise the pH to 7, i.e., to make it neutral, it should be aerated or boiled. Lower the pH (make it more acidic). You can add a little peat to the water, taken on a hill or a filtered extract that is obtained after boiling the peat. You can also acidify the water with sodium biphosphate. Measure pH. You can measure the level at home by using indicator papers. The definition boils down to lowering a strip of indicator paper into the aquarium water and quickly comparing the acquired color with a standard scale. There is an indicator paper for rough pH measurements from 1 to 10, and for more accurate determination of pH in any of the narrow ranges.